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Cbc University of CbicaQO 

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Entered according to act of Congress in the year 1873 by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 

Entered according to act of Congress in the year 1873 by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 

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. Behold a great Priest who in his time pleased God and was found just; and in 

\ time of wrath became an atonement. Who was beloved of God .ami men; whose 
memory is; in hpiiPtlietion. [Eccr,. XLIV. XT.V.] 









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Beliolda great Priest who in his time pleased God and was found just; ami in 
time of wrath became an atonement. Who war? beloved of Gn;l :iml men; wiiosc 
memory !s in lipiifdiotion. fErcr.. xi.r^'. xi.v.J 





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Its antiquity. Origin. Poland's prisoner. Prince Vasilii Gallitz- 
in. Plans for the Greek Churcli. Field Marshall Gallitzin.- 
The ice palace. Prince Dmitri Gallitzin. Eussian ambassador 
to Paris. Visits Aachen. His marriage. The wedding jour- 
ney. Appointed ambassador to Holland . - 1 


(1148 1718.) 

Early days. At the convent at Breslaw. Her persistency, affection 
and loyalty as a child. Her home education. At a fashionable 
French boarding-school. At court. Perplexities. Desire for 
knowledge. An old gentleman's wisdom. Mental confusion. 
Observations' during her wedding tour. Birth of Marianna 
Gallitzin. Of Demetrius. Life at the Hague. The Star 
of Holland. Diderot's visit. Mimi and Mitri in the nursery. 
Hemsterhuys' influence. Final retirement from society 11 




Nithuys insufficient. Advantages of Geneva. Fiierstenberg's public 
school system. Muenster. Foundation of the university. The 
princess' observations. Decides to remain in Muenster. Regu- 
lates her household. Home pleasures. Freedom and enjoyment 



of her reunions. Distinguished visitors. Baron von Fuersteu- 
berg. Hamann. Travels. At Halle. Effect of her method of 
education. Mitri's timidity, sensitiveness and reserve 24 




Spiritual necessities. Example of Catholic friends. A critical 
moment. Dr. Overberg. Eecovery. Investigation. Confu- 
sion. The study of the Scriptures. Love of metaphysics. 
Light. Embarrassment in regard to the children. Uneasiness 
about Mitri. His character. Travels. Happiness of the prin- 
cess. Her devotion to the Church. Her zeal. Her friendship 
for Overberg 38 



His views on religion. Enters the Catholic Church. Plans of 
travel. Influence of the French Revolution. Appointed aide 
to the Austrian General von Lillien. Death of Leopold II. 
Fuerstenberg's opinion of a trip to America. Mr. Brosius. 
Mr. Schniet. Sails from Rotterdam for the United States .... 54 




First Catholic uolony in the United States. Appointment of Bishop 
Carroll. Arrival of Mr. Ntigot and the French Sulpiciaus. Mr. 
Brosius and Mitri in Baltimore. Mitri's choice 67 




Opinion of Eev. Fr. Schuoeseuberg. Vexation of the princess. 
Confidence of Mr. Nagot and the bishop in Mitri's vocation. 
Views and letters of Eev. Dr. Overberg, Baron von Fuersten- 
berg, General von Schmettau, and Prince Gallitzin. Their 
effect upon Demetrius 76 




. PAGE. 

Characteristics of his seminary life. Receives minor orders. Joins 
the Society of Saint Snlpice. Is ordained by Bishop Carroll. 
Mission at Port Tobacco. Stationed at Baltimore. At Cone- 
wago. Visits the Alleghany mountains. Spirit manifestations. 
Visits Gliptown, Va. Difficulties with his congregations. 
Accepts the call to McGwire's Settlement 92 



Catholic Missions in Pennsylvania. Philadelphia. Conewago. 
Gosheuhoppen. Lancaster. O'Neill's Victory. Sportsman's 
Hall. McGuire's Settlement. Reception of missionaries by 
the early settlers. Poverty of the missions. Pastoral residence 
at McGwire's Settlement. Midnight Mass in the new church. . 112 



Early trials. Lack of sympathy in his projects. His austerities. 
Growth of the Settlement. Lancaster. Rev. Lonis de Earth 
Concerning the Russian property. Prince Gallitziu becomes 
an American citizen. Conversion of Count von Stollberg 125 



Plans for a return, to Europe. Bishop Carroll's advice. Last years 

of the prince. The Russian property. The princess' affection.. 142 



Clerical influence. Ditties of a missionary. Some small troubles. 
Loretto. Bevilah. Ebensburg. Formation of Cambria County. 
Sunday in Loretto. Father Gallitzin's Regulations. Father 
Gallitzin as a preacher. As a confessor. His isolation. Rev. 
Mr. Fitzsimmons 160 






The false brother Confusion of Gallitzin and Smith. His mistakes, 
faults, and peculiarities of temper. A boy's quarrel. An in- 
jured friend. Gallitzin as a physician. Adopts a family of 
orphans. Hopes of a religious order of teachers. Consequent 
opposition and calumniation 179 




Peculiar trials. Hatred of evil. The restraints of Lor etto. -Muuster. 
Appeals to the bishop. Continued opposition. His life in 
danger. Charges of interference in private affairs. Rebellion 
in the church 196 


How the news was received. Consolations. The princess' last ill- 
ness and death. Some traits of her character. Effect of his sor- 
row upon Father Gallitzin. . 212 




Eenewal of trouble. Mr. Phelan again. The Westmoreland con- 
spiracy. Jacob. E. V. J.'s retraction. The committee visit 
Bishop Carroll. JohnWeakland's argument. Broken down. 
End of the slander 230 



Settlement of the Russian law-suit. Computation of the estates. 
His sister's regard and solicitude. Building in Loretto. Effect 
of Gallitzin's persecutions upon the Protesiants of the neighbor- 
hood. His severe rule of life. Appointment of new bishops. . 255 






Poverty of the Church. Gallitzin's appeals fruitless. Continual 
disappointments and losses. Visits Philadelphia. Bitter trials. 
A last offering. "Entertaining angels. unawares." His 
buildings and farms. Views on temperance. An act of the 
Pennsylvania Legislature 275 



Princess Minii's explanations. Troubles in Europe. Pius VH. at 
Fontainebleau. On the way to Italy. His reception atRome. 
Kejoicing throughout the Christian world. Loss by the invasion 
of Russia and Prussia. A famous .speculation. F. Gallitzin's 
care of the altar. His love of books 292 




The war of 1812 Captain Richard McGxiire. The Loretto recruits. 
A national fast. A war sermon. DEFENCE or CATHOLIC PBIN- 
GIPLES. Mr. Hayden Smith. Mr. Douglas. The minister's 
vindication. LETTEE ON THE HOLT SCBIPTUBES. Personal in- 
fluence. A spirited woman. Mixed marriages. A public an- 
nouncement 307 




Death of Archbishop Carroll. Of Mr. Nagot. "Whithdrawai from 
the Society of Saint Sulpice. Bishop Egan. Philadelphia dif- 
ficulties. Bishop Conwell. Father Gallitzin's plan for a dio- 
cese in "Western Pennsylvania. Bishoprics refused by him. 
Death . of Rev. Mr. Heilbron, Appointment of Rev. F. X. 
O'Brien. Irish laborers. Rev. C. B. Maguire. Rev. T. Mc- 
Girr. European Affairs and marriage of the princess 328 






The Prince of Orange. King of the Netherlands. His affection for 
Gallitzin. Dr. Overberg comes to the rescue. The collection 
of antique stones. Count de Merveldt's intervention. Death 
of Princess Mimi. Her will. Death of Overherg. Father 
Gallitzin's position. His statement of business matters. Visits 
Blairsville and the Irish laborers on the canal. The Russian 
minister 348 




F. Gallitzin and Bishop Comvell. F. Gallitzin as a mediator. Ex- 
tent of his jurisdiction. Rev. Mr. Heyden. Rev. Mr. O'Rielly. 
Mr. McGirr and Mr. Maguire. F. Gallitzin uses his authority. 
Mr. McGirr's idiosyncracies. F. Gallitzin's patience 360 




Rev. Mr. Mathews resigns. Rev. Mr. Kenrick appointed coadjutor. 
F. Gallitzin's anxieties in regard to Rev. Mr. McGirr. His 
counsels to Bishop Kenrick. Pleads for his reverend brethren. 
Confirmation at Loretto. The missing mitre. Mr. Heyden's 
disappointments. . -. 37C 



Changes. Rev. James A. Stillinger. Rev. James Bradley. A sin- 
gular call. Ebensburg. Rev. P. H. Lemcke. His first im- 
pressions of Dr. Gallitzin. The chapel at Loretto. Carroll- 
town'. St. Augustine. Summit. Gallitzin 390 




Tranquility of the present. Peace in Loretto. The outside battle. 
The Presbyterian Synod. Dr. Gallitzin's reply 406 





In 1834. First signs of failing strength. The winter of 1839-40. 
Lenten duties. Easter Sunday. His last sermon. Mr. Brad- 
ley, Mr. Lemcke, and Mr. Heyden called to Loretto. "Wednes- 
day, May 6th, 1840 431 



. PAGE III. For Eev. Charles Lee read Eov. Thomas S. Leo. 

PAGES 160 65. For Belah and Berelah read Beulah. 

PAGE 361. The last line should read: Spirit to which he trusted all 
his decisions. 

PAGE 411. First line the is misplaced, read: Leave the pure light of 
the Gospel. 

PAGE 411. Second line for onr rend our. 

P E E F A C E. 

IN the following pages will be.found the account of a young 
prince, wealthy, brilliantly educated, of splendid appearance, 
fascinating address, and full of genius, who, from the purest 
and highest motives, became a Catholic priest, devoting his 
life, and all it contained, to the salvation of souls. 

Disgusted with the irreligion, the immorality, the laxity of 
discipline, and the universal rising against lawful authority 
of his time, in Europe, he conceived the idea of founding a 
purely Catholic community in the unbroken forests of the 
New World, wherein the true religion and correct discipline 
should be taught and wrought into action untrammelled and 
unimpaired ; he chose the highest point of the Alleghany 
Mountains, in Pennsylvania, for his project, founded the vil- 
lage of Loretto, and spent forty-two years of incessant labor 
in evangelizing Western and Central Pennsylvania, convert- 
ing its wild forests into a smiling garden. He formed his 
character, or it formed itself, according to the commands of 
the Church, the precepts of the Gospel, the counsels -of the 
saints, and measured all his undertakings and all his motives 
by the highest standard of Christian perfection, so that like 
other great and holy men, he was beyond his age, mis- 
represented and misunderstood ; the best strove to compass 
his designs, bad men reviled and opposed him, common-place 
people ridiculed and persecuted him, the "timid good" depre- 
cated his rashness, bewailed his want of prudence, and in 
their own way, and with the best of intentions, did their ut- 
most to paralyze him, but the God of armies was his protector, 


and he passed on in spite of all the world or the devil, open 
foes or doubting friends could do, to a most successful and 
blessed end. 

The history of his exterior life has been often outlined and 
faintly sketched, but always with errors, inaccuracies, and 
misrepresentations, invariably failing to support by the in- 
cidents related the universal opinion of his saintly character, 
his heroic life, and the charming, cheerful, delightful traditions 
of his fiery, but admirable disposition. In the present volume 
the aim has been to be accurate and exact, to present not 
certain special phases of his character, but to show it, as far 
as possible, in its completeness, for it was one of marked 
originality, of rare consistency, and of unusual gracefulness, 
growing lovelier and richer and more harmonious the more 
its details are brought to light, showing him, if possible, even 
greater in what he was than in what he did. 

The greatest difficulty has been experienced in obtaining 
these details. The obstacles with which every biographer 
has to contend even under the most favorable circumstances, 
have been multiplied in this case. The most valuable papers 
have been mutilated, destroyed, or placed beyond reach; those 
who remember him are, for the most part, very old people, 
born and bred in the mountains, who were still young when 
he was long past his prime, and who had never in all their 
lives the habit of close observation; uncontested facts have 
been improperly interpreted and perverted by incompetent 
or careless commentators, until it has become almost impos- 
sible to place them in their true light with their original 
significance. A nobleman surrounded by the ignorant and 
the lowly, the heir to princely wealth living in actual want, 
a pastor the servant of his people, a man who realized what 
it meant to be fashioned in the image and likeness of God, a 
priest who knew what it was to enter into an eternal covenant 
with the Most High, a holy missionary whose life was hidden 
in Christ with God, not every eye could penetrate the veil of 
his humility, not every hand unfold the mantle of simplicity 
in which true groatness is ever clothed, and those who stood 
the closest to him, sometimes knew him the least. "When 


a servant of God passes, God passes with him," and in the 
near light of the heavenly radiance which surrounded him, 
.men knew not to analyse and question by what means it was 
brought. * 

Every doubtful circumstance or unauthorized statement has 
been carefully excluded from the present account, and no pains 
nor study spared to obtain reliable information and a true in- 
sight into his noble life and lovely character; and though 
there was certainly a deeper life, known only to God, which 
underlay and moulded all," not here displayed, since it would 
be sacrilege to unveil it, it is to be hoped it will be suggested 
to the good heart and honest mind of every God-fearing 
reader, and that the result of that continual sacred communion 
with God, a result which plainly manifested itself in the life N 
here related, however imperfectly told, may bring with it for 
all an influence and an inspiration like that silent and unex- 
plained spirit which, in days gone by, turned so many souls 
to God, and uplifted to the heavenly gates so many weary 
hearts fainting by the way. 

The warmest and most respectful thanks for prompt and 
generous assistance in the preparation of this work, are due 
to Right Rev. M. Domenec, D. D., Bishop of Pittsburg, Right 
Rev. Boniface Wimmer, 0. S. B., Abbot of St. Vincent's, Very 
Rev. James A. Stillinger of Blairsville, (Pa.) who to the use 
of reliable papers, have added most welcome encouragement 
and kindly interest. Also, to Rev. Charles Lee, Secretary of 
the Archbishop of Baltimore, for letters belonging to the arch- 
episcopal archives, Very Rev. Mr. Dubreuil of Baltimore, for 
recollections of Dr. Gallitzin's seminary life, to Rev. James 
Bradley of Newry, (Pa.) for accounts of early days in Penn- 
sylvania, and especially to Rev. Gerard M. Pilz, 0. S. B., for 
the first introduction to the subject, continual encouragement 
arid advice, for the greater part of the translations from the 
German used in this work, and, finally, for the frontispiece 
which sheds light upon all that is to come. The other trans- 
lations from the German are due to the kindness of Rev. 
Mr. Lachermaier and Rev. Mr. May, who from veneration for 

the saintly subject of this memoir, willingly employed their 


few leisure hours in helping on the account of his life. Sincere 
thanks are rendered as well to John G. Shea, Esq., and to the 
Hon. Simon Cameron, for assistance in procuring materials; 
as to the very many dear and venerated friends who have 
so kindly followed this work through its course of prepara- 
tion, with the fervent prayer, that in learning somewhat of the 
saintly Gallitzin, theymay be amply repaid for their unfailing 

Elizabeth, New Jersey, May 6, 1312. 


MY daughter, very unnecessarily, has asked me to write a 
few words by way of introduction to the work she now offers 
the public on the Life and Character of the late Reverend, 
the Prince Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin, the Russian niis- 
sionary in America, and founder of the interesting colony of 
Loretto in Western Pennsylvania. Of the merits or demerits 
of her work it does not become me to speak, but I may be 
permitted to say that she has labored conscientiously at her 
task, and has spared neither time nor pains in collecting and 
arranging the facts *bf the life and labors of the illustrious 
missionary and humble priest, as far as they are now recover- 
able, or in ascertaining and appreciating his character alike 
as a man and as a missionary. 

There are few personages connected, with the history of the 
Church in this country more interesting, or more worthy to be 
remembered, than the subject of this memoir, or whose faith 
and devotion, whose charity and untiring labors in the cause of 
Christ and the souls of men, are better fitted to inspire tis with 
gratitude to Almighty God who gave him to us, or to confirm 
our trust in the power of divine grace to overcome every 
obstacle the world here or elsewhere may interpose to prevent 
its victory. Pew when Prince Demetrius was born could 
have foreseen that he would ever become a Catholic, far less 
a Catholic priest, far less still that he would live and die a 
devoted Catholic missionary in the wilds of the Alleghanies . 
in Pennsylvania. He was born of parents who had practically 
lost their faith, or scorned to profess it, like so many of the 


princes and nobles of the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
and was brought up in eai'ly cliildhood and youth in profound 
ignorance of religion, and the chances were that he would 
grow up like his father a Voltairian, an unbeliever, if not a 
scoffer. That the son of such a father, and of a mother in 
whom faith was dead, born to high rank and great wealth, 
and educated in the enlightened, or as now said, the "ad- 
vanced" ideas of the age, which 'regarded, the Church as dead 
and only waiting its obsequies, should become a Catholic, a 
zealous priest, and laborious missionary could be no less than 
a miracle of grace, a striking proof that miracles have not 
ceased, and that God has not abandoned the world, or ceased 
to care for the Church, which lie has piirchased with his own 

The circumstances of his conversion, and the providential 
influences that led to it, will be found detailed in the memoir 
itself; but a point of no little interest is the fact that his con- 
version was that of a Russian of high rank, and belonging to 
a family highly and honorably distinguished in the annals of 
the Russian Empire. His personal connection with Russia 
was indeed very slight, yet he was born a Russian subject, 
and whatever is related in any degree to Russia, between 
which and our own country there has always been, and it is 
to be hoped there always will be good understanding, cement- 
ed by the interchange of mutual good offices, is of itself of 
deep interest to us Americans. Russia is really the youngest 
and freshest of the nations of the Old World, and while she 
is sometimes their dread, she, perhaps, should be looked upon 
as their hope. The so-called Latin races at this moment seem 
to have become effete, and the Germanic races, for the moment 
apparently possessing the hegemony of Europe, have to a 
fearful extent lost their faith, and become almost as unbeliev- 
ing and as misbelieving as when they overran and supplanted 
the Roman Empire, or as they were before St. Boniface car- 
ried them the Gospel and civilization with it. 

Unless the German people, especially their princes and 
nobles return to the communion of the Holy See, and resume 
.the work of Karl the Great and his Austrasian Franks and 


Allemani, the newly reconstructed German Empire will fall 
as rapidly as it has risen; for it has no support in religion 
or in the traditions of the German people. According to all 
human foresight the hegemony of the Old World is destined 
to pass from the Teutonic to the Sclavic race, from Germany 
to Russia. Russia has not lost her religiosity, and there are 
no people in the Old World among whom there is found so 
much religious sentiment as the Russian, or that are so cap- 
able of being moved by religious or Christian motives. The 
late Emperor Nicholas may have had his faults, but let peo- 
ple say what they will of his cruelty, tyranny, and despotism, 
he was the wisest, the ablest, and the most beneficent secular 
sovereign in Europe in his day, and the world lost in him one 
of its greatest and noblest men. His son is not equal to him", 
and I fear is 1 too much influenced by the desire of the applause 
of the West, and to be regarded as a liberal and enlightened 
prince, as was the case with Katharine II. 

The Russian Church, too, is the best of all the churches not 
in communion with the See of Rome. The Sclavonians and 
even the Russian branch of the Sclavonian family, were con- 
verted from idolatry to Christianity by missionaries from 
Constantinople indeed, but before the schism between the 
East and the West, and the Russian Church was a,n integral 
part of the one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church during 
many centuries. The Metropolitan of Muscovy assisted .at 
the Council of Florence in 1439, and gave in his adhesion with 
the other Oriental prelates, to the reunion of the East and 
West effected in that Council, convoked and its acts approved 
by Pope Eugenius IV. The long dominion exercised over the 
Russias by the Tartars under Gengiskhan and his successors, 
had a disastrous effect on Russia in general and on the 
Russian Church in particular, and for a long time After that 
dominion was thrown off, the schools remained in sad condition, 
and the great body of the clergy in extreme ignorance, and 
it was not till the seventeenth century that any important 
efforts were made to provide for their instruction, and then 
chiefly, by professors from the West, and mainly through a 
prince of the Gallitzin family. . 

g vin 

But the Revolution of Peter, called the Great, against the 
Empress Sophia, chiefly through the bigotry of the Protest- 
antizing Archbishop of Moscow, and the effort of Peter, after 
his successful usurpation of the throne, to introduce the material 
civilization of the West, and to subject the Church to the crown 
as in all Protestant nations, interrupted the schools and the 
education of the clergy, and prevented the Russian Church 
from resuming her original and normal relations with the 
Roman See. Alexander I. did something after the defeat of 
Napoleon, to root out Protestantism from the national church, 
and would have done more, if he had not been in the last years 
of his reign too much influenced by the mysticism of that 
extraordinary woman, Madame Krudener. Still more was done 
to purify the Russian Church from heresy, which had crept in 
under Peter I. and was more or less tolerated in the national 
clergy down to the accession of Alexander I., by the late 
Emperor Nicholas. Since then the Russian Church has been 
steadily recovering its orthodoxy, and almost in spite of the 
Holy Synod by which it is governed. 

When I speak of heresies that crept into the Russian 
Church, I must not be understood to mean that these heresies, 
borrowed from Protestantism, ever found admission into the 
official teaching of the Russian Church. They were enter- 
tained not by the Church, but by individual churchmen. As 
a church the Russian Church claims to be and always to have 
been orthodox, and since the reunion of the East and the 
West in the Council of Florence already referred to, I am 
aware of no official act. of the supreme Ecclesiastical authority 
pronouncing it, as a church, either heretical or schismatical, 
consequently the sin of heresy or schism does not, unless I 
am in error, attach to the communion, but solely to the 
individuals who personally and voluntarily make. themselves 
heretics or schismatics. In this respect there is a marked 
difference between the Russian Church, and the several 
Protestant Churches so-called, and which are simply establish- 
ments and no Churches at all. In the case of these the sect 
or establishment is under anathema; with the Russian Church, 
the communion, as far as I am aware, is not under anathema, 


but only the individuals in that communion, as elsewhere, 
who make themselves guilty of heresy and schism, by refus- 
ing due obedience to the supreme authority of the Catholic 

The points of difference between the Russians and ourselves 
are the supremacy of the Pope and the Procession of the Holy 
Ghost. As to the first point, I know not what change in their 
attitude the recent definition of the Council of the Vatican 
may have effected, but previously their attitude was less that 
of denial of the papal supremacy than that of wilful refusal 
to submit to it. They admit the authority of the Greek 
Fathers from the first, prior to Photius, as fully as we do, 
and the supremacy of the Pope by divine authority is plainly 
taught in them, and was so admitted by their prelates at the 
Council of Florence, which asserts the supremacy of the Pope 
in language as clear, as positive as it is possible to use, both 
in teaching and governing the universal Church, and by 
undeniable implication his infallibility, otherwise he might 
by divine authority lead the whole Church into error, which 
cannot be admitted, for God can neither teach error nor authorize 
any one to teach it. To me the Orientals have seemed always 
to persist in the act of disobedience rather than in the denial 
of the authority itself or their obligation to obey it. 

With regard to the second point, on which there have been 
so many and such violent disputes, the Russian Church and 
. the Western really agree, and there is only a purely verbal 
difference between them. The Russians accuse the Latins of 
having added the words Fttioque, " and from the son," to the 
Creed, and inserted with it by so doing a heresy. The Latins 
accuse the Greeks of teaching that the Holy Ghost proceeds 
from the Father alone, which is a heresy, yet it was found at 
Florence when each party explained its meaning, that neither 
was right in its accusation against the other. The Latins 
thought the Greeks excluded the Son from all share in 
the procession; and the Greeks thought the Latins by their 
Filioque made the Holy Ghost proceed from two principles 
instead of one ; but the fact is the Greek holds that the Holy 
Ghost proceeds from the Father as principle through the Son 

as medium, which is strictly orthodox, and the Latin holds that 
though the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son, 
yet not as from two principles, but as from one principle only, 
which obviates the objection of the Greeks, and is orthodox. 

. So there is really no difference between the two parties. 

The Filioque when proposed by the Synod of Frankfort to 
be inserted in the Creed was objected to by Pope St. Leo III., 

. not because he did not hold the doctrine it was intended to 
assert, but because the Fathers of Constantinople, probably 
for good reasons, had omitted the phrase, and because its 
insertion would give the Greeks a pretext for a schism, as we 

. see subsequently it actually did. The Holy Pope refused to 

- sanction its insertion, and reaped a rich harvest of obloquy 
and abuse, some individuals going even-so far as to accuse 
him of heresy. The phrase was first inserted, I believe, by 

- Spanish and Gallic prelates who could ill appreciate the 
Greek mind, and thought the Greeks must be heretics because 
they did not accept it. It became very extensively inserted 
in the Creed in Spain and Gaul, and as it expressed what 

- was undoubtedly of faith, the popes were finally obliged to 
sanction its insertion in order to guard against the heresy 
which it was alleged its omission favored, but which the 
Greeks in reality were as far from holding as were the Latins 
themselves. In point of fact the phrase unless explained, 
would to a Greek mind imply that the Holy Ghost proceeds 
from the Father and the Son as from two primordial principles, 
for the Greek always understands by principle what the Latins 
understand by primordial or first principle, and never a 

. medial principle. The true doctrine is expressed by St. John 
Damascene, if my memory serves me, and as both Greek and 
Latin theologians hold it, namely: "The Holy Spirit proceeds 
from the Father through the Son," or from the Father as 
principle and from the Son as medium, or the medium of the 
procession. This accords with the view that in the Blessed 
Trinity the Father is principle, the Son is the medium, 

- and the Holy Ghost is the end, the completion, the consum- 
. mator. 

On all other points there is no controversy that I am aware 

of, between the East and West on matters that either holds 
to be of faith. The Russian Church has valid orders, real 
bishops and priests, who offer really the unbloody sacrifice, 
who really consecrate the body and blood of our Lord in the 
sacrament, and can give valid absolution. It has not only 
sound doctrine which Anglicans might have, but the seven, 
sacraments, and all the constituent elements of a church, 
though out of its normal relations with the Church Universal K 
which Anglicans have not, whatever thnir pretensions, for 
they have neither orders nor jurisdiction. 

The causes which separated, and which keep separate the 
East and the West ought not to prevent a solid and permanent 
reunion. The obstacles to be overcome seem to me to grow 
less and less every day. The original causes of separation 
such as the rivalry of new Rome with old Rome, the ambition 
of the bishops or patriarchs of Constantinople, and the inter- 
meddling of the Byzantine Emperors with Catholic dogma 
and ecclesiastical government, have passed away, and the 
ignorance of the great body of the Oriental clergy of Christian 
antiquity, and the real merits of the controversy between the 
East and West, occasioned by the Tartar invasion and 
conquest of Russia, and the Ottoman conquest of the Greek 
Empire, is passing away in Russia, and will pass away with 
the Christians under Turkish rule, when Russia is permitted 
to fulfil what seems to be her providential mission in putting 
an end to the Ottoman Empire, and the Mahometan power, 
hitherto upheld by the Western powers both Catholic and 
Protestant, to the scandal of Christendom, in the interests of 
trade and the so-called balance of power. " Yet signal venge- 
ance seems already to have overtaken the powers that waged, 
or favored it without engaging in it, the unprovoked Crimean 
war against Russia in support of Turkey, and the subjection 
of the Christians of the East to a Mahometan despotism. 
Napoleon is a fugitive,- and France lies prostrate under the 
armed heel of the Prussian conqueror, and convulsed and torn 
by intestine divisions; Austria has lost her Italian provinces, 
been driven out of Germany, rent asunder by the Dualism 
which renders Hungary practically an independent kingdom, 


while her Sclavonic provinces are ill-at-ease under a Germanic 
rule, which is no longer German; England is no longer a 
power in Continental Europe, and she has fallen so low that , 
nobody fears or heeds her threats ; only Sardinia has escaped, 
but her day of reckoning will come when the measure of her 
iniquity is full. 

In the Ottoman Empire, the great obstacles to the reunion 

are the civil as well as ecclesiastical power exercised by the 

bishops over their Christian flocks, which they would lose, or 

find greatly restricted if the reunion were effected, and the 

opposition of the Porte which prefers to deal with a chief 

who is its subject and within its power, than with a spiritual 

chief who is independent of it, and beyond its reach. In 

Russia there are some old prejudices created in former times 

by quarrels between the Russians and the Poles, and some 

fears of the Russian people that if the reunion were effected 

their beautiful and gorgeous Greek Liturgy, to which they 

are very much attached, would be abolished, and the briefer 

and simpler Latin Liturgy be substituted in its place. But 

these are not insuperable, and the chief obstacles are probably 

in the Czar, who fears he would lose his control over the 

Church in his dominions, and the Russian bishops who fear 

that they would lose their spiritual independence by being 

subjected to the See of Rome. This fear on the part of the 

bishops is- idle, and even absurd; for they have already lost 

their spiritual independence, not to the Pope indeed, but to 

the civil power. Ivan IV. very nearly destroyed the inde. 

pendence of the Russian Church, and subjected it to the 

imperial power; what he left undone, Peter I. completed, when 

he supressed the metropolitical power of the Archbishop of 

Moscow, and organized a Synod with himself at its head, and 

usually presided over by a member of the Emperor's staff, for 

its government. The bishops would regain their spiritual 

independence by the reunion, and find in the Supreme Head 

of the Universal Church on earth a powerful and steady 

defender of their ecclesiastical rights and authority. The 

Russian bishops and prelates have everything to gain and 

nothing to lose by reunion. 


The real interests of the Czar or Emperor, the Autocrat of 
all the Russias, demand^he reunion. His Imperial Majesty 
holding his crown as his sacred and inviolable inheritance, is 
necessarily a conservative, and the uncompromising foe of 
revolutions and revolutionists. And yet the existing order 
of things in Russia is not free from peril. The Church being 
his slave can add nothing to his power, and give his govern- 
ment no aid against a revolution. Large numbers of the 
Episcopacy sigh for independence, and there is the whole 
party of Old Russians amounting to many millions, who 
absolutely refuse to be governed by the Holy Synod instituted 
by Peter I., and demand the restoration of the metropolitical 
power he suppressed. Dangerous sects are, also, springing 
up in various parts of the Empire, which neither the national 
Church, nor the national government is able to suppress, and 
these will make common cause with attempted revolution 
against the government. 

Russia is open to revolutionary ideas through her Baltic 
provinces, Courland, Esthonia and Livonia, as also in Finland 
in which Protestantism is the prevailing religion, and Pro- 
testantism is the very consecration of the revolutionary 
principle. She is open to them on the side of Poland, which 
has not ceased to regret her lost national independence, and 
which it will require many generations to Russianize com- 
pletely. Western ideas, that is, the ideas of the heretical 
and unbelieving West, find their way in spite of the police, 
into the Russian universities, and young Russia already 
aspires to imitate young Germany or young France, and 
already Rtissia is covered over with a network of secret 
revolutionary societies. The only reliance of the government 
against the revolution when it breaks out, is the army; but 
the army may be infected with the revolutionary fever, and 
join the rebels, as we have seen more than once in France 
and elsewhere. A national Church can afford no assistance 
to the government; for the national Church will itself be 
carried away by the national sentiment, arid be able to offer 
it no effective resistance. No: the interest of the Czar is not 
in having a Church that he controls, but a Church that has 


an independent existence, holds not from him but from God, 
that governs men's consciences by tne law of God, and when- 
ever he is in the right, can bring the consciences of the people 
to his support and against his foes. 

His real interest then is in reunion with Rome; for the 
firmest and only real support of civil governments in their 
rights, as well as the people in their liberties, is the papacy, 
which is catholic, dependent on no nationality, but present 
in the precise respect needed in all nations. The papacy has 
not, indeed, prevented revolutions in Catholic nations, but 
precisely because the sovereigns of these nations have tried 
each to make the papacy national, and subject to the national 
authority, as the Czar must know from the history in modern 
times of Austria, France, Italy and Spain. The papacy if 
allowed its freedom and independence, and sincerely co- 
operated with by the secular authorities, would have saved 
Europe from its century of bloody and devastating revolutions. 
The fault was not in the papacy, nor indeed in the people, for 
the era of modern revolutions was opened by the sovereigns 
themselves; chiefly by Frederic II. of. Prussia, Catharine II. 
of Russia, and by Joseph II. of Austria. They set the people 
the example of rebelling against the laws by trampling on 
the laws of nations, Frederic in his invasion and annexation 
of Silesia, and all of them in the first and second partition of 

The Czar using his power and influence to reunite the 
Russian Church with the universal Church, and cooperating 
with the papacy in the effort to reorganize the now dis- 
organized nations of Europe, would prove himself a benefactor 
of his race for ages to come, place Russia at the head of the 
civilized world, and deserve well of the Church of God. Events 
have removed from his path the political rivalries that might 
have deterred him from any action of the sort. Were he to 
do so now the realization of the dream of Pansclavism would 
be then not a thing to be dreaded, but welcomed as the har- 
binger of a new and better era under the hegemony of a 
newer, fresher, and more vigorous race than the worn out 
Latin races, or the misbelieving and unbelieving Teutonic 


races. It is because I firmly believe the reunion of the Russian . 
Church with the Universal Church will be effected, and that 
Russia is destined to make an end of the Ottoman power, 
and take her turn as the future leader of the civilized world,- 
that I regard with such deep interest everything connected 
with her. 



Demetrius Augustine Gallitziu, 



Its antiquity. Origin. Poland's Prisoner. Prince Vasilii Gallitziu. 
Plans for the Greek Church. Field Marshall Gnllitzin. The Ice 
Palace. Prince Dmitri Gallitziu. Russian Ambassador to Paris. 
Tisits Aachen. His Marriage. The Wedding Journey. Appointed 
Ambassador to Holland. 

A hundred years ago, before there were any railroads or 
steamboats, American Republics or French Revolutions to 
perplex mankind, a little child with shy, dark eyes, played 
unconcernedly in his father's palace at the^Hague, or sore 
against his rapidly developing desires, was carried about in 
state by the grandest of nurses, to be coaxed, petted clasped, 
kissed and exclaimed over by lovely ladies in gorgeous 
brocades, with powdered hair, hoops, laces, jewelled fans, 
and little high-heeled satin shoes ; and, as the bravest of men 
may be discomposed by the feeblest of babies, addressed with 
trepidation by famous gentlemen in knee breeches, silk and 
velvet coats and perfect ruffles, whom our imagination repre- 
sents to us as dancing a perpetual minuet, or forever taking- 
perfumed snuff from gem encrusted boxes. 

The child's name was Demetrius Gallitzin, afterwards called 
Augustine, and he was the only son and heir of one of the 
oldest and most famous families of the Old World; a Russian 
family with a pedigree longer than that of the reigning czar, 

which has always influenced, often controlled, and at times 

all but filled the throne of Russia, numbering in its ranks 
men of every talent and all renown. A family so old and so 
famous that one must go backward into the remotest past to 
trace its issuing from some forgotten forest or rocky cavern, 
a thousand years or so ago, whence it presses onward, like 
an ever-broadening river, through the changing centuries; 
onward past barren wastes, by prosperous lands, leaping 
palace walls, encircling imperial thrones, channelling historic 
battle fields, through gloomy forests, by castled homes, in 
many lands; a stream, a cataract, a surging river, dividing 
re-uniting, branching into half a hundred ways, some in light 
and some in shade, and one, fretted for a moment by the 
world's barriers flung close across its' course, but the next 
sweeping aside the bars of human pride arid sin, hurries 
onward, swift and strong, until the angels swing wide the 
gates, and it flows straight and free into the Vineyard of the 

This is ours. First of all, ages ago, there was in Lithuania, 
one Mikhail Ivanovitch Bulgark, a famous fighter, surnamed' 
Goliza, which signifies a leather glove or gauntlet, suggested 
by a rough mitten, made from the skin of an animal with the 
'h.iir left on it, with which this redoubtable warrior covered 
liis mighty hand, dealing with it, undoubtedly, many a sting- 
ing blow, which fixed his hairy glove in the memory of the 
"men of his time. 

In nearer days there appears another Prince Goliza, or 
Galiza, who serves as a landmark. He lived in the sixteenth 
century, commanded an army sent by the Grand Duke Basil 
in 1514 against the Poles, was defeated through the treachery 
and cowardice of an officer jealous of his power and fame, 
taken, prisoner and held for thirty-eight long years in painful 
captivity, although the richest ransoms were freely offered 
for him. When Sigisrmmd II. became king of Poland he, of 
his own good will, broke the prisoner's chains, saying to the 
Czar Ivan II., that "As I believe it to be our duty to reward 
fidelity not only in our own subjects, but also in those 
foreigners who have shown devotion to their sovereigns, I 
have set at liberty the general of your father's army." 

Upon, this welcome news the czar hastened to embrace the 
venerable prince, to load him with honors and presents, and 
to invite him to dinner; but so broken that even the imperial 
favor could not revive him, the once erect and haughty com- 
mander asked but to end his days in the seclusion of a 
monastery, which was granted him. 

Another famous hero and statesman, named Vassilii (Basil) 
Yasiliievitch Gallitzin, (as the name had now come to be 
known,) was born in 1633, towards the close of tho reign of 
Michael, first czar of the Romanoff lineage, and received an 
education rare at that time not only in his own country, but 
elsewhere, including the Greek, Latin, and German languages. 
He passed his' youth at court, entered the army when of 
siiitable age, and made himself so famous in fighting the 
Turks, the Tartars of the Crimea, and the Cossacks of the 
Dnieper, that the Emperor Alexis, son and successor of 
Michael, promoted him to the command of the Cossacks, and 
afterwards raised him to the great dignity of a Boyar. Alexis 
was very much annoyed by the pride of the nobles, who 
refused to obey the command of a military or civil superior 
whose title could not be proved older than their own; iu this 
emergency the Boyar Gallitzin c<mnselled and carried into 
execution a remarkable way of securing their allegiance; by 
command of the emperor the nobles were required to bring- 
forward all the documents proving or relating to their rank 
and birth, and in this case they obeyed. When all these 
papers were gathered tpgether, instead of examining them 
and pronouncing their force as was expected, Alexis and 
Gallitzin made a bonfire of them, together with the oldnobiiiar 
record of the empire. 

The Czar Alexis was twice married, and though he had in 
all twelve children, only two of his sons by his first wife, 
survived him ; of these Fedor died after a very short reign, 
and should have been succeeded by the other, Ivan, but the 
powerful family of the second wife set him aside as imbecile, 
and succeeded in bringing forward her son Peter, who was 
then but ten years of age, but these wei - e resolutely met by 

her step-daughter Sophia, who took the reins of power into 

her own strong- hand, and governed firmly in the name of her 
brother Ivan and her half-brother Peter, with Prince Yasili 
Gallitzin for her prime minister. His position included the 
Government of Novgorod, giving him great wealth, power 
and influence, which he used to embellish Moscow with many 
splendid buildings, to bring men of learning into the empire, 
and to induce the nobles to send their children abroad, to 
receive the education not possible in Russia. When the pope 
encouraged John Sobieski to resist the Turks, the prince took 
advantage of Poland's fear of them to , obtain a most advan- 
tageous treaty of peace with her, and, later, leagxied with her 
and Venice against the infidels, sending ambassadors to the 
courts of Versailles, Madrid, Amsterdam, . . Stockholm, and 
Copenhagen, to invite the sovereigns of these countries to join 
the league. In all these courts a Russian ambassador was 
at that time a novelty; the monarchs were all very pelite, 
but not inclined to take part in the proposed crusade; Sophia 
kept firm to the plan, and the prince received command of the 
expedition sent by the original signers- of the league: Venice, 
Poland and Russia. 

So far from being hostile to Catholics this far sighted states- 
man counselled the return of the Greek Church, and labored 
with the greatest earnestness to effect a reunion, which he 
regarded of vast importance for the interests of his country 
from a temporal point of view, while his strong religious 
feelings and his freedom from the blinding mists of narrow 
national prejudice, enabled him to see the question in clearer 
spiritual light than perhaps any other nobleman in the empire. 
But the sudden uprising, in his absence with the expedition 
against the Turks, which ended in the overthrow of Sophia 
and the accession of Peter, surnamed the Great, put an eud 
to his hopes. But though unsuccessful, the mere desire appears 
to have been a good seed for future years to develop into 
abundant fruit for his noble house. We may "owe it to him, 
"building better than he knew," .that the first impulse to 
Catholicity was imparted to his family, and the Gallitzins in 
the Vineyard may perhaps regard him as the founder of their 
line. He died in exile in the district of Mezen. 

Two of his cousins were in great favor with the new 
emperor, one of them, Prince Boris Alexeivitch having been 
the tutor, and the other Prince Mikhail Mikhailovitch Gallitzin, 
the playmate of the youthful Peter. Prince Boris was a man 
of great learning and very pious, so much so that he was 
surnamed the Baptist; he filled the position of governor of As- 
trachan until, borne down by age and infirmities, he resigned 
the trust, and ended his days in a monastery. Prince Mikhail 
renounced his position at court that he might enter the army 
as a simple soldier, and win his honors at the point of his 
sword. In 1*109, after many heroic 'deeds, he contributed 
greatly to the success of the famous battle of Pultowa, if 
indeed he did not actually win it, and three days afterwards 
forced the surrender of the remnant of the Swedish army. He 
was appointed a few years later, governor of Finland, and 
general in chief. Besides all these military exploits he Avon 
great honors as a naval officer, receiving, upon one occasion 
a present from Czar Peter of a sword and cane richly mounted 
with diamonds. 

The peace of Nystadt (1721) ended his work in Finland, 
and as Peter was about to depart for the Persian Avars he 
confided St. Petersburg to his gOA r ernorship. Catharine I. 
made him field marshall, and Peter II. placed him over the 
military college at Moscow, where he died in 1730.* 

Upon the death of Peter II., in 1730, the croAvn Avas offered 
to Anna lA r anovna, Duchess of Courland, daughter of Peter 
the Great's half-brother, Ivan, whose promises of a more 
liberal form of gOA r errunent caused her to be preferred to her 
aunts, the daughters of Peter the Great. Prince Mikhail's 
brother Avas-one of the plenipoteiitaries sent to make the offer, 
which was accepted; during her reign of ten years she loaded 
him with honors, but she exiled another Gallitzin, and played 
a memorable part towards still another. 

This took place in the winter of 1740 in the last year of 
her reign, when to amuse her flagging spirits the infamous 
Biron got up a palace and a wedding on a novel plan. 

* X<)(u:elle Bioyraphie Universelle, vol. XIX Gallitziiie; Etudes (It Tl>c:;!<jyie, 
vol. I, Un document Inedit. 

It was a most terrible whiter even for Russia. Upon the 
proposition of the chamberlain, Fatischef, her majesty gracious- 
ly permitted the construction between her palace and the Ad- 
mirality of a house of ice. Accordingly great blocks of 
choice ice were hewn out in the form of immense stones, 
which were placed one upon another, and cemented by 
throwing- warm water, which instantly froze, upon them. This 
bouse of many rooms presented a most charming aspect, and 
was built according to all the rules of architecture: all its 
decorations, inside and out, were wrong] it out of ice as 
pure as the ruck crystal. The entrance was defended by six 
ice cannons, which by being drawn backwards a few steps, 
were made to throw out two cannon balls, also of ice. Two 
dauphin guns, by means of an ingenious contrivance, vomited 
fire. The trees planted around the house witli different birds 
perched on their branches, the windows, a bed draped with 
curtains, the tables, chairs, vases, glasses, a toilette with its 
mirror, a multitude of other objects, and even the plates with 
meats artistically imitated, all Avere of ice. The logs in the 
fireplace, the wax lights in the ice candlesticks covered 
with naphte, shone in the evening as in a luxurious drawing 
room. Xear the house was an elephant (always ice) of life 
size, upon which a Persian was seated; this elephant in the 
cfaytime threw out water from his trunk, and at night lighted 
xiaphte; a man concealed inside imitate'd the animal's cry. 
There Avas also a bath chamber attached to the house which, 
although entirely of ice, was heated to such a point that a 
bath could be taken. All its constructions remained without 
injury from the first days of January until March, the winter 
was so steadily severe. 

This new kind of a Avondcr Avas built for the wedding of a 
nobleman, of illustrious birth, forced to become the buffoon 
of the court in punishment for having, while in foreign lands, 
embraced the Catholic faith. Past fifty years of age he was, 
in derision, made a page; widowed husband of a Narichkin, 
father of a young man AV!IO was already an officer of the 
guards, the empress forced him to remarry, promising to 
generously defray all the expenses of the wedding. They 

claimed that he had chosen for his bride a Bohemian octoge- 

While amusing herself with this wedding Anna desired to 
manifest by it her immense power. She ordered the governor 
of each of the provinces of the empire to send her two persons 
from every different race in Russia. On their arrival in St. 
Petersburg each couple was dressed, at the imperial expense, 
in the costume of their province. The organization of the 
festival was entrusted to the grand huntsman, Volinsky (who 
was hung in the June following, after having had his tongue 
torn out and his right wrist severed). On the appointed day 
the guests to the number of more than three hundred, met at 
his house, presenting themselves with grotesque ceremony 
before the empress' windows, and parading the streets of the 
capital in procession. The newly married pair shut up in a 
cage on the back of an elephant led the march. The guests 
were arranged by couples in sledges drawn by reindeers, 
dogs, oxen, and goats; some were perched on camels, A 
repast was prepared for them in the Diike of Courland's riding- 
school. For each representative of a province .the favorite 
dish of his district was provided. After the banquet there 
was a grand ball, at which each couple had its own distinctive 
music, and danced its national dance. Finally,-after the ball, 
the newly married pair were carried to their ice palace, forced 
to lie on the bed of ice, which had been prepared for them, 
and that they might not leave it, armed sentinels we re placed 
jvt the door of the nuptial chamber. * 

"This torture," says Prince Augustin Gallitzin, "which still 
more rends the heart by its burlesque etiquette, is confirmed 
by eye witnesses, I shall only cite those upon which it is 
easiest to place the hand. 

" ' Prince Gallitzin,' says General Manstein f , ' although of 
one of the first houses of the empire, was forced to become a 
buffoon. This employment was given him as punishment for 
having embraced the Catholic religion.' And, having without 

* Un Misslonaire Russe en Amerique by Prince Augustin Gallitzin. 

t ' ' MEMOIKES HISTORIQTJES sun LA RTJSSIE, par le general comie de Man- 
, tmduits de Vallemand, Lyons 1772 torn. II, p. 72." 

any emotion related this event at which he had assisted in- 
gala dress, the Lutheran Manstein certifies that the newly 
married were conducted to the house of ice, stretched upon 
the cold bed, on which the next day there were, undoubtedly,, 
two dead bodies. . 

"A pious tradition recounts that Prince Gallitzin, in ex- 
piring, made this touching prayer to the God for whom he 
had sacrificed all: '0 Jesus! vouchsafe to graut me one 
grace; it is that conversions may never cease in the Gallitzin. 

Such were the ancestors in the spiritual and natural order 
of the little prince at the Dutch capital. His father, Prince 
Dmitri Alexeievitch Gallitzin, son .of Prince Alexis Ivano- 
vitch Gallitzin and his beautiful wife, nee Princess Gagarin, 
was born in 1728, commencing his career with the reign of the 
Empress Elizabeth, who had succeeded, after a short interval, 
the cruel and despotic Anna. He preferred to emulate the glory 
of his illustrious ancestors in the paths of science and diplom- 
acy, rather than on the battle field, and early in life occupied 
positions of great importance at the court, and in foreign ne- 
gociations, and while yet very young was made minister to 
Paris, in which office he was retained by Catharine, with 
whom he was in high favor, both on account of his diplomatic 
talent and his great literary attainments. It was at his re- 
presentation that she purchased his friend Diderot's library, 
when that airy philosopher had succeeded in dissipating mo- 
ney faster than he could make it, and was in great need; she 
generously made as the condition of her purchase that the 
late owner should take care of it for her, at an excellent 
salary, a great part of which she paid in advance. 

In 1168 after fourteen years residence in Paris, as Russian 
ambassador, where lie had been the generous friend of Dide- 
rot, Voltaire, D'Alembert and others whose names are only 
remembered now as belonging to the froth and fermentation, 
the folly and wickedness, which led to the Reign of Terror, 
the prince was recalled to Russia to receive a new appoint- 

On his way to St. Petersburg he rested for a few days at 
Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) where the season had already com- 
menced, and very soon attached himself to the train of Prin- 
cess Ferdinand (wife of Ferdinand, brother of Frederick the 
Great), who with several ladies of her court was sojourning 
at the baths; the pleasure the prince appeared to find there 
caused him to remain longer than he originally intended, and 
it soon became -evident that he was detained by special re- 
gard for a lady of her suite, Countess Amalia vori Schmettau, 
only daughter of the celebrated Prussian Field Marshall von 
Schmettau, a bright, fresh, vivacious yet thoughtful and high- 
minded'girl of nineteen, whose beautiful dark blue eyes, had 
aroused many an affection which her unaffected dignity, and 
freedom from all coquetry, had never permitted to manifest 
itself. The prince, however, had rare advantages ; the splen- 
did suppers he gave, the numerous schemes for amusement 
which he devised and executed, made him very popular with 
the pleasure seekers, while his high literary attainments, his 
great culture, his familiarity with all the new ideas and glit- 
tering names of the day, rendered his companionship most 
delightful to a young girl of noble nature, who felt herself 
made for something better than the mere routine of fashion- 
able life. 

When he made known his wishes to her she found the 
princess in whose care she was placed, and her own brother, 
General von Schmettau, entirely in favor of his proposals; 
the time of his stay was rapidly drawing to a close, as he 
had to be in St. Petersburg at a fixed date, a special mes- 
senger was dispatched in all haste to- Berlin to procure her 
mother's consent, and on Amalia's twentieth birthday, Au- 
gust 28th,. 1768, they were married in a chapel at Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle, setting out immediately after the wedding for St. Peters- 
burg, accompanied part of the way by Princess Ferdinand, and 
travelling in the most magnificent manner possible, resting 
at the principal cities, where they were entertained by the 
most distinguished residents, until they finally reached St. 
Petersburg. The young wife was' presented to the "Semi- 
ramis of the North", the rather unprincipled Catharine II.,. 


and won all hearts by her exquisite womanliness, her very 
finished manners, the fascination of her conversation, and her 
rare musical acquirements. 

After a short sojourn in the capital the prince received 
his appointment as" ambassador to Holland, where they arriv- 
ed about two years after their marriage, and took up their 
residence at the beautiful city of the Hague. 


(1743 1778.) 

Early days. At the convent at Breslau. Her persistency, aftection 
and loyalty as a child. Her home education. At a fashionable 
French boarding-school. At court. Perplexities. Desire for 
knowledge. An old gentleman's wisdom. Mental confusion. 
Observations during her wedding tour. Birth of Marianna Gallitzin. 
Of Demetrius. Life at the Hague. The Star of Holland. 
Diderot's visit. Minii and Mitri in the nursery. Henisterhuys' 
inihience. Final retirement from society. 

Amalia von Schmettau, who after so short a courtship had 
consented to become the beloved wife of Prince Dmitri Gal- 
litziu, had lost her father when quite young, and when only 
four or five years old was placed by her mother, formerly 
Baroness von Ruffert, at a convent school in Breslau, where 
she remained for several years, learning- little, but exhibiting 
many marked traits of character, which were afterwards lov- 
ingly recalled by the good inins, and in the charming nar- 
rative of a maternal aunt, who was very fond of her: "I re- 
ceived word from my dear sister," says this latlyf, "that she 
would send her daughter, my beloved niece, in care of a 
maid and groom to be placed at a convent for ediication, and 
wished mo to meet her in Breslau at a stated time. . . . She 
was four years old, knew not one word of German, embraced 
me, and her first words were full of exultation: '0 ma chere 
tante! fai un grand panier!' (0 my dear aunt! I've got a big 

* Derikwuerdigkeiten aus dem Leben der Fuei'stin von Gattiizln, von 
Dr. Katercamp. Muenster, 1828. 

t Tagebuch und Brlefweclisd der Fiierstin Adelheid Amalia von Gallitsm. 


basket!)" After .she had been sometime in the 'convent her 
mother visited her, and was quite shocked to find her fingers 
frost bitten, but the nuns assured her it was not their fault,, 
for the child persisted in sitting by the window at dawn and 
twilight, working at her "sums", instead of keeping warm 
by the fire as the others did. She was taken to stay a while 
with her aunt at Breslau, Avhere she made so many friends-, 
that when she went away, she said: "This is indeed the 
earthly paradise." Politics ran high at the convent, as the 
waves of the war between Frederick the Great and Maria. 
Theresa for Silesia dashed over the playground. "We had 
better tea and sugar," argued the adherents of the fair Queen 
of Hungary, "when the Austrians were in town. Long life to> 
Maria Theresa!" 

"My father was a Prussian field marshall," cried Amalia,. 
"and I must be a Prussian too. Long life to my king!" 

When she was nine or ten years old, Amalia was taken 
home to Berlin, and placed under private teachers. She had 
a natural talent for music which the nuns had carefully cul- 
tivated, and in her other studies she was thought to have 
made some progress. It was intended she should be brought 
up a Catholic, that) being her mother's religion, while her two 
brothers, according to their parents' marriage contract, were 
to be as their father, Protestants, but Amalia's* religion at 
this time appears to have been developed only in one phase: 
she had an excessive fear of the devil; she was so much 
afraid of him and of hell, that it made her almost morbid and 
very gloomy, at times. She had been to confession, but it is 
not likely she had had any preparation for her first commu- 
nion,, as she was so very young when she left school, and in 
her mother's house, which was perhaps the gayest and most 
hospitable in all Berlin, her religious instruction probably 
never gave any one a moment's thought. She was, however, 
a very good little girl, and very watchful over herself, anx- 
ious to do nothing she knew to be wrong,. and very desirous 
of acting bravely and truthfully in everything. When about 
fourteen or fifteen years of age the honest, natural German 
manner was thought to need French polish and gilding; the 


rage for everything- French being than at its height in all 
European society, an infidel Frenchman, Mr. Premoval, 
found no difficulty in establishing 1 himself in Berlin for the 
finishing of the daughters of the nobility, Amalia was sent 
to his school, and after two years returned home with charm- 
ing manners, various accomplishments, and in spite of Mr. 
Premoval, a true heart and a clear head. She was duly in- 
troduced into society, was greatly admired, and so esteemed 
by the Princess Ferdinand that she invited her to become 
one of her maids of honor. 

At that time it was the fashion, brought over with uphols- 
tery and costly apparel from France, to discuss everything, 
the more sacred the better, and all manner of new ideas buz- 
zed about Am alia's ears; she was told how the world had 
waked up, was coming out of its barbarous state, was throw- 
ing aside its superstitions, learning how to eat, drink, dress, 
be merry and, above all, to reason. It was clear, nobody any 
longer believed in anything; Christianity especially was out 
of date, and its absurd restraints altogether unfashionable. 
The speculations, the philosophy so called, the brilliant 
flights of rhetoric in which 1 humanity and liberty rode on 
golden and purple clouds, confused the young girl; she lis- 
tened, she tried to understand what all the rest seem to know 
thoroughly, she felt awkward and constrained when she dis- 
covered that, in spite of all her hard thinking, she could not 
in the least comprehend what every body was talking about. 
This mortified her and distressed her so much that, believing 
it to be on account of her defective education, she threw her- 
self heart and soul into study and reading ; but having no one 
to guide her or advise her what to read, and nothing in her- 
self by which to fix a standard, she made but little progress ; 
she found in whatever she read something understood by the 
writers of which she knew nothing. Once she ventured to 
ask a venerable gentleman of her acquaintance for advice, 
begging him to send her something suitable; he complied at 
once, most gallantly, by giving 'her a quantity of novels, 
French novels at that, which she took in good faith and de- 
voured with eagerness. They, too, were beyond her intellect, 

14 'f 

but they aroused her emotional nature, until she herself" 
became wise enough to cast them aside. In this way a thirst 
for knowledge took possession of her mind, and a morbid 
craving for she knew not what, her whole nature ; she became 
restless, .sometimes wildly, brilliantly gay, at others depres- 
sed to the verge of despair, her whole soul in a ferment. 
Fortunately, one should rather say, by special Providence, her 
heart remained untouched, and her intellect kept pace if it 
did not outstrip her sensibilities, but at any moment it might 
give up the contest and she would be at the mercy of the 
other. Prince Gallitzin attracted her mind from the first: 
when she became engaged to him the brightest vision that 
alhived her was that he would become her teacher, fill up for 
her the gaps in her education, advise her in her studies, and 
clear up all obscure passages and unintelligible allusions in 
her reading. But the prince was very well satisfied with his 
wife as she was, and being thoroughly informed of the thou- 
sand events, theories, and so on, of which she knew little if 
anything, he could* not, in the .full maturity of his intellect,, 
at all understand the restless desires of the young, unformed 
mind that looked to him so wistfully; he knew that by obser- 
vation, social converse, and in various inperceptible ways 
all that she wished would come to her in time, and made- 
little account of 'the feverish impatience of youth. At the 
same time, her evident admiration of his superior intellect 
and knowledge of the world, by no means lessened his affec- 
tion for his girlish wife, whom he introduced to his friends,, 
wherever they visited, with a proud satisfaction in her 
beauty, her fascinating manners, her lively intelligence and 
her womanly self respect. When her- hopes of a teacher in 
her husband became somewhat clouded by finding herself al- 
ways in the midst of society, she listened, considered, and 
judged' for herself, not always, as formerly, accepting every- 
thing she heard for unquestionable truth. Soon she became 
fairly roused, was at last on the alert, quick, observant,, 
sympathetic, full of nice perception and keen discrimination, 
so susceptible, in the best sense, to affection and admiration,, 
which are to woman as the June sunshine to the roses, that 


it was a real pleasure for those who met her to unfold their 
thoughts to her. Her unselfish nature called upon her in re- 
turn to make every effort, whatever might be her mood, to 
please and entertain all with whom she was thrown; but 
this cost her many heartaches and after-exhaustion, even in 
the beginning-, for she could not fail to see that the conver- 
sation and society which had at first dazzled, awed, and de- 
lighted her, really led to very lame results, tha,t though the 
great men all talked the grandest philosophy, the noblest 
sentiments, their brilliant ideas revolved in a very small 
circle, always returning to the place whence they started; 
and though in society every one gave utterance only to the 
most wonderful and original ideas, it really seemed to her 
that even in Paris there was hardly one man who could truly 
he called great, scarcely learned. In the midst of all she 
felt as one who 'fears to scrutinize the play too closely, lest 
the stage effects should reveal themselves too glaringly, and 
once in a while she asked herself if there was no rest on 
earth save in stagnation and passive indifference. 

At Berlin the travellers rested upon their return from 
St. Petersburg, and while there the Princess 'Mariarma was 
born, Dec. 7th 1*169. After remaining some time at the Prus- 
sian capital, they journeyed to the Hague, where the Prince 
Demetrius, subject of this memoir, was born, Dec. 22. 1710. 

Whatever hopes of intellectual improvement, and com- 
panionship the princess may have still cherished for the time 
when she and her husband would be settled in their own 
home, no sign of them appeared when she became acquainted 
with the life considered necessary in the prince's position^ 
Every one will recollect the ever encreasing splendors of the 
eighteenth century, the wild years of luxury, extravagance, 
unbelief and depravity, gilded and glittering, of the upper 
classes, which are supposed' to have prepared the way for 
the French revolution, shaking the' whole wide world, and 
crumbling the labors of centuries into rubbish and dust.. 
With the magnificent Catharine, the "Northern Cleopatra", 
petting Diderot; Frederick the Great resting on his laurels, 
and proud of his intimacy with Voltaire; Marie Antoinette 

.- 16 - 

just corning to the throne of France; Maria Theresa giving 
place to Joseph II., worst friend of religion and the pope, 
and the rich Holland merchants intent upon still further 1 gain, 
and only one old man among- all the sovereigns of Europe 
to raise his voice for virjtue and truth, and the fear of the 
Lord, it was clearly every one's duty to eat, drink, and be 
merry while the day lasted. Prince Gallitzin, thoroughly in 
harmony with the age in which he lived, made 'his residence 
at the Hague the centre of all that there was of wise, witty, 
and illustrious in the city, receiving his friends from other 
lands with true princely hospitality, and when the Empress 
Catharine visited the Hague, the part of the Russian am- 
bassador in her- reception was magnificently performed. 
She, on her side, hastened to show her regard for the prince 
by having his little son, then about two years old, brought 
to her, even placed in the imperial arms; as he was a 
most lovable little one, slight and delicately formed, with 
bright, bird like eyes, she even caressed him tenderly, while 
- commissioning hitn, then and there, officer of the guard. 
Little Mitri did not much appreciate the honor which filled 
his father's heart with so much satisfaction, but, released 
from the imperial embrace, shook out his curls, as a bird its 
ruffled plumage, and gladly trotted to the nearest place of 
safety, probably behind his nurse's gown, without ceremony. 
This mark of imperial favor, which was intended to shape 
the future of the child upon whom it was bestowed, by no 
means calmed the unrest which troubled all the princess' days. 
It but entangled her the more in the life already becoming 
most distasteful to her. Balls, parties, reunions of all kinds, 
followed each other in rapid succession; magnificent dresses 
and lustrous jewels made the nights brilliant, while the days 
were crowded with the conventional round of receptions, 
visits, state dinners and. the innumerable claims of social life. 
Once a week, or so, she would steal a moment to visit her 
children, and they would Hvake to see her bending over them 
like a fairy queen out of the story books, her slender figure 
arrayed in rustling brocade and exquisite lace; her luxuriant 
hair, the admiration of all beholders, curled and rolled, pow- 


dercd and puffed, and wreathed with pearls, her dark-blue 
eyes but glowing the brighter for contrast with the gems she- 
wore. She endeavored to stifle the voice within her crying 
for a nobler life, by submitting to the inevitable, even to 
make the best of it, and by her extraordinary gaiety of dis- 
position, her bouyant and joyous nature, she was led to please 
all, and seek to become a leader, a queen in society, in which 
she succeeded so admirably that she was called the Star of 

But the position she so easily commanded, and with DO 
apparent effort fully sustained, only brought her weariness 
and disgust; false friendships, selfish advantage taken of her 
generous nature, base ingratitude, petty intrigues, and con- 
temptible arts to which she could not close her eyes, and 
which gave her many a cruel sting, assured her there was 
nothing the world could give worth having; she had tried to 
believe there was something higher and better in it than she 
had found at first, but when she came to know it well, had 
seen all it had to offer, her heart sank, and she was almost in 
despair. She had no one to whom she could confide a single 
wish. "I seldom went to sleep," she said afterwards, "with- 
out tears. I was like those actors on the stage who amuse 
others while their own hearts are breaking." For whatever 
her grief and depression, she never felt free to let a shadow 
pass over her face in presence of others. 

At the time when her disgust had become so great as to 
be almost beyond concealment, her husband's friend, Diderot, 
who had accepted Catharine's invitation to Eussia, and was 
on his way to her court, stopped for a few months at the 
prince's house in Holland where with the sharp eyes of a 
shrewd man of the world, he saw that the princess however 
truly a queen in her circle, was altogether different from 
those who among the "philosophes" aspired to the title, her 
woman's mind holding nothing in common with the "vehem- 
ent female intellect" of the time, which, "with metaphysics 
and flirtation, system of nature, fashion of dress caps, vanity, 
curiosity, jealousy, atheism, rheumatism, traites, boiitiries, noble 

sentiments and rouge pots," was "sailing on a chaos where 


a wiser might have wavered, if not foundered*." Whether- 
she took his sentimens nobles for honest truth, for he had 
indeed a "gilded tongue", or was no longer able to hid.e her 
trouble, she confided to him, of all people in the world, the 
longing for a better life, the thirst for knowledge, the ardent 
desire for a simple, natural way of living which consumed 
her. He did not doubt her sincerity; no hoary headed father 
confessor could have more quickly pronounced the absence 
of the world's -stamp on that restless and impatient nature, 
than did this "vehement, volatile", infidel Frenchman. He en- 
tered entirety into her views, sympathized with her wholly,, 
fulty recognizing her mental and moral unfitness for her 
present mode of life, urged her to throw it aside, obey the 
desires of her heart, Diderot and his clique always counsel 
obedience to the desires of the heart, whatever they may be. . 
and devote herself to study and the care of her children. 
He even undertook to break the subject, which she dared not 
hint, to the prince, who saw in his wife only a loving, bril- 
liant, light hearted woman, scarcely more than a vivacious. 
. girl. Diderot was quite at home on all subjects, never more 
so, perhaps, than when descanting upon the following of" 
one's own inclinations, liberty to perfect (or .degrade) one's 
self as one's humor might be ; the princess, he said, showed 
a remarkable intellect, a great lovb for knowledge, and a 
willingness to acquire it; with her natural inclination for a 
quiet and studious life, she would undoubtedly make great 
progress, and in consideration of the brilliant but responsible 
future of the young prince, what could be more fortunate- 
than that he should he trained under the eye of a thoroughly- 
cultivated mother? On this text a Frenchman is irresistible; 
the prince so far from being displeased at the suggestion,, 
put with due tact more as his wish than hers, saw in it much, 
that was desirable. It was decided that he would permit her 
withdrawal from society, and to occupy a certain portion of 
the house free from all visitors, and to have what teachers 
she pleased. She received the news with joy, immediately 

Cirlyles Miscellanies, Vol. HI, p. 303. 


clouded by the fear that she was too old, she was in her 
twenty fifth 3 r car, to accomplish anything, for in all her life 
she had never learned anything- systematically; she seemed 
to herself to have only scraps, odds and ends of knowledge, 
acquired she knew not how, belonging she knew riot where, 
but her husband encouraged her by his confidence, encour- 
aged in his turn by Diderot's praise of her talents, and nerved 
and inspired by the thought of her children and their need 
of her, she lost not a day in starting upon her new life. She 
immediately put aside all her beautiful .dresses, and wore a 
plain a,nd simple one which took but little time in its adjust- 
ment, and first of- all prepared to have the children under her 
own eyes. Good naturcd Mimi (Marianna) and wilful Mitri 
(Demetrius) had so far in life had things pretty much their 
own way, having their own carriage and servants, over 
whom they tyrannized with the largest Russian despotism, 
but all at once, as so often happens in Russian history, they 
woke up one morning under a new sovereign, the servants 
and the carriage and innumerable playthings were confis-. 
catcd, and the little autocrats exiled to a land of sudden les- 
sons, self discipline, cold baths, and general good behavior. 
The princess had often envied the peasant women whoso 
brown and hardy children tumbled about their doorstep, aird 
when once she began to make her children's closer acquain- 
tance, she wondered at herself that she had endured the life, 
now happily ended, for so long. She had not commenced a day 
too soon; Mitri had already fine beginnings of temper, and., 
little despot that he was, like all other tyrants, was sorely 
afraid of a mightier than himself; though but four years old. 
he was master of all the nursery arts, screams, disobedience, 
and persistence, as means of obtaining instant fulfillment of 
his desires. Mimi who had lived a little longer in this world, 
was much wiser; studying the nursery-powers with much 
natural shrewdness, she came to have no very high respect 
for domestic government, and issued her orders, without 
ado, but as one certain of obedience. Their mother had her- 
self to discipline no less than them , and found the task well 

worthy of her energy and determination. 


She intended to study everything' which her children 
should ever be required to learn, and in advance, so that 
when she could not herself give all their lessons, she might 
be able to direct them; but where to begin she could not tell, 
until her husband's thoughtful care aided in procuring her a 
guide beyond her brightest hopes in Franz Hemsterhuys, a 
very learned man, whom she had met at times in society, but 
vrho, supposing her to be what she seemed, a mere woman 
of the world, had never sought her acquaintance. When he 
heard her retirement from society mentioned, and rumors of 
her devotion to her children and to study, his admiration of 
her heroism in daring to do so, led him to seek to know her 
better. His own favorite study was ancient philosophy and 
the Greek language, and as their acquaintance ripened he 
never Avearied of talking to her of the virtue and wisdom of 
the ancients, which so interested her that, adA^ised and en- 
couraged by the prince, she resolved to apply herself under 
his professorship to the study of Greek, -as a beginning. 
Hemsterhuys Avas gifted with a gentle nature, with great 
truthfulness and simplicity of character; he cared nothing 
for fame, though a great student published little, and that in 
small editions for his own friends and a small circle of refined 
^and thoughtful readers ; his natural uprightness, his love for 
every thing really beautiful, had kept him free from the pre- 
vailing errors of the day, and his life Avas an emulation of 
the ideal of a pagan philosopher. Amalia's straightforAvardness 
charmed him, and her quick perceptions, her real desire for 
knowledge, Avon his whole sympathy, and he placed himself 
at her service to assist her in anyway she desired. She 
soon looked up to him as to a devoted parent, he was twenty 
eight years her senior, receiving his advice on all subjects, 
especially in regard to the discipline of her children, with 
filial reverence; he read with her, explained all the obscure 
passages, made so to her for want of fuller information, and 
with the greatest tact and judgment aimed to deA r elop her 
mind without crowding it, or taking away any of its freedom. 
Meantime many comments upon her change of pursuits 
came to her ears, and as she was sensitive as -well as high 


spirited, she was often deeply pained; some laughed, some 
sneered, all considered it a whim of which she Avould soon 
tire, and she felt that while she remained in her husband's 
house, she could not be secure from intrusive visits and re- 
marks, but she expected to be obliged to endure them, as 
there seemed no way of evading them. 

After a year in Russia Diderot again visited the prince, 
and announced, with exultation, that the princess had justi- 
fied his judgment, she had made wonderful progress; he 
advocated complete retirement from the world, and to his 
eloquence, and that peculiar power by which he could make 
his listener always entirely of his opinion, for the moment, 
the princess owed it, that her husband consented that she. 
should occupy one of his country houses, as her own exclu- 
sive property, to live and study just as she pleased. She 
chose one between the Hague and Schevelingen, which was 
far enough from the city for quiet, but within easy and plea- 
sant reach of her husband's palace. The city of the Hague 
was formerly the summer residence of the Holland nobility, 
who had there the most beautiful summer houses and parks, 
so that the streets were more like walks or drives through 
private landscape gardens^ than the thoroughfares of a 
city, therefore the prince would be put to no unpleasant 
journey in visiting his family and throwing off the "cares of 
state", in the house she longed to make a HOME. Hcmster- 
huys would also find it easy to continue his lessons, the 
children would have entire freedom, and she would be beyond 
the reach of criticism, though it grieved both her and her 
husband that the claims of his position necessitated even so 
slight a separation. 

She furnished her new house with great simplicity, and 
named it Nrrnoys (Not at home}, conveying the idea that the 
bird had flown to her nest, the world was shut out, and that 
she was no longer AT HOME in' social phrase ; in the language 
of the heart she had never been at home before. That no 
one might say she was still trifling and would soon return 
to society, and still more because it occupied so much of her 
time to attend to it, she cut off her beautiful hair, and wore 

a peruke, like a judge's wig 1 , and dressed with the utmost 
plainness ; her children, in easy, comfortable clothes, were 'al- 
ways tinder her eyes, playing as freely as the envied peas- 
ants' little ones, in their short hours of recreation; her ven- 
erable guide, Hemsterhuys, came almost every day to .her 
cottage, her few friends entered without any ceremony, for 
they were all of her own way of thinking, those whose chief 
happiness in life was in the pleasures of the mind. Of these 
the Princess of Nassau-Orange, wife of William V., reigning 
stadtholder of the Netherlands, was her warmest and most 
intimate friend, who often visited NITHUYS bringing with her 
the little Frederick William, her son, two years younger 
than Mitri. While the Princess of Orange fully sustained 
Amalia in her course, she did not fail to lament her own in- 
capacity to follow her example, any further than to direct 
her son's education as fully as her duties, as wife of the so- 
vereign, permitted ; a resolution she carried out with great 
thoroughness. Other ladies of note were encouraged to do 
the same, and more than one nobleman in after years owed 
it to the courage of his mother's training, that he escaped the 
prejudices which dragged his friends into all kinds of mis- 
fortune in the years of universal revolution. 

The princess now devoted herself to her own and her chil- 
dren's education more systematically than before ; she read 
Socrates and of the Stoics, and endeavored to bring up her 
children upon their principles; Mimi and Mitri were obliged 
to be their own maid and valet, to take cold baths every 
morning, and go to sleep in the dark every night; Mimi took 
it philosophically, but Mitri protested lustily; the moment 
the light was put out his screams were fearful to hear, and 
when the princess, unable to endure them, would go back to 
reason with him, she would find him trembling and con- 
vulsed with terror, which would be under control while she 
staid, but the moment she left. him. alone would break out 
into frantic shrieks as before. She argued with him each time, 
forcing him to give a reason for every answer he. made to 
her questions, for every objection to her propositions; but 
though she dealt with him most logically he grew every day 


more timid and. nervous, and she had to devise many ways 
of overcoming- what she regarded as his cowardice, and try 
to make him brave and manly. 

"I soon found such ii happiness in my new life", she wrote 
In her journal, "in the society of my children, in my own 
gradually increasing knowledge, and in the peace of soul 
in. which I lay down at night, that still higher capabilities 
began to appear; God and my own soul began to form the 
.main subject of my thoughts and inquiries." 


(n?9 1783.) 


Nithuys insufficient.. Advantages of Geneva. Fuersteuberg's public 
school system. Muenster. Foundation of the university. The 
princess' observations. Decides to remain in Muenster. Regu- 
lates her household. Home pleasures. Freedom and enjoyment 
of her reunions. Distinguished visitors. Baron von Fuerstenberg. 
Hamann. Travels. At Halle. Effect of her method of education. 
Mitri's timidity, sensitiveness and reserve. 

When four or five tranquil years had thus passed in the 
seclusion of Nithuys, it became evident to the princess, as to 
her husband, that they could not procure in Holland the 
thorough and brilliant education demanded by Mitri's illus- 
trious birth and position. As he was now eight or nine 
years old, it was considered the time had come for deciding,, 
what course of training to adopt, that the princess might at 
once enter upon it, in accordance with her intention of 
studying everything in advance. Assisted by her own little 
circle of thoughtful men and women, and by correspondence 
and consultation with her husband's distinguished friends in 
different cities, she carefully examined the most commended 
systems of education in Europe, that her choice might be 
deliberate and just; even keeping herself informed of less 
noted theories, plans, and institutions. An illustrious man 
of learning, visiting the prince, finally decided her in favor 
of Geneva, where, she was assured, she would find the most 
perfect system, and the most profoundly wise professors in 
the world. This plan was rendered more feasible and allur- 
ing by the prince's owning a' handsome residence near the 


beautiful Geneva lake, where her eyes would constantly en- 
joy the vision of nature in all her loveliness. It did not 
matter to her in the least that the shadow of stern and love- 
less Calvinism, the awfullest cloud unhappy man has ever 
known to place between the blue, smiling heavens, and fond, 
up-looking earth, rested above the beautiful land she longed 
to see; she had never looked upward since her early child- 
hood, and knew nothing of light. 

But as all was arranged for the journey, her attention 
was arrested by an account sent her of a new theory, just 
being put into practice in the staid old city of Muenster, al- 
ready famous for its intellectual advantages. There were 
phases in it new to her, and very suggestive, which would 
not permit her to. pursue the Geneva plan until she had 
learned something further of this. She, therefore, considered 
it her duty to visit Muenster and judge for herself of the 
truth of what "she heard; she arrived there in May 1719, and 
spent nineteen days in close examination of its schools, and 
in making the acquaintance of their founder, Baron Francis 
von Fuerstenberg ; so much was she pleased with all that 
she saw, that she believed it would be unjust to her purpose 
of securing- the best the world could offer to settle in Switzer- 
land, before obtaining some of the benefits of the baron's 
system. She therefore decided, with the prince's concur- 
rence, to postpone the journey to Switzerland for a year, 
when Mitri would still be quite young enough to enter upon 
the Geneva course, and to spend the intervening., time in 
Muenster with her children, to become more fully acquainted 
with its advantages and resources ; a resolution she prompt- 
ly carried into effect. 

Muenster, capital of the Prussian province of Westphalia, 
is a quaint old Catholic city, distinguished for the number 
of its churches, the piety and learning of its inhabitants, and 
and for its famous university, established by Fuerstenberg. 
At this time it was a bishopric, under the civil and spiritual 
government of a bishop, who was also Elector of Cologne. 
About ten years previous to the princess' first visit, Maxi- 


milian Frederic, a prince of the ducal house of Bavaria, 
Archbishop and Elector of Cologne as well as Bishop of 
Muenster, conceived the idea of founding a seminary and 
university in the. latter city, for the education of Catholic 
youth, especially .those who might wish to enter the priest- 
hood. There was no Catholic university within reach, for 
that of the Jesuits at Paderborn was entirely theological, and 
one was desired at which history, higher philosophy, clas- 
sical literature, the languages, botany, law, medicine, and 
all the branches of a superior education should be taught, 
thus placing the Catholic sciences on their plane of ancient 
glory and olden splendor, especially needed at that time 
when rationalism and unbelief, by the deep root they had 
taken in all Germany, increased the danger to which young 
Catholics are always exposed at non-Catholic schools, col- 
leges, or universities. 

By various plans the elector saw means for securing build- 
ings, and a reasonable revenue for the university which was 
to "renew among the ministers of religion," he said in his 
circular to his clergy upon the subject, "the ancient splendor 
of the sciences, of discipline, and other advantages required 
for them .... Thus will the olden love and zeal for religion 
and its ministers be revived among the people, and the sa- 
cred lines of church and state, upon which depend the wel- 
fare of the clergy and people, be consolidated." 

Baron Frederic von Droste-Yischering, canon of Muenster 
and Paderborn, of a noble family and noble character, was 
chosen to advocate the plan at Home, the permission of the 
Pope, Clement XIV, being, of course, necessary for its estab- 
lishment. It was not deemed advisable, however, that so 
vast a plan should be at once undertaken in the manner pro- 
posed, and the whole idea would, perhaps, have been aban- 
doned, or at least postponed, had not the elector possessed 
in his coadjutor and vicar-general, Baron von Fuerstenberg, 
an executive officer of extraordinary ability, who was just 
suited to carry out the project, when the objections to it 
should have been removed, and, in the meantime, to prepare 

__ 27 

-the way for it, by drawing- men of science to the bishopric 
under his charge, and establishing- preliminary schools and 

Baron von Fuerstenberg belonged to a princely family, 
elating as far back as the thirteenth century, distinguished 
for its love of learning-, a quality with which he was himself 
higiily gifted, as also a rare power of org-anization. When 
placed over the bishopric of Muenster he put a whole new 
life into its affairs, reestablished its credit, encouraged agri- 
culture and all branches of industry, reformed the internal 
administration, obtained the clergy new facilities for solid 
studies, opened a military academy for the education of offi- 
cers, armed a "landwehr", set the gymnasiumf, on a new 
footing, and finally established the famous university to 
which Clement XIV. gave his hearty consent (17 : T3) for he 
had the highest idea of the mission of such institutions: 
"The unanimous opinion of the wise," said the Holy .Father 
In the document conveying this sanction J, "and the ex- 
perience of all times .... unite in attesting- that public uni- 
versities, in which the young are taught the principles of 
belles -lettres and the sciences, have always been of great 
usefulness in the perfect administration of the Christian Re- 
public. It is, indeed, by means of the learned and those 
whose minds have been cultivated, that darkness is dis- 
pelled, and the clouds which surrounded mankind, inheritors 
of the original fault, are dissipated; it is through them that 
errors, for the most part born of ignorance and often sully- 
ing the purity of sound doctrine, are confounded; finally, 
it is through them that other men learn to regulate their 
lives on the principles of equity and justice, that private 
and public interests can be administered justly and wisely." 
'The Pope desired that besides all the sciences, sue has -philos- 
ophy, theology, jurisprudence, and medicine, with all their 

* Histoire du Pontifical de Clement XIV., translated from, the German, 
-vol. I, p. 297. ' . 

t An institution for instruction vhich conies between an academy and 
-.a college. 

J Histoire -du Pontifical de Clement XIV, vol. II, p. 275. 


ramifications, international law, Oriental languages, pro- 
fane history, etc., taught at the university, there should "be 
a seminary attached to it, for the better preservation of the 

It was the report of these educational reforms and estab- 
lishments, which reached the princess, and when, on her first. 
visit, she saw the provisions made for every branch of study,. 
from its elementary foundation to its highest perfection, she 
was filled with astonishment at the genius which could de- 
vise and put into practice such an admirable method. Her 
surprise and satisfaction constantly increased upon her 
second visit, when she quietly took an unpretending resi- 
dence in the city, which seemed to her like one vast college, 
so orderly, regular, and calm, where the students and profes- 
sors went about freely, grave and thoughtful, and where 
everything she could wish was at her hand. That all was 
Catholic, from foundation stones to observatory tower on 
Catholic principles, inspired by Catholic faith, breathing 
only Catholic thought, she did not consider worth a passing- 
remark. She was willing to accept Catholic Muenster as pre- 
viously Calvinistic Geneva, and if need were, infidel or pagan 
professors. She lived for this world, her only end and aim to 
acquire all possible knowledge by the most direct means, 
not for its own sake only, but for the sake of her children's 
education. She had obeyed the voice which called her out, 
of the life of society and she was no longer unhappy, for 
though she still craved an unknown something, she was con- 
tented, for she doubted not she was on the right road to it.. 
and that what she desired and needed would be found at the 
goal of mental development. 

The year in Muenster passed away almost as quietly as if 
ivt Nithuys, but with such perceptible profit, and such clear 
advance in her own and the children's studies, that she found 
it a difficult task to break away from all that had absorbed' 
her so completely, and commence in a new way. She com- 
pared that which she knew of the city with the most favor-' 
able accounts of Geneva, the judgment of her mind and heart, 
assured her she coiild gain nothing by the change, and after 


clue deliberation, she decided to remain. The Geneva plan 
was not postponed but abandoned, and she prepared to con- 
sider Muenster her home for several years, at least, until 
Mitri's education should be completed. She retained her 
pleasant city residence, procuring a country house at the 
village of Angelmodde, about five miles distant, for the sum- 
mers, where her children could enjoy the full freedom of out- 
of-door life, and she could receive the prince and her friends 
with all the charms of country life about her. 

From the first days at Niffiuys Mirni and Mitri had been 
trained in a rather severe school of athletics, everything 
that could be devised for their physical development had 
been carefully and thoroughly tried; they were taught to 
ride and swim, made to take long walks, to run, jump, and 
practise gymnastics to the full extent of their strength, they 
kept regular hours, ate the simplest food, and were freed 
from all the torture of fashionable over dressing, being kept 
always neatly, but plainly and comfortably clothed. To this 
fencing was added for Mitri, and a full course of reasoning 
as mental development, for both; they were called upon at 
all times to assign a cause for every sensation, a motive for 
every action, an opinion on every occurence. She now pro- 
cured them tutors of the wisest and best in Muenster, and 
arranged her house and time with entire reference to study. 
All rose early, every hour had its alloted duties, one thing 
was never allowed to crowd another, there was plenty of 
open air exercise, whatever was done, taught, or learned was 
filled with life and spirit by her interest in it, and the care 
she took that no dead weight should be laid on the mind. 
She herself would often sit up the greater part of the night, 
and in the daytime forget to eat, if she became absorbed in 
any especially interesting subject, or involved in conflict 
with an unusually stubborn idea, until some one of her ser- 
yants would venture to ask her to take the chocolate or bis- 
cuit, previously placed uncalled for at her hand, and long 
unnoticed, which request she would pleasantly comply with, 
for she was of most amiable disposition, grateful for little 
attentions many would resent as intrusions. 


In the afternoons and evenings certain hours were kept 
free for conversation, when she g-ave herself up to the amus- 
ement and entertainment of her children, with the same zest 
and abandonment with which she pursued her most serious, 
studies. Besides her own children sh'e had with her for 
education her niece and adopted daughter, Countess Am alia, 
von Schmettau*, daughter of a brother of the princess who 
died when quite young, and George Jacobi. After some 
years there were .intimately associated with these the chil- 
dren of a noble Westphaliaii family, one of the few -with 
whom she kept up acquaintance, that of Baron, von Drostc- 
Vischering, whom she loved almost as her own and delighted 
to have join in all her lessons, expedition's and amusements; 
they came nearly every day to her house, with their, tutor, Dr. 
Theodore Katercamp, to enjoy the hours of conversational 
reunion, which increased in interest as they grew in years. 
In these talks all that they had learned from, books Avas 
applied, illustrated, and kindled into reality, so that the 
tutors and friends, who dropped in to take part or to listen 
as inclination led, considered .these conversations as useful 
to the young, students as a university course, while for them- 
selves the dry bones of dull routine seemed clothed with liv- 
ing flesh by the spirit she infused into them. As time passed 
on the little circle enlarged yet drew ever closer together; 
the reunions, which took place in the garden or in the draw- 
ing room, according to the season, and were informal home- 
gatherings, became famous, and were awaited from day to 
day with impatience; grave professors, hard worked and 
care-laden men came to them as unceremoniously as did the 
children-, distinguished strangers in the city sought admit- 
tance; she had often one or more of her "philosophes" friends 
with their wives or sisters visiting' her house, and venerable 
priests with childlike hearts met there infidels and unbeliev- 
ers, lingering to hear old lessons revived for eager youth. 
Whatever form the conversation took, the princess was al- 
ways its leader and inspirer, whether she spoke or was silent. 

* Afterwards a Catholic and member of a religions house in Vienna. 


Among these visitors Baron von Fuerstenberg, whom the 
princess called le grand homme, held, as if by the tacit con- 
sent of all, the most distinguished place; his advice guided 
her in all her undertakings, and he was accustomed to dis- 
cuss with her his plans and theories in regard to the great 
subject which was common ground to both ; she entered 
with all her soul into every detail, every branch of it, per- 
ce^ving with woman's ready wit, many a little matter in con- 
nection with his projects, overlooked by his broader vision, 
which she contrived, no easy matter, to bring to his notice, 
without appropriating to herself the merit of discovery. His 
assistance in developing. and guiding her splendid intellect 
was immense, as she recognized with thorough gratitude: 
she admired his noble character while she accepted Iris 
foibles, the peculiarities of genius, with all affection; he 
liked to state his own side of a. matter in full, as she knew 
very well, but seldom permitted his opponent the same pri- 
vilege: "I nearly choked with laughter," she wrote in her 
journal, "when after a long argument withHamann in which 
he himself had done nearly all the talking, he said to me, 'I 
shall not enter into another discussion with Hamann, lie docs 
not allow me to say one ivord."" When, shortly after her settle- 
ment in Muenster, various influences working in favor of 
political ambition against him, it was feared that he would 
lose his position as administrator or prime-minister of the 
elector, to the great loss of the district in his charge, she 
took up his cause Avith immense devotion, and exerted a 
wide influence in his favor- among the ambassadors or minis- 
ters from various courts, who would have voice in the deci- 
sion, but without success: "On the 18th inst.," she writes to 
Thulcmeier, Prussian minister at the Hague*, Sept. 20. 1780, 
" Fuerstenberg received.... a courier with a letter 
in which the elector made known to him that he was well 
satisfied and grateful for his service to the state, but ia view 
of the present condition of affairs he prayed him to tender 
his resignation," which request he calmly complied with, 

* Tagebuch wul Brief icechsel, p. 87.- 

sending in his resignation of his position as administrator, 
but as to the direction of the educational establishments, the 
seminaries, convents, civil and military schools, not holding- 
it from his ministry (in the civil sense), but from his vica- 
riat, he should not, he said-, but contentedly con- 
tinue to serve his country in that department, the more so, 
that though other affairs could go on without him, he did not 
foresee that education could sustain itself without his care." 

This change, while it grieved his friends and roused their 
indignation at the ingratitude to him, enabled le grand homme 
to devote himself exclusively to the direction and develop- 
ment of education in Muenster, to the great advantage of 
Germany. The princess was filled with admiration of his 
noble character thus brought out, and said of him: "If ever 
I should have an itching to write, it would be to portray his 
life and character, not with the intention of pronouncing his 
panegyric but for the good of men .... He is so strong with- 
out effort, with so much simplicity of manner that three 
fourths of the people pass him by without suspecting it, and 
without being arrested by it. I freely compare him to the 
immense . dome of St. Peters' church at Rome. All those 
who have seen it tell me that, having looked at this collossal 
dome from the outside, without calculating its dimensions, 
they have always been surprised at the slight impression re- 
ceived of its immensity when inside, which proves the per- 
fection of harmony in its prodigious proportions."* 

"Mi-, de Fuerstenberg," wrote her distinguished corres- 
pondent in prophetic reply, "is a great man, but not of 
our age, he is of the brilliant days of Greece and Home .... 
We shall not have long to wait to see in the country you 
inhabit, a revolution fatal to the welfare of its people, too 
happy, .however, in this that the public acts and all the es- 
tablishments formed under Mr. de Fuerstenberg's auspices, 
continue under his direction .'' 

* Tagebuch, p. 89. 
t Same, p. 96. 


After this the princess' reverence never abated, but in- 
creased with further acquaintance and the revelations of a 
noble friendship. Next to Hemsterhuys, her Socrates, as -she 
delighted to call him, and Fuerstenberg, may be mentioned 
as her friends at this time Jacobi, Johannes von Mueller, the 
historian, who sent his manuscripts to her for her criticism 
and opinion, and .Hamann, who also was a philosopher, and 
in rather straightened circumstances; her house -was for him 
as a beautiful and' welcoming home; she provided him many 
comforts and pleasures, above all, to an unappreciated intel- 
lect the dearest and best, that _ of a thorough and evident 
faith in him; attended him, as a devoted, daughter, in his 
last illness, and finally buried him in her own garden. "For 
it was an inexpressibly sweet thought to me," she said*, 
"that I might preserve the ashes of the blessed one that 
great one so little known in my own garden; at his 
grave, perhaps, in time, to. infuse into my children some por- 
tion of his spirit, and for myself a continual inspiration." 

As the children grew older, she travelled with them the 
greater part of each summer, visiting" the principal cities of 
Germany, making a little circle of illustrious friends wher- 
ever they staid, and endeavoring to impress upon the minds 
of her young travelling companions the history, geography, 
every important or distinctive feature of whatever they saw. 
She visited with .especial interest aft the noted schools and 
academies, to converse with the professors upon the great 
subject which still occupied her thoughts. She was quite 
competent to do so, for she had rounded into a truly intel- 
lectual woman, while retaining the naturalness and vivacity 
of her youth, duly subdued jpd elevated as became her rna- 
turer years; she had learned Latin, Greek, and mounted 
beyond' reach of ordinary intelligences in mathematics, and 
appeared to have read with understanding all the ancient 
and modern literature considered worth naming.' In her 
journeys she was often accompanied by 'parties of friends, 
by Fuerstenberg, and others, and nearly always by'one or 

Tagebuch, p. 29. 


more of the children's tutors, to whom in those days of ex- 
pensive travelling, such journeys were of the greatest and 
most prized advantage; on the way either Mimi 'or Mitri, 
who were always kept in the carriage 'with her, would be 
required to read aloud from some book relating to the country 
through which they were passing, which -gave a vivid real- 
ity, never to be forgotten, to the account of battles, invasions, 
or other events once taking place there; and when this* 
whole wise and actively intelligent party visited the schools, 
it may be believed their examination was neither listless 
nor flimsy. "At Halle,". a professor relates*, "they visited 
the iSTormal school, and as the school hours were about over, 
the princess asked for some mathematical exhibition, that 
she might have an illustration of their manner of teaching'. 
While one of the pupils, with much fluency, was proving the 
Pythagorean theorem, she followed him with an expression 
of great interest, questioning him in regard to other meth- 
ods, and finding these unknown to Ihe teachers, went to the 
blackboard herself, and illustrated them with such clearness 
that the listeners forgot to wonder at the singular spectacle 
of a princess with a piece of chalk in her hand, and hung 
eagerly upon every word she spoke." They visited the mili- 
tary academies, where Mitri was called upon to exhibit his 
skill in all military exercises, in which he had been trained 
with the greatest care b^ private masters, as well as in the 
military school at Muenster; no museum of science or art 
was left unexplored, and nothing examined carelessly or 

Such a course of education by books and by travels, by 
constant and familiar intercourse with the greatest and most 
cultivated minds of the country*, pursued by every art or 
device to be imagined, which would gather from it the. most 
value for their intellectual development, formed, moulded, 
and inspired the children to an immense degree, while the 
vigorous exercise and simple life which they led, the con- , 

' * Leben unU Wlrken des Primen Demetrius Augustin GaUitzin, von P. 
Heinrich Lemcke, Muenster, 1861 ; p. 72. 


slant and almost overpowering presence of their mother's 
mature and powerful intellect, prevented any appearance of 
precocity or undue subordination of the health and spirits of 
youth to grave and mighty thoughts. They were delightful 
children, full of life, spirit, and individuality, winning friends 
wherever they went. 

Mimi was the more forward, frank, and outspoken, Mitri 
the more reserved, simple, and timid; .Mimi may have made 
friends' more readily, but Mitri kept his longer; indeed, 
this was a most remarkable trait of his character, that 
the friends of his childhood were never estranged 'or forgot- 
ten, although he was rather inclined to excess of affection, 
without being demonstrative, when giving at all. In the 
eyes of the mother they were full of faults. "Mimi," she 
said to one of the teachers, urging him to severest discipline, 
and to have no mercy upon the children's vices, as she named 
them, "Mimi is talkative, quarrelsome, and. full of mischief; 
Amalia fibs like a printed book, and Mitri prepares many 
miseries for me by his uncontrollable indolence, and absurd 

This accusation had been brought against the child from 
the days when he screamed at being alone in the dark, and 
no efforts could reason him out of his nervousness. He an- 
nounced one morning at Angelmodde, when he was a pretty 
big boy, that he had heard a noise in the garden the night ; that the first time he heard it, he would not give up 
to his fright, but the second time the noise came, he was 
overwhelmed with fear and jumped into bed as quick as 
he could, pulling the coverlid over his head. At this the 
princess refrained from reproaching him or laughing at him, 
but after the manner of Socrates, as her custom was, under- 
took to get him over it by sound instruction: "What was 
the use of hiding?" she asked. 

He admitted that was not very clear to him. 

"Well, then," she went on, "we must try to make it clear. 
What did you think caused -the noise?" 


"What did you suppose the robbers wanted?" 


"To break into the house." 

"And supposing the robbers had got into the house, is it 
not true that one of two things \vould happen, either the 
robbers would have overpowered us, in which case they 
would probably have killed us, or we should have overpow- 
ered them ? Now, fancy, if the thieves had killed us, what 
would you have done all alone in the world ? And if we had 
put out the thieves, would'nt you feel ashamed, a young fel- 
low, to have your life saved by women, while you. were 
hiding yourself?" 

This made him very much ashamed*, but so far from con- 
quering his fright at future noises must have greatly accel- 
erated it, for imagination is an easier faculty to rouse in a 
child than pure reason; here there was presented to his ner- 
voiis, and easily excited temperament, the dreadful prospect 
of being left alone in the world, and the 'scarcely less pain- 
ful shame of being protected by his mother and sister. A 
more commonplace mother, knowing nothing 'of Socrates, 
would have given him some assurance of safety, which would 
have put his mind at rest, and given his boyish courage time 
to outgrow his childhood's fears, now raised to the greatest 
importance. It is probable he was more careful, afterwards, 
about acknowledging his terror's, the surest way for a child 
to double them, for besides the shame felt at the exposure of 
his timidity, he knew very well he would always get the 
worst of a discussion with his mother, finding^it beyond his 
power to give satisfactory reasons for his thoughts and 
actions, however convinced he might be of his own view; 
he became very sensitive, dreaded any investigation of his 
inner nature, and with, instinctive defence of his own weak- 
ness against her keen perceptions, retreated into his shell 
the instant she turned her eyes upon him; he did not leave 
the least opening, for by instinct rather than any conscious 
thought, he felt his own weakness, and that if she obtained 
the slightest hold, he would be at her mercy, incapable of 
any resistance. His reserve towards her grieved the prin- 

Dr. Katercamp" s life of the princess, p. 89. 



cess beyond all things, and she did her utmost to make how- 
ever small a breach in it, for she, too, felt confident if she 
once could do that she could break the wall of his reticence 
with utmost ease, and his whole heart and soul be open to 
her unobstructed inspection; but if she was watchful, fully 
conscious of what she sought, he was no less wary, uncon- 
scious that he was hiding himself from her. She loved him 
with a boundless devotion, and he knew there was no woman 
like her, but perfect love cannot exist where fear is, there 
must be some equality before it can cast out the fear. 



Spiritual necessities. Example of Catholic friends. A critical mo- 
ment. Dr. Overberg. Recovery. Investigation. Confusion. 

' Tlie study of the Scriptures. Love of metaphysics. Light. Em- 
barrassment in regard to the children. Uneasiness abont Mitri. 
His character. Travels. Happiness of the princess. Her devo- 
tion to the Church. Her zeal. Her friendship for Overberg. 

Even in her most confused and inexperienced days, before 
her mind was sufficiently cultivated to be able to reason 
clearly and judge impartially, the princess had refused to 
surrender, even to the wittiest and most subtle of those men 
who have been called the apostles of the religion of Anti- 
Christ, her belief in the existence of God, and her own im- 
mortal soul. Though she knew it not, it was spiritual de- 
velopment she craved far more than mental expansion; she 
was well aware that the existence and needs of her physical 
nature were not more real than those of her mind, the luxu- 
ries which other women of her rank and dainty tastes re- 
garded as necessary to their physical being as food and 
' drink, she could easily renounce, but for her intellect she 
sought everything the world could offer, and when all was 
gained she was as dissatisfied as any spoiled child of fashion 
or ambitious queen, who could find nothing more to ask fer. 
While she had been studying and increasing in human wis- 
dom, far higher capabilities were developing, and when she 
seemed to have.reached the end of her journey, she found she 
had but passed, by a dark and narrow passage, to the boun- 


dary land of spiritual life, and, much as she tried to do so, 
she could not content herself to lie down upon the outer 
edge, and live upon what she had learned. 

This 'came to her gradually, and much against her will; 
she desired to keep apart from all connected with the thought, 
to stifle the voice crying for it in herself, and to turn aside 
with indifference all that came from outside to warn or 
to persuade her. In Muenster she was entirely surrounded 
by Catholics, whose lives she could not but admire and 
whose principles, as now and then they appeared to her, 
seemed to her good and beautiful, but as the whole theory of 
religion was to her thinking absurd and out of date, any 
little details of it failed to move her. She freely admitted 
that she was impressed .by the virtue and greatness of her 
friends, le grand homme Fuerstenberg, and others, whom she 
knew to be firm believers in Christ, but she looked upon 
their religion as accidental, and those things in them which 
excited her admiration, as entirely independent of their pecu- 
liar faith, merely the result of natural gifts thoroughly cul- 
tivated. In regard to the pious Catholic family of the Von 
Drostes, she was not so satisfied, for she was obliged to ac- 
knowledge that the religious sentiments which united them 
in a most charming family life, really added great attrac- 
tions to each individual member, and that she could never 
have loved the children so tenderly had that element been 
lacking'; she also saw too clearly to be denied, that though 
far less efforts were made for their education than she was 
compelled to use, their progress was most remarkable; she 
could only ascribe this to the faith of their parents, for she 
was too honorable and high-minded to refuse justice, and 
even in the secresy of her own thoughts scorned to attempt 
self-deception, or to turn coward to her own perceptions. 
Crying for light, for spiritual health an'd understanding, it 
would seem as if the noble examples under her constant ob- 
servation would at once have shown her the way to truth; 
but she implored her friends to leave her to herself, to make 
no effort to convert her, to use no influence over her. She 
wished, she said, to know of God only that which he himself 


should impart to her; her soul was open to the light, and she 
would wait for him to send it to her, not knowing that God 
reveals himself in his own way, as indirectly as he- pleases, 
and through what instruments he wills. 

In the meantime nothing was said to the children, except 
such conversational' remarks in their presence as were un- 
avoidable. Mitri's future was settled, and whatever conclu- 
sions she might arrive at, she could no more permit herself 
to shape his thoughts in any mould prejudicial to his posi- 
tion, than she would undertake to train him for any other 
than the military career to which he was destined. Even if 
she were free to teach him what she would, there was little 
that could be said while she rejected all systems of religion, 
and was very much dissatisfied with the theory of happiness' 
which she had built up for herself. There were professors, 
generally Catholic clergymen, whom she chose as most com- 
petent, for every branch, but she gave the greater part of 
the lessons herself, and was present and directed all, careful 
that no one of the teachers should transgress her instruc- 
tions to avoid all mention of religion or revelation, however 
indirectly. Still, Christianity was a fact in the world's his- 
tory, and could no more be passed over in a polite education 
than the pyramids of Egypt, or the palmy days of pagan 
Borne, and she could not for some time see any escape from 
the dilemma, but she had too much cleverness to remain 
long penned up, by any such matter, and finally found a 
middle course: Christianity should be mentioned as any other 
historical fact, but without comment, or investigation into 
its undercurrents. 

In 1783, as she was becoming more troubled and uncertain, 
she was taken very ill, with what would now be regarded 
as a nervous fever, in connection with other diseases, which 
soon placed her life in danger, and brought a day when all 
hope was abandoned, and her friends were told that every 
hour might be her last. In agony of grief at her eternal 
peril, and rendered desperate by the need, they could no 
longer forbear;, at Baron von Fuerstenberg's request, his 
confessor, Dr. Overberg, a gentle, holy priest, whose nature, 


by the vastness of its charity, held something of a woman's 
tenderness and skilful devotion, and was therefore test 
suited for the task, went to her and spoke of her approach- 
ing end, with such incentives to profess the faith in Christ, 
save by whom no man can see the Father, as the fleeting 
moments upon which eternity depended, required. The prin- 
cess was perfectly conscious, and Overberg as one in- 
spired; it was a moment of breathless interest, when all 
the angels of heaven might seem to listen motionless, to 
hear her answer. All she would say was that if God per- 
mitted her to recover, she would hear all they had to say, 
and conscientiously examine and seek the truth. God knows 
the heart, and words do not deceive him; where a fuller 
promise might have been rejected, hers was accepted, the 
crisis passed happily, hope returned, and she recovered. In 
conformity with her promise, she listened to their arguments, 
though she still preferred to avoid discussion, in which her 
friends seldom thwarted her, for they would not force her, 
and as a, preliminary step, she commenced the reading of the 

Its pages were fresh for her, free from all the prejudices 
of early education, from the distortions and contentions of 
the sects, which have made its words of sweetness bitter to 
the taste, its glowing, glorious, wonderful language com-, 
monplace and meaningless. It had never been forced upon 
her in youth, when it was impossible for her to understand 
it, and she went to it as to the new history of an unknown 
country.' She was carried on from Gospel to Gospel, she 
lingered over the exquisite words, the joyous outbursts, and 
the keen insight of the Old Testament, her ears entranced 
by the sound of sentences the meaning of which escaped her; 
the New filled her with conflicting emotions, human nature 
of itself could not bear the majesty and tenderness of its 
pages. Its. precepts she wished to regard as the sublime 
perfection of human wisdom only. "I resolved to follow the 
doctrine of Christ faithfully", she said, "that I might know 
if it were divine, to act in all things as if I did believe in 
him. I began at once to compare my religion," for her 

42 . 

theories of life and its duties were a religion to her, "and 
principles with his, and how much I found to be altered 
where I had previously seen no defect! I had prayed but sel- 
dom, now I prayed frequently, and I was so often answered 
that I had no doubts of prayer, and many doubts of Chris- 
tianity were dispelled." 

She gave up her doubts but slowly, and accepted the inevi- 
. table conclusion of her investigations with deliberation, pain- 
ful to the impatient lookers-on, who feared lest she should 
lose the truth in this apparent dallying; but she was in ear- 
nest, and if she had been blind was now willing to see, but 
light must come gradually to eyes used only to darkness, 
and our Lord is the most prudent, the most noble, and the 
most tender of physicians. If he is asked for, he comes with- 
out delay to the palace, or to the hovel; he never puts his 
patient off, or bids him come another day, or demands his 
fee in advance. If. others have sought his aid for an un- 
willing one, he may reason and persuade, but he will not 
force the will to receive him. Once he comes he takes no 
anger at the nervous fears, patient and amiable even with 
foolish fancies, but he demands obedience, exact and prompt, 
to his orders. Tenderly and swiftly with -a hand that yields 
no'thing to the tears that bathe it, he cuts and probes, till 
the work is done, then prudently witholds the light, though 
the patient pleads for perfect day even while the quivering 
eyelids fall before the shaded candle-light. 

. For three years the princess read, studied, and ' cried for 
light in vain. It was a time of bitterest trial for her, there 
were things her intellect could not straighten and compass, . 
all seemed confusion and uncertainty; that which one day 
appeared clear and settled,, the next would find overthrown, 
and to be all set up again; faith which she had received in 
baptism, was with her, but belief mocked and played with her. 
At last she realized that she had thought and examined too 
much, she had tried, to follow all roads at once, she endea- 
vored to banish useless speculation and follow a simpler 
course, as she wrote in a -pleasant way to her friend Hem- 


sterhuys*: "Ycm know that I have' always had a passion for 
metaphysics .... but alas ! I see that my poor head does not 
suffice to contain at the same time the numberless specula- 
tions to which this passion lures me, and the constant prac- 
tice of the more pressing duties imposed upon me. Thus 
I have the hard task of sacrificing- several years- of this deli- 
cate nourishment for food coarser, but necessary for my men- 
tal sustenance, and this task brings me, if not delight, at 
least a certain peace, or rather an interior truce, but you see 
how for a year past, questions and quarrels have arisen in 
Germany, from which I have labored, up to now with suc- 
cess, to abstract myself; at last the demon tempter has 
seized me afresh, he has won the victory and leaves me, in 
no -condition to resist him further, to the study of these 
quarrels. Kant, Herder, Jacobi, and by their diabolical 
magic, Spinoza, Descartes, Leibnitz, etc. etc, (the others are 
not worth mentioning), make in my head a fintamare,' which, 
prevents me from hearing myself. Oh, St. Socrates, ora pro 
nobis! Jacobi, in part the unfortunate cause of my fall, is 
still here." 

In the same letter she relates an anecdote characteristic 
of the times : 

" Jacobi' s sister writes to him by the last post, that a 
dispute arose between her and Le C*** on this question: 
Ought one to give the idea of God to a child, and permit it 
to invoke him, in which Le C*** strongly and forcibly main- 
tained the negative by a thousand 'reasons worthy of his 
robust philosophy.- In the course of the dispute Le C*** 
made it 'felt, as he often has in the last two years (I don't 
know why-), that he believes in God, and declared that there 
were no atheists, saying: 'For my part, I have never known 
one, and if any exist, they must be stupid creatures or very- 
vain people, who have watched for thirty years to make 'a 
name ;' an assertion which resulted in two little embarrasse- 
ments, for in the first place, his host, Count de .N***, who 
was. present at this conversation, is an atheist, neither dull 

* Tagebuch, p. 71. 

_ 44 

nor vain, a circumstance unknown to the corps; according 
to Mile. Jacobi, he did not know where to put his hands and 
eyes during the fulmination of this anathema, while Coun- 
tess de N***, who is not an atheist, hid her head behind the 
door, like Sarah, and laughed." 

At last, all became clear and certain to her, and her only 
marvel was that she could ever have avoided seeing it. Once 
she acknowledged that Christ was God, her way was clear, 
she had always known that the Catholic Church was his 
Church, that she alone held his doctrine and his promises; 
that she alone had remained unchanged through all the cen- 
turies ; that many a prodigal son had turned his back upon 
her, and many an ambitious one had claimed something of 
her glory, but she had kept the old homestead and the keys. 
Recognizing his right to command the way by which all 
should come to -him, she had never to doubt which was 1 the 
way, but obeyed his orders, and entered the Church he had 
" established. She made her first communion on the 28th of 
August It86, the feast of St. Augustine, for whom she ever 
afterwards cherished unbounded devotion. 

There now commenced for her a life, such as her fondest 
imaginings could never have pictured, for although the 
Church appeared to her from the first complete, perfect in 
all its parts, its succession a line unbroken, its army of 
saints and martyrs, regiment after regiment, marching in 
perfect order with all their colors flying; though each doc- 
trine stretched wide and far, meeting, following, upholding 
the rest, she could never enough wonder at the mosaic va- 
riety of its marvellous symmetry; in every smallest detail 
there was a beautiful meaning, an ever glowing spark of 
divine light. It was not enough that she had found a heaven 
to live for, but already upon earth a world of heavenly de- 
lights to learn and to J.ove, every day something lovelier and 
more entrancing than before. 

But at the outset great trials accompanied her new found 
happiness ; while she grieved for every human being outside 
of the Father's house, her distress at the position in which 
she was placed in regard to her children, cannot be described. 

45 . 

The prince would permit no thought of Catholicity to his son, 
whatever might be allowed to Mimi, and it was Mitri who 
aroused all her anxieties, for he alone seemed beyond her 
reach in all things, and gave her, as she read him, daily 
cause for fears. Long before her conversion, she had been 
weighed down by the sense of responsibility in his regard, 
the more so that she mistook his reserve and avoidance of 
discussion, for lack of candor and earnestness of purpose, 
and. exerted herself to the utmost to rouse him, to appeal ir- 
resistibly to his affections, to his manly spirit, not under- 
standing that these were already too much excited, so that 
he had to conceal and control all, or be overwhelmed by 

"Mitri! Mitri! my beloved child! Child of my inmost 
heart," she would cry to him in passionate entreaty, '"a. thou- 
sand deaths would be too little to suffer for your good! Why 
am I not the confident of your thoughts, why are your sim- 
plest desires hidden from me ? Am I strict with you, do I 
require more of you than you can give ? Believe me, my 
darling child, I am so only for your good. I know the world, 
and some day you will bless me for the severity that keeps 
you from it." 

" I am filled with alternate joy and terror," she wrote him 
on his fourteenth birthday, 22nd Dec. 1784*, "on this day. 
My first thought on awaking this morning was one of joy 
and thanksgiving that God had given you to me; given to 
me, perhaps, to have brought into this world a great, good 
man. But that PERHAPS! Here a second thought came to 
frighten me. 'To day, 5 I said to myself, 'fourteen years 
have passed for him, and, oh God! he is still entirely without 
will or energy, creeping about under the influence of others !' 
This painful thought brought on another, more terrible still, 
the doubt if this being whom I had carried under my heart, 
would acceptable to God, and eternally blessed, or 
whether he would continue to run to .perdition, in spite of the 
excellent gifts which the Almighty has given that he might 

* Leben und Wlrken, Eev, P. H. Lemcke, p. 60. 


become the best and happiest of men, in spite of all my 
prayers, warnings, and entreaties. . .At times during- the last 
months I have been filled with better hopes, and these, I freely 
admit, have not now altogether deserted me, only they are de- 
pressed and clouded by the worse times of late, and by the 
ever recurring signs of the slavish submission, with which 
you again give yourself up to your frightful laziness and in- 
activity .... Beloved Mitri, oh ! would to God that to day, 
being your birthday, reading this letter, you would begin 
anew with this: that, feeling for your slavish, effeminate, and 
indolent inertness the disgust which it merits, because of its 
ruin of your happiness, you might be filled with dread in re- 
viewing the past, and fall on your knees to invoke him for 
the coming time, with the consciousness that you have now 
at least resolved with your whole soul to act in future as a 
free being, who knows that though no man sees him, -God 
sees him, and calls him to an eternal destiny. Mitri mine, 
in this expectation dearest child, I throw myself with you 
at the feet of our Father (kneeling I write it), and' cry from 
the depths of my heart: Have mercy on him and me!" 

His father understood him differently: "Mitri, I fear, will 
yet cause us much trouble, if n'ot anxiety and vexation," he 
said, when his son was fifteen years old. " Still waters run 
deep. I think you mistake his disposition, he is always run- 
ning against wind and tide." (II est toujour contre vent et 

Still more after her conversion did the princess feel the 
burden of responsibility for his welfare, and stood aghast at 
the years of impressible childhood lost to all religious prin- 
ciple or even religious sentiment. She saw, the splendid edu- 
cation she had procured by long years of unremitting labor, 
had been built on sand, the first wave from the outside world 
which should break upon their shore, might easily sweep it 
away, leaving hardly so much as the stranded remains of a 
principle or noble thought, to mark the wreck. With Mimi 
this might be remedied, for she would be, for a few years at 
least, under, her mother's eye, but how could she hope to re- 
pair the loss for Mitri, so soon to be sent out upon the great 

ocean of temptation? Now religion could not be longer put 
out of the question, and whatever influence it might have 
upon his worldly prosperity, she knew he was bound to seek 
the truth, to cleave to it when found, and that it was her sa- 
cred duty to assist him in his search. She blamed him for his 
submission to others, for he would rather yield than make a 
contest about minor affairs, and no others had met him yet; 
she wished to see him acting independently of all outside in- 
fluences, at the same time that she expected, or hoped for him 
to enter without delay into the true fold; she feared to have 
him linger in his decision, lest it should prove him obdurate 
and irreligious, and she feared to see him enter rea'dily, lest 
he should do so from a too easy compliance with the views 
of those around him. Undotibtedly, also, Mitri -had hid own 
interior combats, at this time, when his father, upon one side, 
and his mother upon the other, made him the constant .object 
of their care and watchfulness, when the creed of his country 
and his intended future was the Greek, that of his education 
no-belief, of his earliest and ever dear friend, the Prince of 
Orange, Protestant, and of his present most intimate asso- 
"ciates, the young Von Drostes, Catholicity; it was a difficult 
thing for a boy of sixteen to steer manfully, and with 
straight, unerring course, through such strong, conflicting 
currents. Young people seldom know themselves, and it is 
in mercy to themselves, that they involuntarily and uncon- 
sciously know how to guard their inconsistencies and contra- 
dictions, at least to some extent, from the eager, scrutinizing 
gaze of their more logical elders. Mitri would not have been 
human if, in these circumstances, he had not been of a hun- 
dred different minds in a week. That it-was so his mother 
suspected with dismay, for she 'called vacillation that which 
to another might have seemed but the luxuriance of youth- 
ful thoughts and imaginings. She was restless and anxious, 
doubtful of his sincerity, even when lie expressed himself 
most as she desired, uncertain whether he was replying to 
her, or to the voice of truth, fearing to hurry him, unable to 
let him alone, a position rendered the more vexatious to her- 
self, because she could not but contrast it with the quiet 

48 ' 

and cheerful patience of other mothers, who having far more 
apparent reason for anxiety, did all that could be done 
calmly, and left the rest, with delicious Catholic faith, to 
God; as yet the princess wore her religion as a new gar- 
ment, as converts must, and having all her life relied upon 
herself, feeling that whatever fell to her lot to do, must be 
done by her alone, and forced to its ..end with unceasing la- 
bor, knew not how to sow the seed, leave it time to grow, 
and remember that it is God who giveth the increase; thus by 
the very efforts she made to leave Mitri free to develop, she 
overpowered, and in a measure crushed him, withdrawing 
all kindly shade, so necessary for the protection of the deli- 
cate roots of youthful thoughts, pouring upon him a flood 
of glaring, dazzling sunlight, so that he could not but shrink, 
and hang listless and wilted in her sight. 

To continue all efforts to prepare him for his great part 
in the world, the princess resumed" her travels after her con- 
version, often remaining for some time in one place, that 
Mitri might receive instruction from some famous preceptor, 
or observe fully some exhibition of military tactics, storing 
up everything which might of possibility be of use to him 
as a student, a courtier, a statesman, a savant, a man of the 
world, if he should desire, at some future day, to add to his 
profession. .of arms the honors of any of these; he accepted 
all dutifxilly and with apparently equal pleasure, endeavor- 
ing to keep up the lively interest required of him ; in the art- 
galleries he had sometimes as much difficulty to repress his 
enthusiasm as at other times to arouse it, and had he given 
away to his desires, as he afterwards admitted, he would 
never have left the famous Dresden Madonna, which was one 
of the first, if not the very first thing, which came to suggest 
to him that he had a [soul not wholly incapable of action. 
As he was no longer a child he made friends for his own 
sake, though he opened to but few, whom he remembered 
with affection as long as he lived; these were the poet Clau- 
dius, Herder, Count von Stolberg, and especially Hamann, 
who was very fond of him, and several wise and mature 
women, whose learning was not too apparent, who took a 


gentle and soothing interest in him, delighted by his na- 
tural, simple disposition; he received from these friends 
books of their own writing, with autographs and suitable 
inscriptions; others wished him to correspond with them, 
And all prophesied great things for their boyish friend and 
guest; but his mother would not be comforted by their assur- 
ances, she dreaded lest the good they discerned in him was 
a mere superficial quality, or, perhaps, a reflection of their 
own excellence. When one sees a youth start and turn pale, 
like any foolish girl, at a sudden step, and trembling at the 
most improbable danger, it is difficult to imagine him, 
springing up a rampart, with flashing eyes, in the midst of 
shot and she'll, o'r leading a forlorn hope, in terrible silence, 
through a dark defile, past countless foes in ambush. 

The princess herself was full of life and energy, her en- 
thusiasm, spirit and intelligence seemed, by comparison, to 
have been before but faint and half awake. Her gratitude, 
her joy in the gift of faith she had so lately received were 
almost more than she could bear; it was like David's trans- 
ports before the Ark; had it not been for the inspired out- 
bursts of the prophets and the Psalmist, which she could 
make her own, her very heart would have rent itself in the 
effort at expression. A convert is like one who has grown io 
manhood, homeless, and with at best an adopted name, the 
unconscious, unrecognized son of a royal house, the title of 
which falls on his ear with indifference, or, perhaps, for 
some reason he cannot divine (in reality the natural love for 
it, turned backward into the bitter waters of ignorance), 
Avith disgust and hatred, who all at once is taken from his 
obscurity, and proclaimed son and heir of the noblest line in 
all the land. The bells are rung, the flags fly up, and with 
all the pomp and splendor of joy and pride, he is welcomed 
io his father's house, wherein all is his. To him it is a world 
of wonder, the endless galleries, the gathered treasures of 
ages of color and form, of painting and statuary, of marbles 
and bronzes, wondrous exotics, old manuscript books, the 
swords, the armorial bearings, the -battered shields of a thou- 
sand fights, .the antique cups, the swinging tapestry, tho 


yellow lace, the history of the house, its thousand legends 
and traditions all burst upon him at once, each in its place, 
and each worth the study of a life time; it is impossible for 
him to settle into the easy attitude, the light, uncaring 
mirth of the children of the house, who have never known an- 
other; their easy comfort shocks his sense of responsibility, 
their satisfaction in common trifles seems unworthy their 
glorious origin and the surrounding grandeur. 

So with Amalia; she would have every Catholic a hero and 
a saint, and the whole world drummed into the Church forth- 
with; she prayed day and night for those unhappy ones who 
knew not the truth, and if she had had a thousand lives, she 
would have worn them all away in pleading, instructing, 
arguing, and announcing the joys of truth. When she 
thought or spoke of what her life had been and what it 
was, it seemed to her as if no one could hear and refuse to 
believe. She no longer tried to keep out of discussions, but 
wherever she went, at home and abroad, with Herder, Jacobi, 
Goethe, with downright infidels, and wavering sinners, she 
was strong as an army, and for the rest of her life the zeal 
for the house of God might well be said to have eaten her up. 
"I believe firmly," she wrote in her journal, in unconscious 
excuse, it may be, for her impetuous zeal*, "that in two 
persons of equal abilities, of whom one in order to secure 
his salvation, most carefully avoids temptations, and there- 
fore seldom transgresses, and the other, out of love and con- 
fidence in the divine mercy, exposes himself more and falls 
oftener, the latter is nearer to Christ, more like him, than 
the former. How could it be that the God of love in tender 
mercy, would not store up forgiveness for him, who for his 
love takes a great burden upon himself, and drags it on- 
ward, though he stumbles, even falls under it, if he but rises 
readily, and so carries it to the end ? A faithful and watch- 
ful servant, who at the merest glance of his master hastens 
to him, comes here, goes there, brings and takes away, 
though he oftener breaks something or makes a mistake 

Tagebuch, p. 9. 

51 . 

than his fellow servant, who is more careful of his own honor 
than his master's, who would rather let one wait than take 
any risk by hurrying, who rather keeps back, when there is 
a critical errand, in which one might easily make a mistake, 
and lets it go to another; now, master of both, lay your 
hand upon your heart, and if you have feeling, though, it 
may be, there is no complaint to be made of the second who, 
perhaps, fulfills his duty the more faithfully and faultlessly, 
which of the two do you love best?" 

These words may come back to the princess some day in 
connection with another than herself. 

Amalia did not content herself with rousing up all the 
lukewarm Catholics, and, no doubt, they were plenty, whom 
she met, and endeavoring to bring outsiders into the know- 
ledge of the Church, but in a thousand ways proved her de- 
votion and gratitude. Her charity was boundless, the love 
which accompanied the charity an ever flowing crystal 
stream; God's poor were to her as direct messengers of his 
love, whom she cherished and recompensed as messengers of 
glad tidings from an infinitely dear one; it was her joy to 
lay her gifts on the altars where he rested, and those who 
served them she served with reverence and readiness, as 
those whom .the king delights to honor, and this above all 
for Dr. Overberg, not only on account of his beautiful char- 
acter and sacred profession, but because he had been the 
special, chosen ambassador to her; had he, at the risk of his 
own life, drawn her out of deathly peril, she would have 
counted it as nothing in comparison with the spiritual death 
from which he had rescued her, and the eternal joys to which 
he led her. Most women have, or persuade themselves to 
have, the same ideal of loving guidance, of a nature with 
heart and mind so large and great that their own is ever 
sheltered in its lordly rooms, yet never lost in dreary, un- 
used, and unfurnished chambers, which they seek in the usual 
way of romance and sentiment, but the princess's ideal had 
ever been a friend who would be to her as a true father, to 
walk by her side, over roads not unknown .to him, however 

unfamiliar to herself. It was this desire which led her to 


prefer the mature mind of the prince to her more youthful 
admirers; it was this, gathering strength from disappoint- 
ment, which inspired her reverence for Hemsterhuys, but 
though their friendship continued its first warmth until his 
death, in 1788, it was more because of the womanly submis- 
sion of her intellect than the commanding manliness of his, 
for her keen intelligence often shot far ahead of his calm 
philosophy. Again she thought she had found the guide she 
sought in Hamann, but though she would not permit herself 
to own it, she did not find the satisfaction and reliance of 
which her soul was capable. After she became a Catholic, a 
new light was shed upon the dim desire which had kept her 
groping through the labyrinths of human weaknesses for so 
long. She saw. now that what she needed was the' submis- 
sion of her own will to another, not for the gratification of a 
natural inclination to confidence and veneration, but for her 
advance in perfection. Still, although she perceived the ab- 
solute necessity, she said, of perfect obedience under an- 
other's direction, she had after a long conflict with herself, 
continued to imagine the giving up of her own will to be 
too great a sacrifice, despairing of finding a person to whom 
she could submit herself with thorough confidence. But she 
had become more and more convinced that guidance of this 
kind was a real necessity for her, that she had need of "a 
friend, a father, to whom she might lay open her whole 
heart, to whom she might freely confide the good as well as 
the evil in it, for him to judge and manage it", from whom 
she might obtain directions for her conduct, and who from 
Christian zeal, without being questioned, would observe, 
examine, correct, console, exhort, and care for her soul as if 
it were his own. "This man, fall of fervor and love," she 
said, "who for a long time has vividly represented to me, in 
his meekness and holy simplicity, the most striking features 
of my Saviour's character, who appears to answer all the 
wants of my heart, I have found." This was Overberg, and 
<it her earnest but timid entreaties, he took the direction and 
care of the soul he had been the instrument of bringing to the 
faith. He took up his residence in her house, and was not 


only her guide and confessor, but a friend and companion, 
who strove with her for perfection. She submitted to him 
with the ready humility of which only a great nature is ca- 
pable, following his advice with eagerness, recognizing in 
him far more than friend or brother, a true spiritual fa- 
ther to whom, she owed, under God, her soul's life, for whom 
all her desires in the past had been tried and disappointed, 
that they might be freed from all dross of earth. His humil- 
ity insisted that she also should aid him, and it was agreed 
that each should candidly and fully warn the other of any 
imperfection which might appeal-. He was her almoner, and 
in all his undertakings was as sure of her interest and aid 
as of his own. Their mutual striving for perfection led to 
a friendship seldom reached in this world, the exclusive 
gift of specially chosen souls. It was a friendship ab- 
solutely free from human doubts or fears, death had for it 
no terrors, absence no dread, for life was their probation 
time, eternity their union. Other affections, like ships at 
anchor, are bound to earth, close to the shifting sands of 
time, restless in the daily ebb and flow of earth's smaller joys 
and cares, tossed by the waves they no longer rule or ride, 
but upon such a friendship as this earth has no hold, it is 
far out at sea with sunshine on its sails ; the fathomless ocean 
of spiritual knowledge, with pearly caves and coral deeps, 
its white-crested waves of thought leaping to the blue 
heaven that alone bounds the vision, surrounds them, "while 
virtue and faith guide the good ship to the eternal haven. 

The good she did the princess never knew nor counted; 
there was no woman of her time and country to rival her in 
influence and veneration; friends gathered about her from 
every land, attracted by the blended charms .of her learning, 
her beautiful womanliness, and, in spite of themselves, by the 
faith which illumined her. They were honored by her interest 
or criticism, and carried her on their hands, as the Germans say, 
when she visited them, for her presence in a house brought 
blessings with it. The simplest mannered of women, as soon 
as religion came to give light and grace to her nature and 
acquirements, she became the most loved and honored. 


(im 1792.) 

"0 poor littte one, tossed with tempest, without all 
comfort, behold I will lay thy stones in order, and icill 
lay thy foundations with sapphire*:" (Isaias, LV,.ll.) 

His views on religion. Enters the Catholic Church. Plans of travel. 

Influence of the French Eevolution. Appointed aide to the Aus- 

trian General von Lillien. Death of Leopold H. Fuerstenberg's 

opinion of a trip to America. Mr. Brosius. Mr. Schmet. Sails 

from Kotterdam for the United States. 

Now all these journeys, reunions, conversations, and dis- 
cussions, undertaken for the most part for Mitri's improve- 
ment and enlightenment, could not well be without effect. 
He heard all the arguments between his mother and the Cath- 
olics on one side, his father and the non-Catholics, infidels, 
unbelievers, reformers, Greeks, Protestants, theorists of every 
shade and degree, on the other, and the time came when his 
own mind showed him the necessity of choice. "Raised in 
prejudices against revelation," he said afterwards*, "I felt 
every disposition to ridicule those very principles and prac- 
tices which I have adopted since .... I soon felt convinced 
of the necessity of investigating the different religious sys- 
tems, in order to find the true one. Although I was born a 
member of the Greek Church, and although all my male rela- 
tives were either Greeks or Protestants, yet did I resolve to 
embrace that religion only which, upon impartial inquiry, 

* Letter to a Protestant Friend on the Holy Scriptures, p. 19. 


should appear to me to be the pure religion of Jesus Christ. 
My choice fell upon the Catholic Church." This occured 
when he was abotit seventeen years old; he took the name of 
Augustine in confirmation to please his mother, whose devo- 
tion to the great doctor was constantly increasing, and be- 
cause of the similarity of the maternal love with which she 
wept and prayed for her son, to that of St. Monica, of which 
her friends delighted to remind her; he heard Mass every day 
with his mother and sister, there were frequent communions 
of the little group, and he even went so far as to mention a 
desire to become a priest, an idea instantly frowned down by 
his indignant father, and passed over by his mother as the 
caprice or enthusiasm of an inconstant boy, whose resolves 
were traced on sand; indeed she could hardly help seeing in 
it another proof of his submission to the influence of others, 
for such was the desire and intention of his friends, Caspar 
Maximilian* and Clement Atigustusf yon Droste, who un- 
doubtedly learned more, in the freedom of their boyish con- 
fidences, of the inner life of the young prince than his mother 
could divine. She naturally regarded the expression of such 
an idea a proof of his thoughtlessness, making no account of 
the gravity and greatness of the office he was so willing to 
enter, and of his lightness of purpose which could imagine 
such a thing possible for a young Russian, a commissioned 
officer of the guard. He was daily exhibiting such signs of 
simplicity and superficial observation. However, the wish 
appeared to vanish as lightly as it came, and no more was 
heard about it, as his mother feared, and his father hoped, 
would be the case with his Catholicity. The princess did not 
allow herself to reckon with any security upon his constancy, 
and wept and prayed that he might persevere, as formerly 
that he might embrace the truth; while the prince argued, 
and vexed at his boyish obstinacy, comforted himself with 
the thought that he would soon be taken from his mo-" 

* Afterwards Bisliop of Muenster. 

t Who became Archbishop of Cologne in 183-5, and was imprisoned for 
the faith by the King of Prussia; in 1837. 


ther's influence, and, of course, when he put on the uniform 
of an officer of the guard, he would put the state religion on. 
with it, and there would be an end of all this vexatious- 

Both parents were otherwise much embarrassed in regard 
to the next step to be taken. Mitri was approaching his ma- 
jority, and, consequently, the time when he would be required 
to take his place in the world, according to his rank and the 
empress' favorable designs. All that the universities and 
military academies could teach him, all that the most accom- 
plished tutors could do to form his mind and perfect him in 
knowledge, was done; he had visited the principal cities of 
Germany and Holland, but no young nobleman's education 
was at that time considered complete until he had spent a 
year or two in travel, not as a school boy, but in manly 
style ; there were yet two years before he would be expected 
to enter the service, which should have been devoted to a Eu- 
ropean tour, but just then the French Revolution broke out 
to deluge the earth with horrors, showing the world what 
crimes could be committed in the name of Liberty, and to 
what the fine sentiments of the "philosophers" so logically 
lead; disorder let loose upon the nations held high carnival 
at Paris, Paris the beautiful, at whose shrine every tourist 
bent the knee, without which no tour could b'e thought worth 
undertaking, Paris was . given over to vengeance, and the 
world shunned it with terror. The storms which gathering 
in unhappy France thundered about every throne in Europe, 
had not passed lightly over the prince's own aristocratic 
head, and many a dark foreboding of gloomier days to come 
reached him in the midst of the gay life he still led; he saw 
nothing that could be gained, and too much that would be 
risked by the usual travels ; it was a dangerous time, deprav- 
ity, anarchy, and wickedness, sometimes gilded and glitter- 
ing, at others in undisguised deformity, ran riot in greater 
or less degree in every city and fashionable circle. No man 
was safe from suspicion or pollution, least of all a young 
nobleman, whose position could not be concealed. The only 
safe plan seemed to be to send him at once to St. Peters- 


burg, Catharine had petted the last of the French philos- 
ophers, and at the first alarm had shut down the iron gates 
of absolute authority against the once cherished "libera- 

The princess was hardly less distressed at this decision 
than she had been at the prospect of two years of travel in 
the midst of European convulsions. She knew very well that 
though he might escape political danger in St. Petersburg, 
that it had in reality little religion to boast of even by the 
side of Paris; she was terrified at the idea of taking a young 
man directly from his home studies, the influence of the 
family circle, to cast him with all the temptations of wealth, 
youth, rank, accomplishments, and utter inexperience into the 
whirlpool of society, of court-life, of military habits. But as 
the prince had so settled it, she saw nothing she could do, 
unless she herself removed to Russia and made her home in 
St. Petersburg, there to guide, warn, and watch over him 
until the wisdom of manhood should render him more capable 
of resisting the snares of the world, but the very thought of 
her feeble health, of the tedious journey, the loss of the beloved 
circle at Muenster, the arrival in a city to the ways and cus- 
toms of which she would be entirely a stranger, the change in 
her way of living, overpowered her, and with all her firm 
sense of duty she shrank from such an effort, feeling with all 
her courage that she should die in an atmosphere so foreign 
to all her thoughts and aims, especially as she would be 
deprived of that which wag the very breath of life to her, 
the free and open practice of her religion. She pleaded with 
her husband once again, and after much consultation between 
parents and friends, in which it does not appear that Mitri 
had any voice, the prince conceded that there being no likeli- 
hood of any active service for Mitri at present, as Russia was 
taking no part in the war just^declared by -Austria and Prus- 
sia against the French Revolutionists, there was no urgent 
need of his immediate entrance into the army, and professed 
himself willing to accede to any feasible plan which could be 
devised for the gradual preparation for the career eventually 
to be his. 


The princess thought if he could serve as a volunteer in 
some service nearer home, under the command of her bro- 
ther, if possible, it would be some modification of the Russian 
sentence, and in this view laid her perplexities before her 
brother, General . von Schmettau, through whose influence, 
and that of Austrian friends of high position, Mitri received 
an appointment in the early part of the year 1792 as aide de 
camp to the Austrian General von Lillien, who commanded 
an army in Brabant, at the opening of the first campaign 
against the French Jacobins, who had declared war against 
all kings as against all religions. 

Mitri was the very beau ideal of a stately young officer; 
he was rather tall, being about five feet nine or ten inches 
high, with that peculiar reticent, dignified, high bred air, 
which has the effect of the most imposing height; he had a 
slender and lithe, yet compact figure, a fine clear complexion, 
not too fair for manliness, and the handsomest dark eyes 
that ever glanced love or anger from the shadow of a military 
cap, eyes "dark splendid", fathomless in their tenderness, 
flashing fire at the slightest contradiction, full of mischief 
and merriment the instant anything amusing crossed their 
outer or inner vision; masses of shining black hair clustered 
around a delicately formed, haughtily set head, while a long, 
large nose, very prominent and slightly acquiline, gave that 
character, force, and dignity to his countenance, which sel- 
dom if ever accompany features of perfect regularity. He 
had been trained from boyhood in all manly exercises, he 
handled a sword as dexterously and with as many bewilder- 
ing evolutions as a Spanish' coquette her fan. He was a su- 
perb rider, and looked nobly when on horseback; there was no 
feat of horsemanship not easy to him ; he would often before 
mounting amuse himself by putting one hand on his horse 
and springing over him to the other side, and, changing 
hands, spring back again, with lightness and rapidity, an 
instant afterwards he would be in the saddle, raising his hat 
with laughing ceremony, as horse and rider passed out of 
sight. Gold lace, military buttons, and all the brilliant pa- 
raphernalia of epaulettes and gold embroidery seemed to 



"belong- to his slender figure and dark eyes by every right of 
fitness. His mother, who only knew him under the restraint 

which he always felt in her presence, was not quite so sure 
of his coolness and steadiness on the battle field, nor could 

-she tell how much or how little of the soldier spirit of obe- 

dience and discipline he had imbibed in his military drills and 
fencing lessons, but she resigned herself to the trial of a cour- 
age in him of which she had as yet seen no sign. 

It was not to be in this way, however, for just as he was 
about to join his general, the Emperor of Austria, Leopold II., 
-died very suddenly (March 1st 1192), from the effects of 

poison it was thought, administered, by a member of the illu- 
minati in the interest of the French revolutionists; this, taken 
in connection with the murder of the king of Sweden by 
Ankerstrom for the same purpose, caused a very stringent 

-order to be at once issued by the Austrian and Prussian com- 
manders, that no foreigners should hold office in either army. 
General von Schmettau at once apprised his sister that Mitri 

-was thus excluded, as no exceptions whatever could be made 
to the rule, and either in this letter or one written somewhat 
later, suggested that a journey to the young republic over 
the sea, where all that was good and simple, orderly and 
lionorable appeared to have taken refuge, might fill up Mitri's 
transition year with profii. This was an entirely new idea, 
and the princess hardly knew whether her husband would 
regard it as a wild scheme not to be thought of for a mo- 
ment, or as a relief from the embarrassment felt by all con- 

"cerned in regard to the disposal of the young prince. She knew 
that her husband, who kept himself thoroughly informed of 
all political affairs, signs, and changes, had always spoken 
with great respect of Washington, and the new nation which 
'had just come out from its war for independence without 

-.-.stain upon its honor, and settling down in calmness to repair 
the ravages of battle and lay a solid foundation for future 
"prosperity, offered a white and shining contrast to . red- 
lianded France, rending her garments in the frenzy of uncon- 
trolled revolt, and, perhaps, it was not impossible that the 
proposal to entrust his son to such excellent and novel in- 


fluences, would strike the prince favorably, although, as st 
general thing, a voyage to America in those times was re- 
garded about as a journey to the interior of Africa, or up to 
the North Pole is in ours. The princess before submitting 
the plan to her husband, sought to. obtain a clearer idea of its ; 
advantages and disadvantages for herself, and to give it - 
weight as well, she consulted Fuerstenberg on the subject. . 
receiving from him, probably at her special request, a written'., 
answer to her questions. General von Schmettau had pro- 
posed introducing Mitri to Washington and placing him 
under the special care of the Great President; this part of the - 
plan did not meet with the baron's approbation, for the : 
reasons given in his written opinion, which were legitimate- : 
enough, for the world's history, especially the history of his. ; 
own time, could not conceive of a man like our Washington,., 
loyal and faithful to the last. 


In this, Madame, you Avill see iny views concerning Mitri's : 
travels, which I submit to your judgment. I have maturely 
considered them. 

I look upon a journey to America as highly desirable for 
Mitri. His mind by well grounded instruction' and discipline, 
is now well cultivated. His energy must become aroused by : 
travelling, for we all know the influence exerted by a long 
. journey, a journey across the sea, in developing a youth, in i 
arousing his energies and forcing him into activity. 

For one who will travel with a mind open to observation, . 
America now will prove a most interesting land. If only y 
politically considered, the- first trial of an entirely theoretical,. , 
perfectly unique constitution, with its good and its evil ef- - 
fects, its influence upon the energies, the lower propensities, . 
and the moral tone of its people, as well as upon industry - 
and commerce, makes the present undoubtedly the most 
favorable moment for studying all that is there in commotion, 
and is, therefore, a rich field for the politico-philosophical ... 

* Tayebuch, p. 174. 


-observer. Mitri has considerable knowledge of pure mathe- 
matics, knows something of astronomy, mechanics, physics; psychologically versed in ancient and in German history, 
..understands psychology, is very practical, and, consequently, 
as far as his education is concerned, is well fitted for travel- 
ling. It Temains for him, if he goes to America, to learn to 
judge for himself as much as possible, to observe facts and 
define for himself the connection between causes and effects; 
to accomplish this he should have for a companion one who 
will be of use to him in arousing thought, but whose judg- 
ment or prejudices will not have undue influence over him, 
for there Mitri must learn to think for himself. His com- 
panion should be at the same time a sensible and moral man, 
who will look after the prince's health, etc., and send us all 
necessary information concerning him. 

The proposal to send Mitri to Washington appears to me 
..hazardous. It is true, we have aimed throughout Mitri's 
whole education, to secure him against the blind following 
of strange views or prejudices, but he is young, weak, and 
vain, the fame of Washington is dazzling for him; he would 
very likely accept his opinions, even his manners, perhaps, 
out of veneration for him, and to please him. We know the im- 
pression a famous man makes npon a youth, and who of us 
lias any knowledge of Washington's religious and moral 
principles, of his political honesty? The idea requires con- 
sideration; a journey to America is an excellent and promis- 
ing debut in the world; whatever career Mitri may adopt he 
may there have had occasion to notice the original arrange- 
ments, but to be looked upon as a pupil of Washington in 
times like these, would be only a hindrance to a yonng man 
Just entering the world. I retain my first impression. How- 
ever, if General von Schmettau decides us, it will be best for 
Jiim to speak out plainly, approve our plan unequivocally, 
then the prince will probably be satisfied also. 

The guide desired for Mitri, in case his father should decide 
to send him to America, was already at hand in the person 
of a young priest, Felix Brosius, at one time professor of 


mathemathics in the gymnasium at Duren, who while tutor- 
in the Droste-Vischering family, had formed the resolution of." 
going as a missionary to the United States, for which purpose^ 
he -had spent two years studying English, at the Seminary 
for Foreign Missions in Liittich, where the languages were 
taught to those who desired to go as missionaries to foreign- 
lands. Mr. Brosius had come to Muenster to take leave of 
his friends, just at the time the consultation was going on 
in regard to Mitri's travels, and was, of course, much pleased, 
at the prospect of having the young prince whom he knew 
well, for his travelling companion, for whom he was per- 
fectly willing to act a friendly tutor's part, and anxiously to 
carry out the princess' views, which were, that Mitri should, 
continue to improve in the sciences, and to use them in his. 
observations in the new land. 

The more the American plan was considered, the more 
reasonable it appeared, and seems to have perfectly satisfied, 
the prince from the first, for he decided in its favor, and en- 
tered cordially into it, charging his son to send him minute 
and precise accounts of politics there, besides full descriptions 
of the country, its domestic, social, and scientific character,, 
and by all means to cultivate the acquaintance and listen at- 
tentively to the views of its leading men, with whose names 
and general character the prince was remarkably well ac- 
quainted, owing, perhaps, to the residence of John Adams, 
the "clearest head and firmest heart of the Continental Con- 
gress", as American Minister at the Hague, where, it is. 
hardly to be doubted, he and the prince had often met. 
Mr. Adams had succeeded by the resolute energy of his char- 
acter in forcing the States General to accept and receive 
him in It82, on that day which appears so often in American 
annals, April 19th, as ambassador of the hew nation, which 
had not quite yet completed its war for independence. He 
.had written a great deal for the Dutch papers concerning the 
causes and motives of the American revolution, which had 
done an immense deal towards the enlightenment of the 
Dutch and Germans in regard to it. Ambassadors from two 
widely, different nations, differing, hardly less in their in- 


dividual characters, the Russian prince and the 1'epublican 
lawyer had yet certain sympathies and thoughts in common, 
which must have drawn them enough to eacli other to have 
made their other views, so very opposite, most interesting in 
their clashing. At all events, the very high regard and deep 
interest which the Russian ambassador then had in our 
struggle for existence, was but the beginning of a friendly 
feeling, which still continues unabated between the two na- 
tions. Up to the time of his leaving, the prince took the live- 
liest interest in talking to his son about the United States, 
impressing upon him all that he himself knew of its affairs, 
and mentioning the special points on which he desired Mitri 
to obtain him precise information. The princess for her part 
procured him a letter of introduction from the Prince-bishop 
of Hildesheim and Paderborn to Bishop Carroll, to whose 
care and guardianship she desired to confide her beloved son, 
as the general had advised his being confided to Washington, 
wherein the princess had not chosen unwisely even for this 
world, and far better even than she knew for the next, for if 
one was the Father of his Country, the other was the Father of 
its Church, and both were fine specimens of republican virtue, 
in one case exalted and purified by circumstances, in the 
other refined and sustained by grace. The princess felt much 
of her anxiety would be relieved if the bishop took interest 
in her son, as he would thus secure, she thought, some Cath- 
olic and worthy acquaintances to whom the bishop would 
make him known, who would prove, she trusted, to have 
some influence in keeping him firm in his religion, and regular 
in the observance of its duties. With all her buoyancy and 
cheerfulness the princess' nature admitted the gloomiest fore- 
bodings, and her heart was full of fears, lest, 'once away from 
her influence, Mitri would fall from his faith and his duties. 
Over and over again she besought him to perserverancc and 
to firmness, and entreated Mr. Brosius to do the same. She 
had some comfort in this that it had been decided by the 
prince, the general, and their friends, that it would be 
much better for Mitri to travel as a simple gentleman, as 
young men of his position occasionally did, without his 


title, and the state, the publicity, and the enormous ex- 
pense which the etiquette of the day would require to keep 
it up, and in accordance with the custom of those who 
desired to avoid the inconveniences of rank, he took an 
unpretending juame, that of Schmet, from his mother's fa- 
mily, the whole name, Schmettau, having been rejected as 
hardly less conspicuous than that of his father. The prin- 
cess trusted that as Mr. Augustine Schmet 'he would escape 
much of the adulation, and many of the temptations which 
would beset the path of Prince Demetrius Gallitzin. The 
voyage to America was in itself a long and hazardous affair, 
made in sailing vessels, with few comforts and many dangers, 
still, no one allowed himself to be disheartened in Mitri's 
presence, at least. He said good bye to Muenster, August 8th, 
but not to his mother so soon, as she with some friends was 
to accompany him to Rotterdam, and see him on board the 
ship. Every one did his utmost to make the last days pleas- 
ant, and it is said that the young prince told afterwards, that 
the night before sailing, or . else the night before leaving 
Muenster, report is not clear which, he attended a grand ball 
given for him, at which he danced from dark to daylight, 
from sun-down to sun-up, for Mitri was young and enjoyed 
the luxuries of wealth, and the pleasures of life, with a light 
heart, and to the utmost. But when the hour came to say 
his last good bye, he was completely discouraged, and had 
no heart for the work. His mother had kept close to him, 
hardly leaving him through all the last days, and the spirit 
and strength of purpose upon which he had always relied, 
appeared to be forsaking her; her weakness, while it more 
and more unnerved him who had never used any strength of 
his own where she was concerned, but made her appear less 
distant and more dear to him. All at once the whole journey 
looked very unnecessary to him; he was always timid before 
commencing any undertaking, as many people are who are 
as brave as a lion, and persistence itself, once it is entered 
upon; he had little if any love for adventure or desire for 
change, no wild craving for romance, for which partly his 
education, and partly his repose-loving nature were respon-. 


sible; even at that moment, though his baggage and at- 
tendants were on board, though they saAv, as they walked 
along the pier, that the boat sent to take him to the ship 
was coming near, he would gladly have turned back and 
given it all up ; with the simplicity of his character he made 
no concealment of his dread and fears, eagerly begging h'is 
mother, whose grief increasing as the moments passed, re- 
strained and controlled as it was, showed her more yielding, 
more tender than he had ever seen her, to let him stay, and 
as she, who had always led him, now clung silently to him, 
her eyes soft with unshed tears, he looked at her, and im- 
pulsively declared he could not go, he would die away from 
home, he was afraid of the ocean dashing up to his feet, 
afraid of the strange people beyond. "Mitri! Mitvi!" ex- 
claimed his mother, shocked into sudden action, and turning 
instantly with flashing eyes, upon him, "Mitri! I am ashamed 
of you!" He was between her and the water, on the very 
edge of the pier, and her sudden and unexpected movement, 
at a moment when he was absorbed in his own entreaties, 
caused him to lose his balance, and fall over. But the boat 
sent out for him was close at hand and he was an excellent 
swimmer, so he was very quickly rescued, and with one 
last look at his mother standing on the pier, he was swiftly 
rowed to the ship. 

What new life was born in him in that moment's conflict 
with death under -the waves, one cannot say, but it must 
have been as the first taste of glory to a youth who had never 
heard a bugle call, nor seen a standard fly upon the battle- 
field, for in the moment's struggle he felt his own strength, 
unknown before, battling with the strength of the elements, 
life, hardly awake until then, springing up armed and des- 
perate at the sudden approach of death. Old Neptune gave 
him a short but hard tussle, and when the young' prince, 
with all the evidences of his singular baptism about him, 
walked across the deck, it with an exultation new to 
him, and a truly princely spirit in his soul as in his bearing. 

They sailed from Eottcrdam August 18th, and did not ar- 
rive at Baltimore until the. 28th of October; in the meantime 


Mitri, the Herr Schmet, or Mr. Smith, as the Americans 
would call him, had ample time for meditation, and self 
examination; germs of thought dropped long ago upon his 
heart took root and blossomed in those long days and nights 
at sea, when the clumsiest sailor that climbs the giddy 
masthead reaches to a sublimity of thought, broken and con- 
fused though it be, inconceivable to him on land. Those 
exquisite days, those marvellous nights at sea, . the long 
monotonous swell of the green ocean, the starlit sky, the 
sunny heavens, the glow of sunset, the flush of sunrise to 
him. who was So sensitive to all things beautiful, were days 
of grace indeed; nature, then, was his Moses and spoke to 
him the word of God, in language which would soon be made 
clear to him. 




First Catholic colony of the United States. Appointment of Bishop 
Carroll. Arrival of Mr. Nagot and the French Stilpicians. Mr. 
Brosrus and Mitri in Baltimore. Mitri's choice. 

The first Catholic settlement of ihe original United States 
was made in Maryland, by English Catholics, who entered 
the Potomac in two little vessels, the Dove and the Ark, on 
the morning of the 25th of March 1634, and after hearing- 
Mass by Father Andrew White, a Jesivit priest who had 
accompanied them from England, cut a cross from a tree, 
carried it in solemn procession to a place marked out for it, 
where they planted it, a veritable "Cross in the Wilderness," 
as a witness to their faith and a pledge of protection from 
the Saviour it commemorated. Under its shelter they built 
their villages, which became in time the headquarters of the 
Church in the United States. 

In 1714, two years before the Declaration of Independence, 
Baltimore was a station visited once a month by a priest 
from White Marsh, who brought with him his vestments 
and altar-service, as that pleasant little village could not 
furnish the necessities for the celebration of the Holy Sacri- 
fice. All the Catholics, priests and laity, in the country, 
were xindcr the spiritual jurisdiction of the Vicar General of 
London, who, perhaps, o"n account of the rebellious attitude 
of the Colonies towards England, held no communication 
6* ' 


whatever with the Colonial Catholics during- the war for 
Independence. When this was decided in our favor it was 
seen that it would not be wise for the Catholics of the United 
States, few as they were, and insignificant and despised their 
position, to remain under the charge of an English vicar, 
which might very naturally, however unjustly, give occasion 
to the government to question their loyalty. But they were thoroughly aware of their inability to support a bishop in 
a manner in the least suitable to his position, that they by 
no means desired one to be placed over them in their .present 
condition. In July 1784 the Holy See met their case by 
nppqintiug Rev. John Carroll, a native of Maryland, bro- 
ther of one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, 
and of known devotion to his country, superior of the clergy 
of the United States, with many of the powers of a bishop. 
But on account of the heterogeneous character of the people, 
even of the clergy, who were from all parts of the world, 
some of them entirely ignorant of the English language, and 
others in no very good repute at home, it was soon found that 
ampler powers were needed for him who would hold these 
tangled reins with proper firmness, and the Holy See, there- 
fore, erected the country into a bishopric with Father Carroll 
for its bishop and Baltimore as his episcopal see. This was 
in the year of the breaking out of the French Ee volution 
(1789) whose upheavals cast a number of zealous priests 
upon our shores, to the great comfort and relief of the newly 
appointed bishop, for his niitre was set thick with thorns, of 
which the lack of priests to share his burden was by no 
means the least painful. His jurisdiction extended over an 
immense extent Of country, newly settled, agitated by a 
seven years' war, with most uncertain and uncomfortable 
means of travelling, when there were any means at all; his 
people ignorant and undisciplined, always misjudged, some- 
times bitterly persecuted, often hated and despised ; the 
priests who were the captains of his scattered army, were 
sometimes the most faithless and incompetent of officers, 
others, zealous and- fervent as heart could Avish, were, for 
various reasons, such as foreign education obtained, often, 


at great sacrifices and without regularity, ignorance of the 
language and customs of the country, a serious annoyance 
instead of assistance, while again one filled with the true 
Catholic spirit, devoted to his religion with absorbing vener- 
ation, reverencing it in spirit and truth, would find himself 
transplanted from the cultured and pious circle in which he- 
had lived from childhood, to a wild settlement, to take charge 
of a rough congi'egation, rude, untaught, unteachable, vic- 
tims of cruellest oppression and hopeless poverty, to whom 
their religion was scarcely more than a name, and so mixed 
and mingled with the fancies and superstitions of ignorance 
that it was hardly recognizable, where lie would be attacked 
as madly as by a wild animal battling for her young, should 
he attempt, as religion and conscience command, to separate 
the truth from its network of falsehood, and wash the dirt 
of superstition from the face of religion, so that the bitterer 
torments of the mind, the crushing burdens of the spirit were 
added to the physical pang's to which he was constantly ex- 
posed, hunger and cold, lonely and defenceless nights in the 
howling wilderness, the countless trials and terrors of a 
missionary's life. The surest hope for any country, most of 
all for a new world like ours, native priests, the bishop could 
hardly hope for in his own day, but knowing the inestimable- 
necessity he caught at the first prospect of providing Tor 
them in the future, which was held out to him in letters 
received while in England to be consecrated, from Mr. Emery, 
Superior-General of the Society of Saint Sulpice of France, 
who, anxious to secure a shelter for his Society, which he 
foresaw would not escape the fury 'of the revolutionists, 
wished to know what refuge could be offered by the young- 
republic. This correspondence resulted in the arrival at 
Baltimore in"H91 of Mr. Nagot with three Sulpician priests 
and several .seminarians, with some means towards establish- 
ing a seminary to educate priests for the TJuited States. 
They had in their charge a young' nobleman of Prance, Vis- 
comte Francois de Chateaubriand, who like the' young Prince 
G-allitzin, alarmed by the excesses of the French revolution 
which' made European tours unpleasant, even dangerous, had 


decided to finish his education by a visit to the United 
States, hoping- to make himself famous by the discovery of 
a Northwest passage to the Polar Sea, and, having spent a 
few days in Baltimore, hastened to present introductions to 
Washington and the leading statesmen of the day. Mr. Na- 
got and his clerical companions set themselves at work, with 
all earnestness to fulfill their far greater ambition, purchas- 
ing a house as quickly as possible, and preparing it as well 
as circumstances permitted, for the opening of the college 
and seminary. They were soon joined by a little; band of 
French priests, whose names are set in such shining letters 
in our history, that we can hardly iniagine; their first coming, 
heart heavy exiles from the beloved land of France, their 
sunny youth clouded by their country's dissensions, their 
own persecutions, and the gloomy parting from home and 
friends, and national customs, to seek a home in a far land, 
where poverty and toil alone awaited them. But poverty 
and toil were not their only welcome, for, as they were about 
calling upon Bishop Carroll, immediately after their arrival, 
they were met by him, "on foot", as they noticed with in- 
tense surprise, coming to call on them; and when with all 
deference, they- disclaimed the high honor, the noble answer 
of the bishop: "Gentlemen, you have come thousands of 
miles to see me, shall I not walk a few squares to see 
you ?" was an earnest of the greeting of the whole American 
heart to them for all time. 

These were Eev. John Dubois, a young priest of pecu- 
liarly energetic character, joined to most gentle and winning 
manners, Eev. Messrs. "Benedict Flaget, John B. David, Fran- 
cis Matignon, Ambrose Marechal, Gabriel Richard, and Fran- 
cis Ciquard. The Abbe Stephen Badin, who was not yet 
ordained, but had received all the other orders in France, 
arrived with the first, the Eev. Messrs. Louis Dubourg, John 
Moranville, John Lefevre .Cheverus, and others, came a year 
or so later. All placed themselves with utmost willingness 
at Bishop Carroll's disposal, remained for longer or shorter 
periods in Baltimore and its vicinity, studying English, 
laboring faithfully at every priestly duty, attending mis- 


sions, aiding- the bishop, teaching for Mr. Nagot, then separ- 
ated, some for far distant missions, North, South, East, and 
West, where their names are in benediction. 

Thus it was far from being a princely palace to which Mr. 
Brosius and Mitri directed their steps, when hastening "to 
present their, letters to the bishop, and to be made ac- 
quainted with his little band of laborers, but Mitri's heart 
was won at once by the kindness of the stately bishop, while 
lie felt by no means among strangers with the rest, for 
French was the language of his home, as it was at that time 
of many European families. With these young French- 
men he could converse on subjects familiar to him, but the 
bishop did not fail to make his young guest acquainted with 
society supposed to be more congenial to his youth and his 
high ambition, and procured him cordial welcome in many 
of the most 'charming Baltimore families, regretting greatly 
that he could not permit Mr. Brosius to accompany his young 
charge through the country, as the princess desired and ex- 
pected.' In the great lack of priests, at that time, each had 
the work of ten, sometimes of more, and not one could be 
spared from active service, nor could the bishop expose 
Mitri to the delays and uncertainties which would be in- 
evitable if he followed Mr. Brosius to his mission, for in those 
days when all our priests wpre missionaries, no one could be 
said to be stationary; each had many congregations to at- 
tend, scattered far apart, seldom with any roads between, 
and what roads there were terrible ones to travel; no ar-r 
gument of course could be needed to show that it was out of 
the question for the delicate young prince to be exposed to 
the dangers, the fatigue, the poor lodging and plain fare of 
the beisufc of these missions. In compensation the bishop 
offered him letters to families in Washington, Philadelphia, 
and other cities, who would delight in extending all cour- 
tesies to him, and in their turn would make his* visits else- 
where easy and agreeable. So Mitri remained a little while 
looking about Baltimore, "having," as he said himself, "noth- 
ing in view but to pursue his journey through the States, 
and to qua^fy himself for his original vocation." He was 


decided to finish his education by a visit to the United 
States, hoping" to make himself famous by the discovery of 
a Northwest passage to the Polar Sea, and, having- spent a 
few da} r s in Baltimore, hastened to present introductions to 
Washing-ton and the leading statesmen of the day. Mr. Na- 
got and his clerical companions set themselves at work, with 
all earnestness to fulfill their far greater ambition, purchas- 
ing- a house as quickly as possible, and preparing it as well 
as circumstances permitted, for the opening of the college 
and seminary. They were soon joined by a little band of 
French priests, whose names are set in such shining- letters 
in our history, that we can hardly imagine their first coming-, 
heart heavy exiles from the beloved land of France, their 
sunny youth clouded by .their country's dissensions, their 
own persecutions, and the gloomy parting from home and 
friends, and national customs, to seek a home in a far land, 
where poverty and toil alone awaited them. But poverty 
and toil were not their only welcome, for, as they were about 
calling upon Bishop Carroll, immediately after their arrival, 
they were met l)y him, "on foot", as they noticed with in- 
tense surprise, coming to call on them; and when with all 
deference, they- disclaimed the high honor, the noble answer 
of the bishop: "Gentlemen, you have come thousands of 
miles to see me, shall I not walk a few squares to see 
you?" was an earnest of the greeting of the whole American 
heart to them for all time. 

These were Rev. John Dubois, a young- priest of pecu- 
liarly energetic character, joined to most gentle and winning- 
manners, Rev. Messrs. 'Benedict Flag-ct, John B. David, Fran- 
cis Matignon, Ambrose Marechal, Gabriel Richard, and Fran- 
cis Ciquard. The Abbe Stephen Baclin, who was not yet 
ordained, but had received all the other orders in France, 
arrived with the first, the Rev. Messrs. Louis Dubourg, John 
Moranville, John Lcfcvre Chevcrus, and others, came a year 
or so later. All placed themselves with utmost willingness 
at Bishop Carroll's disposal, remained for longer or shorter 
periods in Baltimore and its vicinity, studying English, 
laboring faithfully at every priestly duty, attending 1 mis- 

,sions, aiding the bishop, teaching' for Mr. Xag'ot, then separ- 
ated, some foi: far distant missions, North, South, East, and 
West, where their names are in benediction. 

Thus it was far from being' a princely palace to which Mr. 
Brosius and Mitri directed their steps, when hastening' to 
present their letters to the bishop, and to be made ac- 
quainted Avith his little band of laborers, but Mitri's heart 
was Avon at once by the kindness of the stately bishop, while 
he felt by no means among- strangers with the rest, for 
French was the language of his home, as it was at that time 
of many European families. With these young French- 
men he could converse on subjects familiar to him, but the 
bishop did not fail to make his young guest acquainted with 
society supposed to be more congenial to his youth and his 
high ambition, and procured him cordial welcome in many 
of the most Unarming Baltimore families, regretting greatly 
that he could not permit Mr. Brosius to accompany his young- 
charge through the country, as the princess desired and ex- 
pected. In the great lack of priests, at that time, each had 
the work of ten, sometimes of more, and not one could be 
spared from active service, nor could the bishop expose 
Mitri to the delays and uncertainties which would be in- 
evitable if he followed Mr. Brosius to his mission, for in those 
days when all our priests were missionaries, no one could be 
said to be stationary; each had many congregations to at- 
tend, scattered far apart, seldom with any roads between, 
and what roads there were terrible ones to travel; no ar- 
gument of course could be needed to show that it was out of 
the question for the delicate young prince to be exposed to 
the dangers, the fatigue, the poor lodging and plain fare of 
the best of these missions. In compensation the bishop 
offered him letters to families in Washington, Philadelphia, 
and other cities, who would delight in extending all cour- 
tesies to him, and in their turn would make his visits else- 
where easy and agreeable. So Mitri remained a little while 
looking about Baltimore, "having," as he said himself, "noth- 
ing in view but to pursue his journey through the States, 
and to qualify himself for his original vocation." He was 

- 72 

treated with the utmost kindness and confidence, and, with 
true American frankness, politics, religion, the welfare and 
the embarrassments of the country and of the. Church, were 
freely discussed in his presence, although his boyish reserve 
and the gravity which he felt it necessary to assume, now 
that he was thrown upon himself in. a strange land, might 
sometimes have chilled the speakers, but for the earnest 
deference with which he took part in every discussion, as a 
matter of politeness, as well as of intellectual duty. There 
was no guide near to prevent him from receiving other 
people's 'impressions, or to mould his own, for Mr. Brosius 
either could not or would not attempt the dominion over his 
mind which had been exercised, often unconsciously, by the 
princess and her advisers; in a few days he had seen and 
heard enough to enable him to observe the peace of the 
people he was now with, in contrast with the tumult of old 
world troubles, too painfully familiar to him-, and then the 
purpose of his life came to him in plain shape, and he lost 
no time in telling the bishop that he had no desire for fur- 
ther travels, no wish to return to Europe, save, perhaps, as 
a visitor, at some future day, for his heart had found its rest- 
ing place, even Thy altars, Lord of Hosts, if the bishop 
would accept him for their service. 

He had been led to this decision, he said, because "the un- 
expected and incredible progress of the Jacobins, the sub- 
version of social order and religion, and the dreadful con- 
vulsions in all the countries of Europe on one side, compared 
with the tranquil, peaceable and happy situation of the United 
States, together with some considerations, naturally sug- 
gested by these events, on the vanity of worldly grandeur 
and preferment .... caused him .... to renounce his- schemes 
of pride and ambition and to embrace the clerical profession 
for the benefit of the American mission." . 

There was^undoubtedly much in this decision to embarrass 
the bishop. Through the letter of the Prince-bishop^of Hil- 
desheim as well as from Mr. Brosius and other sources, he 
must have known, though very little was said about it, that 
"Mr. Schmet's" parents had far other designs for him, '- and it 



was not likely his father, at least, would willingly consent 
to his becoming a priest, at all events not in the humble 
American Church, and unquestionably he knew the set ac- 
cusations which the world always brings against the Church,, 
when one from whose rank or wealth it hopes much for its 
own selfish ends, leaves it for God. Still, there was but one 
question he had a right to consider in regard to the young- 
candidate, was it his vocation? If so, rich or poor, prince 
or peasant, all the same must be his reception. But the 
Church is never hasty in admitting any one into her sanc- 
tuary, for well she knows that one traitor, coward, or lag- 
gard in her camp is more dangerous than a regiment of open 
enemies in battle, array; and the more they bring to her 
which gives them wider influence or higher place, the more 
careful must she be in putting into their hands the sword 
which may be made as powerful against her own children as 
against her enemies. 

The bishop, therefore, thought best in Mr. Brosius' neces- 
sary absence, to invite the young prince to make his home 
at the seminary, there to reflect well upon his future career, 
while with Mr. Nagot he himself maturely considered the 
application he had made to enter the service of the Church,, 
and knowing well the charges given the young man by his 
father, the bishop desired him, at the same time, to apply 
himself carefully to the study of the constitution, laws, man- 
ners, and geography of the country, and to assist him in 
doing so, took him with him when visiting different parts of 
his diocese, taking him into the home circle of the most dis- 
tinguished American families; in the books of the Sulpician 
seminary at Baltimore it is recorded that the frank and 
"honest manners of the young Prince Gallitzin, and his ex- 
cellent education gave Bishop Carroll the liveliest pleasure 
during this journey, but he was astonished to find that he 
travelled only with reluctance, and that nothing could make 
him fosget his beloved seminary; a most precious disposition. 
which*the prelate considered a certain sign of his vocation to- 
the ecclesiastical state, as was indeed the opinion of all who 
knew him." In truth it was soon apparent that Mitri had 

" no other ambition than to -acquire the science of the saints, 
and every day to die to himself and the world." 

"That which I have learned of you, Madame, from Mr. 
Brosius and from your son," wrote Bishop Carroll, in French, 
to the princess, Dec. 13th, 1792, "adds to my veneration for 
y^mr virtues, and binds me to interest myself still more in 
the welfare of Mr. G-allitzin. I believed the best thing I 
could do, to respond to the confidence with which you have 
honored me, was to place him . here under my own eyes, at 
the seminary which is just being formed in this city. This 
establishment is well furnished with excellent professors: 
piety, the greatest regularity, the love of study and seclu- 
sion are its characteristics. It is under the presidency of a 
French priest of the highest virtue, Mr. Nagot, late first 
director of the grand Seminary of Saint Sulpice at Paris, but 
by the changes in France forced to seek an asylum here. I 
have put your son in hishands for the direction of his con- 
science, and surely he could not be better placed in order to 
respond to the views which Providence seems to have for 
him. I have the pleasure of telling you that so far his con- 
duct is all that the virtuous and saintly Monica could desire 
in her dear Augustine, and I am persuaded that his future 
conduct will not belie its present beautiful presages." 

In Mitri's own mind there had never been a moment's 
hesitation; scarcely had he stepped upon American soil than 
he ' felt through all his frame the thrilling sense of a work 
upon it awaiting him, and the psychological, politico-philoso- 
phical observations he was to make, according to Fuers'ten- 
berg's programme, all rounded and met in this -that he saw 
the harvest indeed is great but the laborer's few. He saw the 
young priests, born to ease and wealth, enter with light 
hearts upon their toilsome life, and though often, as he knew, 
hard pressed for the necessities of the rudest existence, adapt- 
ing themselves to their work with even more than the 
" gentle courtesies and nameless grace of France," regarding 
their own heroism as worth no more than the point of a 
merry story, and he .knew that these were they whom the 
world holds in derision and for a parable of reproach, whose 


life was esteemed madness and their end without honor; he 
saw the poverty, the need of the Church, the hungry, souls 
crying in vain for the bread of life, and the hours were too 
long, the days went by too slowly until he could hasten to 
their relief. 

Thus Mitri Gallitzin, at twenty two years of age, in full 
possession of all his - faculties, knowing well what world he 
threw behind him, and what world was before him, made his 
deliberate choice, clioosing rather to fee an abject in the house 
of the Lord than to dwell in the tabernacles of sinners, and 
striving day and night, so to live that the Lord would give 
Mm to dwell in that house all the days of his life. 



Opinion of Bev. Fr. Schnoesenberg. Vexation of the princess. 
Confidence of Mr. Nagot and. the bishop in Mitri's vocation. Views 
and letters of Eev. Dr. Overberg, Baron von Fuerstenberg, General von . 
Schmettau, and Prince Gallitzin. Their effect upon Demetrius. 

The one great thing in -choosing' our state in life is to 
know the will of God, and for what he designed, fitted, and 
now calls us, the first persons to be consulted in regard to 
it, are those jvhom God has ordained his representatives,, 
and to whom we have confided the direction of our con- 
science. Therefore, as soon as Mitri felt that God called him 
to the priestly state, he asked counsel not only of the bishop 
and of his present director, Mr. Nagot, but wrote at once to 
his former confessor, Eev. Mr. Schnoesenberg, a Franciscan, 
in Muenster, opening to him the desire which had taken pos- 
session of his soul, explaining the need of missionaries in 
the United States, asking advice from him who had so long- 
known his interior life, and requesting the reverend gentle- 
man to break the news to the princess, telling her that he 
had "devoted himself heart and soul, mind and strength to- 
the service of God and the salvation of his fellow-men in 
America; a resolution made because of the urgent need of 
workmen in the vineyard of the Lord; for the priests of this 
country," he wrote, "have often to travel forty and fifty 
miles and more, to carry the Last Sacraments to the sick. 
It was to be hoped that the severe labor which such a life 
demanded would cause them to acknowledge the truth of his- 

-r- 77 

-vocation." Mitri, in his humility, and the restraint which he 
liad ever felt in his mother's presence, had little doubt that 
the reverend father, who had himself vowed to leave the 
world, father and mother and all for God, would be much 
better able than he to place before her the spiritual advan- 
tages to be gained, which should soothe her loving heart for 
the temporal ones renounced by this decision, and encour- 
age her noble mind, with all the experience and authority 
of his mature years and holy habit, to bear for her beloved 
on the bitter trials of a poor missionary's life, in considera- 
tion of the inexpressible delights which God showers upon 
those who serve him. 

Confident that the wisdom and piety of his confessor 
would present his case in the most spiritual and consoling 
manner, and knowing how slowly letters travelled in those 
days, and how often, long before a letter was received, 
nearly all it contained might be changed and forgotten, 
.Mitri quietly settled to. his new life, applying himself, in all 
earnestness to test and prove the truth of his vocation, shut- 
ting out the world, thinking, speaking, living, only in spiri- 
tual things. 

It happened that this letter to his confessor, Mr. Schnoesen- 
berg, arrived in good time at Muenster, and was not falsified 
before being read. It caused the good Franciscan great per- 
plexity; it appears he had not quite taken off the old man 
before putting on the new, an omission which often gives 
trouble even when, as in this case, a compromise appears to 
be effected between God and Mammon. He congratulated 
himself, however, upon the absence of the princess from 
Muenster which excused him, he thought, from any explana- 
tion to .her. He modestly forbore giving the young semina- 
rian any advice whatsoever, feeling himself released from 
any expression of opinion by the knowledge that Mr. Nagot, 
" a man of great merit and high spiritual distinction, and 
even Bishop Carroll were fully convinced of his penitent's 
vocation and fitness for the life chosen," and careful not 
to say anything which might displease the princess and her 
distinguished husband, not considering, as Gallitzin told 

78 T- 

him later, "that I did not address you as my mother's friend,, 
but as my confessor," he put the young man's letter out of 
sight, and said not a word about it to any one, not even to 
the writer. 

In the meantime the bishop and Mr. Nagot wrote to the 
princess to a*ssure her of her son's health and contentment,, 
alluding to the designs God appeared to have in his regard, 
not saying what they were, however, for they supposed her 
. already acquainted with . them through Rev. Mr. Schnoe- 
senberg to whom Mitri had confided all. As time passed 
and no answer arrived, .the young prince, who easily took 
fire when he considered himself or another wronged, and in 
his hot headed zeal could understand nothing that took the 
form of passive religion or'spiritual neutrality, wrote again 
and this time with considerable vigor .and sharpness, repeat- 
ing that which he. had said before concerning his vocation, 
and insisting upon an opinion of some kind, heading the^ 
letter: sub sigillo confessionis under the seal of confession. 

This letter also reached Muenster in course of time, and 
was sent with some others under cover to the princess, as 
the reverend gentleman relates*. 


"Instead of sending your letter to me at the monastery, she 
(the princess) sent for me to 'come to her. I went at once. 
As soon as I entered the room where she was, she said, with 
sadness and depression, if I mistake not, "Here are letters 
from my son, one short and of no importance to me, a much 
heavier one for you; it is here on the table, will you open it 
and see what it is he desires ?" I did as she requested, un- 
hesitatingly, and was about to read .it when Baron von 
Fuerstenberg entered the room; as I found I had forgotten 

* See Leben und Wlrken des Prinzen Demetrius Aurjustin Gallitzin, von 
P. Heiniicli Lemcke, p. 96. This is one of the letters which Rev. Mr. 
liemcke found, among Prince Gallitzin's papers, carried away with him 
from. Loretto, and translated from Latin and French into German for 
Ms "Leben", from which, as the originals cannot be recovered, they are 
of necessity retranslated for this work. 


my spectacles I asked Mr. Overberg, who was also present, 
to read it aloud. How I felt during that reading, in what 
embarrassment the reader found himself, you may imagine. 
I cannot express the sorrow which filled my heart when I 
'saw your mother so deeply dejected. Baron von Fu'ersten-' 
berg maintained a profound silence, and I fully realized that 
I, though entirely without fault of mine, wa's the cause of 
this distressing scene." 

It is not -to be wondered M, after this, that the diplomatic 
friar entreated to be spared any further confidences from his 
late penitent. But he was in every \Vay inexcusable, because 
he knew the state . of affairs with the writer before the ar- 
rival of this letter, and that it was not likely 'to be one well 
to read aloud. 

In consequence of this second letter from the young prince 
to Eev. Mr. Schnoesenberg, the news of Mitri's singular 
purpose became known to all his mother's circle at once, and 
was the all absorbing theme of conversation. The princess 
soon wrote to Mr. Nagot, very plainly intimating that she 
had no faith in Mitri's vocation, and not much, if the truth 
were told, in the disinterestedness of his advisers. Mitri to 
her was a straw blown about by every wind; she was ter- 
rified at the thought of being the mother of an incompetent 
or unworthy priest, thoroughly vexed at those who had, 
either consciously or unconsciously, deceived themselves 
into a belief that he was fitted for the great duties which 
would devolve upon him, and, foreseeing with morbid fears the 
storm certain to burst upon her own head on account of it, 
could hardly help attributing unworthy motives, and undue 
influence on the part of those to whom she had confided her 
child, who had, probably, been dazzled by his position and- 
prospective wealth. 

Mr. Nagot and the bishop, both did their utmost to dis- 
abuse her of this idea, by endeavoring to convince her, as 
they were themselves convinced, that Mitri was a chosen 
one of God, upon whom the Lord would bestow a great 
priesthood indeed. "If his is not a true vocation," wrote 


Mr. Nagot, "then there is no standard by "which a true voca- 
tion can be tested." " Never have I led to the altar a young- 
man of whose vocation I was more certain," he assured her 
upon another occasion, and that he might not be considered 
partial, he added the testimony of the bishop and of all who 
knew Prince Demetrius, to the same effect. To Mitri she 
wrote asking him to tell her honestly if on account of having 
resided at ithe seminary, he had felt himself bound to accede 
to the wishes of those who controlled it, to which Mitri 
replied that his resolve had been, taken at once', that he was 
in no ways influenced, and was free to leave at any time he 
pleased. She represented to him the bitter disappointment 
this would cause his father, who she believed woiild cer- 
tainly disinherit him, and would never forgive her; she ex- 
patiated on the terrible responsibilities of the state he in. 
tended embracing, and warned him of the faightful account he 
would have to render, if he should force himself into a place 
to which God's grace had not called him. It was full a year 
after hearing of his choice before, becoming' at last con- 
vinced that he knew what he was about, she wrote him a 
word of sympathy or consolation, which, on . account of the 
g-reat delays in sending letters, brought it to him about the 
time of his ordination, but having 1 once accepted his vocation 
as a real one, her fears and gloomy forebodings subsided, 
and she threw herself heart and soul into his new interests, 
and rejoiced with her whole heart,, at having a son capable 
of a choice so pure, and a perseverance so rare. 

Dr. Overberg', at the princess' request, also wrote to Mitri 
immediately after the announcement of his choice, which had 
fallen like a thunderbolt upon the circle at Muenster; his 
letter was kind, but undecided. He was a good and amiable 
man, devoted to his duties, which ran along- quietly enough, 
and was taken entirely by surprise by the new world ideas 
.so suddenly bursting upon the stillness of Muenster life. 
The old world had rolled on in its own ruts for so long, that 
it was just then rather difficult, even for a good old priest, 
-whose life had been one of loving regularity, all in the usual 
way, whose humble parents thanked God every day for his 


position, which was, even in the eyes of the world, a most 
honorable one, to take in, at a glance, the fiery longing 1 of a 
young- heart, long chafing' under old chains, for the open field, 
for real sacrifices, earnest toil, and apostolic labor. He was 
devotedly attached to the princess, had known Mitri from 
childhood, and disliked very much to see either of- them un- 
happy. He commended patience and passivencss for,a time, 
thought it better to take no decided step just yet, aud re- 
marked to him, as Gamaliel to the Jews: If this counsel or this 
work be of men, it will come to naught, but if it be of God ye 
cannot overlhroio it. 

Baron von Fuerstenberg wrote less affectionately and 
more decidedly; he evidently was very much of General von 
Schmettau's opinion, although he expressed it more mildly 
than suited the old soldier's temperament, that the young 
man had fallen into the hands of a set of enthusiasts, the 
general called them bigots and fanatics, Avlio had beguiled 
him into forgetfulness of his rank, his family, all "the com- 
forts and honors of life. If he must needs become a priest, 
the very reverend and greatly distinguished baron advised 
him to return at once to Europe, where his friends would 
endeavor to procure him a position worthy of his exalted 

Before entering the seminary, while the matter of his voca- 
tion was yet under consideration, Mitri went to Philadelphia, 
probably by the bishop's advice, for his own mind was made 
up, to consult with Mr. Brosius, and knowing the great in- 
terest his father would take in all concerning the country, he 
took pains, with real filial affection, to write him a full and 
complete description of the journey, no short one in those 
clays, but, of course, as they were not yet settled, he said 
nothing about his future plans, and the prince naturally fan- 
cied he was pursuing his travels through the Union, as so 
much desired. He was very much mortified, afterwards, at 
this reticence, and considered his son had not been altogether 
frank with him, but before receiving any of the minor orders 
Mitri wrote, formally announcing to his father what choice in 
life he had made. 


Previous to the reception of this letter the prince wrote 
to his wife : 


At the Hague, Jan. 20th 1794. 

At a moment when I did not dream of such a thing, Mr. C. 
sends me an Order, which he was directed to deliver to me; 
an Or'der for Mitri to join his regiment within six months, as 
by seniority of rank, he should receive his commission on the 
first of this month. I send the Order in a literal translation. 
I wrote at once to the First Major, stating that I had sent my 
son to America to travel for his further improvement, as I 
had not ventured to allow him to go over Europe, on account 
of the lawlessness and immorality everywhere rampant; 
that he was to have come back this year, but I could not 
hasten his return, as, since his departure, crossing the ocean 
has become very dangerous, the French having declared war 
against England,. Holland, and Spain. I wrote at the same 
time to my brother requesting him to see about -it. As the 
Count von Eomanzow is in your neighborhood, I beg you, 
my dear friend, to seek his advice; and put the settling of 
the affair into hislfcands. I have also written to day to C*** 
asking him to do what he can for us; he probably can do 
much through his friends at court. He tells me he would 
have visited you, the other day, but you were not in Muen- 
ster. Adieu, my love, I love and embrace you with all my 

In the Order, accompanying this letter, it was stated that 
if the young ensign to whom it was addressed, did not ap- 
pear to receive his commission as higher officer of the guard, 
within the time stated, he would be altogether excluded 
from his regiment. By means of .his father's influence, and 
that of his distinguished friends, an extension of his leave 
was obtained, or some modification of the order, and the 
prince anxiously awaited his son's return, urging the prin- 
cess to insist upon it. 

* Lelen und Wirken, by Rev. P. H. Lemcke, p. 113. 



At the Hague, Feb. 16th, 1194. 

I have not said anything to you, my dearest, concerning 
my special intentions in regard to Mitri, -because, in the first 
place, I have none, except to have him come back as soon as 
possible ; after that, I do not see how we can avoid sending 
him to Russia. My brother, from whom I have a letter dated 
Jan. 3rd, tells me that it is absolutely necessary for him to 
go to Petersburg, where, he says, he will be at once commis- 
sioned officer of the guard. Should he have no inclination 
for military service, he cotild receive a civil appointment 
besides, probably in the diplomatic line, in which, on account 
of his military rank, he would be placed higher than could 
otherwise be expected. But nothing can be done until he 
reports himself in person at St. Petersburg. 

The testimony of the Bishop of Baltimore to his excellent 
conduct gives me great satisfaction. God grant he may find ' 
in my native land people to judge him as justly! Simplicity 
and naturalness are not prized so highly there as in America, 
I -fear that he will be judged by the outer bark, which, p'er- 
haps, is not so rough and knotty as it was before he left us, 
travelling often makes great changes in the manners of 
young people, and, after all, in the end, 'every thing depends 
upon the tailor and the hair dresser. When once he sees 
the necessity of being well got up, and. befrizzled like other 
people, he will have no difficulty in showing himself off to the 
best advantage. 

The princess hastened to enclose both these letters,, and 
the Order, to her son, accompanying them with a very ear- 
nest letter of her own, under date of March 20th, 1794. 

My dear son, * 

The flecisive moment of your whole life on earth, which, it 
is true, should serve you only as a preparation for eternity, 

* Lemcke, p. 115. 
f Same, p. 109. 


has now come, as you will see from the letters of your father 
which I enclose. They leave only two courses open to you. 

First, if you intend to remain in the world, you must go 
at once to Russia, as the empress orders, and enter upon the 
career for which your father has always intended you. 

Secondly: If you are really determined to 'enter the sacer- 
dotal state, you must at once inform your father of your in- 
tention, in a respectful manner, but so decidedly that there 
shall be no room left for doubt of your intention, or for hope 
of changing it, either by flatteries, or by threats of disin- 
heritance, the only ones he can, use against you; but even 
the law will prevent him from taking everything from you. 

She even enclosed him a formula, made out by the astute 
Fuerstenberg, which he was to copy and send to his father, 
lest, by his own want of tact, he might not make his purpose 
clear enough, or so clear as .to arouse the prince's anger, and 
peril his inheritance. In the. meantime she herself devised 
all possible means of averting her husband's wrath, when the 
American choice could no longer be concealed. 

The news reached the prince, at last, at a time when the 
princess was quite ill, and very much depressed by her 
physical sufferings, as well as by her mental anxiety. 


.Jan. 12th, 1795. . 

Above all things, I pray you, my dear friend, to try to 
unite with me as friends, reasonably and coolly to discuss 
that which is properly our common trouble, and by what 
means to get out of it. I entreat you to put aside every idea 
which could tempt you to believe that I would willingly 
cause you vexation or annoyance. I protest on my honor, 
before God, that I have no wish to do so, and if, here and 
there, an expression in this letter should remotely suggest 
such a thing, believe me it is rather because I lack the 

* Lemcke, p. 126, 


power to express myself better, than because I would inten- 
tional!^ grieve you. Alas! why should I, when I know that 
whatever befals us grieves you even more than it does mef 
But to the subject. 

First, what do you wish me to write to Mitri? I beg 
you to tell me and advise me. It appears to me that on his 
side everything is settled, and he does not wait for our let- 
ters before deciding whether he will return to Europe or not, 
and that by his conduct he cares neither for my consent nor 
for my opinion ; but I pledge you my word that if I were to 
see him again, I would rficeive him in the kindest manner, 
and would not permit one harsh word to pass my lips, much 
less ever to act towards him in anger or in an imperious 
w^y. I kave already exhausted all arguments in his regai'd, 
and it is now his turn to give me better reasons than I have 
given him. In regard to his writing- me I see in his letters 
only an enthusiast who, in his overstrained mind, abuses the 
laws of the gospel, and derives conclusions from them which 
are thoroughly false and unworthy of the Deity ; for instance, 
"Christ says, who loves father and mother more than me is 
not worthy of me." Be it so, I find that entirely reasonable, 
hut how conclude from this that one must become a priest? 
To follow Christ, to be worthy of him, says no more, and can 
imply no more, than that we should follow the religion he 
has given us, and exactly fulfill our duties. Nowhere 
does this religion tell us that in order to fulfill the duties it 
imposes upon us, we must become pi'iests, and I should like 
to ask Mitri if he who throws his father and mother and 
sister into despair is worthy of Christ. But all our argu- 
ments, as I believe, are of ho avail, and you will see that 
everything* is already settled. 

Tell me, therefore, I beg you, in the second place, should 
I not now inform my brother ? He never writes to me now 
without asking when Mitri will be back, and adds that he 
will not be dismissed from his regiment before the first of 
January, and 'that lie will try to keep him in even longer. 
Now that we know what we are to believe in regard to 
Mitri, if seems to me I should look like an intriguer, if I put 


off my brother, even the court, any longer, to await his ar- 
rival in St. Petersburg. This might bring me into^even 
greater difficulties than those in which I am now involved, 
in consequence of this odd vocation, and especially . this 
singular intention, if it be not already an accomplished 

Thirdly, Mitri intimates that he voluntarily resigns his in- 
heritance. He does not know that by entering* the clerical 
profession he is already disinherited, not by me indeed (for 
I assure you I have never had such an idea), but by the 
laAvs of our country. There is no 'instance in our annals of 
one of his rank becoming a priest; some have become monks, 
it is true, and in this case the first thing is a vow of poverty, 
by which all is renounced, and if the new brother, has not 
first given every thing to the monastery, the family im- 
mediately takes possession of it. But Mitri can do nothing 
of the kind, for all is mine and will, therefore, go *to Mimi. 
I know she is honest and magnanimous, and would be too 
conscientious to deprive a brother that she might enrich her- 
self. Still, she could not save the estates for him, if she were 
to renounce them the family would at once take possession 
of them without any difficulty, you know I have several 

If you think best you can send him this letter, and thus 
relieve me from the painful necessity of writing him. How- 
ever, I think when a nobleman unconditionally renounces 
the military service, for which his birth destines him, he has 
no choice but to become a missionary, or to lock himself up 
in a monastery, if he would prove to the world that he 
abandons his proper station, neither from cowardice nor 
from ambitious motives. 

The princess, not being able to write herself, requested 
Dr. Overberg to enclose this letter, and write to Mitri, which 
he did, giving many interesting details, and an account of the 
final conclusion into which his parents and their circle had 
settled for the present. 


* m 


Beloved in our Lord Jesus Christ, 

"I have not written to you in a long time, but I have not 
on that account ceased to remember you in my prayers. And 
how could I forget you when I have daily before my. eyes a 
mother who loves you so much, and sacrifices herself for your 
welfare, who has already suffered greatly on your account; 
and has to bear constantly sufferings of a different character, 
which are, in part, at least, the consequence of the loving 
sacrifices she has made for you? You may have learned 
from your father's letters somewhat of the trials which af- 
flict her body, but you would know nothing of her love if you 
judged only from those letters ; it is of such a degree that 
your father could not possibly comprehend it. How disin- 
terested, how persevering, how active, how like, therefore, 
to the divine love, is her love for her Augustine! How much 
she has borne, through this love, during your absence, seems 
known neither to Augustine nor to the reverend president. 
I would wish above all things to bring this. love before your 
eyes, for I doubt not it would be pleasing and salutary to 
you in many respects, and I would love to lay it upon your 
heart, biit I feel I am not capable of doing- it as I would 
desire. I should have to write a book if I were to undertake 
to say all that could be said of it. I mention it, however, in 
order to accompany your father's letter, as your mother is too 
ill to write herself, and to give you some news of her, which 
she herself would probably not write you. 

I said you seemed not to understand the sufferings she 
has endured in your absence, on your account. Her fortitude 
in them shows her love, so I design giving you an outline of 
them. They were 'indeed terrible. All, except our little 
circle, were opposed to your purpose of becoming a priest, 
and in America. Some who heard of it cried out against it 
as if it were something contemptible, others regarded it as a 
sign of cowardice and of indolence ; the better-natured 

Rev. H. Lemoke, p. 131. 


looked upon it as boyish enthusiam, as recklessness and 

thoughtlessness ; all turned with their public or private re- 
proaches to your mother, who, in their eyes, was to blame 
for this monstrous wrong, as they called it; your father at 
the head, your uncle following, but more gently, out of love 
for his sister; then came the part of the public which was 
more or less interested in your choice. She had to defend 
against these not only her Augustine but herself, and, con- 
sequently, there was many a sharp contest. But there was 
more to come; our friends who kept behind at first, murmured 
more and more loudly, when letters from America seemed 
more and more to indicate, that not only were your friends 
disregarded, but even your mother, and such a mother, from 
which they inferred that the vocation was a doubtful one, for 
the example of St. Francis Xavier, and of many other saints, 
shows the true call to the apostolic profession, does not dis- 
solve the ties of spiritual friendship, but only draws them 
the closer. Here again she had her Augustine and herself to 
defend. All these contests but served ks an accompaniment, 
so to speak, of the. severest conflict, and of the heart-breaking" 
suffering she experienced when she felt herself bound to 
reveal to the president the past and present faults of her 
Augustine, in order that his vocation might be fully tested, 
and in this her distress was the more overpowering because 
every answer showed 'that the purity of her motives was 
questioned, which would not have been the case had her son 
made his mother's character known to the president, as it 
was he even treated her as one who, for temporal satis- 
faction, would tear her son from the Lord. But even this she 
endured for the love of God and of Augustine. She sought 
only to find in each letter from America, clearer proofs of the 
vocation, to know if Augustine persevered, and she thanked 
God with tears when new indications of this came. How 
could she do otherwise when it was the deepest wish of her 
heart, that the son who had cost her so many tears, might 
work out his own salvation, and become, in the hands of 
God, a useful instrument for the salvation of other souls, re- 
deemed by the blood of Jesus ? 


She has already begun to see in part the consequences of 
her faithful perseverance, for God has turned the whole 
matter in a manned truly wonderful, so that not only your 
father, Hut all for whom during the first two years of your 
absence, everything heard of you, was food for scandal, are 
since last spring, as entirely in favor of Augustine's choice, 
as they were in the beginning opposed to it. For the glory 
of Divine Providence I will briefly relate how this came to 
pass. ' . 

We were in the greatest anxiety, as you may imagine, 
lest there should come a tremendous storm, when your father 
should receive news that his son was to become a priest in 
America. This dread was the less unfounded, because, as 
you know, there had been a great outburst when once before, 
while here, you intimated to him that you would like to be 
a priest. We all prayed, therefore, for a good result, and 
your mother made use of all natural means in her power to 
further it. She knew that he was coming to Berlin, and she 
let the news rest until then, and informed her brother of it, 
begging him to influence Princess Ferdinand to help him in 
moderating the anger with which" your father would probably 
receive the tidings, and to induce her to attempt to avert, if 
possible, the disinheritance which was feared. As we knew 
the influence exercised upon him by the opinion of the great 
of this world, we hoped much, through God's grace,' from the 
combined assistance of your uncle and the princess. The 
result far exceeded our expectations, for which God willed 
an advantageous circumstance, even did not prevent an 
error, but one by no means as g^reat as that by which Joseph 
was led from a prison to the throne. The circumstance was 
this: Your mother feeling too ill to write had been obliged 
to dictate to Mimi, and your uncle was asked to give the 
letter, which contained the news of your becoming a priest, 
to your father. When he read it, and your uncle and the 
princess saw the storm pictured in his face, they hastened 
to represent the affair as not only not dishonoring his family, 
but even honorable, at least in this, that such a step showed 
energy. All the princess' court united in expressing tlie 


same opinion, and thus his anger was moderated; the idea, 
however, remained hateful to him, as you may have seen 
from your uncle's letter to your mother, which has already 
been sent you. It was hateful to him, because he looked 
upon it as the grave in which was forever buried the splen- 
dor of his family, ani his hopes of bringing that family to 
the highest dignity in the Russian court, and this was all 
the more painful the less he knew, or sought, any other 
dignity. The opinion of the great people, as I have said, 
moderated his wrath, but there had been' no judgment passed- 
on your mother, and as she in his opinion, was the cause of 
it all, his whole rage would have turned upon her, and would 
have caused terrible scenes, had not God permitted your 
uncle to make a mistake, which she would by no means have 
permitted if she had known it; he made use of her illness, 
saying it was the consequence of trouble and fright at 
Augustine's decision, and that- it would be dangerous for her 
life for any one to dare let her know the father's dissatisfac- 
tion, etc. This falsehood led your father, glad to find her 
agreeing with him in the affair, to write her a letter of con- 
solation, and when he came to see her afterwards he said not 
a word about Mitri, fearing to trouble her mind again. lie 
continued, however, to complain of you, until a second cir- 
cumstance changed all to congratulation. 

The Empress of Eussia died. On this your father rested 
all his hopes. The present emperor* had, as your father 
believed, a very great regard for him, having even treated 
him as an intimate friend. . As he was now raised to the 
throne, your father believed the highest place of honor at the 

* It will be remembered that Catharine died in 1796 after a reign of 
thirty four years, and was succeeded by her son Paul, whom she detested, 
regarded as an imbecile, and meant should never come to the throne, 
which she destined for her grandson Alexander. But Paul succeeding 
her, banished her friends, showered favors upon her enemies, and al- 
together conducted himself in a most tyrannical manner, with even 
more than the usual eccentricity of uncontrolled passions and unlimited 
despotism. He was assassinated in 1801, and succeeded by his son, 
Alexander I. 


Imperial, court was awaiting him. .In this expectation he 
wrote the emperor, not to ask anything of him for that, in- 
deed, he considered altogether superfluous, but because he 
thought it proper to offer his services and congratulations ; 
he was not even honored with an answer! From that mo- 
ment his language in regard to courts and court-life under- 
went as great a change as about religion, for it was evident 
to him that with tlid disregard of religion was connected the 
disregard of the nobility, and" its persecution. The once 
stupid and simple Mitri was now . commended as wise and 
happy, because by the step he had taken he had saved him- 
self from the slavery of court-life, from the -ingratitude of the 
great, etc. 

You would often wonder, dear Augustine, even be as- 
tounded, if you could see with us the change that has come 
over the aristocrats who have HO religion, since the French 

These were not tranquillizing letters to be sent to a young- 
seminarian, whose- heart and soul were absorbed in prepara- 
tion for the sacred office of priesthood, who was seeking- in 
seclusion, to forget the world for a while, that he might try 
on his armor, and in most intimate communion with God 
learn all his desires, and receive his commands, as the knights 
of old kept their vigil before receiving their spurs. The 
writers could by no means put themselves in his place, and 
it was even more impossible for him to open the deep re- 
cesses of his heart, just now wrapt. in stillness, and lighted 
with soft gleams of sacred fire from the Holy Spirit Himself, 
for discussion even by his own mother and her pious friends. 
But so far from interfering with his resolution, they but 
made him . cling the firmer to it, and shut him still more 
closely into the retirement of the spiritual life he had chosen. 



Characteristics of his seminary life. Receives minor orders. Joir s.. - - 
the Society of Saint Sulpice. Is ordained by Bishop Carroll. 
Mission at Port Tobacco. Stationed at Baltimore. At Conewago. 
Visits the Alleghany mountains. Spirit manifestations. Visits 
Clipto'svn, Va. Difficulties \tify. his congregations. Accepts the 
call to McGuire's Settlement. 

Notwithstanding the opposition of his friends, the sneers of" 
his .enemies, the doubts even of his own mother, Prince De- 
metrius persevered in the choice he had made. His seminary 
life was most beautiful and edifying, glimpses of it still 
preserved are most touching, and, to worldly eyes, possibly 
a little overstrained ; the exquisite delicacy of his consciencrr 
under the severe rule of the seminary, filled him with the- 
greatest remorse, and caused him to rejoice when his con-- 
fessor permitted him to resort to more than the usual pen- 
ance and mortification whenever a sudden temptation to' 
vexation at a reproof, a quick, sarcastic word when nettled, 
a delight in ridicule, or a momentary glance at some fair 
face in the chapel, or passing his window, showed him his-; 
predominant failings. If under the rigid watch which he' 
kept over himself to mould every thought in the way of per- 
fection, one could find any special characteristics more mark- 
ed them others, they would be, a tendency to intensity in 
Avhatever he undertook, to absorption in his work, a readi- 
ness of speech and to form decided opinipns, a lively sense 
of the ridiculous and the stupid, and a mind, more active- 
than contemplative, "But the good God," says his last- 


- entry in his seminary note book, "but the good God gives 
me many graces, notwithstanding my faithlessness. Among 
others, on the day when I should have gone to the Adoration 

- of the Blessed Sacrament, I felt an extreme reluctance for 
this Adoration, so much so that I did not know how I could 

..endure to spend half an hour in prayer; but little by little 
this dryness was, by the goodness of God, changed into the 
very sweetest consolation." 

These were the crisis days of his interior life, and if he 
-.permitted himself little freedom, it was because he was as 
-one passing from one precipitous mountain to another, cross- 
ing upon a single plank, over the most frightful abyss, who 
knows that the swerving of an eyelid, or one heart-throb the 
more,. may cause him to lose his steadiness, and whirl him 
into the terrible depths beneath. It is not until long after 
"such a one has gone well over the broad fields, and up the 
: gentle slopes of the safer side, that he breathes freely, re- 
. laxes his muscles, or ventures to look 

" at even 

A pretty child, or God's blue heaven." 
On account of his rare proficiency in other branches, he 
was able, as soon as the bishop released him from the study 
of the American geography, history, and form of government, 
which were so distasteful to him at that time, to devote him- 
self to his theological course, in which he made such clear 
-and rapid advance that in the summer of 1*79.4, he was found 
fully prepared to receive the minor orders, and on the twenty- 
. first of'November, of the same year, feast of the Presentation 

- of the Blessed Virgin, he was made subdeacon. 

"At the commencement of January," says his little French 

: note book, " God gave me the desire to unite myself to the 

-.Society of the Sulpicians. Communicating this to Mr. Nagot, 

he advised me to refer it to our Lord; this desire continues 

- as if it were already accomplished." The members of this 
.Society are bound together by no special vows or obliga 

tions of conscience, but by mutual good will and affection 

- and as Mitri more and more desired to be received as one of 
.them, its superiors, having a loving regard for his many 


virtues, his charming- character, his straightforward piety, and' 
the many marks of sanctity which he already unconsciously 
manifested, convinced, by its steady continuance, that the 
desire was from . God, cordially accepted it, after a year's- 
trial, and with the approval of Bishop Carroll, enrolled him 
a member of their admirable society, on the 13th of February 
1795, while he was yet only a deacon. 

On the 18th of March 1795, one of the Spring Ember days,. 
in less than three years from the time of his leaving Europe, 
the desire of the voung prince's heart was fulfilled, and witli 
the most fervent dispositions, he received the Ordination . 
which Bishop Carroll administered with a solemnity and 
emotion beyond all power of description. For though the 
second priest ordained by Bishop Carroll, and in the .United 
States, -Prince Gallitzin could truly be considered the first- 
born of the American Church; Eev. Stephen Badin, ordained 
some time previously, had been made a deacon before leav- 
ing his ' native land, France, and the United States gave 
him only the final consecration and commission, but Father 
Gallitzin was all our own. Ours from the first page of his. 
theology . to the momentrfie arose from the consecrating: 
hands of the bishop, forever and forever to bear the seal of 
the Lord's Anointed. He had not come to us for a day or 
an hour, in an interval of trial or trouble, but in the bright- 
est hour of his prosperity, for all the days of his life, to know 
no country but our country, no work but our work, no home 
but our home. He had drifted to us by. no chance, or ac- 
cident, or passing- whim, he had been driven to us -by no- 
exile, poverty, alienation of friends, by no clouding- of his 
earthly prospects, no uncertainty of wordly power or place ; 
he came to us "because he loved us better than- all these^ 
things, and because our poverty and desolation were dearer 
to him than all 'the pomp and magnificence of Europe. 

Not unlike other young seminarians, Mitri began some- 
time before his ordination, to show in his inelastic, almost 
languid step, his lack of color, strength, and vigor, the ef- 
fects of his sedentary life and many mortifications, and 
Bishop Carroll, with the watchful care which made him ever a 


true father to his priests, decided, almost immediately after 
his ordination, to send him to a pleasant country place, 
where, it was thought, he would at once recruit his health, 
and recover his vigor, which however, was with him less the 
result of physical health, for his constitution was not a 
strong one, than of great nervous energy, and an indomit- 
able will which held the body as the absolute slave of the 
' soul. The place chosen was called Port Tobacco, or the 
Manor, part of 'the Conewago mission, a settlement on the 
Susquehanna, not far .from Lancaster, a very mild and pleas- 
ant climate, where the bishop desired him to remain a few 
weeks, before proceeding to the headquarters of the mission, 
Conewago, where Mr. Brosius and Rev. James Pellentz very 
much needed his assistance. 

At Port Tobacco, so far from recruiting ,his health, the 
young priest, the natural impetuosity of his temperament, 
heightened by the rash and inconsiderate zeal of a youth 
bound to be a saint, forgot that he could no longer bear 
exposure, after the seclusion of the seminary life, with the 
same safety as when, under his mother's spirited train- 
ing, he was accustomed to be out in all weathers, and used 
to all kinds of exercise, and the bishop was filled 'with dis- 
tress at his impatience of confinement, his indifference to 
the changes of our ever changing climate. He hastened to 
urge him t<3 take up his residence at Conewago, where he 
could be of the greatest use, and would be, the bishop no 
doubt considered, somewhat restrained by the advice of older 
and cooler heads! 

Conewago, on Conewago Creek, in York County, Pennsyl- 
vania, a few miles north-east of Gettysburg, was one of the 
most promising missions in the United States, having been 
established as early as 1741 by- the Jesuit father, William 
Wappeler, and fortunate in afterwards coming under the 
charge of Rev. James Pellentz, of the same order, a native 
of Germany, an excellent man and a noble missionary, whose 
name is lovingly remembered all through Pennsylvania. 
It was the centre of many little missions, scattered far apart, 
too small and poor to support a resident priest even had 


there been, which there certainly was not, one in the whole 
country to spare for them. Whether because he already saw 
work which he felt he could do at the Manor or in its vicinity, 
or because he, as young men will, rather disliked the idea of 
being placed again under the tutelage of his former guide, 
Mr. Brosius, or because, frightened at the outset of his 
labors, his heart longed to return to the peace, the quiet, 
and regularity of the beloved seminary, it is certain that 
Mitri was very unwilling to be permanently placed at Con- 
ewago, and urged his objections in a letter to the Rev. Mr. 
David, one of the professors at the seminary, to whom as to 
a friend he felt he could speak with more' frankness, and 
probably force, than would be suitable in adressing his 
bishop. Mr. David thought proper to show the letter to the 
bishop, to whpm the young priest also wrote mentioning his 
wishes, to which the bishop immediately replied. 


April 17th, 1795. 
Rev. and dear Sir, 

The arrival of Rev. Mr. Napier and your messenger yester- 
day evening, relieved our minds from much uncertainty and 
many fears concerning you. You ought to have given us 
early notice of your delay and where you were. Though the 
account of your health, as expressed in your letter, gave me 
much concern, I feel much more in observing how unsettled 
your mind is, and how often you vary your projects. If you 
would have given yourself time for reflection, 'it would have 
been evident to you that your last proposal cannot be com- 
. plied with: for if even there were not sufficient cause for not 
adhering to my plan of sending you to Conewago, yet you 
could not be left at Zachariah, but must be placed at Balti- 
more, otherwise the Germans here, who are now much dis- 
pleased with me without any good reason [for the bishop 
really had no priest able to speak German, except Gallitzin, 

.* This letter, like all the rest in this book, when not otherwise stated, 
is copied directly from the original. 


whom he could possibly give them.] would then be justifiable 
in their dissatisfaction. Till very lately you attributed your 
indisposition to a sedentary life in the seminary, and ex- 
pressed a wish of living in the exercise and wholesome 
climate of Conewago; which, it is my full conviction, would 
soon restore your health, if, as I would direct, you should 
not be employed in hard service till you recovered your 
strength. Mr. Brosdus, who leaves me to day, and is ex- 
ceedingly mortified at your proposal (with which he became 
acquainted as soon as I read Mr. David's letter, and before 
I saw your request that it should remain secret), tells me that 
you may afford him and his companions very great relief, 
without having any hard work that could distress your 
health; and I cannot think that you are either so much at- 
tached to other places of residence, or so regardless of the 
conseqiiences which will ensue to Mr. Brosius, by jour con- 
tinued objections to sharing his labors, as to leave him and 
Mr. Pellentz under their present distress. It is true that you 
always express a determination to submit to my orders; but 
it is painful to a superior to lay on orders, when after a full 
manifestation of his will, he finds difficulties continually 
thrown in his way. You say that I may send Mr. Eden to 
Conewago, and he may be replaced by Mr. Marechal. But 
if I had the power to compel Mr. Eden to leave his place and 
accept of Conewago, would .it become me to require this of 
a priest who, for several years, has been laboring in all the 
hardships of long rides, and the service of many congrega- 
tions, merely for the sake of freeing a young man, who has 
not yet commenced his career, from the burthen of duty? 

You cannot infer from your present state of health that it 
will not improve at Oonewago. In my opinion your present 
weakness was brought on by your undertaking the long 
rides from Baltimore to Georgetown, and thence to Port 
Tobacco, during Lent, and with the risk of meeting poor diet 
on your journey, and above all, by your great imprudence 
in persisting to leave St. Tho's manor on such a day as you 
parted from it. To me it would be a wonder if after it you 
had not a severe spell of sickness. I am sorry to be so 


averse to your wishes ; I wish to be much more the father 
than the superior of the clergy under my jurisdiction ; but I 
must not be partial in my favors, and forget a paternal care 
over those who have been and are laboring for the good of 
souls, that I may gratify the wishes of younger men. I am 
likewise to consider myself the father of the faithful in my 
diocese, and distribute the assistance which can be afforded 
them, in the best manner which .my judgment can direct and 
conscience approve. Under the influence of these, I persist 
in requesting you to acquiesce in your appointment to Cone- 
wago, and, consequently, of coming hither as soon as can be 
consistent with your strength and convenience. As I shall 
leave town in eight or ten days, it is of importance that you 
be here before that. I am, with esteem and with great 

Ecv. and dear Sir, 

Yours most sincerely, 

f J. Bishop, of Baltimore. 

Upon this summons Mr. Gallitzin, or Eev. Mr. Schmct, 
or Smith, as he was generally called, went up to Baltimore, 
as quickly as he could, and, probably because he had very 
good reasons to urge, which he could better present iii a per- 
sonal interview, remained there, with the bishop's sanction, 
attending the Germans, and faithfully fulfilling his priestly 
duties through many trials and annoyances. In the summer 
following his ordination, Mrs. John Burgeons, a Protestant 
woman, living beyond the limits of civilization, a week's 
journey from Baltimore, by unbroken forests, and now and 
then an Indian path, far up the Alleghany mountains, was 
taken very ill, and begged so hard to see a Catholic priest, 
that Mrs. Luke McGuire, a good Catholic neighbor, in com- 
pany with another person, undertook the long and dangerous 
journey .to Conewago to find one who would be able and wil- 
ling to visit her. The message came to Mr. Gallitzin, and 
ho hastened to join the good Samaritans, and carry the 
strengthening sacraments of the Church, to the stranger in 
the wilderness. Mrs. McGuire fretted very much at the 


many delays necessarily incident to the journey, fearing the 
woman would die before they could reach her, but she was ' 
comforted and made confident by the priest's assurance that 
if Mrs. Burgeons so desired to see a priest, as they said, 
God, who had certainly given her the desire, would not per- 
mit her to die until it was fulfilled. His words were so far 
made good that she recovered her health, after being in- 
structed and received into the Church, and lived a good 
Catholic life for many years afterwards. His coming' was 
hailed with joy by the few families scattered in that un- 
broken country, to which only at long intervals a priest had 
ever penetrated. He said Mass in the principal loghouse of 
the settlement, administered baptism to a number of children, 
and even one or two grown persons, exhorted them all to 
faith, prayer, courage, and perseverance, and, having a 
liberal allowance from his mother, his father since he had 
chosen to be a priest did not interest himself in furthering- 
his temporal affairs, he considered it not a bad investment, 
and, perhaps, a kindly act, to purchase a quantity of land on 
the mountain for himself. 

Eeturning, he remained in. Baltimore until sometime iirthe 
year 1796, when he fulfilled the bishop's original design by 
taking an active part in what was called the Conewago 
mission, visiting from this central point Taneytown, Pipe 
Creek, Hagarstown, and Cumberland in Maryland, not far from 
the Pennsylvania border; Chambersburg, Path and Shade- 
Valley, Huntingdon, and even the Alleghany mountains in 
Pennsylvania. In Maryland his congregations were mainly 
English speaking people, which forced him to a greater 
fluency in the English language. In Pennsylvania, espe- 
cially in the neighborhood of Chambersburg, the greatest' 
ignorance prevailed, accompanied, as usual, by prejudice, 
bigotry, and persecution. Mr. Brosius attending the same 
mission, was looked upon with such horror, being known to 
be a Catholic priest, that he was in danger of his life, at one 
time, and only saved himself from a party of pursuing" bigotSj 
by the superior speed of an excellent horse, which enabled* 

him to take refuge at the house of Mr. Michael Stillinger, a- 


good Catholic, residing at Chambersburg, in whose home the 
priests often said Mass before a church could be built, and 
Mr. Galjitzin, "timid Mitri," accustomed to the quiet and 
orderly vicinity of Muenster and Angelmodde had many a 
dangerous journey to face upon his missions. 

In the summer of 1191 reports having accumulated at 
Conewago of mysterious, perhaps diabolical performances in 
Virginia, he was relieved for a time of his laborious mission, 
and deputed to visit the scene and investigate the truth of 
the reports. He did so with readiness, not having the least 
faith in them, and no belief whatever in any but a natural 
cause for all that, since then, has become familiar to us un- 
der the general head of Spiritism. He remained in Virginia 
from September until Christmas, dividing .his time* between 
the houses of Mr. Livingston and Mr. Richard McSherry, and 
"no lawyer in a court of justice," he wrote, years afterwards, 
to Mrs. Doll, daughter of Mr. McSherry, "did ever examine 
and cross-examine witnesses [more] than I did all the wit- 
nesses I could procure. I spent several days in penning 
down the whole account, which, on my return to Conewago, 
was .read with the greatest interest, and handed down from 
one to another, till, at last (when I wanted it back), it could 
no longer be found." 

These things caused the greatest excitement at the time, 
and many accounts, more or less mingled with reports 
and recollections of those who knew the original persons 
concerned, have since been published. Father Gallitzin 
spent many happy days in the pious and agreeable society 
of the Catholic families mentioned, and bore witness to these 
manifestations. He very soon came to a full belief in the 
presence of the evil spirit, and possibly it was from this early 
contest with the devil in such material form, that he received, 
and never afterwards could overcome, a nervous dislike of 
ever again encountering him. . 

This occured in Jefferson County, at a village called 
Middleway, since changed, on account of what there took 
place, to Cliptown, near Martinsburg, Virginia. Some seven 
or eight years previously, Mr. Adam Livingston, a Penn- 


sylvaniau by birth, of Dutch descent, and a Lutheran in 
religion, an honest, industrious farmer, moved with his 
large family from Pennsylvania to Middleway, and soon ac- 
quired a handsome property there. He was kind, generous, 
and hospitable; it was said that a poor Irish traveller, a 
Catholic, being- ill while in Livingston's neighborhood, was 
taken into his house, carefully nursed and attended through 
his last sickness, and properly buried. The only thing Mr. 
Livingston refused to do for the sick man, was to send for a 
priest for him ; he had never seen one, and in' common with 
the generality of his class, had probably very extraordinary 
ideas of Catholic priests, many actually believing they were 
the living emissaires of Satan, that they had horns, like their 
master, and various other equally enlightened fancies,- noth- 
ing, therefore, could induce any of the Livingstons to accede 
to the dying man's entreaty; and this through no hardness of 
heart, it must be understood, for they were all of kindly dis- 
position, but because to them the request was absurd, of no 
consequence, and a great deal better disregarded. 
* Soon after this death, and this refusal, Mr. Livingston 
appeared to be given over to the buffetings of Satan in good 
earnest; his barns got on fire and burned down, nobody 
knew how; his horses and cattle died; his clothing and those 
of his family, their beds and bedding were either burnt up, 
or cut into strips so small they could never be mended or put 
together again, generally in little pieces in the shape of a 
crescent. Boots, saddles, harness, all shared the same fate; 
chunks of fire rolled over .the floors without any apparent 
cause; all conceivable noises tormented their ears; their fur- 
niture was banged about at the most inconvenient times, 
their crockery dashed to the floor, and broken to atoms. 
These things depriving them of sleep, 'torturing their nerves, 
and terrifying their very souls, very soon reduced the family 
to the depths of physical and mental distress, while they 
aroused the whole neighborhood to* horror and sympathetic 
advice. Livingston sent far and wide for ministers of all pet- 
suasions, for conjurors of all kinds, to come and lay the devil, 
but the evil one gave them most inhospitable reception, 


mingled with a malice so minute, and yet so overpowering, 
that it actually seemed as if he and all his imps were laugh- 
ing at them. The ministers' tracts and the conjurors' riddles 
were flung about the house, and -treated one with as little 
respect as the other, and when it was thought the reverend 
gentlemen had talked long enough, a great stone, apparently 
kicked down the fireplace, brought their exhortations to. a 
sudden end, and so terrified them' that they unceremoniously 
departed. Less meddlesome visitors, as they might have 
been considered, were hardly any better treated, one old 
Presbyterian lady, says Father Gallitzin*, told a company at 
a tea-party that "having heard of the clipping, to satisfy her 
curiosity she went to Livingston's house; however, before 
entering it, she took her new black silk cap off her head, 
wrapped it up in her silk handkerchief, and put it in her 
pocket, to save it from being clipped. After a while she 
stepped out again to go home, and having drawn the hand- 
kerchief out of her pocket, and opened it, she found her 'cap 
cut into ribbands." 

In this hopeless misery Mr. Livingston was permitted, -we 
may, perhaps, be allowed to fancy on account of his hospi- 
tality to the poor traveller, to have a dream so remarkable 
'and so vivid that it was more like a vision : he dreamed he 
had toiled up a rugged mountain, climbing it with the great- 
est difficulty; at the top of the mountain he saw a beautiful 
church, and in the church, a man dressed in a style he had 
never seen before ; while he was gazing upon this person, a 
voice said to him: "This is the man who will bring you relief." 
He related this dream to his wife and many other persons, 
one of whom told him that the dress he described as worn by 
the minister of his dream, was precisely like that worn by 
the Catholic priests, and advised him to try one of them. 
But Livingston, discouraged at so many failures, paid little 
attention to this advice, until importuned by his wife he 
made enquiries to learn where one could be found; somebody 
inew of a Catholic family, named McSherry, living near 

Letter to Mrs. Doll. 


Leetown, where he would be likely to find one. ' His troubles 
increasing, his wife entreating, and the conviction forcing 
itself into his own head that a Catholic priest could not 
work him much more evil than he was already enduring, in- 
duced him to go to Mr. McSherry's, and try. Mrs. McSherry 
met him at the gate of her residence, and asked him his 
errand, he told her he would like to see the priest, to which 
slie replied that there was no priest there, but one would be 
at Shepherdstown to say Mass the next Sunday. Mr. Liv- 
ingston went to Shepherdstown at the time she told him, and 
the moment the priest, Rev. Dennis Cahill, came out upon 
the altar to say Mass, Mr. Livingston was so affected that 
he cried out before the people: "The very man I saw in my 
dream!" He remained during the service in the greatest 
agitation, and as soon as the priest had retired into the sa- 
cristy followed him, accompanied by Mr. Eichard McSherry, 
and an Italian gentleman, Mr. Minghini, who kept a boarding 
.house at Sulphur Springs, who were among the most pro- 
minerit men of Mr. Cahill's mission, had heard the exclama- 
tion, and knew somewhat of the circumstances. But no 
sooner had Mr. Livingston, with tears in his eyes, and chok- 
ing in his throat, made known his errand, than the bluff and 
hearty priest laughed at him, and. told him his neighbors 
were teasing him; to go home, to watch them closely, and 
they would soon get tired of the amusement. The other 
gentlemen, however, took up his case most earnestly, and 
insisted upon the priest's compliance; he very reluctantly 
yielded to them, at last, assured that it was all nonsense, 
loss of time, and a very unnecessary journey. 

When he reached the house, heard and saw pretty clear 
proofs of Livingston's story, he sprinkled the house with 
holy water, at which the disturbances ceased, for a time, and 
at the moment the priest was leaving, having one foot over 
the door-sill, a purse of money, which had disappeared some- 
time before, was laid between his feet. 

When Father Gallitzin was there, the disturbances having 
recommenced, he intended, as he related afterwards to Eev. 
Mr. Bradley, to exorcise the evil spirits for good and all, 

104 . 


but as he commenced, the rattling and rumbling-, as of in- 
numerable wagons, with which they filled the house, worked 
so upon his nerves that he could not command himself suf- 
ficiently to read the exorcism, so that he was obliged t to 
go for Kev. Mr. Cahill, a man of powerful nerve, and hearty 
faith, who returned with him to Livingston's, and bidding all to 
kneel down, commanded the evil spirits to leave the house, 
without doing any injury to any one there; after a stubborn 
resistance on the part of the devil, they were finally conquer- 
ed and compelled to obey the priest. Afterwards, Mr. Cahill 
said Mass there, and there was no more trouble. Father 
Gallitzin carried a trunk full of clothing, which had been 
cut to pieces during this period of destruction, back to Cone- 
wago, where they have been seen, even of late years, by 
eminent priests, who have added their testimony to the 
truth of these occurences. 

Among these clothes, however, are said to have been one 
or two garments marked in quite a different manner, one 
bearing the impress as of a hand burnt in the .cloth, the 
other an I. H. S. made in the same manner. For scarcely 
had the Livingston family been -relieved from the torments 
of the devil than they were visited by a consoling voice, 
whiclrrcmained with them for seventeen years. It has been 
supposed that this voice came, from some soul suffering in 
purgatory, for some reason permitted to visit, console, and, 
finally, to instruct the family. This may, perhaps, have 
been in return for the hospitality shown the poor Catholic, 
who died at their house. In gratitude, perhaps, for the 
relief he had received at the hands of a Catholic priest, and 
with perfect submission of his will to the truth of the Church 
which alone could cast out devils, Mr. Livingston desired, 
with a portion of his family, to be made a member of it, and 
after giving them the rudiments of instruction which were 
absolutely necessary, Mr. Cahill received them into the 
Church. Mrs. Livingston complied with this, but she was 
never sincerely converted, and always said she. was Judas. 
They had scarcely made their profession of faith, and heard 
one or two Masses, before a bright light awoke Mr. Liv- 

. 105 ' 

ingston, one night, and a clear, sweet voice told him to arise, 
call his family together and to pray. He did so, the hours 
passed as a moment, for the voice prayed with them leading 
their prayers. Then it spoke to them, in the most simple yet 
eloquent manner, of all the great mysteries of the Catholic 
faith to which they had assented, and which as far as they 
could, vaguely understanding them, they sincerely and firmly 
believed. But now these truths, dimly guessed at before, and 
accepted because the Church gave them, became clear, intel- 
ligible, fascinating, ever and ever more plain and more beau- 
tiful. Among other things which they coxild remember to 
repeat to others, the voice said that all the sighs and tears of 
the whole world were worth nothing in comparison with one 
Mass in which a God is offered to a God. It exhorted to bound- 
less devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary, continually implor- 
ed them to pray for the suffering souls in purgatory, whose 
agony the voice could never weary of describing, and once, 
in illustration of their pains, a burning hand was impressed 
upon some article of clothing, directly under the eyes of the 
family, while it was speaking. It also urged to hospitality, 
to simplicity in dress, it would reprove the least extravagance 
in which any of them might indulge, and induced them to- 
many vohintary penances, to long, strict fasts, to unbounded 
charity and to continual prayer. Mr. Livingston, to whom 
the voice more particularly addressed itself, was made its 
agent for innumerable good works ; he would be called up 
at night to'undertake long journeys to persons taken sudden- 
ly ill, or in affliction miles away ; he would receive messages 
without any explanation, which he was enjoined to give at 
once to different people, to whom they would prove of im- 
mense relief, of amazing prophecy, of timely warning. It 
foretold events, which were always verified, and explained 
the meaning of many others. 

It is said that while Father Gallitzin was investigating 
these matters, and was much concerned if they were of God 
or a delusive spirit, that startling proofs were given him that, 
at least, they were not of man, and that he was told of ter- 
rible trials, of slander, persecution, denunciation, of bitterest 

106 . 

deception and desertion in store for him, even circumstantial 
details, so far from anything he was likely to meet, that he 
could hardly understand, but did not fail to remember them, 
and, afterwards, they were verified to the letter. As the evil 
spirits cannot foresee the future, it evidently was from this 
voice that he received the communication. 

Upon one occasion Mr. Livingston and his family were to- 
gether in one room, when there appeared among them a 
young man very poorly clad, and, though it was a bitterly 
cold day, barefooted. They asked him where he came from, 
he answered : " Prom my father." 

" Where are you going ? " 

" I am going to my father," he said, " and I have come to 
you to teach you the way to him." 

He staid with them three days and three nights, instruct- 
ing them on all points of Christian doctrine. They asked 
him if he was not cold, offering him a pair of shoes, he re- 
plied that in his country there was neither heat nor cold. 
When he left the house the same idea occurred to each of them, 
that, as they had not noticed when he came in, they would 
watch and see what direction he took when going away. 
They saw him go into a lot in the front of the house and 
then disappear. 

At that time there was no priest settled in the neighbor- 
hood, and very few Catholic books to be had even in the 
. large cities, but Bishop Carroll, Mr. Gallitzin, Mr. Brosius, Mr. 
Cahill, and Father Pellentz, and other clergymen who conversed 
with Mr. Livingston, were astonished at his knowledge of 
the Catholic religion, and were all convinced that he had 
been instructed from above. 

Mrs. Livingston heard the voice of'tener than the others, 
and endeavored by every means in her power to falsify it. 
Among other things, it had said she would die in her own 
house ; she was so often rebuked by it that she would not 
stay at home, but went to the house of a quaker family ; while 
there she became ill,' and to prove the voice wrong, positively 
refused to be taken home, but, afterwards, she was forced to beg 
to be carried back, and died in her own house, as predicted. 


Fourteen persons were converted in one winter by these 
things, which were well known and widely discussed ; others, 
influenced by the account of them, received clearer impres- 
sions of the reality of another world, of the close proximity 
of the evil one, and of the intimate union between the Church 
militant and the Church suffering 1 , from which they were 
moved to the serious practice of virtue, and to endeavor to live 
as they would wish to die. 

Prince Gallitzin, having fully and thoroughly satisfied 
himself of the nature of these different manifestations, returned 
to Conewago, and took up again the burden of his missions. 
There had been from the first much to dishearten him in these, 
and to tempt him to despair of ever effecting any good amo'ng 
them, especially those in 'Maryland. All seeined to him, 
started on a false basis, and in the spirit of the world, not of 
Christ ; how to " make all things new," would have been a 
problem hard enough to solve if he had been left to do it his 
own way. But this he by no means could do, and he had 
many an affront to bear from those who, instead of placing 
obstacles in his way, should have shown themselves gentle 
and docile children of the Church, eager to second all his 
efforts to bring a better-soul life among them, as well as a 
temporal one more in consonance with spiritual ordering. In 
his Maryland congregations were men of little education, of 
no refinement, and often of immensurablc conceit, fully imbued 
with the idea that independence for America meant license 
for all who, by fair means or by foul, could get a hold upon 
her soil ; men who believed that not to have borne arms 
against America entitled them to own and to rule her, who 
fancied that to read, possibly to write, gave them the pro- 
nouncing voice upon all the sciences, who having a few 
phrases of the letter of the law, cared nothing for its spirit, 
and seemed to consider that loudly trumpeting themselves 
Catholics, constituted them the main body of the Church. 
One or two of these in one place is always quite enough to 
leaven the whole community. 

Now, Father Gallitzin was intensely Catholic ; the whole 
order of his mind, the deepest recesses of his soul, the very 



moulding of his spirit, all was thoroughly, strictly Catholic ;- . 
he had also, as if by natural instinct, cultivated to the perfec- 
tion of a science, a clear conception of what a Catholic com- 
munity should be, and no idea nor place for an idea of the 
concession of right to expediency ; he had fixed opinions of 
organization, of regularity and thorough-searching discipline,, 
the confused, slovenly, slip-shod way in which' communities- 
came together at that early and drifting period, was a posi- 
tive torture to him, the more so that all attempts to bring 
order among them were readily resented as oiit of his prov- 
ince ; the interference of laymen and their dictation in Church 
matters was an abomination to him, to which he would never 
yield, not only because of its momentary hatcfulness, but. 
because he saw in it the germ of that system which has since 
borne such bitter fruit of schism and scandal, has weighed', 
priests, even bishops, to the dust, imperilled, if it has not lost 
many an immortal soul, and even then was beginning to vex the 
heart of many a struggling missionary, already overburdened, 
with the charge of his weak and fickle flock. A\ r hen all these-, 
things culminated, as they naturally must, in indifference to- 
religion, in lack of reverence for the sacredness of its minis- 
ters and sacraments, in disregard of all authority spiritual 
or temporal, then he who had seen what such irreverence 
and insubordination had done for Europe, deluging it in 
blood and tears, turned sick at heart, and felt overpowered 
by his responsibility ; but when this evil spirit manifested it- 
self, with more or less consciousness, in the House of God,, 
bis wrath knew no bounds. If that House were no more ele- 
gant than a stable, he demanded in it the reverence, the hush, 
the decorum and ceremony of the king's palace. In all things 
pertaining to religion and his own sacred office, he was un- 
bending, all exacting, superbly just, making no allowance 
for natures lame and twisted, coarse and crooked ; for him there 
was but one thing to think of : the surest way to get to hea- 
ven ; he would not take into consideration that everybody 
else was not so much absorbed in that thought as himself. 

Thus he was very unhappy, and, burning to bring the- 
whole world to the feet of his Master, had no mercy on the 


faint-hearted or irresolute, and was inclined to class all who did 
not run with him, as laggards, cowards, and traitors ; to them 
his rules . seemed arbitrary, and they soon made their opinion 
known to the bishop who, perhaps, favored them more than he 
would have done, had he seen as clearly as the young priest the 
overtopping evils that spring from an irregular foundation ; at 
the same time his long experience, his patience, and kindly heart 
were certainly justified in admonishing Father Gallitzin to 
scentler measures. 



October 20. 1798. 

As I see both sides of my people, I understood 'the whole 
.affair (of their complaints) at once, and gave them no hear- 
ing, but sent them home with the admonition to do their duty 
and be obedient to their pastor ; however, I will soon, during 
my visitation, come to Taney town, and investigate the matter. 
Of my own personal views in your regard, I said nothing to 
them, I will mention them to you. I have already often ad- 
monished you, and others in whom you have perhaps placed 
more confidence, have urged you to try more to win the af- 
fections of your congregations, to lead them by mildness, even 
here and there, to overlook things which are not precisely as 
they should be, that afterwards you may correct them by 
gentle persuasion, instead of at once making use of your 
authority, and to carry that authority to its utmost limits. I 
repeat this exhortation, and assure you that I have generally 
found this the best and most effectual way of doing, although, 
the opposite course might for the moment create more excite- 
ment, and more noisy applause, especially from those who 
are not for the moment the immediate objects of a hot and 
impatient zeal. And then, what a doctrine it is that all who 
are under your charge, should be bound also to yield to every 
opinion you may have, to every proposal you make, without 
being permitted a question ! If this were intended to be so, 
"why should there be bishops placed over priests, arch-bishops 

* Rev. Mr. Lemcke's Leben und Wlrken, p. 147. 

110 - 

and patriarchs over bishops, and over all the pope ? Do not 
these degrees of the hierarchy show plainly an admission 
that each may judge wrongly, and his decision be subject to 
revision ? 

Evidently Mitri had inbibed a little of his mother's 

There was nothing that Father Gallitzin more desired than 
to fulfill the bishop's instructions and guide his people by 
mildness and affection, but the task seemed to him hopeless, 
for everything was wrong, according to his thinking, and al- 
though he continued to do his utmost, it was' only by the 
strongest 'effort of duty, for he despaired of accomplishing 
anything among them, and when one is but twenty-five or so,. 
one does not like to throw one's life away. But he, too, had 
to learn that no life is thrown away that is used as God ap- 
points ; --the evils he contended with and could not master,, 
actually broke open the door for the good he longed for, and 
was some day to do. He had first to learn what to reject 
before he could be be taught what to secure. 

Deliverance came to him at last. The scattered settlers 
on the mountains, amounting to ten or twelve families form- 
ing the settlement, generally known, as McGuire's, sometimes 
called Clearfielcl, where he had visited the sick woman, to 
which he had since made several jo'urneys, in conjunction 
with others in their neighborhood, sent a petition to the 
bishop, begging that a priest might be appointed to reside 
among them, trusting that with the aid of some land previ- 
ously given to Bishop Carroll for church property, and such 
tithes as they could give him, the priest might be able to 
provide for his physical subsistance, while he cared for their 
spiritual needs. Several of the petitioners had come from Mary- 
land, having been within Mr. Gallitzin's mission previous to 
their removal to the mountains, and, therefore, sent their peti- 
tion through him, entreating that, if comforrnable to his own 
wishes, he might be the pastor chosen for them. 

He made this request his own and the bishop cordially 
acceded to it. 



Washington City, March 1. 1799. 
. Rev. and Dear Sir, 

I fear yon have been disappointed in not receiving an ear- 
lier answer to your letter which covered a list of subscribers 
in Clearfield, Frankstown, and Sinking Valley. I had come 
hither on business immediately before the arrival of yours at 
Baltimore. Your request is granted. I readily consent to 
your proposal to take charge of the congregations detailed 
in yours, and hope that you will have a house built on the 
land granted by Mr. McGuire and already settled [cleared ?] 
or if more convenient on your own, if you intend to keep it. 
. . . . Before I received yours my intention was to advise 
you of the notice lately given me by Mr. Egan, that he would 
return to Ireland in the spring or summer. I meant to have 
oifered to you with j'our present congregations that of Em- 
metsburg and the mountain (now Mount St. Mary's) united 
in one. . . '. 

y John Bsp. Baltimore. 

Thus sanctioned by his bishop, called by the people, and 
urged on by a voice higher than all, with renewed hope and 
burning desire to be at his life.'s work, the young priest lost 
no time in making preparations, but packed up his few pos- 
sessions, mounted his horse, and turned his face north- 
westward, " over the hills and far away," to found a Catholic 
community on the lasting basis of Catholic virtue and true 
religious simplicity. 

He was succeeded at Taneytown by Rev. Nicholas Zocchi, 
a zealous, active priest, born and educated in Rome, who 
served the Maryland and Pennsylvania missions with untir- 
ing devotion and faithfulness for forty-one years, through 
the greatest trials, which he met with unfailing cheerfulnes. 
He died in 1845. 



Catholic missions in Pennsylvania. Philadelphia. Conev/ago. 
Goshenhoppen. Lancaster. O'Neill's Victory. Sportsman's 
Hall. McGuire's Settlement. Reception of missionaries by the 
early settlers. Poverty of the missions. Pastoral residence at 
McGiiire's Settlement. Midnight Mass in the new church. 

From Maryland, the headquarters of the Church in Ameri- 
ca, an English Jesuit, Rev. Josiah Greaton, went, in 1730, 
to Philadelphia, the colonial capital, to which there had pre- 
viously been irregular visits from different clergymen, . to 
effect a permanent church organization there. Prom Philadel- 
phia, in 1741, the Jesuits sent out two priests, one, Rev. Wil- 
liam Wappeler, a Westphalian, to minister to the Catholics 
at Conewago, a settlement 'considerably west of Philadel- 
phia, and north of Baltimore, the other, Rev. Theodore 
Schneider, of Bavaria, to officiate for the German emigrants 
at Goshenhoppen, aboiit forty-five miles west of the city. 
Midway between these new missions Father Wappeler 
bought some land at Lancaster, looking to a future church 
there. From these two mission-headquarters, as they might 
be styled, the two priests, their rare clerical visitors, and 
later, their assistants and successors, made excursions, at 
long intervals, some distance into the wild country beyond 
civilization, to carry the consolations of religion to such 
as they could reach among the hardy pioneers, who, the axe 
and the rifle their almost sole protection and support, were 
striving to earn thejr bread with the sweat of their brow, 
hardly surmising even, that far to the east, and north, and 


.south of them, drums were beating a battle call to the colo- 
nists, and an army, small -and scantily provisioned, was mak- 
ing a nation for them, unfurling over their toil worn heads 
a flag of protection before which the oldest tyrants of earth 
should be made mute, while another army, scantier still, 
with no roll of drums or blare of trumpets, silently closing 
up its ever-gaping ranks, was marching to their eternal 
rescue, to plant side by side with the Banner of Freedom the 
.Standard of the Cross. 

' Some time after the close of the Revolutionary war, a 
.small number of families from the vicinity of Philadelphia, 
thinking they could thus improve their worldly fortunes, 
crossed the Alleghany mountains, and 'settled in "Westmore- 
land County, near the present town of Greensburg, having 
first obtained a promise that they should not be forsaken in 
their spiritual needs, but that a priest should now and then 
be sent to them. Almost their first act Avas to obtain (March 
1189), afrthe cost of a few shillings, something over an acre 
of land, to be used, some day, for church ground, and a 
.graveyard. Shortly afterwards, in accordance Avith the pro- 
.mise made them, llev. John Causey came and remained a 
while with them; he is believed to haA 7 e been the first priest 
to officiate in Western Pennsylvania*. Mr. Causey was 
succeeded in the autumn of 1789 by EeA r . Theodore Brauers, 
a Dutch Franciscan, possessed of some considerable means, 
Avhich desiring to use for the poor AV!IO Averc Avithout a 
church decided him to cast his lot Avith the little band of 
pioneers, notwithstanding the entreaties of the trustees of 
St. Mary's church in Philadelphia, whose pastor, ERA-. Mr. 
Heilbron, he Avas visiting, to remain in the city. 

* There were French chaplains, however, attached to the forts erected 
by the French in 17531754: to guard the Valley of the Ohio, which 
they claimed as their own, who undoubtedly celebrated Mass on the 
western borders of the state, for the few years the French retained pos- 
session. Of these forts, Fort Presqu'isle stood on the site of the present 
city of Erie, and Fort Duquesne, afterwards, when it came into the 
possession of the English, called Fort Pitt, has now given place to Pitts- 
burg. See Shea's History of ihe Catholic Church in the United States, p. 275, 


Mr. Brauers made two land purchases, one of one hundred 
and sixty two acres on the east side of the Loyalhanna, 
known as "O'Neill's Victory", and the other of something 
over three hundred acres, not very far from Greensburg, 
which as it had been used as a hunting ground by a gentle- 
man from Harrisburg, was rather grandly styled "SPORTS- 
MAN'S HALL". His great dream and desire in regard to the 
latter purchase was that it might become a. second Cone- 
wago, the residence of devoted priests, the headquarters of 
an army of religious who from it would attend the surround- 
ing missionary stations, which would, he hoped, sometime 
arise in the then unbroken country. He wished to bequeath 
the land to his spiritual successors, duly appointed, with the 
desire that they should every year say one Mass for the re- 
pose of his soul and three for his intention; but his will was 
so worded by the person who drew it up, as -to leave room 
for confusion, until its was finally settled with much clear- 
ness and force by the Pennsylvania courts, in accordance with 
its real meaning*. His desire after many years of trial and 
distress, has at last, in God's own time, been abundantly 
fulfilled, with good measure and pressed down and shaken to- 
gether and running over, for "O'Neill's Victory", is now well 
supplied and cared for, and "Sportsman's Hall "is covered 'by 
the Abbey of St. Vincent, from which in twenty-five years 
many priests have gone forth to carry the blessings of the 
faith, far and wide into the surrounding country. 

After the death of Air. Brauers (Oct. 29th 1790) his flock 
was a fold without a shepherd, into which wolves and hire- 
lings easily penetrated, and remained in great spiritual des- 
titution until 1799, when trouble apppeared, for a time, to be 
at an end. 

Some years before these few families left the neighborhood 
of Philadelphia, to seek a home in the r unbroken wilderness 

* A fuller account of this famous will, and of the extremely interest- 
ing, litigation in regard to it; with some details of events and places 
which can properly be only touched upon in passing, in this book, is 
reserved for a sketch of Catholicity in "Western Pennsylvania with which 
the writer trusts to follow <he present volume at some future day. 


beyond the mountains, an officer of the Revolutionary army, 
Captain Michael McGuire, a Catholic residing in Taneytown, 
Maryland, being a great hunter, and fond of making expedi- 
tions far into the interior of Pennsylvania, took up land on 
the very summit of the Alleghanies, to which, in 1788, he 
went with his family to live. The journey alone was enough 
to have dismayed the stoutest heart ; hitherto Conewago had 
been the extreme limit of travel, from it to the spot chosen 
by the hunter for his new residence, "one hundred and thirty 
miles, or so, had to be made through wild forests, on horse- 
back, with no resemblance of a road, and the brush so thick 
that he would have to cut a passage as he went, only now 
and then encountering an Indian path over which the moss 
had by no means grown, suggestive of terrible possibilities. 
Four or five years afterwards, the captain's brother, Peter, 
with his bride, followed him from Maryland, and before a 
great while six log huts, with roofs of evergreen, standing 
on the little .patches of land cleared by the stout arms of half 
a dozen stalwart men, formed McGuire's settlement. Their 
first, and for many years their only near neighbors were the 
settlers at Blairs Mill's, twelve miles away, with a dense for- 
est between. Captain McGuire lost no time in providing for 
the church, for which his wonderful faith alone could have 
given him hopes,and took up four hundred acres of land 
which he made over to Bishop Carroll, who had just been 
consecrated, and returned to the United States. During the 
troubles attending Father Brauer's will, many families intend- 
ing to join tlie first settlement at the present Greerisburg, ' 
discouraged at the religious situation there, disheartened 
perhaps by the fearftd trials "of the journey, or induced by 
the advantages of climate and abundance of land, scattered 
themselves in the woods all along from Conewago to Greens- 
burg, toiling away with little hope of ever beholding the 
shining cross of a church-spire above the dark immeasurable 
forests closing about them, like a great sea, on every side. 
Only a brave and resolute priest could venture to seek them 
out in their scattered and isolated homes, but when one did 

so, he was received as an emperor by his subjects, a long 


lost father by bis children. Long before the most experienced 
vision could descry the faintest sign of a human habitation, 
even of human existence, in any direction, it would already 
be known, as if by magic, that a priest was coming ; some 
uncouthly arrayed, shy and curious child would dart like a 
squirrel from the thicket, admonished to show him the way, 
and suddenly, in the midst of frowning woods there Avould 
be seen the chips of a tree newly cut, and the slow smoke 
from a little log cabin, where, wiping tears of joy from her 
eyes, some lonely woman was hastening to prepare such a 
meal as the limited resources of the wilderness would per- 
mit, while her husband, tramping in from his toil, added his 
welcome. How the news would travel for miles through 
the woods was always a mystery, but it never lagged. Soon, 
children who had never seen a priest were gathered and 
brought for baptism, starting long before daybreak, and iu 
the morning by dangerous passes, over unbroken ways, the 
pioneers would come, once again to roll off the burden of 
their sins and sorrows, and, in the one room of the cabin 
which served all purposes, an altar would be constructed of 
rudest materials, the priest's saddlebags unpacked, and Mass 
said with the same ceremony, and the same efficacy, .as if the 
tall trees, standing straight and stern about the door, were 
marble columns, and the blue sky far over-head, were an old 
time Gothic arch. No happier day for them until the far 
away time, when the ring of the axe upon the happy logs 
that promise a house for the Lord in their midst, shall fill 
their hearts with exultation, a thrilling sense of His nearness 
and protection. 

Thus Mr. Brosius once or twice made the pilgrimage from 
Conewago to McGuire's settlement, and Father Pellentz even 
to the settlers at Greensburg, after Father Brauer's death. 
During the years of troubles consequent upon the famous 
will, the bishop requested the Rev. Mr. Lanigan to make 
some investigations "about it, which would be useful in his 
suit against the intruding priest, Mr Fromrn,.who persisted 
in remaining on Father Brauer's estate, and, later, desired Eev. 
Mr. Wheeling, or Whelan, to attend to the spiritual necessi- 


tics of this poor little flock, which he did for a short time, 
living in the greatest destitution, and most miserable poverty r 
until the bishop permitted him to go to another mission. When 
Mr. Brosius visited McGuire's Settlement, he set apart a por- 
tion of the ground donated by Captain McGuire, and con- 
secrated it for a cemetery, although as yet unneeded. When. 
Mr. Lanigan visited " Sportsman's Hall" and " O'Neill's Victo- 
ry," he, too, staid a few days at the Settlement, said Mass in the 
captain's cabin, and, distressed at'seeing cattle on consecrated 
ground, had the men and boys band together to enclose it. 

Too soon afterwards, November 17. 1796, Captain McGuire 
like Father Braucrs, found a final resting place in the land 
lie had given the Church. 

" Their good swords rust, 

Their souls are with the saints, we trust." 

Priest and layman, each did his best ; they were the first 
in Western Pennsylvania to provide means for the Church to 
plant herself there, and right royally has she availed herself 
of those means. 

After these, Mr. Gallitzin came,- received the sick woman 
into the Church, said Mass in the old chiefs house, and bore 
back with him, whether ho knew it or not, the germ of the 
thought, over which the sun shone, and the winds blew, 
until, four years later, it ripened into the purpose of his life. 

Thus, in 1799, the bishop had the -happiness of seeing these 
two remote settlements provided for, for in this same year 
Mr. Heilbron,. a staid old campaigner who had been a soldier 
in Europe, who now always rode on his missions with his pis- 
tols in his belt, his rifle over his shoulder, and his stole, it 
may be, pressed close to the heart that at any moment might 
be called upon to defend the insignia of his office with the 
last drop of its blood, and Prince Gallitzin, the young recruit, 
full of fire and vigor, went out into the wilderness, and 
divided between them a wild and inhospitable region, which 
now rich and beautiful, fair as a garden of the Lord, teems 
with pleasant homes and happy harvest fields, with churches, 
monasteries, and convents, and boasts of three well worn 
mitres and a corps of most admirable priests and religious. 


Father Gallitzin. reached his mission in the latter part of 
the summer. He found about a dozen families in the settle- 
ment who, with a few persons who had come up from Mary- 
land and Conewago with him at about the same time, formed 
his immediate parish, but his labors were by no means to be 
confined to them, for all who were out of reasonable reach of 
Conewago, or had strayed away from the Greensburg settle- 
ment were under his charge. At.McGuire's Settlement he 
commenced at once to put things in order, thankful enough 
that as yet the field was unploughed, consequently, free from 
the tares, which had so choked up the wheat, and tortured him, 
in the older and more important stations he had attended. 
He at once divided his own land/ which cost him about four 
dollars an acre, into lots which he sold to them for a mere 
trifle on long credit, credit so long that nruch of it still lasts, 
and he held out the same inducements for all, who, unable 
to procure the first means for subsistance, would wish to 
join him, and make a home for themselves and their children 
in his neighborhood, providing always that they were honest, 
industrious or desirous of becoming so ; he wanted no 
wolves in sheep's clothing in his fold. No words could des- 
cribe the poverty of all the early missions, especially in 
Pennsylvania; Conewago and Goshenhoppen, even, would have 
had to be given up, but for the little assistance which the 
more comfortable Marylanders could afford them when they 
were in great straits, and the aid which came at times from 
the legacy of an English Catholic, Sir John James. Mr. 
"Whelan wrote letters to the bishop which would be piteous 
if the misery they describe were not so abject, and 
others from other places speak of continual hunger, of almost 
starvation, and inconceivable hardships. There was not a 
single rich Catholic, perhaps hardly a well to do man of any 
creed, in that part of the state, to ease in the least the terrible 
pressure of want. Bears and wolves and wild Indians sur- 
rounded them, keeping them always on the watch ; the winters 
were long and severe, but somehow they kept heart and hope, 
and when Rev. Mr. Gallitzin came to share with them such 
remittances as he would from time to time receive from his 


mother, they had reason to be wonderfully cheered. It was 
not long, indeed, before it was seen that a whole new life had 
come, not only to McGuire's Settlement, which was. in com- 
parative ease, but to all the settlers within sixty miles at 
least, with this frail young priest, whose rapid ringing step 
once heard could never be forgotten, and whose flashing dark 
eyes were at once the delight, the terror, and the inspiration 
of every man, woman, and child of his congregation. His 
gravity and reserve, often mistaken for coldness and haugh- 
tiness, gradually gave way before the joy of his fceart in hav- 
ing at last cast aside the trammels of all false societies, and 

o ^ * 

his tender love for these great men, giants in strength and 
stature many of them, to whom his look was a law, his least 
word a treasure, added a peculiar sweetness to his natural 
dignity. He was everywhere, saw everything at a glance, 
planned and acted without an instant's hesitation ; yoivng, 
handsome, with most soldierly bearing, with a bright smile, 
and a cheerful word for every laborer, he would go 
from one to another, as they worked, making any toil light 
by his very presence, partaking of whatever they gave him, 
with real thanks, and perfect courtesey, attentive to their 
least trouble, the very ideal of a prince-priest. 

When he arrived he found that Captain McGuire had very 
thoughtfully given a few animals as* stock for the farm to be 
prepared for the use of the priest who should live on the 
church property, and had placed a man in charge of it and 
them, hoping thus to have a portion cleared, and made some 
what productive while awaiting its reverend occupant. 
Father Gallitzin gave some of these to the tenant whom he 
displaced, and lived in the houses of the settlers until his 
own log cabin could be built. This was put up on the slope 
of the hill, on the church land, which was about two miles 
from the chief McGuire farm, was made of round logs, and 
covered a space of some sixteen by fourteen feet, and for 
the first time in all his life the princely heir to grand old 
castles and entire villages, set foot upon his own threshold; 
and if " every man's house is his castle," truly, his was his 
palace and his kingdom. 


With uncontrollable eagerness he watched the progress 
of the log church, which fast took size and shape under the 
strong and willing arms of his parishioners, his own inspira- 
tion and generosity. As soon as the harvest was gathered 
he gave employment to them all upon the church, and even 
had the women occupied in making a great number of 
candles for it, and on Christmas Eve of that year it was 
finished, placed under the protection of St. Michael, and 
ready for ' Midnight Mass, the only house of God from Lan- 
caster to St. fjouis. The snow lay Avaist-decp beside it, and 
far as the eye could reach around it; the stars shone over it 
bright, and cold, and pure, as on that other December night 
over the scarcely poorer stable at Bethlehem. He had in- 
structed the men to bring in brandies of the beautiful ever- 
green trees, which grew thick upon the mountains and at 
their very doors, the women set their candles amongst the 
dark green foliage, covering the rude walls, and just at 
midnight, when the people who had gathered from immense 
distances through the wilderness of snow, were hushed in 
wrapt expectation, he came out upon the altar, with all the 
ceremony of the grandest cathedral, and intoned the Mass; 
he was a magnificent singer, those who remember Avipe their 
eyes' when they speak of it, and never did the GLORIA Ix 
EXCELSIS corne more joyously and exultingly from his heart, 
or lips, than when he now, for .the first time, opened and 
gave to the Holy Family a shelter from the storms, a refuge- 
in the wilderness, a home on the mountains. Oh, Father 
Gallitzin, much has been said of your sacrifices, your renun- 
ciation of princely rank, fortune, fame, comfort and ease, but 
with all the world at your feet, what could it offer you to 
compare with that magnificent, triumphant GLORIA! 

The church was small, yet the band o.f worshippers did not 
overcrowd it, even though, besides all the Catholics, men 
women, and children, living within twenty and thirty miles, 
there were present, that night, old hunters, trappers, and 
Indian traders, Avho knew of heaven and of God no more 
than the savages of the forests, with whom they dealt, and 
to- whom they bore wild and terrifying ressemblance. Dress- 


ed in the untanned hide of the animals they had killed, they 
looked on, wondering, staring- in mute amazement, not un- 
like the dumb creatures at Bethlehem, only vaguely surmis- 
ing* something' in themselves not known before, until the 
priest turning announced in stirring, ringing words, that 
God had -come to his people, that the heavens had opened 
and rained down the Just One; that earth was his cradle, our 
hearts his resting place, arid thus battered down the thrice 
plated iron doors of ignorance, poured sudden light into the 
close and swarming cavern of the flesh, and showed a soiled 
and starving soul, shivering, trembling, crouching with 
wild, terrified, hungry eyes, in its farthest corner; a soul the 
Child had come to cleanse, to dress, to adorn, to give food and 
nourishment, to raise to its feet, with head erect, strong and 
comely before the eyes of angels and of men. 

Shortly after the holidays Father Gallitzin had occasion 
to go to Concwago, for he was now full of business, so many 
were corning into the neighborhood of the " Clear Fields " or 
McGuire's Settlement, most of them very poor, every one of 
whom he held in his thoughts, anxious to provide for the 
spring planting on which their whole dependence was 
placed. From there he wrote to Bishop Carroll, mentioning 
very simply the completion of his house and church. 


Conewago, Feb. the 9th 1800. 
My Lord, 

Being just now returned from the backwoods, and hearing 
of James Driscoll's going to Baltimore, I cannot let this 
favourable opportunity slip to give your Lordship some brief 
account of the state of that part of the spiritual vineyard en- 
trusted to my care. I am sorry that I cannot be so diffuse 
as the importance of the subject seems to require; but the 
shortness of the time does not allow of it. 

Our church which was only begun in harvest, got finished 
fit for service the night before Christmas; it is about forty- 
four feet long by twenty-five, built of white pine logs, with 
a very good shingle roof. I kept service in it at Christmas 

122 ' 

for the first time, to the very great satisfaction of the whole 
congregation, who seemed very much moved at a sight which 
they never beheld before. There is also a house built for 
me, sixteen feet by fourteen, besides a little kitchen and a 
stable. I have now, thanks be to God, a little home of my 
own, for the first time since I came to this country, and God 
grant that I may be able to keep it. The prospect of form- 
ing a lasting establishment for promoting the cause of reli- 
gion is very great; the country is amazing fertile, almost 
entirely inhabited l>y Roman-Catholics, and so advantageous- 
ly situated with regard to market that there is no doubt but 
it will be a place of refuge for a great' many Catholics; a 
great many have bought property there in the course of 
these three months passed, and a good many more are ex- 
pected. The congregation consists at present of about forty 
families, but there is no end to the Catholics in all the 
settlements round about me ; what will become of them all,' if 
we do not soon receive a new supply of priests, I do not 
knoAV. I try as much as I can to persuade them to settle 
around me. 

I am at present in a tolerable state of health, though 
weak, but with the help of God, I hope from the healthfulness 
of'the country, and the quality of the provisions it affords, 
that I shall get stronger and abler to undergo hardships. If 
'the proximity of lent did not oblige me to return soon, and 
the season was more favourable, I would give myself the 
pleasure of paying your Lordship a visit; however, I shall 
go to Baltimore in May to receive my contingent in money, 
which will aiford me an opportunity of acquainting' you with 
every other circumstance relating to the above subjects. 

* * 


....Fearing to importune your Lordship any longer, I 
break off, and recommend myself to your prayers, begging 
that you would receive the assurance of the most profound 
respect with which I am, 

My Lord, 

Yr. most hble. and obt. Servt. 
Augustine de Gallitzin. 

123 . 

P. S. Your Lordship has very likely been informed of the 
miraculous conversion of Mrs. Minghini in Virginia, to which. 
I was called on a Thursday, January the 18th and who de- 
parted this life the next Monday, Jan. the 22nd, provided 
with all the rites of the Church. The particulars of it I shall 
relate to your Lordship when I come to Baltimore. 

Rev. Mr. Cahill resides this winter at Cumberland. I 

should be very happy to receive a few lines from your Lord- 

" ship before -I start, which will be, I believe, to-morrow week. 

Mrs. Minghini was the Protestant wife of the Italian 
gentleman who, it will be recollected, was the proprietor of 
a boarding-house at Sulphur Springs, Virginia. She had 
been ill for a long time, and troubled in mind on the subject 
of religion; the voice at Livingston's sent word to her hus- 
band to hare a Catholic priest visit her, but as he would 
have to send forty or fifty miles for one, he actually refused, 
saying she 'could send for her own preacher, when, as a Cath- 
olic, he must have known perfectly well the eternal conse- 
quences to him and herself if she died outside the Catholic 
Church, and that through his fault. A Presbyterian minister 
was accordingly sent for, and talked with her; but he only 
still more confused her. Mrs. McSherry then visited her, and 
found her very well disposed, perfectly ready and willing to 
do whatever was right; she repeated an act of contrition* 
with Mrs. McSherry, with every appearance of sincerity and 
penitence. When Mrs. McSherry was at home again her 
mind was full of the matter, and she could think of nothing 
else, being very uneasy about the woman, distressed at the 
thought of her dying outside the Church when evidently so 
willing to enter it. In the night she dreamt she saw a puny 
child strike an immense rock with a little stick, and the rock 
Instantly crumbled away. The dream made a great impres- 
sion upon her, but supposing it only a dream, to which she 
had no right to pay any attention, she said nothing about it, 
and tried to put it out of her mind, but quite early in the 
tlay Livingston (having heard nothing of the visit and 
<dream), sent his daughter to Mrs. McSherry to say that the 


voice liad told him the child in her dream was the act of con 
trition Mrs. Minghini had repeated, and that her sins had " 
crumbled away on account of it; the voice desired her to go 
again to Mr. Minghini, and try to induce him to send for a 
priest; that he would make many objections, but she must 
still urge it; at last he would say he had no one to send. . 
and she was to answer that one of Mr. Livingston's sons 
would go; it also said- that tfie messenger would meet two 
priests, Mr. Cahill and Mr. Smith (Gallitzin), but he was to 
procure Mr. Smith, he being the one intended for her, as hav- 
ing a gentler nature. All took place as the voice foretold; 
Mrs. McShcny went to Mr. Minghini and the messenger was 
finally sent for the priest, met two, and gave the word to . 
Father Gallitzin who went to Mrs. Minghini at once, received 
her into the Church, and gave her the sacraments, so that her.. - 
mind was at last at rest and her soul at peace. 



Early trials. Lack of sympathy in his projects. His austerities. 
Growth of the settlement. Lancaster. Eev, Louis cle Earth. Con- 
cerning the Russian property. Prince Gallitzin becomes an Ameri- 
can citizen. Conversion of Count von Stolberg. 

It is of no sort of use to expect to find, or to make a gar- 
den of Eden upon earth ; "the trail of the serpent is over it 
all." Disappointments and annoyances of the smallest and 
therefore most vexatiotis kind beset Father Gallitzin at the 
very outset of his career, and he had not yet advanced far 
enough in the way of perfection to be careless of their sting. 
It is possible he even shrank from the point at which no 
man's word would have power to hurt him ; for when we 
are crying- our eyes out over our brokcn'playthings, it is a 
dreary thought that a day may come when our toys will be 
chipped to nothing before our very eyes, exciting in us no re- 
gret. It is so hard forus children of earth, clinging to our 
idols of to-day as if we had not flung aside as dear ones of 
yesterday, to realize that when we become, at last, indiffer- 
ent to mere earthly things, it is because we have outgrown 
them, and all our energies, and all pur affections, every fac- 
ulty we possess is absorbed in something far dearer and 
.greater than they. But as yet Gallitzin had scarcely entered 
upon the unsheltered highway, out of which led the lone and 
narrow path which was to be his veritable Via Dolorosa. 
The scorching ground beneath his weary feet, the glaring 
-light, the choking dust oppressing him, won no pity from 


the gay world riding swiftly by, small recognition from the. 
good world seated, calm and stately, in the old familiar 

He had gone up to the mountains with a noble project 
undertaken from the purest motives, a project replete with, 
homeliest details, but of vital importance, in his estimation, 
not alone for those directly concerned in it, but for the whole 
church struggling in poverty and greatest spiritual destitu- 
tion for a foothold in the United States. "'Let us have but one 
spot for our own," he cried, " one single place wherein the 
true Catholic spirit can have room to grow and manifest it- 
self, and it will leaven the w.hole cpuritry. Let us be careful 
what seeds we drop in the furrows of this rich land; let tis 
keep the faith incontaminate here; let us own one place- 
wherein a man can live a hearty, vigorous,- joyous-hearted . 
Catholic life. Elsewhere the -ground is choked with weeds 
that must be suffered to grow with the wheat until harvest 
time, the air thin, vitiated, foggy, and enervating, here let us 
keep the moral atmosphere, with God's help, as fresh and in- 
vigorating as the air of our mountains." 

Good people listened to him attentively, sometimes carried 
away by his earnestness, sometimes amused by his enthus- 
iasm; they had had enthusiasms, too, some of them, and 
so they would not be too hard on his ; they gave assent. 
it is so much easier to run with the stream than to pull 
against it, made promises which he took in full faith,, 
and which they gave up as soon as he passed out of sight^ 
and left them to drop into their old routine of thought. No- 
one seemed to grasp the deeper meaning, to get hold of the- 
great principle which was all in all to him, .and it is in the- 
superficial response of such as these that the evil one con- 
ceals his most dangerous and subtle temptations, when he 
would break down a noble warrior, or undermine a noble- 

Though warm, intense, even a little enthusiastic at times,. 
Mitri Gallitzin was no dreamer, no visionary; he set about his. 
work in the most practical spirit, with the most reasonable de- 
mands and with regard to the most ordinary and least heroic 

- 127 

details; he understood that he was to provide the temporal, 
natural body for his project, and so care for it that the Holy 
Spirit would freely breathe into it the breath of life. 

The place chosen could not have been more favorable. It 
was at the very summit of the mountains, where the air is 
wonderfully clear, elastic, and renovating-, the land good, 
the surrounding scenery most entrancing; the soft lines of 
the Alleghanies, which are remarkable for their symmetry 
among all the mountains of the earth, undulate into in- 
numerable hills and -valleys, making- ever varied and ever 
charming views in all directions, while the luxuriance of the 
varied foliage forms a world of color, ever delicious and ever 
new, nature was there unstained by the wrongs of man, the 
world with its bustle and hurry, its sins and its shame, was 
far away; there in that mountain nest there need be only 
harmony and peace, love of the good God and kindness to 
each other; with proper industry the earth would yield them 
all that was necessary for their wants, and already the Cross, 
with its promises, had been placed in their midst. 

This was the wish, the theory into which Father Gallitzin 
threw himself heart and soul, striving to work it into reality 
by every means in his power. Wherever he found a family, 
in whatever rank, pressed for a home, discontented, or un- 
able to uphold itself in the position in which it found itself 
in the older communities, he eagerly unfolded the advan- 
tages to be gained by joining the band of simple, contented 
settlers on the mountains, -and with the princely generosity 
of his nature, justified by the great wealth of his family, never 
hesitated to offer them assistance out of his own resources, 
and to soften for them by every mean's in his power the 
privations of the wilderness. In return the most solemn 
promises were broken, every conceivable advantage taken 
of his charity, his generous and trusting nature, which he felt 
the more keenly that he considered the means God had given 
him, as a trust placed in his hands for the use of the poor 
and the good of the Church, while repeated disappointments 
and the difficulties of transmission from Europe to America, 
often left him without the means for supplying his own most 


urgent necessities. But with it all he kept up heart and 
hope, full of faith in God's help, and willing to bear any mor- 
tification -if by so doing the divine help could be made more 
secure for his little band. He, luxurious, indolent Mitri, 
slept on a bundle of straw spread upon the floor of his cabin, 
with a book for his pillow, eat but little and of the simplest 
food, and when he replaced the clothes he brought from 
Conewago, it was with the coarse, ill fitting homespun worn 
by the farmers. Unrelenting in his austerities, ever cheerful 
with his people, he pointed every word and act towards the 
one great aim he had in view : to make every life within his 
reach loyally, practically, fervently Catholic. He knew well 
that for a few years, at least, his colony could do little more 
than struggle with the earth for the bare necessities of life, 
but he never permitted them on that account to hold the 
salvation of their souls as a separate thing; he blessed their 
harvest fields, and called unceasingly for the sun -and rain 
of God's grace to enrich their souls, with such results that 
he was able in the summer to write encouragingly to the 
bishop : 


My Lord, 

It is with the greatest pleasure I embrace the present 
opportunity to acquaint your Lordship with the happy suc- 
cess that seems to crown my weak endeavors in establish- 
ing -the kingdom of Christ in this part of the country. The 
congregation is considerably increased since the time I mov- 
ed hither; and I feel the greatest satisfaction in seeing the 
most unequivocal -signs of the sincerest repentance and con- 
version in some of the most inveterate sinners. The church 
which I got built last August is very often almost full, 
and will have to be enlarged in a couple of years. I live at 
my own cabin ever since Christmas last, though in a very 
poor style yet, as your Lordship may expect. The moving 
to a country where I had to begin in the woods, the furnish- 
ing myself with everything necessary for housekeeping, 
when I had nothing of the kind, the great improvements I 

129 . 

have made in order to put the place in such a state as to af- 
ford a maintenance for a priest, in fine, the great disappoint- 
ments of last summer mentioned in a former letter to your 
Lordship, have ex'u- listed my finances. 

All these different circumstances make it necessary for me 
to apply to your Lordship for a little help ; I understood that 
your Lordship has to dispose of a certain sum of money [pro- 
bably the legacy of Sir John James] that is sent here (for 
the support of missionaries), every year from England. I 
trust you will not forget me for the next year, or even for 
a couple of years, in the distribution of the said money, 
especially as I have spent all my own, improving the church 
place, neglecting to improve my place. It is very likely that 
I shall see your Lordship in Baltimore next October, when 
I send my wagon down. 

I beg your Lordship's blessing, and remain with the most 
profound respect, 

My Lord, 
Yr. most hble. and obt. Servant, 

Augustinus- Demetrius Gallitzin. 
Clearfield, July the I5th 1800. 

Some months later he was very much distressed at receiv- 
ing intimations, even the direct announcement that he was 
to be removed from his present position, and placed at Lan- 
canster, where there was now a large congregation in need 
of a resident pastor, and appeared to the bishop of much 
more importance than the remote mountain settlement, in 
which he was considered to have buried himself. 

Lancaster had been laid out as a town by Governor Ham- 
ilton in 1730 ; in 1745 a little log chapel, called St. Mary's, 
had been put up on the land bought -by Father Wappsjler, a 
"few years before, and the congregation which was mainly 
German, attended by Fathers Pclientz, Schneider, Brosius, 
and other missionaries from Philadelphia, Conewago, and 
Goshenhoppen, until in 1751 Father Ferdinand Stecnmoyer, 
a Swabian, known to us by the English version of his name, 


Farmer, undertook to reside there, and attend to the congre- 
gation. He lived in the greatest poverty and piety, devoting 
himself with fervor to his missionary duties for seven or 
eight years, until called to other fields ; he was a most ex- 
emplary religious, and saintly priest, who later as assistant 
to the Rev. Mr. Carroll, afterwards bishop, had superinten- 
dence of the missions, and rcndei'ed the greatest assistance to 
the American Church. He died in 1786. Father Molyncaux, 
and Mr. Heilbron, among others, attended Lancaster after 
Father Farmer left, and at the beginning of the century 
the bishop found it of such increasing importance that ho 
wished to place an able priest there, anxious at the same 
time to put Father Gallitzin in a position where his talents, 
his education, and his great personal influence would be made 
manifest, as they could not be in an isolated mountain settle- 
ment, in the midst of the woods, where illiterate farmers and 
rude pioneers formed his only society. But Father Gallitzin 
felt that he was burying no talent in a napkin, by undertak- 
ing the work to which he believed God decidedly called him, 
and he was so wrapped in that work, bound by every tie of 
religious zeal and charity to it, that nothing could grieve 
him so much as the fear of- having it taken from him. He 
found use for all he had learned in all the schools, even there, 
among those unlettered country-people ; in silence and soli- 
tude, in the physical activity and mental energy required to 
meet the constant calls upon him, for he had often to ride 
fifty and' sixty miles on a sick call, and a walk of a dozen 
miles through the woods was a short promenade for him, 
while at home and abroad, he was the arbitrator, the father, 
and the servant of his people, his nitnd had leisure to 
digest, arrange and work into practical shape, ready for use, 
that which he had learned or hud forced upon it in his early . 
youth. In this respect his isolation was of great service ; 
he had learned too fast at home, and when his mother com- 
plained that his mind was inactive, she should have seen that 
it was overloaded ; as it was now, Father Gallitzin walking 
about the settlement, his hands behind him, stopping now 
and then to watch the haymakers, or the sowers going out 


to sow their seed, gravely considering the boundary of a new 
field, and making queer mistakes in planting it, was by no 
means letting his intellect run to waste,but, on the contrary, 
ordering, arranging, freshening and leisurely enlarging it, 
breaking down useless barriers, lighting up dark and narrow 
passages. When in his sermons, which were plain doctrinal 
instructions, he made clear to those untutored minds the great 
truths over which the schoolmen are still fighting, like King 
Arthur's knights in the fog and mist wherein none knows 
if he strikes friend or foe, when step by step he. led them 
through the labyrinths, the depths of the riches, of the unsdmn, 
and of the knowledge of God, uniting those unlettered 
backwoodsmen in heart and mind to the glorious band 
of apostles, confessors, and martyrs, teaching them how to 
infuse the light of the mysteries of religion into their simple 
daily life, he showed a force and breadth of thought, a rare 
word power, which only constant study, continual mental ac- 
tivity, aided by the Holy Spirit, could give, and found fuller 
employment for his learning and ability, than though he had 
been placed before a congregation of greater culture, able to 
come half way to meet his thought. And if it had not been 
so, it- would have made no difference, for when he renounced 
all claims to worldly grandeur, he gave up all claims to wordly 
distinctions, and sought no more to shine before the world as 
a famous writer, preacher, pastor, or confessor, than as prince 
or soldier ; when he gave himself to the service of God he 
kept back no talent, no accomplishment. It is true he was 
not contented until he found the work to which the voice of 
grace continually called him, but once that work was found, 
through all obstacles and discouragements, though it proved 
a cross under which he often nearly fainted, he was never 
willing to give it up* or regretted the day lie took it upon his 
shoulders. If you had asked him if he Avcre not losing him- 
self, as was thought, in isolation and obscurity, he would 
have answered that a servant of God is never lost where 
there is any of God's work to be done, and he least of all, for 
where i ould there be harder work, or fewer hands to do it ? 

Fortunately, by some delay in receiving the announcement, 


he was spared long uneasiness, for the permission of the 
bishop to remain with his charge soon followed to quiet his 

In his reply he mentions a clergyman expected from Muen- 
ster, probably Rev. Louis de Barth, a native of that city, 
educated at Bellay and Strasburg, who found himself, soon 
after his ordination, forced, on account of the persecution of 
religion, to leave France, evenMuenster and resolved to seek 
refuge in America, encouraged to the step by the princess 
who understood from Mitri's letters the need of priests in the 
United States. She had already made it her special duty to 
induce and assist as many young priests in putting them- 
selves at the bishop's disposal as possible, and to her energy 
and zeal, her glowing faith and unfailing charity, we are in- 
debted for some of the most valued missionaries of our 
annals. Mr. de Barth remained at Lancaster, assisted by 
Rev. Michael Egan, afterwards Bishop of Philadelphia, until 
appointed vicar general and administrator of the diocese of 
Philadelphia in 1814. 


Clearfield Settlement, February 5. 1801. 

My Lord, 

Your Lordship's letter of Nov. 19. 1800, I only received 
lust night, about half an hour before Michael Byrne's return 
from Baltimore. As much as the contents of the first letter 
seemed to disappoint me in my expectations, as much was 
I rejoiced at the contents of the second, which Michael 
Byrne fetched. I am happy to see that your Lordship has 
altered the resolution of removing me from here, which remov- 
al would be attended with the destruction of this new estab- 
lishment. Catholics are gathering in from all quarters, 
upon the promise that I made not to forsake them, in as far 
as I had it in my power to make such a promise. The plan- 
tation will hardly &e able in two years to maintain a priest, 
unless there is yearly as much money spent in the improving 


of it, as the congregation's salary amounts to*. How then 
could a priest subsist here, during that time, except it be one 
that has some permanent income to depend upon, indepen- 
dent of what the congregation could make up ? 

Between clearing of land, building and purchasing all the 
necessary furniture of the church, the house, and the place, I 
have sunk in about sixteen months almost four hundred 
pounds, tho' I could not accuse myself of a great many use- 
less expenses. Your Lordship knows, besides, that I have 
always had a permanent inclination to the backwoods, ever 
since the first time the Rev. Mr. Pellentz, deceased, sent me 
there, which was about five years ago, last September ; from 
all which, circumstances Your Lordship may judge, that the 
disappointement would be very great if I had to exchange 
this place for Lancaster. It will be, perhaps, a matter of 
great pleasure to your Lordship to hear that there is a Ger- 
man .priest, (who knows both German and English) coming-, 
some time next spring, from Muenster to this country. From 
the acquaintance I had with him, when I lived in Germany, 
I judge him to be 'an edifying priest, tho' the Eev. Mr. Brosi- 
us having had more acquaintance with him than I, I believe 
will be able to give him better recommendation. Having" 
no time to translate his letter to my mother, which is in the 
German language, (for my wagon starts early to-morrow 
morning,) I send the original which some of your German 
acquaintances (Mr. Cheginere, for instance,) could translate 
into English. * * 

Y,r. Lordship will be kind enough to accept of my grateful 
thanks for the charitable advice given me in your last, and 
also for the chocolate which came to hands very sale. 1 
have the honor to remain with the most proftmnd respect, 
My Lord, 

Your most hble. and obdt. Servt. 
Augustine Demetrius Gallitzin, 
Parish priest of Cleavfield. 

*This means the salary, which the congregation would be able to give; 
Father Gallitzin never received any salary, either ircm the bishop, or 
any of his congregations. 


P. S. I wrote a letter to my father about six months ago, 
in order to undeceive him from his expectation that I had 
renounced all claims to the succession to his temporal estate, 
and sent the duplicate of the same letter to my mother. This 
I expect will be sufficient. 

The letter 'to his father here mentioned, was called forth 
by a passage in one of the prince's letters, in which it is 
taken for granted that.Mitri had no thought for the property, 
except to assist his parents in securing it to his sister, when, 
in reality, Father Gallitzin was every day more anxious to 
make sure of his own portion, for he relied upon it as the 
great, an'd necessary instrument in forming a "lasting es- 
tablishment for promoting the- cause of religion" in the 
United States. 

"We are both," wrote the prince*, alluding to the princess 
and himself, "we are both well advanced -in years; your 
mother, moreover, is laden with infirmities, and I begin, 
especially since the past severe winter, to feel fny age ; there 
is, then, no time to be lost if you wish to see us again .... In- 
deed, your return is absolutely necessary in order to arrange 
matters in regard to my estates in your sister's favor, for 
although you have renounced them by your choice of pro- 
fession, as well as by your repeated declarations to me, 
there are certain -formalities to be attended to, otherwise the 
property would go to the side heirs." 

Whatever Father Gallitzin may have felt in regard to 
this matter in the first moments of his choice, he very scon 
saw that his was not a case in which it' would be allowable, ever is allowable, for the means rightfully his to be 
given up to the world's use without a word of remonstrance; 
the Scripture command, Go sell all tliou hast and give ' to the 
poor, seemed especially designed for him, and he longed to 
fulfill it. What he did renounce, and so delared to his father, 
was his position in the world as a grand seigneur, his rank, 

. * Rev. Mr. Lemcke's Leiben und Wlrken, p. 186. 

_ 135 

his titles, all honors and luxuries, never to use his wealth for 
himself or for the world. Prince Gallitzin was not just the 
man to see the distinction, and naturally he did not feel 
desirous of having the estates which had passed from gener- 
ation to generation of Gallitzins go out of their hands now, at 
any price. The princess understood the matter very differently, 
and continual anxiety about it greatly troubled the last years 
of her life, but such was the Russian law that the prince could 
not have left the property to his son, even if he had desired, 
for it regarded him as in disfavor, he having remained away 
from his regiment, and his country, without the imperial per- 
mission. The prince could have disposed of some of his proper- 
ty, and bequeathed the money to his son, but that was rather 
too much to ask of a man devoted to the world, intensely aris- 
tocratic, proud of his name and wealth, which he considered 
it his greatest duty to preserve as he had received them. He 
probably hoped, if Mitri would return to Europe, he could, at 
least, induce him to remain there, even if he did not receive 
the imperial pardon and permission to reside in Russia, and 
could occupy in France or Germany some high position, per- 
haps, as prince-bishop. The princess, although she knew 
her husband so well, may also have had hopes of some com- 
promise between them, if Mitri and he should meet, for the 
prince was kindly disposed, and, perhaps, in his disgust at 
the state 'of affairs in the Old World, might not look upon, 
the idea of colonizing the New, as such a very childish 
scheme as it now appeared. She could not hope he would 
ever give "it a moment's serious consideration as a plan for 
saving souls, but there might, perhaps, arise some human 
aspect of the matter, which would strike him favorably. But 
Father Gallitzin saw no way open to him to think of a leturn 
to Europe, and in writing that 1 e did not renounce his share 
in his father's wealth, he did all that could be done, and the 
result must be left to God. 

So far from intending to leave the United States, at any 
future time, unless for a short visit, all Father Gallitziu's 
affections, as well as his absorbing interests, centred in the 
young republic, of whose character, opportunities and mis- 


sion, he had a clear appreciation, which showed he inherited', 
the statesman character of his father, and his ancestors, who 
made the sovereigns for whom they did the thinking-, famous, 
for foresight and jud^nrjnt. The carelessness, the short- 
sighted views of many who were shaping its destinies,. 
aroused him to a degree of indignation, incomprehensible to 
those who saw nothing of the importance of their acts, at a 
moment when the country, like clay in the mould was taking 
shape and form, sensitive to the faintest touch. There was 
a great deal of loud boasting then, as now, in which Father 
Gallitzin took no part, but the fondest dream of our Fathers 
did not pass the calm and well considered hopes he had for 
us, and in his own small sphere set about to realize, for with 
him, of course, true Catholic principle was the adamantine 
foundation on which to build true political rights. The great 
charm of his views, and that which gave them their greatest 
force, was that they never lost themselves in visionary pro- 
jects; you could only deduct his theories from observation 
of his practice, and learn his whole plan from the precision 
of its details. 

It was, therefore, an important event for him when Congress 
having shortened the period of probation, he found himself, 
in 1802, qualified to become an American citizen, and in 
August of that year applied to the courts of Huntingdon 
coun:y in which his residence was then included, for naturali- 

He was naturalized as Augustine Smith, the name which had 
become fixed upon him at tlie seminary, and had so clung to 
him since, that he was probably advised by his lawyer to use 
it, as he was known by no other either socially or in his busi- 
ness transactions, and to prevent the confusion and the mis- 
understanding which would arise from any attempt to resume 
his family name. At the time of first taking that name he 
had little dream that he would ever become a citizen and 

*From unpublished notes of Richard B. McCabe, Esq., a distinguished 
lawyer of Pennsylvania, who knew Dr. Gallitzin personally and intend- 
ed writing his life, but died before accomplishing his purpose. 


landowner in this country, and when he was ready to become- 
such .he found it almost impossible to make any change. 
Except so far as it might possibly involve him in legal diffi- 
culties at some future time, he liked this well enough, for he 
had no ambition to make his true name known, indeed was 
very careless by what one he was called. 

But much as he rejoiced in his new found citizenship, it 
cannot be supposed he thus renounced in legal form, his 
country and his hereditary rank without a pang. No thought- 
ful man, with manly instincts, can turn his back upon his 
native land, and place his hand in the stranger's, without an 
effort, and never can a Russian divest himself of the last 
lingering tenderness for his own land, even when it banishes 
him from its sight forever, and with a nature so intense as 
his, a character in which there were no radicalisms of any 
sort, nothing but the pure desire to serve God as he seemed 
to wish could have given him strength so often to renew the 
sacrifice. Indeed if a sacrifice were made when made, we 
might all be heroes and many of us saints ; but the renoun- 
cing of one thing to take up another, is but the beginning of 
the sacrifice ; every hour of our lives it must be renewed ; re- 
newed when the feet are sore, the so.ul fainting, no less inexor- 
ably than when we run towards it, elastic and bouyant; in the 
long days of inaction, no less than in the thickest of the 
battle ; as well when the colors drop and the day is lost, 
as when the standards fly and all the bells ring victory. It 
must not become a habit, put on from custom, but a uni- 
form embraced every day as if worn for the first time ; it 
must not be suffered to grow mechanical as a farmer sows 
his field, but a loving labor, fresh as the bride's first house- 
hold care. Such was the sacrifice Mitri made, such the sacri- 
fice Father Gallitzin continiaed, with God's grace, to carry on. 
His iron will could have made h^m a stoic or' a puritan, but 
only God's truth and grace could make him the light-hearted, 
steadfast priest he was fast becoming. 

It was a great comfort to him when still more closely bind- 
ing himself to .his new home, to know that the ties between 
himself and his old friends were being drawn the closer,. 


as time passed on, and each became more absorbed in the 
great work of salvation, that work which reaching over 'the 
great ocean, united the Pennsylvania moiintains to the West- 
phalian plains, and bound noble and peasant in .the chains of 
grateful affection. It is rather a peculiar circumstance that 
while his greatest success was with the unlearned and poor, 
the princess, his mother, was the means of leading some of 
the greatest minds, and men of noblest birth to the light of 
truth. First and brightest on the list of those whom -she 
could number among her converts was Count von Stolberg, 
his wife, nee Sophia von Eedern and nearly all the members 
of his large and charming family, whom she had visited 
shortly after Mitri left her for America, and while she was 
much prostrated with fears and grief, for his absence. After 
seven years of inclination to the Church, and the severest and 
most searching investigation of its history and its doctrines, 
in which the princess assisted him with glowing zeal, the 
count and his wife made profession of Catholic faith in the 
princess' private chapel, on June 1. 1800, feast of Pentecost. 
When Father Gallitzin heard from his mother of their conver- 
sion, he rejoiced greatly, not only because of his affection for 
them, because of the inestimable value of one soul seeking 
salvation at the only fountain of life, not only for his mother's 
part therein, but also on account of the influence for good 
which the amiable character, the great talents, and the wide 
reputation of the count would place in his hands, expecta- 
tions which have been fully justified, for his conversion, 
while it threw his late associates, Ivlopstock, Voss, Claudius, 
Goethe, Lavater, and others, mostly infidels and philosophers, 
into great indignation and distress, led others to look again 
at that temple which they had thought fallen, and, in time, to 
seek a shelter therein themselves; prominent among these 
was Frederick Schlegel, the * philosopher, who, in his turn, 
made the truth known. to many more, and thus, the conver- 
sion of Count von Stolberg might be said to commence a new 
era in German thought, and that he is rightfully considered 
the father and pioneer who cut the way for those illustrious 
German Catholics who have since arisen in their strength as 


true philosophers and real thinkers*. After his conversion 
he gave up his high position under. the government, and. re- 
moved from Eutin to Muenster to onjoy the constant society 
of the princess, -and the circle of which she was the vivifying 
centre, to whom he owed, under God, the gift of faith, as he 
gratefully expressed to his well remembered friend, Mitri. 


Muenster, March 27. 1802 

1 have often wished, dearest Mitri, to write you, even while 
I was in Eutin. I have received from your mother so much 
never to be forgotten pleasure, and she has so attached me, 
after God, to her with a love for which I hope to praise him 
forever, and in which I hope ever to rejoice, that I longed to 
speak to you of her, and I could not bear the thought of be- 
ing as a stranger to the son of that dear mother, but a cer- 
tain feeling of shyness has kept me back. . . In my inmost 
thoughts a certain hope spoke to rne in accents more or less 
distinct-, perhaps as a child of that great and holy mother, 
who now invites you to her bosom, to whom he in the new 
world brings more children, you may be able to speak of her 
and beg him to thnnk the beloved, Heavenly Father for the 
mercy that he has shown to me. This, dearest Mitri, I now 
do, though late. Yet, even before your dear mother informed 
me, last spring, of that which you had written in the fulness 
of your heart, of your affection for my wife and me, when you 
heard we had entered the Church, I knew what you felt for 
us, and I rejoiced in your joy at the blessing God has bestow- 
ed upon us, and this all the more that he has given it through 
the instrumentality of your blessed mother. For tiiis was 
his intention when he brought me eleven years ago to Muen- 
ster, and attached me to her as he only can bind soul to soul. 

*Stolberg was a prolific writer, lie was widely known asa poet, a trav- 
eller, and a novelist, before he became a Catholic, afterwards he published 
a great deal; his main work was THE HISTOBY OF THE RELIGION OF JESUS 
CHKIST, of which he lived to complete fifteen volumes. This was taken 
up and carried on by others after his death in 1819. 

fLemcke, p. 192. 


Through her, beloved Mitri, we are nearly related, are- 
liound together in. hoartfalt love by her. And when I hear 
her speak of you, when, as she 'speaks of you, through her- 
mother's tears there shines at once love, joy and praise to God, 
then, dearest Mitri, I feel near to you, closely connected witk 

Pray for me, for my Sophia, for my children. Think of us 
sometimes at the Holy Sacrifice, and recommend to the heart 
of the great, all-merciful High Priest, my oldest daughter, who- 
by the time you receive this letter will be not only not a 
Catholic, but probably the wife of a Protestant, to whom she 
was engaged when the Church opened her arms to us. I 
cannot, nor do I desire to touch t'lis chord, for it agonizes 
me, so much I have said that you may intercede for this my 
Very dear child. 

I reach you my hand, beloved Mitri, over land and sea, I 
feel myself near to you in that love which neither time nor 
space can disturb. In this love I press you to my heart. 

Fr'. L. Gr. z. Stolberg. 

Letters also arrived frequently from his friends 'Baron 
par Maximilian von Droste,and his brothers*, which informed 
him of home matters, the great changes in Muenster, which 
was secularized in 1803, and many things of historical as 
well as personal interest. The tie that was so long lacking,. 
without which his education would have remained barren, 
now united his mother and himself in the loving confidence, 
which each had so vainly sought before religion opened her 
heart, and awoke the slumbering forces of his soul, and gave 
life and endurance to his boyish friendships, which had never 
been complete until all were on the same ground of eternal 
hcp-3 and trust. There was no incident of his homely surround- 
ings too trivial to be related to his mother, and she poured out 
the treasures of her love and charity to him and his charge, 
without a thought or remnant of the restlessness which had. 

*Rev. Mr. Lerucke in his Leben alludes to these letters which, he obtain- 
ed at Loretto, but does not give their contents, and the originals cannot 
nowibe recovered. 


devoured her in the cold and loveless days they had spent 
..apart in the desert land of mere intellect. At the same time 
there was no plan too lofty, no aspiration too unworldly or 
impracticable for him to fear to mention it to her. Thou- 
sands and thousands of miles apart mother and son were to- 
gether as. they were not even Avhen under the same roof, and 
her sympathy, her intelligent understanding of the highest 
and deepest matters he could wish to mention followed him, 
and sustained him in many a dark and friendless hour, when 
puny minds steeped in ignorance and self-conceit pronounced 
upon his master-words. Mother and son and friends, all 
were now at home in one house, working- freely and cheer- 
fully, with many a pleasant interchange of thought, as they 
passed back and forth at their appointed tasks. Perfect 
jlove had cast out fear. 




Plans for a return to Europe. Bishop Carroll's advice. Last years oi' 
the prince. The Russian property. The princess' affection. 

Although Father Gallitzin saw no way of acceding to his 
father's often repeated request, and the desire of his own 
heart to visit his parents once more, they could be no means 
give up the hope of seeing him. His mother followed his 
father in making the same request, -and urged it with all the 
tenderness of her heart, pointing out to him the great ad- 
vantages he could procure for his mission, by an understand- 
ing with his father, and the assistance which his wealthy 
friends would be only too glad to send to tha young church 
of America, could they but once understand its needs, and 
become interested in it, for arguments like these would be, 
she knew, the ones most likely to decide him to undertake the 
journey. What a coming home that would have been Cor him! 
As he thought of it more he began to have hopes that it was 
not out of the range of possibilities; the only obstacle in the 
way was the lack of a priest to take his place, for though he 
were to bring back to his people all the gold in the Russian 
treasury, he knew well it could not weigh a feather in the 
balance against the spiritual loss to them, if left without a 
pastor. In 1803 he felt so much encouraged by the -prospect 
of a faithful priest to attend his congregation during his ab- 
sence, that he set his temporal affairs in order, and did not 
write to his mother for sometime, expecting to see her instead,. 


but the promises, like so many others made him, could not 
be fulfilled, and that bright wish of his heart had also to be 
set aside. 


I dare not think of it. My heart trembles with love; it 
seems to me as if I absolutely must see you once more in 
order to leave the world in peace. God knows what is best in 
this, and what would tend most to his honor; but according 
to all appearances it docs not seem as if it would soon be 
possible. The number of priests is becoming smaller instead 
of greater and the Catholics increasing. I know that 
you are entirely satisfied with God's will, far more than I 
am, and that you ask to see me only on the other side of 
the grave in the bosom of the Heavenly Father. But it 
would do me good to lie down at your feet, to bathe them 
with my tears, to receive your blessing, and hear from your 
own lips that you have forgiven me everything; I would 
rather have this than all. the treasures of earth. I feel as if 
the hand of God were heavy upon me, on account of my 
olden disobedience, and indifference to your admonitions. 

I have never felt this more intensely than since I have 
seen, with my own eyes, how this damning freedom, this 
reckless disobedience, and false shame lead so many souls to- 
perdition. It seems as if -I could not remain all my life as 
now, one has so many temptations here, that I should be 
glad to end my days in some place, where I should have no 
other responsibility than the care of my own soul. 

The letter from which this is an extract, is dated June 
26th, 1803, and crossed on its way to Muenster one written on 
the 26th of 'March by his sister, at his mother's dictation, but 
retained until the 16th of May, in order to have an enclosure 
which could not be got ready sooner. This letter* which, as 
it took about three months for one from home to reach him, 
was probably received in August, contained the announce- 
ment of his lather's death. 

Dr. Katercamp's Life of the Princess Gallitzin, p. 234. 



My dear Child, 

I inform you in haste that it pleased the dear God to call 
;your father from us on the 16th of March. He died from 
hemorrhage, which lasted only three hours, having that very 
day, and only a few hours before, written us that he was 
well. He left no will, so it is very urgent that if you cannot 
come at once, you should send me power-of-attorney, because 
not even the personal property, which is at Brunswick, can 
be had (for the Brunswick government put a seal on every- 
thing immediately after his death), unless we three, you, 
Mimi, and I can show ourselves living and claiming it, 
either in person or by power-of-attorney. I must, in any 
event, produce a power-of-attorney in Russia. In fact, I am, 
by my marriage contract, the usufractory of the whole of 
.your father's wealth, and after my death you two shall in- 
herit it; but this contract was not made in Kussia, and it is 
therefore very possible that your father's brother and neph- 
-ews, may discover something in the Russian law to put 
obstacles in the way of your inheriting it, especially as so 
many believe you have become a monk, and therefore cannot 
inherit property. To secure your interest for you, I must 
.have a power-of-attorney from you as soon as possible. I 
-enclose a model of the way in which it is to be drawn up. 

Do not be negligent this time, my son, for though your 
small estimate of the value of this world's good gives me 
joy, I must confess, for that very reason I desire to save 
them for you, you are called to use them well, and you owe 
them to your mission and your parishioners. As your father's 
affairs have always been unknown to me, you can easily 
imagine how hard it now is for me to learn about them. 
Hasten, then, my dear child, to send the power-of-attorney; 
ven if you expect to start the very next day for Europe your- 
self, do not fail to send it, for the ship that brought you 
might be longer on its way than the ship carrying the letter. 
Remember that if I should die you would lose all .... 

* Kev. H. Lemcke, p. 207. 


A postscript, dated May 16th, urged him still more'to be 
prompt and exact, and ' added . that, since writing, she had 
found something in his father's papers,' leading her to fear 
that by the Russian law, he was disqualified by his clerical 
profession from inheriting or receiving an , inherited -estate. 
If this should prove to be the case then she would strive to 
find some way, by which he could have the benefit of the 
property, after her death. - 

Immediately upon receiving this letter Father Gallitzin 
had full power-of-attorney prepared with all due legal flour- 
ish, which he sent to his mother, writing her as before that 
it was not possible for him to leave his congregation, even 
though a princely fortune at stake was now added to the 
longing to embrace her once more, and soon after received 
from Mr. Overberg and herself, answers to his letter of June 
26th, in which his coming back is still further urged, as of 
the greatest necessity, on account of the state of his father's 

Beloved in Our Lord, 

So it was not the will of God that we should see our dear 
Augustine in the summer, as we wished, and had, indeed, so 
much reason to expect! I believe the Right Reverend Bishop 
will make a way for you to pay us a visit, when he learns 
how necessary your coming is in regard to the matter of your 
father's property, in which the American mission is also in- 

I assured you, my beloved, in the lines which I wrote you 
on your birthday, that I thought of you ofteu, especially in 
my prayers. But never except in my prayers, have I thought 
oftener of you, and of your happiness in _ your vocation, than 
since we have had for our evening readings the Lettres edi~ 
Jiantes et curieuses des missionaires. This is a collection of 
letters, filling several volumes, a splendid work, which you 
also would read with great pleasure, if time and circum- 
stances permitted. How often, in reading thorn, have I 

* Lemcke, p. 196. 


become -convinced anew that a missionary's vocation is the 
holiest, and most to be venerated to which a priest of Christ, 
can be called! -He himself followed it, and the apostles suc- 
ceeded him in it; who, therefore, more justly merits to be 
regarded a successor of the apostles, a' priest of Christ, than 
a missionary? It is of him alone, properly speaking, of 
whom the Scripture says: How beautiful iipon the 'mountains 
are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, and that preacheth 
peace: of -Jiim that sheweth forth good, fliat preacheth salvation! 

During the -French revolution we became acquainted with 
the Trappists who were entirely unknown to me previously. 
They have a monastery at Darfeld, and when any : of them 
come to Muenster, which happens quite often, they always 
call to see us. At first I looked upon their vocation as the 
neplus ultra of sanctity to which a man could reach in this 
world, but when by reading these Lettres EdifiantesI became 
better acquainted with the missions, I changed my opinion ; 
I still respect the Trappists, but I must admit that the mis- 
sionaries hold precedence, because they conform more to the 
life of Christ and his apostles, and also because they unite 
to work out through various ways (not only by prayer and 
good example, but by sowing the seed of the divine word,) 
the salvation of souls redeemed by the blood of Christ, while 
subjected to no fewer mortifications, though not always of 
the same kind, than those by which the Trappists seek to 
sanctify themselves. It is undoubtedly true, as you say, dear 
Mitri, that a missionary is exposed to many temptations, 
but this would not alarm me, if God had given me the grace 
to enter that state, for nowhere could I be more certain that 
I was following Christ in all his works, and should I not have 
the strongest confidence that he would hold me in his care ? 
As a missionary I think I should with full reliance apply to 
myself the Ninetieth psalm, and fear no attacks of the infer- 
nal enemy, should walk with courage upon the asp and the 
Itasilisk, and 'trample underfoot the lion and tJie dragon, for I 
eould'not doubt that he whose work I was endeavoring to 
do, precisely as he had set me the model, would cover 


inc. with, his strong wings. I would, fear it still 
it being a penance for my sins, because as the Holy 
Spirit tells us in Holy Writ : . If any of you err from 
the truth, and one, convert him: Be must know, that he who 
causeth a sinner to be. converted from the error of his icay^shall 
save. his soul from death and. shall cover a multitude of sins. 
(James v. 19, 20.) How could the offence to. God of .having 
soiled and defiled His image in ourself , be better repaired, 
and the honor taken from him be better restored, than by_striv- 
ing to purify and make beautiful this image, not only in ourself, 
but in others ? As regards the responsibility. resting on. those 
who have tha care of souls, it is great, I know, but to my think- 
ing, it would be still greater if we. should seek to shake off the 
charge of souls confided to us by God, because of the strict 
uocount which He demands of us. I have long .thought, as 
seen in my " Directions for Teachers " (Amveisung furSchul- 
lerher,) p.3t, that those who for fear of the strict account they 
will have to render, let their talent for assisting in their ..neigh- 
bor's salvation, lie unused, will greatly, offen d God, like the 
servant in the gospel, who buried his talent because he feared 
the strictness of his Lord. If one having the care of souls is 
zealous, but not so much so as he could or should be, it may 
be said to him : Thou hast often been careless and unfaithful 
in thy Master's service, but he cannot be called an entirely 
idle ajid unprofitable servant, like him who buried his talent. 
Should not the former hope for mercy more than the latter? 
And here seems appropriate the words of St. Paul to Timothy, 
in his First Epistle iv. 16: Attend to thyself and to doctrine: be 
earnest in tJiem. For in doing this thou shaft both save thyself 
and them that hear thee. Paul found both things necessary 
for salvation, attention to ourself, and not to ourself only,, 
but to the doctrine also. If ever it was necessary to attend 
both to ourselves and to the doctrine, it is necessary in these 
times in which we live. With thoughts like these I often 
seek to calm myself, and I wish that they might also serve 
you for the same purpose. 

You know your dear mother, you know her extraordinary 

love for her Mitri, you will therefore, believe me . without 


any proofs, when I tell you that her affection has increased 
in devotion, (by which I understand the meeting and union 
of two souls which love each other,) since her dearly loved 
son has chosen the same end as she, and ardently strives to 
attain it. Although she has schooled herself to give herself 
.to (-rod's will, it costs her not a little so to moderate the de- 
sire to see her Mitri, that it shall not destroy her peace of 
mind,- it costs her tears. .She probably can write but little 
to you this time, as she has written to the Kt. Rev. Bishop,, 
and Mr. Nagot, to arrange with them that your coming here, 
which we hold necessary, may be hastened as much as pos- 
sible in the season when a sea voyage is the least dangerous; 
besides her health does not permit her to write much at 
one time. In August we went on account of her ill health, to 
the baths at Dryburg ; as long as we were there she felt 
easier, and not so weak, but upon our return the old troubles 
came back. It is evident that God intends to purify her like 
gold in furnace, for he loves her. 

The grace of our Lord and Eedeemer be and remain with 

Oremus pro invicem, ut salvemur, 


On the day on which you received your first holy orders, 

The princess accompanied this with a letter of her own, 
written not in French, as usual, but in German : 


Tenderly loved son of my heart, 

I will not make the short time left from the dictating and 
writing of other letters concerning your arrival among us, 
and your affairs, still shorter by descriptions of the long and 
delightful expectations, and of the hopes of seeing you, wreck- 
ed by your letter of June 26. Your own heart so good by 

Lemcke. p. 202. 


nature, so -purified by grace, will by its sympathy, give you 
the best idea of it. I, too can gather from your letter, what 
feelings you surrendered to the best will of our Heavenly 
Father. It has seemed to me, from the first, as if our hearts 
were enough in unison, for one to know the other without 
exposing ourselves to mis judgments, although in matters of 
intellect, or rather of the lower will, we have not always 
-agreed. It cannot be denied that it was often your fault,, 
for you had to be a' child, and then a youth, before you could! 
be a man. But my part of the wrong, which is not the smal- 
lest has not this excuse and yet, my darling, I am so fully 
convinced that so far as you are concerned you readily for- 
give me, that, indifferent to it, I reach my arms out 'to you ; 
all the more that the infinite mercy of God, remembering my 
weakness and infirmity, has undertaken, and this I ascribe to 
your prayers and hearty clinging to God's will, to purify 
me, in my age, from the heavy stains of sin accumulating 
for years. Pray, therefore, fervently that I may bear this 
purification as God wills, and unless you wish to sadde'n me, 
grieve no more, as if you had yet to receive pardon for your 
faults. As far as I can look back on my useless, sinful life, 
I cannot find a time when anything in you would so have af- 
fected my heart that pardon would be necessary. For some 
.years, by God's grace, I have been enabled to see in that 
sort of blindness and coldness which for a time, appeared 
to close your heart to me, that which I now see in the pres- 
ent persecutions from both sides of the family, a merciful 
fire which, (if I faithfully persevere ) may consume so much 
of my load of sins that when I go hence I may have the hope 
of embracing you, my dearest, in the bosom of God, and for- 
ever sing praises and adoration to him, in union with all 
the saints Allelluia. Now, judge for yourself, if I cau pos- 
bly have anything to forgive when I see in you my Au- 
gustine, and since I firmly believe that you have given your- 
self for ever to God, in humility and faithfulness. 

I have written to the Right Eev. Bishop of Baltimore, and 
to Mr Nagot, everything which may help or be necessary for 
yoiir journey, because they receive letters sooner than you, 


and besides, you must have permission, and means of con- 
veyance from- them. _ I only "repeat the request that you will 
not sail at' 'a dangerous season, and that you let me know 
what is decided; this I ask for my own peace of mind, and 
in order to 'give directions, in conformity with this infor- 
mation, for" your interests, and in regard to the Russian 

I send you with this the answer received from Mr. Vogt of 
Hamburg, concerning your money matters, for I called him 
o account last January. 

Upon receiving these letters, and others from the bishop 
.and Mr. Nagot, urging his compliance with the desire ex- 
pressed in them, Father Gallitzin went to Baltimore, where 
"he had not been for two years, to convince them by a per- 
sonal interview, as he could not 'by letter that, as he was 
situated, it was quite impossible for him to leave the cotin- 
iry, and to discuss with them any plans which their great 
anxiety to further the princess' wish, might suggest to them. 
Mr. Nagot was about visiting France, and was very desirous 
of having Father Gallitzin accompany him on the voyage. 
It was not until ' he laid before 'them the many phases of the 
work in which he was engaged, that they began to have any 
real conception of the breadth, and importance of the remote 
.mountain settlements, united in one by his pastoral affection, 
.-and as they obtained somewhat of an idea of what might 
come from them, they became onty the more earnest in urging 
him to go abroad, and spare no exertions to secure the inher- 
itance, which would be of inestimable value, was, indeed, 
.absolutely necessary to the completion of his work. But .the 
.already toil-worn missionary was eminently a practical man, 
by grace and self-discipline, if not actually by nature, who 
isaw'his present duty always clearly, and could not be drawn 
from it by any prospects, however alluring, of future ad- 
vantage, even though every fibre of his heart was strained 
to meet it, and every impulse of his soul leaped to grasp 
it. Still more in this case for, as he had said, in simple 
truthfulness, he would rather have heard from the lips of his 


mother, that .she 'rforgave him his youthful-thoughtlessness, 
and childish errors,, than to receive all the treasures of earth. - 
But for - no earthly consideration . could he justify himself to 
his own conscience,- if he left his post> now. .there being no 
one to whom he could entrust it, who would be able. to exer- 
cise the vigilance, the forethought, the ever-active care which 
it every day needed more. The comparative peace of the 
Church in Europe, as well as the -great .-.hopes which the. 
friends of religion built .upon the first ...-acts- of Bonaparte,, 
who was now First Consul and, apparently, the great pr.otec-. 
tor of the papacy, put a stop to the emigration of .the clergy, 
even induced many who had come to us ; in the days of terror, 
to return to France, while several of the Irish clergy, who 
had also taken -refuge here in the times of the troubles in. 
Ireland, at the close of the last century, gave up the thank- 
less task of guarding the isolated and almost immanageablc 
missions which tried the patience of .all our early priests, 
and joyously set sail for the ever dear land of their birth ; 
it was too soon to expect much from our own extremely 
limited resources, and as Catholics weve constantly arriving 
from almost all parts of Europe, every day. increased .the 
burden of the remaining priests. As Bishop Kenrick well 
and truly said, years later, these missions often "required 
the gift of tongues and a health of iron," Gallitzin who knew 
this better even than Bishop Carroll and Mr. Nagot, for there 
is no teacher like experience, who was well aware that half 
a dozen assistant priests, could he have had them, would 
hardly nave sufficed to lighten his own burden, was not -the 
man to lay it for a day upon another, already weighed down 
by his own charge. It was not to be thought of ; facts -like 
these, heartbreaking though they were, could not be evaded, 
and when he detailed them to his superiors it was with no 
hope of having them argued away; undoubtedly if the bishop 
and Mr. Nagot had actually laid their commands upon 
him to leave his responsibility to them, he would have done 
so, for a quiet unobstrusive obedience to orders, even to ad- 
vice or suggestions from those empowered to give them, is 
very noticeable throughout his correspondence with Bishop 


. Carroll, but this neither the bishop nor the Sulpician presi- 
dent would think of doing, even though it is hardly likely 
they felt as keenly- as he .did himself, the full imporjt of his 
reasons, and the all but crushing sense of responsibility from 
which escape grew every day less possible. Their last argu- 
ment was drawn from his mother's letter to the bishop, in 
which she had written that it was absolutely necessary for 
him to come, but he showed that the word absolutely had 
been crossed out, and that over it she had written held; it was 
held necessary that he should come; he understood from 
this that his mother gave him no commands, but left the de- 
cision to his own conscience. 

Perhaps when Father Gallitzin turned. away from Balti- 
more, after this, and rode back to that lonely mountain 
Tillage for which he had given all hope of seeing kith or kin 
again, of holding his dear mother to his heart once more on 
this side of the grave, the sacrifice of his life reached its 
snpremest. height, from which -through all years to come, he 
was bdund not to let it recede for one moment. 

The princess in her repiy, dated July 24. 1804, proved her- 
self a true Christian woman, worthy to be his mother: 


Hard as it comes to my mother-heart to renounce the hope, 
so near to it, of embracing its beloved son, I can say with 
truth that your letter which gives me the information, 
bestows upon me the greatest consolation I can desire upon 
earth. Every line of it is in unison with my own sen- 
timents and wishes. You understood me perfectly in regard 
to my intention in the word crossed out, in which I expressed 
the unconditional in my letter to the bishop, and wrote above 
it the conditional. In business matters for which I care 
little and understand less, I must take counsel of those who 
understand them, and follow their advice, in so far as nothing 
higher or better Buffers by it, because they concern the in- 

* Katercamp, p. 266. 

.-153 . f 

terests of my children. This seemed possibly the case here? 
when I had to write, according to their advice, to the bishop 
of the absolute necessity of your presence. But as I had not 
even the security that your personal presence would aid in* 
saving our fortune, the possibility on the contrary, of your 
mission suffering by your sudden departure, came so vividly 
before my eyes, that the fear of it forced me, as it were, to 
change the il est absolument nfaessaire, to on dit or on croit 
qu'il est necessaire. Praise to the Lord who has ordered alt 
for the best, and who will continue to do so if we desire the 
best only, His honor and glory in all things, and, so far as 
our shortsightedness permits, have it in view in all our ac- 
tions. The whole earth cries to us so loudly and so forcibly r 
"All below is vain," that I am growing timid and fearful for 
all who cling to anything transitory, which the infinite 
mercy of God permits to burst assunder, with startling, ter- 
rible thunderpeals, before our very eyes, like an exploded 
soapbubble. Oh, the power of blindness, born of pride! But 
with God's grace, the hypocrite will come out last at the 
end. The excesses to which the children of the deceiver are- 
giving themselves up, apparently in triumph, are already 
preparing. their own downfall and the triumph of the holy 
Church. The times before this universal world-revolution 
were far more dangerous, for then pride worked through an- 
all pervading wavering in the faith, of all classes of people,, 
even among the innocent, all the more that it had to be care- 
ful everywhere to conceal its claws under the outer garb of 
virtue, philanthropy, and a glittering outside shell of reli- 
gion. But since the mask has been thrown off, and the ter- 
rible results not only stand there, but even attack the 
greater part of men of all conditions, the world every- 
.where seems to be on guard and observant, as if the Angel 
of the Lord was here with the winnowing sheaf in his hand r 
and the separation of the wheat from the cockle had begun _ 
The race of the lukewarm is daily dying out. Some are found 
who plainly belong to the stragglers (who do not know- 
whether they should go on or stand still) who are calmly 
satisfied that they have Abraham for their father. The- 


greater number is divided into two sorts : the " rude, blind- 
folded mass, and the penitents who hasten on. You would 
be amazed if I could talk with you for one short hour, and 
tell you what changes are going on among individuals, 'and 
"whole families, even in this part of the country, many f 
whom are known to you. 

At the same time the princess wrote to the bishop her full 
approval of her son's decision, painful as it was to her and 


July 31th, 1804. (Written at Amsterdam.) 
Monseigneur, . . 

As the precarious condition of our property does not per- 
mit me to pass the season', as usual, at the baths, and as my 
physician, moreover, finds it absolutely necessary for my 
health that I should make a carriage journey of, at least, ten 
or twelve days, I chose coming to Amsterdam to see and to 
speak with the missionaries, who are to have the honor of 
receiving your blessing, and are to see my dear son face to 
face. God, to whom I have entirely, and with a free heart, 
devoted him, knows that never has the happiness of clasping 
him in my arms approached that caused by the dispositions 
which attach him to his post, and make him prefer his lambs 
to his fortune. God has given him a great grace in per- 
mitting him willingly to resign a fortune, which 'would 
equally have escaped him, even .could he have been able to 
make the journey to Russia, without any risk to the parish- 
ioners whom Providence, and your goodness, Monseigneur, 
have confided to him. 

I have found, independently of Mr. Charles Xerinx, whom 
I have already had the honor of announcing to you, in a 
letter dated at Muenster, which, without doubt, has reached 

* Prom the original in French belonging to the Archepiscopal ar- 
chives of Baltimore. 

155 ; '- 

you long' before this, Mr. Fran 9013 Malave, another candidate 
perfectly recommended by all that there is of most -pure 'in - 
Brabant; he had come intending- to accompairy Mr. Nerinx 
to Baltimore, to pnt himself tinder your orders, but it hap- 
pened that the Jesxiit, Father Becker, cure here, authorized 
by the Father General, Gruber, to receive" persons eligible for 
the Society,' showed him a letter he had just received from 
the Father General, in which it was mentioned that you, 
Monseigneur, had presented thirteen of your missionaries 
for admission into the Society of 'Jesus*. This letter joined to 
the representations of Eev. Father Halnath, whom to name 
suffices to say all, and who it may be remarked, in passing, 
has contributed no little towards attracting me here, de- 
termined Mr. Malave to commence bypassing- several months 
at Dunebourg, at the Jesuit novitiate, whence he begs 3*011 
to have the goodness to re-claim him from the Superior Gen- 
eral Gruber, as belonging to you, for he feels himself in the 
most special manner called to America, and only goes to 
Dunebourg in order to make himself more capable of fulfilling" 
your orders, and intentions, in whatever you may deign to 
use him. 

You will see in this, Mouseigneur, what he has entreated 
me to say to you, he is not yet entirely decided himself 
how it will be, just as I am about leaving 'Amsterdam, 
where I have spent only three days, for and with the saintly 
personages who di'ewmc here; 1 have not even an entire 

* It will be recollected that the Society of Jesus, which Clement XIV. 
had reluctantly suppressed in 1773, had been permitted, at the earnest 
request of the Emperor Paul, by a brief of Pope Pius YIL, dated March 
7th, 1801, to unite together in Eussia as the Company of Jesus, with the 
rule of St. Ignatius for their guide. As Eussia was the only country in 
which this privilege was then allowed, many ex-Jesuits from all parts 
of Europe, and even some from the United States, availed themselves of 
it. In 1806, two years after the date of the princess' letter, 'the per- 
mission was extended to this, country, and a novitiate established at 
Georgetown College with Eev. Eobert Molyneux, for superior, siibject, 
however, to the superior general in Eussia. In August 1814, the Society 
was completely reestablished, everywhere, with all its ancient priv- 


sheet of paper at hand, but I must still mention to J 7 ou, Mon- 
seigneur, Mr. Charles Guny,- cur6 near Braba^on, who ac- 
companies Mr. Nerinx to Baltimore, undecided as yet whether 
he will there join the order of La Trappe, or whether Godi. 
will call him to the missionary life, for which he now be- 
lieves himself incapable; he has the same recommendations- 
in his favor, and I do not think he will lose anything in yoinr 
-estimation by his own opinion of himself. 

I venture to entreat you, Monseigneur, to write me a few 
words concerning these earnest men, who interest so many- 
saintly souls here, and whom I hope you will like. 

I do not speak of the excellent news which Father Halnaths 
brings us from St. Petersburg, whence he .has just .returned^ 
The bearers of this letter with give you all the interesting- 
details. God be blessed that His mercy deigns thus to re- 
pair the losses, which we have every day in the larger part 
of Europe, and to prepare us the missionaries of which we- 
shall soon have more need than the countries beyond the sea.. 

I am with the most respectful attachment, 

Your most humbly and obedient servant,, 
Augustine's Mother. 

P. S. Having been so prolix I flatter myself, Monseigneur,. 
that your charity will pardon me, if I venture to add my 
most affectionate regards to the President, Mr. Nagot, and. 
embrace my son, leaning with him on the heart of my 

With this letter ends the correspondence, so far as it is; 
ntivr obtainable, consequent upon the sad and sudden deathi 
of the prince, and the immediate effects of his having died 
without a will. He had been in political life from his early 
youth, and had only left it upon the conquest of Holland by 
the French, under Pichegru (1795), with the intention of soon, 
returning to it, but the conduct of the Emperor Paul, having" 
entirely disgusted him, he never after sought any public po- 
sition, but retired to Brunswick, where- he devoted himself to- 


(Science. He was a member of the Academies of St. Peters- 
burg, Stockholm, Berlin and Brussels, and president of the 
Mineralogical Society of Jena, which received his cabinet of 
natural history. He wrote a Description physique de la Tail- 
fide, relativement aux trois regnes de la nature, published at the 
Hague in It88, and a Traite de Hintralogie, ou description 
abregee et methodique des miner aux, published at Maestricht 
in 1792 and afterwards with additions atHelmstaedt in 1796. 
He was, perhaps, as manly, honorable, and fine a type as 
could be found of a man sustained only by material, earthly 
things, without faith, without fixed religiotis principle or 
feeling who believed in nothing not plain to his senses, yet 
never sank his gifted nature and noble intellect into the de- 
grading depths which appear to have been the natural ele- 
ment of the men of his order of thinking in those days. The 
excesses of the French Revolution, and its effects, opened 
his eyes to the evil of much he had previously accepted as 
manly and reasonable, and in the matter of Mitri's choice of 
life showed less severity than could have been expected after 
such a crushing blow to all his hopes. He never overcame 
his distaste for the act, but it cannot be doubted he felt 
in his heart great affection for his only son, whose constant 
prayers during the years of his priesthood, while the prince 
was yet living, must have won grace for him, which, it is to 
be hoped, as no one knows what passes between a soul and 
its God at the last moment, he did not wholly reject. Father 
Gallitzin grieved greatly for him, and long afterwards was 
discovered practising the greatest and severest penances 
upon himself, for his father's sake. 

Immediately upon the prince's death, his relatives in Rus- 
sia took possession of his estates as his heirs, considering 
Mitii as thrown out altogether on account of his profession, 
as the prince had always expected; the princess Mimi was 
by the laws of Russia, only entitled to one fourteenth of the 
real estate, and to one eighth of the personal property. By 
the advice of his mother, Father Gallitzin appointed Baron 
von. Fuerstenberg, Count Frederic Leopold von Stolberg, and 
Count Clement Augustus von Merveldt, his agents, with full 

_ 158 

power-of-attoruey to bring a suit against his relatives who* 
claimed the estates, while the princess took every possible- 
step to secure the property for him, or if that could not be,, 
for herself, through her marriage contract, which resulted in. 
an expensive litigation, of which Father Gallitzin from time- 
to time received some reports. 

He had the satisfaction, at the time of the arrival of 
several of the reverend gentlemen mentioned in the princess'" 
letter, who afterwards, especially Mr. Nerinx, or Ne- 
rinckx*, rendered us great service, of receiving a large box 
which they had brought from his mother, containing useful 
and valuable presents of all kinds for his church and his- 
parishioners. Among them was an entire and beautiful set 
of vestments to be worn at Mass, which she and Countess, 
von Stolberg had worked for him, hoping, perhaps, herself to 
place them in his hands, even to see him wear them, it may 
be; but for such a mother to have such a privilege was too- 
much happiness for earth, and they were packed up with 
tenderest care, with moist eyes and trembling hands assur- 
edly, to be worn in 'a strange land, thousands of miles away r . 
where the barefooted peasant would have the blessing for 
which the highborn, princess-mother would freely have yield- 
ed up her life. There were, besides, rosaries, prayer-books, 
pictures, household linen, relics set under precious stones, in- 
gold and silver crosses, accompanied by the papers establish- 
ing their authenticity, even baby-trousseaux for him to give 
away when the little things were brought to him for bap- 
tism, and, finally, a cheque for an unusually large amount- 
In, preparing this box, the princess showed more than by 
any words she could have used, the fulness of her happiness 
in being the mother of a priest, and the contentment with 
which she felt justified in giving herself up to an absorbing 
love for her son, at which under other circumstances she 
might almost have scrupled, for now every act of love for 
him was an act of faith in the religion for which he lived, an 

* An interesting account of this noble missionary is found in Sketches 
of. Kentucky, by M. J. Spatdding. D. D. Chapters VIE, XII. 


act of charity, and an act of adoration of the God whose 
priest he was; every expression of affection for one included 
the other, and, unlike other women, she had never to fear 
that she loved too well. For Father Gallitzin, it may be 
that, after all he had not climbed to the saddest jDoint of his 
sacrifice when he turned away from Baltimore, hopeless of" 
ever seeing her again, but then, when he bent over the box 
npon which she had spent so many hours. 




In journeying often, in labour and painfulness, 
in .hunger and thirst, in fastings oflm, and solicl~ 
hide for all the churches. (IL COB. xi. 27, 28.) 

"Clerical influence. Duties of a missionary. Some small troubles. 
Loretto. Belali. Ebensburg, Formation of Cambria County. 
Sunday in Loretto. Father Gallitzin's Eegulations. Father Gallit- 
zin as a preacher. As a confessor. His isolation. Rev. Mr. Fitz- 

IN* remote settlements where the people are almost beyond 
the reach of the laws of the country, often ignorant or care- 
less of the amenities of social life, and where all tongues 
and tempers meet, all tribes and nations are represented, if 
they would be at peace among themselves, and work their 
mutual dependence into order and the common good, they 
turn instinctively to the minister of religion, if there be one 
among them, for guidance and assistance in all their affairs, 
temporal as well as spiritual. Thus Father Gallitzin, like 
the ministers in the rigid but honest old days of the New 
England colonies, found himself at the same time servant 
and ruler, prince, priest, and counsellor, lawgiver and law- 
-enforcer, not, as they, however, over a band united by all the 
ties of religion, race, and caste, but one containing in itself 
all possible elements of discord, antagonism, bickerings and 
strife. A man of stern integrity, severely just, rigidly upright 
in all his dealings, speaking honestly, according to the light 
.given him, might win their respect, but respect, even fear 
alone, would snap in a moment at the first outbreak among 


them; something more than mere natural force and virtue, 
though of the most -winning and the most unbending character, 
was evidently necessary to acquire any influence, or control, or 
have any power to harmonize such diverse interests into any 
kind of order, and Father Gallitzin with his slender-frame, and 
complete self-abnegation, with an iron will, and a loving heart, 
with all the light and grace of the Church, all the strength and 
power of the truth, found himself as time advanced and the 
settlements increased, by no means the father of a fond and 
docile family, the pastor of an humble and submissive flock. 
Only slowly and reluctantly, after the first efiusion of joy at 
having a priest among them had subsided, did many even of 
the earlier settlers, incited to rebellion by the new spirits of 
discord continually arriving, give up to his influence, while 
every inch of his way as priest and benefactor, guide and 
parent, was contested with new comers and old, with a brave 
and cheerful exterior, but many a heartache within ; with 
many a bold and determined act before the world, and many 
a hard and pitiless austerity known to none. 

To rise long before the light and sit, fasting, for hours in 
the church that never knew a fire, hearing confessions before 
Mass on Sundays, to preach to them in English and in Ger- 
man, explaining their religion to them from its first precept 
to its sublimest result, to baptize their children, to comfort 
their dying, to bury their dead, this for one little parish alone, 
would have taxed his strength, never great, but duties like 
these are but a small part of a missionary's life. The missions 
are many and widely scattered, they must b.e reached at the 
appointed time, let the weather be what it will, the perils 
what they may ; the priest must ride and ride though the 
rain falls in .torrents, or comes crashing over the mountains, 
.in rage and fury; though in stillness, more dreadful, often, 
than any, storm, the dead leaves rustle under , his horse's feet, 
like the sound of stealthy Indian, or sly panther, or ap- 
proaching tramp of bear or wolf from the mysterious depths 
of the surrounding forests; when the long day is thus passed 
and .night comes on,. shutting out the last hope of a human 
face, or thin cloud of smoke curling from some human fireside, 


it can bring no better promise for the morrow. When a 
shelter is reached, how cold and poor and crowded it is ! 
There is no warmth, no repose, no seclusion in which to pre- 
pare for the round of duties soon to press fast and close upon 
each other; Mass, confessions, baptisms, marriages, funerals, 
exhortations, advice, consolations, and then the long journey, 
to some other crowded log hut, where tfee people will gather 
to meet him with all their accumulated load of sins and sor- 
rows, of disappointments and mishaps: an ever-recurring, 
nameless labor, never ending, always renewing itself, bring- 
ing with it no consciousness of noble talents grandly used, 
but often dissatisfaction illy concealed, misjudgment, even 
open abuse from those he has tried most to benefit. 

To all this, the usual routine of a missionary's life, in 
Father Gallitzin's case there was added the entire charge of 
the temporal interests of his congregations, which had grown 
in a few years to be an immense weight. In his anxiety to 
provide homes for those who had no prospect of any else- 
where, to sustain those who were falling away from religion, 
as well as to encourage and fortify those whom he had alrea- 
dy selected as the nucleus for the great hope of his life : an 
educated, pious, unworldly Catholic community, large enough 
and strong enough to leaven the whole surrounding country, 
he had continued to buy land in large quantities, thus ob- 
taining it much cheaper, which he sold again at a low price, 
to be paid in instalments as the buyer found himself able; 
becoming the creditor of a great number of persons whom no . 
one else would have trusted for a dollar, and held it in his 
heart, in every little thing, to add to the independence, the 
self-respect, and to encourage to unwearying industry, those 
who had never, perhaps, been considered by others or by 
themselves to have a right or claim of any kind, which should 
be accorded them openly, fairly, without evasion or struggle. 

The work and the worker had grown together ;. his mind 
was of that order that it would go on developing and enlar- 
ing as long' as he lived. It is not at all likely, that when 
he first stood in that narrow pass, and held the present gar- 
den spot of the American Church" against the'world, the flesh, 


the devil and the Protestant religion, he had any idea of the 
endurance of the battle he had to fight, to the size of the ar- 
my he was yet to lead. No great work can be performed ex- 
cept in detail, in thorough self-abnegation and self-sacrifice, 
and such is the weakness and incompleteness of our nature, 
that it is doubtful if a man could look abroad upon the mag- 
nitude of the work entrusted to him ,and the immensity of 
those branching from it, and keep his head. So, mercifully, 
the vision is limited; the laborer does not raise his head to 
look at the far mountain he is to make straight, but keeps 
his eyes fixed upon the furrows he is at the moment sowing. 
It is easy for us to look back now at this slight figure in the 
blue homespun, shading his eyes with a hat a sunburnt beg- 
gar would have disdained, and then abroad over that rich 
and beautiful country with its numerous priests, from that 
weather-stained, never-painted chapel past the gilt crosses of 
its beautiful churches, to the many steepled cathedral. But' 
he and his saw but the wide waste of trees, the unploughed 
land, the slow-growing corn of their still stubborn farms, the 
log church, and the undecorated grave-yard the end of all. 
That not one of his charge should lay a guilty head, or an 
unclean conscience under that hard earth, had been the first 
thought of the pastor's life. 

But while that thought never left him, work of all kinds 
multiplied upon his hands. He had to keep his penitents, 
the hardened old sinners he had coaxed and warned out of 
the way of temptation, from longing after the flesh-pots of 
Egypt, and at every inconvenience to which they were sub- 
jected, they were not slow to murmur at him, who had! brought 
them into the desert to perish. It was, also, a great annoyance 
to him that he could place no reliance upon the time of receiv- 
ing his allowance from Germany, and could form no idea of 
what it would be when it came. Bonaparte's movements 
were a serious perplexity to the mountain missionary, for 
the rates of exchange were continually fluctuating, banks 
were failing, letters unsafe, ocean travelling excessively 
dangerous, as the great "world conqueror,-" pursued his way 
to the terror of Europe, even of this country. 


The Russian law-suits were most expensive, and his 
mother's property in Germany was more and more endan- 
gered as European affairs became more gloomy and threaten- 
ing. As soon as he received anything every one knew it, and 
lie found a thousand uses for it, not only for charity to fami- 
lies and individuals, to whom he gave without counting and 
without question, it "was a case of "first come first served" as 
they knew very well, but for his land business now grown 
to great importance. 

Upon the church land given by Captain McGuire, had been 
built in the first place the church and a little log hut for the 
pastoral residence; Father Gallitzin spent a great deal of 
money in clearing and improving this land, and .built 
himself, after some years, a larger cabin of hewn logs, retain- 
ing the other for his kitchen and housekeeper and orphan's 
house; where his own property met the church-land he put 
up (1804) a grist mill, worked by two horses, for the use of 
the farmers, who had previously been obliged to carry their 
grain to be ground fifteen or twenty miles, sometimes on pack 
horses or mules, generally on their own backs to where Altoo- 
na now stands. A. large part of his own land he laid out for 
a town and named it Loretto, the remainder he cleared and 
cultivated for the use of the church, the priests who should 
succeed him, and such institutions as should in time arise. 

In the meantime a number of Welsh had emigrated to 
Pennsylvania, and keeping together, avoiding all mixture 
with other nationalities, all change in their own manner and 
habits, as their custom is, had formed a village by themselves 
on the Black Lick Creek not very far from Loretto, where 
they were under the guidance of a Baptist clergyman, Eev. 
Morgan J. Ehees, who had laid out their town and named it 
Berelah. The Welsh are very frugal and industrious and in 
a short "time Berelah showed all the signs of material prosper- 
ity, continuing, until, two miles east of it, 'some seven or 
eight miles from Loretto, another of Mr. Ehees' villages, 
called Ebensburg also started by Welsh emigrants, flourished 
still more visibly. 


In 1804 it was proposed to form a new counly out of 
Huntingdon and Somerset and these three towns, Berelah, 
Ebensburg, and Loretto contended for the honor of being its. 
:seat of justice. Father Gallitzin used all his influence, and 
it was already very great, to obtain the coveted prize for 
Loretto, but as Ebensburg was really more central than the 
others it was chosen ; but though this was unquestionably 
a loss to Loretto of much temporal advantage, it may, per- 
haps, have been a spiritual gain, for to have obtained it might 
have robbed the Catholic village of the very simplicity and 
steadiness which were its most precious virtues. Ebensburg 
rose rapidly after this and Berelah sank as quickly, until it 
entirely disappeared, as Loretto might have done, had it 
been built on no other foundation than that. of material pros- 

The new county, named Cambria by the Welsh, in remem- 
brance of the mountainous part of their own country, when 
permanently organized in 1807, laid, as now, between the 
main Alleghany chain, and a parallel range coming up from 
Virginia and reaching to Ebensburg, known as Laurel Hill, 
forming its eastern and western boundaries; it contains, at 
the village called Summit, five miles from Loretto, the* high- 
est point of the Alleghanies, from which rise two little 
streams, which flow on, one towards the east, becoming in 
time the bountiful Susquehanna, the other taking a north- 
westerly direction, monopolizing all the creeks and streams 
within its reach, cuts away through Laurel Hill and the Chest- 
nut Ridge, and becomes the picturesque Conemaugh, with tiie 
loveliest scenery in the world, divides Westmoreland from 
Indiana County, increases in importance, until at Saltzburg, 
Indiana County, it loses its individuality in the Loyalhanna 
and is afterwards known as the Kiskeminetas*. 

* The history and geography of this beautiful river, which.the Penn- 
sylvania Central Eailroad follo-ws from Wilmore to Blairsville Inter- 
section, some forty miles, have been made extremely interesting in a 
little book entitled: The Valley of the Conemaugh, by Thomas J. Chap- 
man, published at Altoona, an indispensable handbook for one desirous 
of obtaining a clear view of this section of coimtry. The Conemaugh 


The formation of the new county threw increased bus- 
iness into Father Gallitzin's hands, he was agent for several 
firms in Philadelphia, and other large cities, for the sale of 
lands in Western Pennsylvania, and there was an endless 
.amount of papers to be drawn up, registered and attended to, 
in regard to it, even of that kind known as ejectments, lead- 
ing some times to lawsuits, for there were not lacking swind- 
. lers and imposters to take advantage of his well known char- 
ity, obtain land from him for a.trifle and on credit, and sell it 
over again at a good profit, or occupying it, to the annoyance 
of their peaceable and orderly neighbors, without any inten- 
tion of ever paying for it, and he was not one to be imposed 
upon with impunity at any time, least of all, when he no 
longer regarded himself as his own property, but as the 
servant of the poor, the agent of the Lord in a noble work. 
He was as swift' and keen in justice as in charity, and the 
more so that he knew the full danger of establishing prece- 
dents, or giving dishonesty of any kind the slightest foot- 
hold in the new country. The temporal interests of his 
settlement required him to attend the courts in pther, coun- 
ties, and made long journeys to Greensburg, irt Westmore- 
land, and even to Lancaster, frequently necessary, which in 
addition to the increasing missions he had to attend in dis- 
charge of his spiritual duties, kept him constantly moving.. 

At the same time his heart and soul were in Loretto, the. 
centre of all his hopes, where he. never for a moment abated 
his vigilance. He had his rules for all spiritual exercises as . 
clear, distinct, and unalterable as the famous laws of the 
Medes and Persians. Everything with him was exact, pre- 
cise to the minute, and this not only from habit, from long 
training, but of every necessity for his own time, as well as 
for their discipline and order. When it drew near the time 
for Mass on Sunday, he would come from his house to the 
church, the long train of his cassock thrown over his arm, 
passing with his peculiar rapid step from group to group of 

Valley comprises Cambria County, and parts of Somerset, Indiana, and 
"Westmoreland; a portion of Pennsylvania which seems to have run wild 
in beauty, only surpassed by the inexhaustible and varied riches baneath. 


the men gathered on the church grounds, talking together 
before Mass, while the women were devoutly saying their 
prayers inside the church; for every one he had a word of 
some kind, always friendly, often amusing, even then, for 
ever reverential, ever dignified in every word and act, he 
had no need to be unnaturally serious upon occasions, and 
this was his greeting to his children, whom he saw but seldom 
at other times, numbers of whom had come that very morn- 
ing, as he knew, many a weary mile to hear Mass, fasting-, 
too, perhaps, and his cordial salutation, his smiling inquiry 
for every member of their numerous family, whatever he 
chose to' say, flushed the bronzed faces with pleasure, and 
lightened their hearts for days to remember. Only once was 
he known to pass an expectant face without a word of kindly 
greeting. It was during the war of 1812; a company had 
been formed and sent from Loretto, when* the approach of 
the English to Baltimore and Washington sent terror through 
the country; two of its members returned without permis- 
sion to Loretto, and on the following Sunday morning, held 
forth to the usual gathering, of their marvellous adventures 
by field and flood, heroes of the hour, in spite of the shadow 
of uncertainty concerning the propriety of their unexpected 
reappearance. They enjoyed the wonder, the attention of 
their audience, until Father Gallitzin appearing at the door 
of his cabin, the usual hush of respect and expectancy took 
place, as the people lowered their voices, speaking only a 
few sentences among themselves, while tfiey watched him 
coming brightly, cheerily, and stately as ever, along the 
path to the church. Then it was that one of the travellers, 
flushed by previous success, perhaps, went forward, conceal- 
ing all embarassment under an appearance of heartiness, as 
befitting one who had seen the world, "Ah, Doctor, good 
morning!" he said holding -out his hand, "Glad to see you 
again, Doctor," but the doctor's slender hand kept its place, 
clasped behind his back, and the dark eyes raised to the face 
before him, expressed surprise, but no welcome. "I never 
shake hands with him who deserts his post," he answered 
quietly, and passed on: "I pitied the fellow," commented a 


looker on, "I'd a rather ha' been shot than got that there 
word from the doctor, but I'd a knowed I'd a got it, 'fore 
ever I'd showed myself; for, see you, that there was just the 
doctor's way." 

In the church there were no pews nor benches, the utmost 
ease ever allowed in it consisted of two or three stools, for 
the use of several very aged persons who came there; the 
children knelt in front, by the altar rails ; the women were 
placed on one side, the men on the other, with a narrow pas- 
sage way between, which neither ever ventured to decrease; 
all superfluous dress had to be left behind, and at the church 
door every woman, young Or old, was required to take off 
her bonnet, and put a kind of handkerchief over her head; 
the slightest impropriety in dress, and the fashion of the 
day admitted plenty of it, was so well known to be hateful 
to him, that if brought there it would be sure to be con- 
sidered as a defiance of his admonitions, an insult to the 
House of God, and bring upon its wearer a scathing rebuke. 
As much as Father Gallitzin hated meanness in a man, he 
despired coquetry in a woman, not that pleasant sparkle 
which comes with good health and a clear conscience, for he 
liked that within reasonable limits, but whatever showed 
itself in the lowering of the immortal to give precedence to 
that which perishes, was to him a crime and a folly, for which 
no denunciation could be too severe. He knew, also, the 
poverty of the generality of the people, and was careful that 
there should be no extravagance, no rivalry, no room for 
envy, by permitting even those whose circumstances would 
perhaps have admitted some display, to make any beyond 
the means of the simplest and poorest, and so clearly did he 
make all feel that they were alike children of God, so well 
did he know to say the right word in confession, that to a 
stanger looking over the congregation they would have ap- 
peared as children of one father, dressed with. different tastes, 
it is true, but with equal plainness. Father Gallitzin dread- 
ed the advent of finery into the settlements as he would the 
small pox, or cholera, especially as there is no known rem- 
edy for the diseases it brings. 


When the greetings outside the church door were all made,, 
or whenever the moment arrived for the people to enter, he 
left them, and, when, later, there was a gallery for a choir> 
went up stairs, other times remained at the back of the 
church, while they went in; when all was quiet, and that 
had to be very soon, he would sing the Litany, and that 
ended, go twice round the outside of the church, lest any one 
might be lingering there, instead of preparing for Mass in- 
side; then in the stillness which he insisted upon, every ear 
would be strained to hear behind them that never-to-be-mis- 
taken step, quick, but never hurried, that marked his pro- 
gress up the narrow passage, through the church to the 
sanctuary, while everyone, however demurely kneeling wib 
clasped hands, and downcast eyes, knew well that his keeia 
glances were piercing to their inmost heart, for then it was 
that the least irregularity of dress, or posture was made 
note of. 

When he came back again it was to sing the Asperges,. 
and sprinkle them with holy water before Mass; the holy 
water brush was a marshall's baton in his hands; he knew 
how the devil hates it, and every irregularity just noticed,, 
brought upon the wearer, or doer, a special quantity. At one- 
time a Protestant, from some distant settlement, went up to 
Loretto, on purpose to have some fun over the Catholic wor- 
ship, and "Priest Gallitzin V doings, and got wedged in 
with the crowd by the door, when Father Gallitzin came 
down the aisle sprinkling and singing the Asperges, whicb 
appeared so amusing, that the young man laughed heartily, 
undismayed by the evident indignation of all around him; as 
the priest came nearer he stared boldly at him, his moutli 
open for another laugh, when in a moment he clasped his- 
hands before his face, and was glad to push his way out into 
the open air, choking and gasping, while the chanting of 
the psalm continued, without the wavering of a note. 

Father Gallitzin always preached two sermons at Mass>. 
one in English, and one in German, neither of which was his- 
mother tongue, for French was the. language most natural to 
him; he spoke English with perfect ease, German not so well:. 


Ms sermons were plain, and suited to the times, the circum-r 
stances, and the needs of his people, with which he was as 
familiar as with his own. He knew just the snares likely to 
be laid for them, just the temptations they had to avoid, just 
the virtues they most required, and his words to them from 
the altar were dictated accordingly. He was especially 
anxious they should be thoroughly grounded in their religion, 
not merely in its letter, or in so much of it as might seem to 
apply to their daily life, but in its spirit and immensity. He 
liad a horror of superstitions, of religious sentimentality, of 
all spiritual morbidness, and he knew that ignorance is the 
fruitful source of all these; he wished also that his people 
should live like kings in the regions of the soul, no feast too 
grand for them, no robes too costly for them to wear; he 
poured out upon them the luxuries of spiritual intelligence, 
preparing them for it by every possible effort of training, ex- 
planation, and constant care; he assured them there was 
nothing in their religion top nice or fine for their daily life, 
if they made that daily life what it should be, and when he 
demanded simplicity in their dress and manners, forbade 
every thought of luxury in their way of living, he threw 
them the keys of the Church treasury, and urged them to 
hoard up wealth for their souls. And some of them were so 
.good! They never suspected it themselves, but it was to 
him a joy, an edification, a foretaste of the society of the 
saints in heaven, to mark the gentleness, the patience, the 
sweet regularity, and the bright courage, ready for any 
emergency, fearless in the peace of their conscience, and 
confidence in God's protection in doing whatever He willed 
-them to do, of the women, the honesty, straightforwardness, 
the forbearance, the real, practical piety of the men, and 
when, at night, as he urged upon all, in every cottage, not 
only in Loretto, but those buried in the darkness of the sur- 
rounding forests, the axe and the spade laid aside, the spin- 
ning wheel silent, the fire low on the hearth, and the baby 
asleep in the corner, in the small dimly lighted room that 
did for kitchen and parlor, parents and children knelt to- 
gether saying the rosary, before the tired limbs sought rest 


on the rude bunches of straw, so often their only beds, only 
God can tell how many a savage beast tramped aside, his 
hungry jaws aching for their prey, at sound of the last AJIEN, 
as the worshippers, blessed of God, laid down in their unsafe 
liomes, unconscious, and unfearing, as the saints of old in 
.the horrors of the Eoman arena. 

Sunday was the day of happy meetings, for family gather- 

ings, when married children, living miles away, came back 

to the old home, for a. few hours with their parents; a day 

of leisure, of peaceful conscience, of domestic ' reunion, and 
'. happiness, as God meant it to be, on which each one was to 
rgather new heart and hope, new love of God, new softening 
of the heart, new strengthening of olden ties for the week 
-to come, and though no loved ones came to share with 

Father Gallitzin his solitary meal, on that day, it did not 
.sadden him, for he knew the happiness of the rest, and 
rejoiced in it; it was a busy day for him, too, for all man- 
ner of spiritual necessities were brought to him then to 

be attended to, .and if any one was especially happy in 
some unexpected meeting, or some unusual good news, " the 
doctor " would be called upon to hear it. Towards evening, 
when those living in the distance were obliged to turn home, 
no one passed his door, without a thought of him, or a long 
look at his little cabin. In his private rules and. regulations 
for each individual life, he was even more exact and search- 
ing ; even the little children, as they stood between his 
knees, twisting the buttons' of his cassock, going through the 
process they called confession, felt that nothing was un- 
known to him, and that he would neither misunderstand one, 
nor be deceived by evasion or coloring. Nothing was of in- 

difference to him which was serious to his penitent; even 
the child who confessed Avith frank eyes, and much stammer- 
ing, that he had stolen a wheelbarrow, found nothing strange 
in the quiet question of the priest as to what he did with it, 
for a wheelbarrow .is rather a large thing for a little boy to 
steal or to conceal. "I rode my sister three times around 

-the yard, and then I put it back," said the child,, and when, . 
afterwards, the little . penitent told of it, and of the serious 


advice given to ask the owner's consent next time, one coulct 
see that it was from the very earliest moment, he took care- 
that they should neither exaggerate, nor lessen the faults, 
they committed. As he grew older, and advanced more, 
himself, in perfection, it might be said that all that he ac- 
complished, by other means, was as nothing in comparison, 
with the work effected by him as a confessor. His penitents 
did not feel as if they were speaking to him, naming over a. 
catalogue of sins ; in so far as it can be explained at all, and! 
it is one of those things which never can be explained, it. 
was like an earnest and searching interview with an injured: 
parent, whom one has reluctantly consented, in coldness and 
pettishness to meet, before whose love and tender reproach-, 
all the barriers of time, of hardness, and neglect, break 
down, and with tears of relief all the past is reviewed, its. 
wrongs, seen now for the first time as they really are, sobbed 
out, a comfort to tell them, and be forgiven for each. 

Thus Father Gallitzin's spiritual and temporal duties flow 
ed together, so that any attempt to separate them under dif- 
ferent heads must always fail. They grew together, they 
crowded upon him, hand in hand, he could not evade one- 
without neglecting the other, and they had come to such 
magnitude that they strained every nerve, and even then he 
felt he could not meet them; not only was his health giving- 
way, but even his brave and energetic spirit quailed before 
the calls upon it; he began to dread the future, and longed 
to have some one to take a little, though but the smallest 
part of his responsibility from him, one who, perhaps, would 
be enough conversant with his duties not to let them drop at 
once, if he should be called away in the midst of his labors.. 
Mr. Heilbron, still in Westmoreland, was, as in the begin- 
ning, the only priest within a week's journey, and he was; 
old, no longer strong, able to speak but very little English,, 
and, like all the rest, overburdened with work; he, however,, 
made it a point to come every summer, and spend a few 
weeks with Father Gallitzin, recruiting his own strength and" 
courage and giving his host a little of the priestly society, no- 
man ever craved more; for his was no solitary nature, he lov- 


ed life, movement, social intercourse, and was full of wit, of 
the kindliest nature, with that peculiar, sparkling gift of con- 
versation which never dazzles, or bewilders, or comes out in 
abrupt brilliancy, like sudden flashes of lightning on a dark 
night, but a bright, fresh readiness of speech, which made 
him delightful and never exacting company. He was also 
tormented by fits of depression, which were partly hereditary, 
his mother at times suffering so greatly from despondency, 
without any cause, that it amounted to a disease, and the 
gloom it engendered was regarded by her as the strongest 
temptation of the devil, which was increased in his case by 
the real mental isolation in which he lived, for there actually 
was no one who merited to be called a friend, in the full 
sense of the word, and partly from his frequent illhealth, 
occasioned by irregular meals, poor food, and rigorous fast- 
ing. So bravely did he fight himself, at these times, that few 
would believe he ever lost heart or hope; but no one, not 
afflicted in the same way, can form any idea of the suffering 
endured, when, all at once, gloom and fear take full posses- 
sion of the mind, and the least trouble, or care, looms up 
like the grotesque, yet terrifying shadows of some dimly 
lighted, lonely street; when all one's acts and words, all that 
has been done, or is to do, keeps before the eyes distorted, 
and frightfully caricatured. The evil one knows as well as 
possible that this is his time to work, and how easy then to 
confuse the conscience, and disarm the will! It was then he 
would represent to the poor priest, how unwisely he had 
acted, how little good he had accomplished here, persisting 
in taking a work upon himself no one approved of, repeating 
to him, with a new meaning, all the objections which had 
ever been urged to it, all the lack of sympathy he had met 
in the good and pious men whose judgment he should have 
taken, and, as reason does not have everything clear before 
it at such times, and no consistent line of argument is neces- 
sary to break it down, no reasoning, no facts that Father 
Gallitzin could urge would silence the voice of despair speak- 
ing to him; it was then when he most needed not to be 
alone. This was a bitter persecution, permitted by God, 


in which, as in 'a furnace seven times heated, was tested,, 
hammered and shaped, the iron of his intention. 

Except during Mr. Heilbron's yearly visits, he had no- 
priest with him for any time, until he had been on the moun- 
tains some five or six years, and then the bishop permitted 
Rev. Mr. Fitzsimmons to remain with him for a little while, al- 
though it is not very clear that he was of much assistance in.-: 
Loretto, but may have attended some of the other settlements- 
Previous to Mr. de Earth's being stationed at Lancaster,. 
Rev. Mr. Fitzsimmons who had previously. been in Canada,, 
came to this country, and, probably at the time the bishop- 
thought of placing Father Gallitzin there, was put in charge 
of the slightly turbulent congregation at St. Mary's Church 5; 
he is first mentioned in Father Gallitzin's letters of 1804, in, 
which is also found, quite unconsciously on the part of the 
writer, intimations of the great charity towards his brother 
clergymen, for which the Pastor of Loretto afterwards be- 
came so conspicious: 


Lancaster, Febr. 21 1804. 
My Lord, 

Coming hither on business relating to our new county and 
countytown, (in which I have now great reason to flatter my- 
self of success), I found an unhappy misunderstanding, and 
division had taken place in the congregation. As I am sen- 
sible of the uneasiness it must create in your Lordship's 
mind, to receive accounts so very 'unfavorable to the charac- 
ter of Rev. Mr. Fitzsimmons, and especially from a person 
of such respectability as Mr. Risdel, I thought it my duty to 
communicate to your Lordship what I found out (by impar- 
tial investigation) to be the real fa'cts, leaving it to your 
Lordship's prudence and wisdom to form a judgment there- 
on With regard to Mr. Fitzsimmon's sermon, on Candle- 
mas day, it appears, evidently, that the utmost necessity 
compelled him to make Money part of his subject, tho' I own 
if he had been acquainted with the spirit of the people here, 
prudence would have suggested some other means; he 


was in America, not in Ireland. At the same time it must 
be owned by any person, not altogether blinded by pre- 
judice, that if Mr. Fitzsimmons gave offence, he certainly- 
repaired the scandal more than sufficiently by his wonderful 

* ^ * 

In short it appears plainly that there was a scheme laid 
to insult Rev. Mr. Fitzsimmons. and to have him removed 
by your Lordship. The good Catholics are unanimous in 
believing him to be a pious, holy, and very zealous clergy- 
man, which coincides with my humble opinion. However it. 
appears plainly to me that he will never be happy here, as 
the Butch party, headed by Risdel (which is the richest) is- 
absolutely against him, and you know, my Lord, how difficult 
it is to remove their prejudices. A great many of those that 
remain faithful to their pastor, and some of the ablest . 
amongst them, are preparing to move to Clearfield Settlement 
very goon. Would your Lordship please to gratify their,., 
his, and my desire by allowing the Rev. Mr. ' Fitzsimmons 
to move to that settlement in order to assist me there in the 
discharge of my duties, that 'are become too heavy for my 
shoulders alone. 

Granting this request will be sincerely acknowledged by,, 
My Lord, 

Your most humble obedient servant, 

Demetrius Aug. Pr.. of Gallitzin, 
Secular Priest. 

P. S. An answer to Rev. Mr. Fitzsimmons will be suf- - 
ficient, as I shall not be here to receive your answer to mine,- 


Near Loretto, June 4th, 1804. 
My Lord, 

I embrace the opportunity of Mr. James Gallagher's [visit 
. to Baltimore.] to let your Lordship know that I am at pres-- 
ent in a very good state of health, and very much pleased at 
the surprising, rapid increase of this settlement, but "'at the 
same time very desirous of assistance as the task begins to ^ 

_ 176 

<be too heavy for iny shoulders. I expect your Lordship did 
receive the letter which I directed to you from Lancaster, in 
which I perhaps made too free, in requesting from your 
Lordship the favor of Mr. Fitzsimmons' assistance here. 
What induced me to it, and now induces me to renew my 
.^nimble request, was my intimate conviction of his not being 
fit for Lancaster, of which I suppose your Lordship likewise 
convinced. I believe him to be a virtuous, zealous clergy- 
man, but at the same time, somewhat imprudent, and not en- 
dowed with a sufficient share of the so necessary knowledge 
of the world, of mankind in general, nor sufficiently provided 
Twith the no less necessary gift of discerning the differences 
between nations, countries and other, peculiarities. From 
the knowledge, however, which I have of my congregations, 
4t appears to me that he might do exceedingly well here. As 
-for a maintenance I engage to find it for him, or for any 
clergyman your Lordship shall think proper to send. I do 
not know of any at present that "has a desire of coming 
hither except Mr. Fitzsimmons, who seems very much con- 
..firmed in this notion by his best friends, the best Catholics 
in Lancaster, removing from that place and coming to this 
-settlement. I shall with the greatest submission resign my- 
self to your decision. 

* * * 

I remain with the greatest respect, 
My Lord, 

Your most humble obedient Servant, 

Demetrius Aug. Pr. of Gallitzin, 
Parish Priest of Loretto. 

Unfortunately Father Gallitzin did not know his congre- 
gations quite as well as he thought, and an imprudent priest 

among them would soon find himself without the influence 
-and control which a priest should always have over his con- 
gregation, and lacking which neither pastor nor people can 

be contented or attend to their best good. If now they were 
-orderly, regular in all their duties, with their heart in all 

they did, it was because Father Gallitzin kept them to the 

1 I 

mark he had set for them, his zeal animated even those who 
would least acknowledge it, his resolute ways of acting and 
speaking, his thorough self command, and appreciation of 
his place and theirs made ready response natural and easy 
to them; but when, at times, an easy going man, accustomed 
to let things take their own course when there appeared 
nothing reprehensible on the surface, received the care of 
missions upheld, like these, by the fervor and strength of 
one man, it was wonderful, humiliating, how soon they fell 
apart, and slipped away from the earnestness and regularity 
which had so long appeared as a second nature to them; 
this, at first, in. the merest trifles, exciting no uneasiness, 
perhaps indeed, no more than a careless thought that Dr. 
Gallitzin was too punctilous, too much of a clerical martinet, 
and that such strictness as he used was quite iinnecessary; 
but trifles led so quickly to more momentous failures, and 
these to serious results which were harder for Father Gal- 
litzin, when called upon in haste and fear, to repair than it 
had ever been to build up. "When will the world learn that 
it must not trifle with the regulations 'of the physician, the 
general, and the priest! 

As yet, there were but few indications of such possibilities, 
and these, looked upon in amazement and indignation, were 
at once repudiated by all the people, and appeared to him 
merely as a passing annoyance, soon to wither and die, leav- 
ing no trace. Temporally and spiritually he had reason to 
feel confident that all was going on well, and that he needed 
only a little help in both, to keep all that he had gained 
which meant to carry it on as he had commenced, for in 
work like this to stand still is to be pushed aside and driven 
back, only after superhuman exertions, if even then, ever to 
regain a firm foothold on the ground lost. This assistance 
which he so ardently desired, and asked so quietly, was 
rarely given him, and many times for the want of a small 
sum, ready at the moment, he had;to lose great advantages, 
toiled for through many trials, but he never urged, nor com- 
plained; he did the best he could with the means he could 

procure, and attended to the smallest good of those he had 
13 ' 


in charge, as if he had no greater aim on hand, as appears 
illustrated by a note to Bishop Carroll in the early part of 1805. 


February 4th, 1805. 
My Lord, 

It was only the 1st Inst. I received your kind favour in- 
cluding the Pope's Indult and the letters from my mother*. 
In reply to these I can assure your Lordship that I am per- 
fectly resigned to the will of God, and do not feel in the least 
concerned about the loss of my property, if it is the will of 
Providence that I should lose it. I had long ago consecrat- 
ed it, in my own mind, to the service of God and His sanc- 
tuary. I am now in Aughwick Settlement, about seventy 
miles from home, travelling on a sleigh, or rather, sled, from 
one valley into another, until I go through all the different 
congregations xmder my jurisdiction, which will keep me 
from home until the 12th, or 13th. I hope your Lordship will 
not object to my postponing the publishing of the Jubilee to 
a later period than the one mentioned in your circular letter; 
the winter is so very severe, the snow so deep, that a great 
portion of the congregation, particularly poor people not 
sufficiently provided with clothing, could not attend. Out 
of several hundred communicants, that never miss their 
Easter or Christmas communion, I had only about sixty 
these last holidays. I beg leave, therefore, to postpone that 
business until some time in the Spring, to which your Lord- 
ship will undoubtedly agree, if you have any idea of the 
roughness of the climate and country, at this unpleasant 
season of the year 

I hope, if your Lordship will assist me, that the church 
property here shall, in a few years, exceed any other church 
property in this state. 

With sincere respect, 
My Lord, 

Your most humble obedient servant, 
Demetrius Augustine Smith. 

* Given in the preceding chapter. 



In perils from my own nation, inperilsfrom 
the gentiles, in perils in the wilderness, in 
perils from false brethren, (IL COK. xi. 26.) 

The false brother. Confusion of Gallitzin and Smith. His mistakes, 
faults, and peculiarities of temper. A boy's quarrel. An injured 
friend. Gallitzin as a. physician. Adopts a family of orphans. 
Hopes of a religious order of teachers. Consequent opposition and 

Not very long after Mr. Fitzsimmons' visit, another clergy- 
man, less virtuous and zealous than he is described, wander- 
ed into the wilds of Pennsylvania, unauthorized by the 
bishop, and investigated its resources. He was rather dis- 
gusted with the aspect of affairs in. Westmoreland county, 
on account of the poverty of the church, but looking towards 
Cambria and Huntingdon counties, which were under Father 
Gallitzin's care, discovered some gleams of hope in the far 
future, under proper management, even for Loretto. He be- 
came acquainted with some members of these congregations, 
found out, in homely .phrase, " how the land lay", and was 
very much liked by those with whom he affably conversed, 
or graciously shared the usual hospitalities. His decided 
opinion was that they were all entirely too much under the 
control of their pastor, and that they were competent to 
manage their own affairs, unassisted by any clergyman, for 
priests are appointed to attend to spiritual requirements, 
not to regulate the way we should live, what we should eat 


and drink, and what clothes to wear, which, if we mistake 
not, was veiy much the view, held a number of years ago, 
by an uninvited guest in the Garden of Eden. Of course the 
reverend gentleman was too thoroughly charitable ever to 
give open expression to this opinion, but there certainly were 
people who did not doubt he held it, and when they them- 
selves came to think about it, they could not say it was 
wholly unfounded. - Besides, it is always pleasant to meet a 
priest of one's own nation, and whether or not their present 
pastor was a German foreigner, as generally supposed, it 
could not be questioned that this off hand, easy, and free 
spoken gentleman, who did not feel above a cheering glass 
even with an humble backwoodsman, was of their own 
tongue and nation, and it would be a fine day for Loretto if 
he would sometime come there to live, or, at least, to visit 
and assist the present pastor at Easter and Christmas, 
perhaps. - 

It will be noticed that notwithstanding his naturalization, 
Father Gallitzin had twice signed himself in letters to Bish- 
op Carroll, Prince of Gallitzin, his father's rightful heir,- as 
his lawyers in Russia were endeavoring to have him practi- 
cally acknowledged. He had never meant at any time in 
his life to renounce his family name, not even, as has been 
supposed, in his most humble mood, for it is not likely it ever 
occured' to him that anything pertaining to him was of such 
brilliant importance that it needed to be concealed; he had 
always, even by nature, great simplicity of character, and 
never in his life attained to any complications of virtue, or 
any affectation of sanctity. It is true that had he remained 
in Europe, or returned to it desiring to live a retired and 
holy life, he would too soon have learned the value placed by 
the world upon his birth and fortune, and would have been 
compelled either to renounce them, become entirely dead to 
the knowledge of the children of men, or live among them a 
sort of prince-priest receiving, in spite of himself, the honor 
due to his worldly position, instead of the higher veneration 
due to his spiritual rank, but of this in a republican country 
he could fear nothing, of course. He simply neglected to 


his family name when deciding to remain here, and 
when he became aroused to the necessity for doing- so, his 
pastoral and business sphere had so enlarged that he found 
himself encompassed by 'embarrassments, whether he spoke 
or remained silent. In one way and another his true name 
was becoming known to many, and when used in the hearing 
of those who knew him only as Mr., Father, or more truly 
in country parlance as Priest Smith, gave rise to misunder- 
standings, and finally to real annoyances. To those who 
understood the position of a nobleman setting out to see the 
world with the desire of quiet, and the conventional require-, 
ments of a title in Europe, not a word of explanation was 
necessary, but these were very- few, and he himself, of course, 
could not enter into the details of such a position necessary 
to the enlightenment of those around him. He did the best 
he could in asking a priest who was visiting him, Mr. lieil- 
bron most likely, to mention the matter in church, and set 
the people right concerning it. But this only made matters 
worse, for either the speaker himself did not understand it, 
or did not know how to express it, for his English, which was 
of the most limited, was incomprehensible, and his German 
confusion; nothing was gained except the authorized fact 
that their pastor had two names; the wildest fancies, the 
silliest stories were set afloat at once; even to this day there 
are those who heard that announcement, who believe in their 
hearts and freely say that he was the eldest, or only son, 
report varies, of a great king, in some far country, not clear- 
ly mapped out in their geography, and the excitement about 
his going to Europe, of which something was known, was 
occasioned by the demand of his subjects that he should 
come to them, now that his father was dead, and occupy the 
waiting throne, but he, persisting in his refusal declared he 
wanted no throne but one beyond the skies! Others, too 
sensible for such mistakes, admitted themselves unable to 
reconcile all points of the subject, certainly it could not be 
denied that it was rather singular that a man of such rank, as 
he was said to have, should care to live in the woods like the 
.poorest of the poor, unless . The wise men pondered 


over it, and having read history as they thought, in their 
school-books, regarded it as mysterious to say the least, and 
the rest was left to the imagination. 

It is not to be denied that Father G-allitzin sometimes 
made mistakes; no one ever yet learned to do a thing well 
without making many failures in the process, else why are 
there schools, apprenticeships, and novitiates? One does not 
need to enter a mechanic's shop, an artist's studio, to discover 
that it takes years of practice, of sad experience, and many 
errors, to make a master hand. When he went to the moun- 
tains he was still a young prince, whose life, as far as it had 
progressed, had been passed only with those who loved and 
esteemed him, and made his welfare and happiness their 
great study, from his earliest childhood he had been ad- 
dressed only with deference from his inferiors, affection and 
respect from his equals and superiors; he had known no 
society but that of the learned, the polished and the high- 
minded, in great part that of sincere and courteous religious. 
When he settled in the backwoods, as it could well be called, 
he had to learn to deal with a very different class of men ; 
men who believed no man honest until he had been proved 
so, and even then with reserve; who looked upon air other 
men as impostors and swindlers, against whom it was well 
to be ever on guard, and with whom to get the upper hand 
in the game, if cunning could do it; men who were less de- 
praved than these, but still with little faith in him or any 
one, and very uncertain principles of their own; others, be- 
sides, who were honest and sincere, but impressible, weak, 
suspicious, and not to be relied upon in an emergency, and 
if, sometimes, he was deceived, overreached by thorough du- 
plicity, or even if, now and again, he confounded with these 
one who was not of them, it was hardly surprising, all things 

He had also, in himself, certain traits and habits of 
thought, certain peculiarities of temperament, and effects of 
association to overcome, from which he received many a 
smarting wound before he could discover their hiding place. 
Like most men of active, stirring character he looked to re- 


suits, formed decided opinions, which he was not unwilling 1 
to press upon others ; it is true, that even when convinced 
the good aimed at was not to be doubted, he would cheer- 
fully demonstrate to others why it should be so; he did not 
always duly consider that the most lucid illustration of the 
double rule of three, is rather lost upon a man who cannot 
put five and six together without counting it on his fingers; 
persons thus put aside, unable to give him counter-demon- 
strations, might be silenced but they were not always mute. 
He was hasty, quick to form judg-ments and as quick to ex- 
press them; there was no bitterness, no malice in his nature; 
the angry word would no sooner be spoken than keenly re- 
gretted and pardon begged for it; more than that it was not 
so ready the next time; biit, unhappity, what [is said, is said, 
and more than once a word spoken in the heat of the mo- 
ment, rankled in the very heart upon which he daily laid be- 
nefits and fondest atonements. It was even true, as began 
to be whispered, that he was arbitrary, and capable of ter- 
rible anger, with a look of fire, a voice of thunder, and a will 
of iron, like that -grand old Sixtus Quintus who 'declared: 
"While I live the criminal shall die", and made the watch- 
word of Rome, SIXTUS EEIGXS. There are no words fitly to 
describe his mastering spirit that never was .broken, and 
could not be bent. The men, strangers to him and his reli- 
gion, who strode up to see a funeral pass, baptism admin- 
istered, or hear a sermon preached, who had never bowed to 
any command, at his word: "Kneel down, Sir. Take off 
your hat", obeyed, powerless to resist, while the rapid words 
were yet on his lips. At other times his voice rang out un- 
til the very rafters thrilled .and trembled; the fast coming 
words, the cutting sarcasms, the broad, trenchant blows of 
his doctrinal sermons once heard could never be forgotten. 
Magnificent in his wrath he seemed born to hurl the thun- 
ders of the Church at the heads of sacrilegious kings, and an- 
nounce the scourging of God to cowering nations, and it was 
felt instinctively -there was a power therc not well to arouse. 
He was careful to honor the sclfrespect and family reserve 
which he knew to be a safeguard against the petty gossip 


and scandals which are the bane of all small communities, 
but at the same time in his eyes they were all members of 
one family and he their father, and he would sometimes 
speak to all of the errors of one, not indeed, personally, but 
too plainly, intending only to use it as an illustration, and a 
warning to others. This of course, never in any serious case 
of misfortune to those innocent of evil intention, or part in 
the disgrace which one unworthy member will often bring 
upon an entire family; for these he was full of tenderness, 
sharing their sorrow as if it were his own. It was generally 
in trifles, but they were sometimes painful ones, when they 
brought disapprobation from him. 

He was also, in small matters, extremely credulous, and 
apt to believe the first story told him, he who would weigh 
the statements of a world renowned author with all care 
and prudence, who would take no assertion of moment 
from the most reliable source without keen investiga- 
tion, would 3 r et make the not uncommon mistake of con- 
founding radencss of speech with honesty of meaning; no 
child's story was too small, or clumsily constructed for him 
to notice, no petty- quarrel, if brought to him, too mean for 
him to pronounce upon, generally with mild and just 
reflection, leading to full reconciliation, other times with 
severe and, perhaps, unexpected rebuke; undoubtedly he had 
always his own reasons for such a course, but they were not 
always apparent, and the last thing ordinary people will for- 
give in those in superior position, is that which looks like 
caprice or. inconsistency. 

To illustrate his credulity, his hasty judgments, and his 
tenderness of heart two anecdotes may be repeated, although 
occuring some years later, when he was known as " Dr. Gallitz- 
in." One Sunday morning one of the most upright and respec- 
ted of his parishioners, known as "the squire", who was also 
a firm friend upon whom Dr. Gallitzin knew he could rely in 
any emergency, a man who strove in every relation of life as 
husband, father, citizen, and neighbor to fulfil all his duties, 
as the priest, speaking in God's name, had set the standard, 
listened attentively, and with much personal interest to the 

185 - 

doctor's English sermon, which was on the duties of parents 
to their children. "Children" he said, "are commanded to 
honor their parents, and obey them in all that is not sin, but 
the duties are not all on the children's side, parents are 
bound to exact and to merit honor and obedience no less 
than the children to give it," a just and truthful statement 
which the " squire" had no thought of questioning, even had 
it come from less sacred lips than those that now uttered it; 
"Any parent", the preacher went on to say, "who let his 
children run about as they pleased, quarrelling, inciting 
others to anger, or luring them to idleness, to disobedience 
to parents and superiors, and the various sins of vagabond- 
boyhood, need not look for salvation though he wore his own 
knees off praying and reduced himself to a skeleton by fast- 
ing and mortification, even gave half of his substance to the 
poor, for God at the Last Day, at the very hour of death, 
would demand an account of the souls entrusted to him."' 
From this he proceeded to sketch a man, honored and 
esteemed by all, obedient to every command of the Church, 
every advice of his pastor, charitable, generous, just in 
all his dealings with others, who nevertheless, was cancel- 
ling all his good works by his carelessness in regard to his 
children, his over indulgence, permitting them to grow up in 
pride and stubbornness; making the description so personal 
that it could not be doubted he had a living original of the 
portrait in his own mind, and that original the squire, who, 
himself, soon saw that something had happened. Many a 
time "the doctor's" keen satire and crushing, rebukes 
had been heard by him before, but they had generally 
fallen on the heads of those who could have been reached in 
no other way, and never until now upon one who loved him, 
as tough old veterans their bright young captain, whose 
very severity of discipline increases his fascination, whose 
concise command is more potent than all the raging of their 
higher officers, whose imperiousness is their pride, his des- 
potism their delight, but whose least neglect, whose least 
personal anger cuts deeper than the sword of an enemy. 
"If he had only sent for me, made any complaint, asked 


anything of me, I would have said it was all right," groaned 
the squire, returning to his home, with -his weeping family, 
"anything but this." Questioning his children, he found 
there had been a boys' quarrel between them and a per- 
son, who was working for Dr. Gallitzin, in an adjoining 
field, the day before, over the merits of their respective 
teams, in which there had been considerable boasting on 
each side, as there always will be when horses are under 
discussion, it is human nature, but not more than the boys 
felt aggravated to make by the superior facility of language 
employed by the other; though it had to be admitted that 
when they found themselves outdone in speech, they jumped 
the fence and decided the case in a more emphatic, and less 
judicial manner. According to the report made Father Gal- 
litzin the provocation, the aggravation, the boasting and the 
depreciation (they were the priest's own horses, in which he 
took a reasonable pride himself), had all been on one side 
of the fence, and that the boys' side. Father Gallitzin did not 
stop to consider that there are almost invariably two parties 
to a quarrel, especially to a fight, and other stories following 
this, in illustration of the wicked ways of the victorious 
youths, naturally worked upon his mind, as the narrator, 
perhaps, was not unwilling it should. 

In the afternoon of that unhappy Sunday, the father was 
induced to walk over, and see "the doctor". Father Gal- 
litzin had then a fence around his . yard, and and a gate at a 
little distance, at which it was his custom to meet his visi- 
tors, whom he could always see from the window of his 
room, long before they reached his house, and now, as 
usual, came down the narrow path in his own stately way, 
with a smiling welcome, to which the man who felt himself 
wronged, could not so easily respond, ai}d frankly, but with 
due respect, said so, giving his reasons why, to which Father 
Gallitzin listened in all humility, and at once sent for his 
informant. But telling a story in the heat of the moment to 
a sympathizing listener, was found to be different from re- 
peating it, in cold blood, before an audience disposed to be 
critical, and this informant was obliged by his own words, 


to sh ow plainly that this other parties were not quite the 
reprobates they had been represented. The instant this be- 
came apparent Father Gallitzin's eyes filled with tears, and 
-walking up to the others, took the squire's hand in his own, 
and said, calling him by his first name, "I was wrong, what 
can I do to repair my mystake? Anything and everything 
that I can do, I wish to do." 

"All I care for, doctor," replied the other warmly," is. that 
you should know the truth, and not think me so bad as you 
represented me this morning, so now it's all right," and it 
was, and both could smile at it afterwards. Later when 
times had so changed that a plate collection was taken up 
there as in other churches, an offence of a far more serious 
character, was related to him, just before church, as haying 
been committed by one of his collectors, a pillar of the 
church, who stood, without flinching, through a denunciation 
more severe even than the other had received. After Mass 
he set the plate down in the sacristy before Dr. Gallitzin, 
; saying, "There! that's the last collection I will ever take up 
In this church." 

"And why," demanded the priest. 

"Because I suppose you meant me this time?" 

"I did."' 

"Then, doctor, I can tell you you have made another mis- 
take," and as before the story was investigated and the ac- 

cused honorably ticquitted. 

" It was the same thing before," said the collector," when 

you gave Squire JM that backset, and I said then if it 

had been me, I would never go round that church again, 

and I will not." 

"Yes, Johnnie," Father Gallitzin replied, laying his hand- 

on his shoulder, and looking up to him, in his own winning 

way, "you will, won't you? I spoke too soon, I am very 

sorry, but you will not stay angry with me for that, will 

"you?" and in this case it was all over at once. 

But it was not often so, especially in the beginning before 
he had grown with his congregation, so that they knew 
' him, in such things, better than he knew himself; and with 


those whose consciences told them that they deserved still 
more than they received, straws like these were carefully 
laid away, ready, if a storm should ever arise, to be made 
use of, if only to show which way the wind blew. They were 
the utmost that could be established against him in all the 
years of his life as their priest, a life that had no secrets or 
disguises, and was under continual observation from begin- 
ning to end, open to the interpretation of all manner of 
minds, some of them too coarse, too foul, too low for an angel 
to pass them by unsoiled. 

All that Father Gallitzin made himself to his people in. 
their daily life culminated, reached its perfection in the hour 
of their death. When the message came 'to him that any- 
one was ill, it reached him as the call to a father in the- 
field to hurry home for one of the children has been hurt j; 
he was the physician as well as the priest, learning his. 
profession by the bedside of the sick, who had only him. 
to look to, and healing came from his hands, from his simple- 
prescriptions, so often and so unexpectedly, that a whole-: 
college of physicians could not have inspired a tithe of 
the confidence with which it would be said: "Such a one- 
is sick, run, quick and tell the priest." It was thus he be-- 
came known as "the doctor", and was very soon regarded. 
as an experienced physician, who, they never doubted, had. 
had a thorough medical education. As soon as he had actecL 
in this capacit}', to the best of his judgment, he appeared as; 
friend and father, on whom all mental cares were laid, alii 
responsibilities and perplexities confided. He had scarcely 
arrived among them before he was called to see a sick man, 
who was broken hearted at leaving a large family of chil- 
dren, nearly all girls, for whom he had not been able to 
make the least provision; as soon as this was made known, 
Father Gallitzin assured him he might make his mind easy 
for he would adopt the whole family and bring them up 
himself, a promise he faithfully fulfilled. It was no small 
household that fell upon his hands in this way, especially as 
he repeated the proceeding at different times, so that always 
as long as he lived he had at least one family growing up 


around him. He took the greatest pains to observe the 
manner in which the better class of farmers provided for 
their children, in order to do the same by those he had 
adopted, that when they grew up and were settled in life, 
they should find themselves suited to their surroundings, 
neither isolated through superior and unnecessary accom- 
plishments, nor contemned for ignorance or poverty. He 
undoubtedly regarded the position of an intelligent family 
living in the country, with security against need, with all 
the duties and independence of life on a farm, which was, 
also, the highest position to which they could possibly have 
aspired had their parents lived and prospered, the one most 
conducive of happiness and content. 

He would, therefore, have them taught all household du- 
ties, and given education enough to be able to go on of 
themselves if other paths should open to them, or unexpected 
talents be developed; if any romantic dreams of being cared 
for as the children of a great noble, ever entered their young 
heads, it was through no fault of his, for it was a thought 
which could not possibly occur to him. But womanly mod- 
esty, womanly reserve and dignity, like manly honesty and 
sobriety, belonged in .his estimation, to no rank of life, but 
were the rightful property of all God's children, and he who 
would neglect to secure them for those entrusted to his care,- 
-an unjust guardian; he who would withhold them, a swindler 
and a robber, thus all the restraints of the 'highest conven- 
tionality, all the divinity which hedges in a true gentle- 
woman, which were familiar to him in his mother and sister, 
and all the ladies of their circle, appeared to him equally 
necessary in the poorest and' lowliest of his flock. It was 
needful, then, for him to find some one who would be able 
to carry out this plan of education for the family thrown so 
suddenly upon his hands, and, indeed, not only for them, but 
for the children growing up around him. As yet there was 
no thought of sisters, or nuns to assist in such a work, for 
even if there had been any religious order of women esta- 
blished in the United States, years and years must pass be- 
fore they could be spared for the world beyond the moun- 


tains. The only ones here at that time were the Carmelites, 
closely cloistered nuns, who had come in It 90, and the Poor- 
Clares, driven from France in 1*192, who were few in number,, 
and very poor, trying 1 to support themselves in Georgetown, 
by teaching, Miss Lalor and our dear Mother eton had not, 
yet found "the path just fitted to their foot." For help in, 
this direction, as indeed, in all others, Father Gallitzin had 
nothing to look for outside his own congregations; here the- 
women were overburdened with the labor belonging to a. 
new settlement, and absorbed in the daily household carea 
which no true woman can leave, until they first leave her,, 
but Providence seemed to point to him, as the most suitable 
person for the care of his large household, a lady, young but 
past her early girlhood, who had been educated in Baltimore, 
had .a free heart's love for all good works, some tendencies- 
to a religious life, and no special duties to claim her else- 
where, as she lived with her widowed mother in, or near 
Loretto. At first it is not likely he had any other thought 
or plan than that she being womanly, pious, intelligent and 
educated, was well fitted to be an instructor for the children, 
in whose care she would have an aim and occupation in life, 
without which no woman, worth the name, can ever be con- 
tented. He gave her charge of them, and exacted of her the 
most precise concurrence in his views in their regard, in the 
minutest particular; he was very strict, as it seemed, in com- 
parison with the freer ways of bringing up children then in 
vogue, and demanded the most implicit obedience to his 
rules, requiring of her to obtain it. He had been brought up 
with severity himself, and was undoubtedly urged by the 
sense of responsibility, arising from his promise to the dying 
father, and by the fears always more to be felt for the after 
life of those who have had no parents' intuition if) guide 
"them, to equal strictness,, and so conscientiously did she 
respond to his demands, that the children soon found they 
had no evasive, all concealing advocate in her. 

As time advanced his hopes grew, and fairly blossomed 
into expectations that if she was not designed to be the 
founder of a community of religious, specially adapted to 


the soil from which they sprang, at least to be another Dr. 
Overberg, who would devote her life to the service of 
God, His church and His children, no less sincerely than, 
though she took the vows and wore the habit of a nun, becom- 
ing in time, as the good doctor was, the teacher of teachers, 
devotedly attached to a single life, and the duties devolving 
upon them as instructors, not only in secular matters, but in. 
religious education. Whether carried away by the fervor 
of Father Ga'llitzin's devotedness, inspired by his glowing 
zeal, or whether, as he believed, sincerely and earnestly de- 
termined to carry out an undoubted call to a religious life,, 
it was certain that she did her utmost to fit herself for it, as 
so many women, now venerated as saints, had striven while 
waiting the moment in which to act. She dressed with the 
utmost plainness, attended faithfully to the duties placed 
upon her, was obedient to the pastor in all things, and en- 
deavored to inspire others with the desire for a similar life. 
But when her relatives saw how things were going, they 
were alarmed, and indignant at the idea of her becoming a 
nun, especially as they would not believe she had any vo- 
cation, and that her seclusion was unnatural, the effect of 
undue influence upon the part of the priest, from which they 
earnestly sought to take her as quickly as possible, before 
she should have bound herself by any vows or even promises 
to a religious life; in this they were joined by others, for the 
young lady had many admirers who, like other men, could 
never be made to believe they were refused simply because 
they were not desired, and were fully convinced, each of 
them, if the notions put in her head by the pastor were once 
abolished, there would be plenty of room for thoughts more 
favorable to their suit; even her own mother was of those 
who were confident she had no vocation, and violently op- 
posed her new way of living. But Father, Gallitzin, who. 
could never let go ,pne coin out of the Church's treasury, who 
had not forgotten the suffering he had endured from the op- 
position to his own choice of a state in life, doubted by all 
those who most of all should have had faith in him, was only 
aroused by this to render her all possible assistance in keep- 


ing firm to her purpose, which he believed God-given. He 
gave her a home in his house, when she was persecuted in 
her own, and assured her, that, if she persevered, she should 
be provided for, and hastened to have a house built where 
she could live independently, and which he no doubt hoped 
might lead to greater things, when she should demonstrate 
by her piety, and perseverance, the truth of her vocation. 
But even before this little home could be made ready for her, 
many arrows had met in one mark, every shadow of ill fee- 
ling which had ever been excited against him in any way 
was revived and got ready for use. Some persons visiting 
Baltimore mentioned the circumstance to the bishop, of 
^course from their own point of view, and the kindly prelate, 
knowing nothing of the manner of men he had to deal with, 
expressed some suprise, and one of those conventional phra- 
ses of regret, which mean nothing to those who are accus- 
tomed to them, but to others everything. We all know and 
deplore the evil effects upon the imagination of theatres and 
novels, of sensation plays and romantic reading, but only 
.start an idea with a thread of mystery or scandal in it, in 
the minds of half a dozen country people, and it will take 
fire like dry stubble in a high wind. The bishop's words, 
forgotten almost as soon as spoken, were carried back to the 
mountains in exultation as an acknowledgment of his sym- 
pathy and turned and enlarged until they were made to 
contain an intimation of episcopal interference. 

The bishop knowing nothing further than what had been 
told him in Baltimore, kindly mentioned the circumstance 
-to Father Gallitzin, and, as of old, advised him to prudence, 
to moderate his zeal, and recommended, as a means of silen- 
cing all disaffection, that some other place should be found 
for her schoolroom, than the one she at present occupied. To 
this he replied that the winter had been so severe that it had 
been impossible for the men to get her house in a fit con- 
dition for any one to seek shelter in it, fo he should have 
:- taken this measure sooner, but now it was nearly ready, and 
she would move in a day or two, and commence teaching, 
. having among other pupils the daughter of one of the most 


prominent Catholics in Lancaster, Mr. J , who had lately 

-come up to Clearfield, in consequence of the difficulties in 
the congregation there, and taken some of Father Gallitzin's 
"land, intending- to make his permanent home in the Loretto 
parish. With respect to a person who had been foremost in 
opposing his plans, " I have to observe," he wrote, " that she 
is now making ready to pay your Lordship a second visit, in- 
tending, as she says, to apply to yon for her Easter duty. 
I told 3 r our Lordship, I believe, with what impudence she 
treated me when I walked twenty two miles across Alle- 
-ghany mountain, rh order to assist her in what everybody ex- 
pected to be her last sickness; how she told me then, (and 
alleged your authority for it) that she would never confess 
-to me again, sick or well. She was a second time in the 
.same situation when I was in Baltimore, refused to have Mr. 
Heilbron sent for, [probably because of his having sustained 
father Gallitzin in his course'] but sent to Virginia for Mr. 
XJahill, who did not choose to come. She did recover, how- 
ever, .but has never been at. Mass from the time she left your 
Lordship, though I treated her in as friendly a manner as 
possible, and sent her word several times to come to church 
without fear of being disturbed, and even promised her friends 
to do all I could for her again, if she would only humble her- 
self and submit to her Church. I hope your Lordship will be 
pleased not to forget what lying and scandalous accusations 
they have brought before you against me, and I trust like- 

wise to your prudence and goodness What little you did 

-say before them, and that very innocently, has been very 
much handled and perverted by them, to the great detriment 
of my character." 

Few things in Father Gallitzin's life, are more touching 
than^this his gentle and only remonstrance, when the bishop, 
for whose good name he would have freely given his life, 
had, as it were, though unconsciously, failed him at the 
-moment when one indignant, spirited word, such as his in- 
timate knowledge of Father Gallitzin's singularly innocent 
-character perfectly enabled him to speak, would have put a 
top to accusations, to slanders which now came thick and 


fast upon him, who surely had troubles enough already. But 
he had just resigned the last hope of seeing his mother and 
sister, had left his fortune to take care of itself, and the devil, 
who hated him, could not do otherwise than take active part 
in the persecution to which he was now subjected, and it 
may have been permitted by God, that no human hand 
should be extended to assist him, the better to test and 
prove his virtue and draw him nearer and nearer. to Him, 
his only Friend. 

But though this removal took away the most plausible 
pretext for complaints it did not end them* The young lady 
remained several years in her new home, devoting herself to 
the life she had chosen, in which she was imitated by several 
others, anxious to consecrate their lives in an especial man- 
ner, to God's service, but it did not appear, finally, that she 
was called to this state of life, for she married a Maryland, 
gentleman of excellent position and for the rest of her life,, 
as wife and mother, had, undoubtedly, opportunity for the 
practice of the virtues which had marked' her early youth, 
and secured her the esteem of her noble pastor. But though 
Father Gallitzin's hopes were, by this rae'ans, and the falling 
off of others, entirely disappointed, the seed sown was not 
lost, and the inclination to a religious life awakened in the 
community, though it bore no fruit in his life time, did not 
die out when thus dropping away; for children of several of 
the pioneer families of Loretto, relatives and descendents of 
this very lady, as well as of those converted by him to the 
faith, are now in different orders, active, fervent religious. 

Having gained an advantage as it might be considered, by 
an apparent concession, the spirit of opposition increased 
and multiplied; the rough element that to this day hangs 
about every new settlement, was already looking towards 
Loretto, watching and biding its time. Money had ceased 
to come from Germany, in consequence of the great expenses 
of the law-suits, the bishop was pressed and could not afford 
any help, and expecting day after day that the Jiext would 
surely bring his regular allowance, Father Gallitzin held to 
his land, not being willing to part with it, until the last 


moment, creditors began to be impatient, he himself became 
more and more uneasy, more frugal, more careful, and finally 
really alarmed and in great need, facts which did not escape 
the notice of others, who were quick enough to take advantage 
of his difficulties, waxing bolder as the enemy's lines appear- 
ed to waver; the wind must have whispered the first sus- 
picions, for no one could tell whence they came, but there 
were plenty to take them up, and expand them into the loudest 
assertions. Some vague idea in connection with his name, 
it being half suspected that he had been called by some other 
than the one they knew him by; the extensive land pur- 
chases in which he had engaged; the inducements he had 
held out to them to come to the mountains; his rigid rules; 
the stern moral law demanded in Loretto; the sudden stop- 
page of money from abroad, added to the trouble just passed, 
^and immediately revived, all took a new and portentous 
meaning, and while it was gathering and muttering like the 
far off storm soon to sweep the mountains in a raging tem- 
pest, the slender young priest walked among them as stately, 
as kind, and as severe as ever, just as circumstances requir- 
ed, unbroken by the severest blow he could receive: the les- 
sening confidence of his people, unbroken though with Moses 
he could well have cried: Lord, what shall I do ivith this 
people, a little more and they will stone me* Unbroken but cut 
to the heart, grieved beyond expression, afraid lest all that 
he had attempted to do, all that he had accomplished should 
be undone. 




Peculiar trials. Hatred of evil. The restraints of Loretto. Minister. 
Appeals to tlie bishop. Continued opposition. His life in danger. 
Charges of interference, in private affairs. Rebellion in the church. 

.The weapons used by the backwoodsman arc as different 
from the polished shafts with which more cultivated people 
undermine a character, as a battering ram from a needle 
gun. The men, who now believed, orpretended to believe, that 
the priest whose, word had been their law, was not all he 
seemed,, was an adventurer, was a false priest, was no priest 
at all, did not conceal their meaning in fine phrases, and the 
very sound of -their' coarse 'language was in itself a bitter 
and disgusting persecution for a nature so refined, so high- 
bred, and made still more delicate, fine and pure by the life 
of continual recollection, of intimate union with all things 
high and sacred, to which Father Gallitziii was raised by his 
priesthood, and in which he lived and moved by prayer -and 
the graces belonging to it. He had already that hatred and 
horror of sin, of everything in the least displeasing to God, 
which goes with the ardent love of goodness, increasing as 
perfection draws nearer; he wished sin might never be 
known, even as existing elsewhere, to his little community, 
if such a thing could only be, and when he was obliged to 
warn his congregations against it, his detestation of it Avas 
so great that no words could describe the fire, the force; the 
loathing which he expressed for it; his voice so round and 
full, so exquisitely modulated, like the richest music, when 
he spoke of virtue, and the joys of heaven won by it, deep- 


-cned as he denounced the sinner's ways, grew shrill and 
sharp as he warned from every vestige of evil; his eyes flash- 
ed fire, his whole figure changed, and he appeared so terrible 
in the wrath arid contempt aroused by the very thought of 
sin, that the people, even the most innocent, shuddered and 
trembled as he spoke, and the children looking at him, not 
understanding, clung to each other, sometimes even burst 
into frightened sobs and loud crying in church. Now all 
kinds of evil, all manner of sins and wickedness, seemed 
- stirred up to fill the minds of his congregation, seething in 
the whispered conversation of the more timid and self-respec- 
ting, boldly leading the * talk of the less shamefaced, and 
he the cause, he the centre of all the malice and rancor 
which gave life to the growing slanders. His consecrated 
hands were denounced as the hands of an extortioner, his 
consecrated lips as of a hypocrite and deceiver, the very life 
he had laid under the feet of the poor and the outcast to 
serve them as stepping stones to comfort, shelter, and return 
to grace, was branded as a lie; every act dictated by the 
lowliest self-sacrifice, and the best good of those under his 
charge, was pronounced a deed of ambition, of self-aggran- 
dizement; every step he had taken, in pain and self-abnega- 
tion, over that mountain wilderness, was pointed out as the. 
track of a fugitive, as the snares of a despot. 

.The first pretext had deceived a few, and gathered to it- 
self all the vague and floating thoughts, fancies, imaginings,, 
and suspicions of those fretting under the stern rule imposed! 
upon his congregations, and once that rule had been defied, 
there were not lacking more to come forward rebelling 
against it, denouncing him who enforced it as imperious, a 
tyrant, an oppressor of the people. A meaner or a weaker 
man could well have been such, yet carried through no aim 
held in view, but Gallitzin's nature was mighty as the broad 
river sweeping to the ocean, all its currents, swift and 
strong, set to God; his tyranny was th.8 tyranny of truth, the 
inexorable iron- Hand of the law of God, the softest hand 
when laid in benediction upon those who obey it, the most 
terrible in justice. There is no peace on earth like the free- 


dom of the true Christian; he who lives in the eyes of God" 
cannot go so far wrong as to feel his chains; no thief in the 
night can disquiet him whose conscience is at rest, whose 
debts are paid, whose treasures are in heaven ; but terrible 
is the chain of the law to him who strives against it, more 
galling than the bonds of a Nero, the restraints of religion 
to him who knows no liberty but that of sin. Not for this 
did Father Gallitzin's hand ever unloose the chain, and let 
the impenitent sinner go free to mock his Saviour, and do 
His enemy's work, and well they knew it! Inflexible, in- 
corruptible as the sentry by the gates of a beleaguered city, 
he guarded the walls of his citadel from foes without, as 
from traitors within. Well did he place his beloved people 
under the special patronage of the gentlest of women, the 
queen of peace, of angels, and of heaven, that their homes 
might ever be lighted by the love and lowliness of the Holy 
House of Loretto, but well he knew, besides, that the Church 
on earth is the Church militaat, and wisely put his own 
under the charge of the iron willed leader of the heavenly 
hosts, the inflexible St. Micheal, who set his imperious foot 
upon the neck of the prince of rebels, and with wrath that 
flashed scornful lightnings through all times to come, hurled 
the traitor over the heavenly ramparts, into the burning 
lake below. 

To those who lived as they ought, the restraints of Loretto, 
the high moral law reigning there, were loved and cherished 
as walls of defence, so sure and safe that they could live 
without dread, or fear; to others they grew every day more 
insupportable; the desire for wealth, for display, for living 
what is called a free and easy life, yet is the least free and 
the most confused of any, which had been so long under 
restraint, grew bolder at the 'sound of its own loud boast- 
ing and imprecations, but it saw no way to act until vir- 
; tuous indignation should again fire the heart of the people, 
' "of a set of ragged vagabonds," as the Kev. Mr. Lemcke 
says, "who had reason to thank God if they could raise 
enough corn and potatoes to keep body and soul together 
-^.during the winter, making an uproar, setting themselves up 


for judges, as if the salvation of the whole world depended 
upon them," (p. 228) who should be leaders in a second 
crusade against their pastor. 

Although Father Gallitzin lived in great poverty, and the 
greatest economy on the church land, his position was not 
an unenviable one in the eyes of some other clergymen, 
especially of the one already mentioned as having won the 
affections of several of the people; this not, as might be 
supposed, because of the superior inducements to an austere 
and saintly life which it offered over any others in the coun- 
try,, but because a man who chose to live there according to 
the dictates of common sense, making the most of the farm, 
taking reasonable tithes from the congregations, and leaving 
the people to look out for their own temporal affairs, not 
coming to buy land from him for one dollar an acre when he 
had paid four dollars cash for it, could make a very good 
living there, especially if he let somebody else adopt the 
orphans of the parish, and put his own thrifty relatives in 
charge of the house and farms. Besides, as this same rever- 
end gentleman was obliged to admit, when now and then,"he 
met with some farmer of the congregation, nothing in the 
world could keep a town from growing, land from rising, 
and money from increasing like the attempt to govern it as 
if it were a cloister. There was no law of the Church for- 
bidding a man to provide liberally for his family if he could, 
and making the best of a good bargain when he had the 
opportunity. He was very sorry for the good people, na- 
turally anxious to turn an honest penny and get along in 
the world, but he could .do nothing for them, for although 
their pastor was continually begging for an assistant priest, 
he did not really seem to want one, for all his, the speaker's, 
offers to assist, had been evaded, he could not tell why; per- 
haps because the priest wished to have things all his own 
way, and no one about who could address himas an equal. 
If at any time a new congregation was formed, and the 
people wished it, why, then, indeed he might come to them. 

The thought was an inspiring one, and the very man 
whom Father Gallitzin had most assisted to find a home in 


Loretto, who had prospered there, and having got on so weir 
in the world wished to do better, became, in his own mind,, 
the founder of a rival colony. He was joined by several' 
others, who forgot whose charity had given them the first 
start, and animated by the double motive of escaping his:, 
vigilance, and of building up speedy fortunes, made use of 
all possible arts to inflame the people's minds against theii- 
pastor, that they might follow into the new town. This was 
intended to be some three miles from Loretto, between it 
and Ebensburg, and to rival them both. It was laid out 011 
what proved to be the poorest land in the county, and called 
Munster, after the city in Ireland of that name, and not, as. 
has been supposed, in honor of the home of Father Gallitzin's 
youth. Rev. Mr. Lemcke suggests that it should have been 
called Carthage, for the Punic wars raged there for thirty 
years, and ended in its destruction. It gave rise to as beauti- 
ful a series of faction fights as the most enthusiastic historians, 
could desire to record. 

. At the first intimation of this new settlement, Father Gal- 
litzin took fire, seeing well what it would lead to, and oppos- 
ed it with all his might. He had fled from settlements formed 
on the same principle of mere material prosperity, without 
any reference to spiritual needs, and now after having, at 
such cost, cut a way through the woods, and founded a 
community upon the broad and lasting foundation of the 
true religion, having ever before it the cross of Christ, for 
one planned in pride and worldliness to set its' flaunting- 
standard at his very doors, as a refuge for all who fretted 
under the restraints of the Church, opening temptations tO' 
those who had never thought of discontent before, luring 
from the right way many who had only the most honest in- 
tentions in seeking a livelihood in the new village, was the- 
greatest outrage that could be conceived. Father Gallitzin 
never played\vith fire, nor trifled with danger; if there was 
a strong smell of burning, a heavy smoke seen, indicating 
that the house was on fire, it was never his way to lay a 
feather bed over the burning place, close the windows, draw 
the curtains, lock the doors, and go about with the air of" 


there being nothing- the matter. He lost not a moment; he 
spared no exertions to make the projectors of the new 
scheme see that it was begun in anger, and would end in 
wrath, he assured them, when they continued stubborn, that if 
he could prevent a plan so opposed to the good of the people 
from succeeding, he certainly would. They knew, all his con- 
gregations knew, that he had come to the mountains to build 
up a Catholic Community, to make a homestead for the Church 
to come to in days of trouble, in which she could educate her 
young soldiers, and find rest for her veterans, her wounded 
and disabled, and that never should another spirit obtain 
there, with his consent. True, others had followed him and 
raised up other tOAvns and villages, he could not help that, 
but out from his own people for such to go forth, was to him 
insupportable. In a lower sense he opposed it no less, the 
land was poor, in a bad position, people would give up the 
homes they were just beginning to find comfortable hoping 
to gain something better, would lose what they already had, 
and obtain nothing to replace it, and then it was that all the 
opprobrium possible to be thought of, was heaped upon him, 
as only such men possessed by the desire for wealth, blinded 
by passion, could do. If he would not regard them as mem- 
bers of his congregation they freely declared they knew 
where to find a pastor more complaisant, more like them- 
selves, who would take all care of their souls. 

But as many who, they thought, would like to join the 
new settlement, were deterred by the priest's disapproval, 
these men hastened to the bishop with all manner of accusa- 
tions, hoping to have him taken away, and the other priest 
mentioned, put in his place. Thinking to disarm them by 
mildness, and calm investigation, the bishop appointed Rev. 
Mr. Heilbron his agent to go to Loretto, or Clearfield, as it 
continued to be called, all the people not being as yet accus-. 
tomed to the new name, and make full inquiries concerning 
the whole subject of complaint. The venerable priest, to 
whom Father Gallitzin had ever been most tenderly atten- 
tive, waiting upon him as a light-hearted youth upon his 
-aged parent, humoring all his little peculiarities, taking lively 


part in all his fancies when they were together, even when 
his own heart was the heaviest, came to him now as a judge, 
as a superior, to whom was brought every little story malice 
or stupidity could invent, or cunning could extract from 
the simple minded and unsuspecting, even from the children 
he had adopted, who, as children will, had decided opinions 
about the strictness of his late housekeeper and their teacher, 
and all the accounts which could be gathered up of his op- 
position to the new village of Munster. But Mr. Heilbron, 
though at an age when men are sometimes more easily in- 
fluenced than they would have been in their younger days, 
though hardly likely to feel the fiery indignation at the in- 
gratitude of those who, after all that had been done for them, 
should seek to raise an antagonism to his treasured work, 
which Father Gallitzin felt so keenly, nor fully appreciating 
the danger of such a refuge for all rebellious or disaffected 
children of the Loretto church, saw nothing to justify a 
single complaint, and so reported to the bishop, who, besides 
kindly letters to the pastor, reprimanded those who had 
made charges against him, and sent an open letter, expres- 
sing his confidence in their pastor, which was nailed up at 
the church door, where all could read it: 


lit seems to me necessary to acquaint my dear children in 
Christ, the faithful composing the congregation of Clearfield, 
who are under the pastoral care of the Eev. Mr. Smith, that 
I am not unacquainted with the uneasinesses which prevailed 
for some time between the Rev'd gentleman and some in- 
dividuals of his congregation. Every inquiry that could be 
made at so great a distance, has convinced me that Mr. 
Smith, throughout the whole business, was influenced by the 
best motives of Christian charity, and zeal for the welfare of 
those, who were given to him in charge; that he insists on 

* From the original, preserved at the pastoral residence in Loretto. 


nothing at present, which ought to be an objection to an 
entire reconciliation; that he is willing- to act towards all 
persons of his flock with fatherly tenderness; and that they 
ought to give him assurances, and proofs of their confidence, 
and willingness to profit by his services. They should, more- 
over, be thankful to him for undergoing so many hardships 
on their account, and depriving himself, for God's and their 
sake, of the many temporal advantages he might elsewhere 
have enjoyed. 

J. Bishop of Baltimore, 
Nov. 80. 1804. 

This letter calmed the fears of the timid and undecided who 
had stood aghast at the beginning of the troubles, and who, 
later, had been frightened, doubtful, not knowing what to 
think, while those who had openly taken part against the 
pastor were beaten back for a time, and driven to the rear 
by the hosts of friends who had never doubted, and encour- 
aged by the bishop's so politely, though rather feebly express- 
od confidence, rallied boldly to his defence. But it was only a 
lull in the storm, a momentary defeat. The new village did 
not fill up as rapidly as its originators expected; one or two 
persons who had bought land there in good faith, got sick 
of their bargain, and longed to get back to Loretto; as 
'"Usual in every difficulty, they applied to Father Gallitzin for 
advice how to get out of the trouble; he lent them his own 
wagon to do their moving back, and encouraged their return, 
which naturally was resented by those whose interests were 
all in Hunster, and exaggerated into his having forced the 
"people to leave, his pastoral position was still coveted, and 
again all sorts of reports and threats were set flying; some 
of the Loretto people began to feel keenly in the mattter, 
and sides were fast being taken in earnest by those who had 
previously simply deplored any separation of interests. A 
-division among his people was the crowning distress of all 
for Father Gallitzin, and he could not forbear opening his 
heart to his only friend, the bishop, as evident from the 



Baltimore, Dec. 12, 1805. 
Reverend Dear Sir, 

. I am sorry to learn that -your tranquility is disturbed? 

by the complaints and dissatisfaction of some of your con- 
gregation; some of which have been laid before me. I have 
given no answer nor can, give any, to charges so vague as 
are contained in the letter to me. The principal one though 
generally expressed, is your interfering with the private 
concerns of your flock, taking a part in their disagree- 
ments, deciding- on the character of those concerned, without 
hearing, or speaking to the party against whom you decide. .. 
This, perhaps, may be a sufficient clue to find out to what 
particular fact this complaint refers. I expect from the style 
in which the complaint is made, that it is to be followed by a 
formal appeal to my episcopal authority, and, therefore, hope 
that you will furnish me with such information as you may 
deem necessary. I am with great affection, 

Dear and Rev. Sir, 

f J. Bishop of Baltimore-.. 

It was hardly possible that Father Gallitzin's tvanquility 
could be otherwise than seriously disturbed, for not only 
were his ears filled with accounts of the ill will borne him, 
accounts which every one rushed to repeat to him, with the 
evident idea that the more uncomfortable the news the more 
important the bearer, but he had good reason to know 
his life was threatened in wicked earnest; it seerns incredible 
but it is known to be true that there were men sworn in 
their hatred to prevent his remaining among them. His 
missions extended at least sixty or seventy miles in different 
directions, and he had, besides, calls from what might be 
considered the near neighborhood, which required him to 
ride day and night through the unbroken country, and noth- 
ing could be easier thax for it to appear that he had lost his 
way in the woods, been eaten up by the beasts of the forests, 
or carried no one could tell where by the Indians who still 
lurked by the very doors of the Loretto settlement. He him- 
self told as an illustration of the circle of danger surrounding 


the village, how one evening returning from a sick call in a 
direction with which he considered himself well acquainted, 
he rode and rode, sure that he was near home, yet finding 
.himself ever in the depths of the forest, until, at last, con- 
fused and exhausted he was obliged to dismount, tie his 
horse to a tree, wrap himself in his cloak, commend his soul 
to God, and wait for light. He was by nature excessively 
.nervous, though fearless as a lion in real danger, and after 
he had been sometime at Loretto, under annoyances and 
trials which would have worn the toughest and stoutest 
nerves, he became an intense sufferer from them, he would 
' sec lights and hear unearthly noises where all was dark and 
still to other people's senses, so that it has been thought that, 
like others aspiring after the highest perfection, it was per- 
mitted that he should be especially persecuted by the devil, 
who had made a profound impression upon him at Living- 
ston's, but now as so often, he was obliged to remain all 
.night alone in the woods, with the horrors of darkness about 
him, uncertain ,of ever seeing a human habitation again, 
-should he even find his way out of the thick forest. When 
morning came he saw that he was indeed in a dense inclo- 
-sure,.biit yet. only a few yards from his own door. Such 
being the state of the country and some of its inhabitants 
outdoing its wild and savage character, he considered it his 
luty to provide himself with some means of defence not only 
against the- wild animals whose fiery eyes so often glared 
-about the sheepfolds of Loretto,- but against the lawless 
crew who prowled about his humble home, threatening him 
even in the very house of God, but mentioning this inten- 
tion to the bishop he was advised to forego the only meas- 
ures which would have been at all effectual. 


Baltimore, Febr. 23, 1806. 
; .- Rev'd and Dear Sir, 

After assuring you of my heart felt pleasure in hearing of 
your health,.! must proceed to express my apprehension that 
my answer will not be so full as your letters required. Mr. 
Little came hither on Saturday afternoon (yesterday), and 


was exceedingly anxious to set out to day on his return; it 
is, as you know, the first Sunday of Lent, and consequently 
both days were fully employed in the functions belonging to 
them. It was impossible to dismiss him to day and it is now 
past six in the evening before I was able to give that con- 
sideration to yours which is requisite, or to take a pen in 
hand to make to it any kind of reply. 

I begin with No. 1. I saw Mr. C -. on his return as was- 

mentioned in my last; but nothing was said by him of his 

transactions with J [Originator of Munster.] to the best 

of my memory. There remains no doubt on my mind of your 
giving him such advice as in your judgment the confidence 
placed in your deserves; tho' perhaps, as you knew J 'a dis- 
position towards you, had you referred C - to some other per- 
son'of competent knowledge in business it would have saved 
you from some part of obliquy with which you are loaded, and 
it would be a good general rule for you, when yon have such, 
characters to deal with, never to entangle yourself in their 
temporal concerns, or furnish them with a pretence for accus- 
ing you of meddling with matters not immediately relevant 
[to] your ministry. It was very painful to me to read that 
threats denounced against you induced you to be always arm- 
ed. I dare not give any positive directions on such a subject., 
without investing myself with your feelings, and seeing the 
dangers surrounding me as nearly as you do. But my 
general idea is that a pastor is best protected by the respect, 
love, and esteem of his parishioners, and possessing these as 
you do of almost all under your fatherly care, it ought not to 
be expected that any would be so desperate as to use vio- 
lence towards you. Tho' St. Paul enumerates his incessant 
dangers in pericvlis latronum, periculis in via, periculis in sol- 
tiudine and infalsis.fratribiis, yet we read not of his arming 
himself against them, but he adds that the Lord delivered 
him from them all. . Possibly other times and places may 
demand other precautions, and .what is written above is no 
more than a recommendation to you to consider whether you 
cannot substitute some other defence more consonant with 
your character of minister of peace. If you should un- 


fortunately be rudely attacked, and under the influence of 
a sudden movement of passion make an unfortunate use of 
your arms, as it is so uncommon for clergymen to carry them, 
the same malice which now persecutes you would be redoub- 
led, and allege it as a presumption of premeditated assault. 

Your fortitude and sacrifices under so many trials excite 
my admiration;. I cannot think without veneration on a per- 
son of your education, habits, and former prospects for life, 
devoting himself to the painful services which employ you so 
entirely, and expose you to the ingratitude with which your 
services are sometimes requited. After acting as you say 
towards N. M. and W. W., you can do no more but recom- 
mend them to Almighty God. She insults me when she has 
the effrontery, to say that she has my directions for abstain- 
ing from hearing Mass. 

....No. 2. E. N. J. alone has come forward with charges 
against you; but his charges are almost a volume; besides 
his first letter, which -I have not looked at since mine to you, 
and which, as far as I have any rememberance of it, dealt 
only in generals, another came to hand about three days be- 
fore Mr. Little's, containing three sheets of very close writ- 
ing. To read yours, and his, and form some general estimate 
of them, engaged me until eleven o'clock last night. For tho' 
his had been received before, as I have said, my other pres- 
sing occupations prevented me from going through it sooner. 

. This, my dear Sir, is an imperfect sketch of what I 

would write to you if more time were allowed me. I ought 
likewise to acknowledge the certificate of your congregation 
generally, and the special letter signed by George Boaser, 
John Lilly, and others; but you will apologise to them for 
me, and assure them that I do not now entertain, and hope 
never to have cause to entertain a design of removing you 
from them. Depend not upon Mr. Fitzsimmons, who is, I fear, 
too fickle. I know not whose heroism most to admire, yours 
or your most venerable mother's. 

Believe me most affectionately, Dear and !Rev. Sir, 

Your most devoted servant 

f J. Bishop of Baltimore. 



Living in the orderly and quiet city of Baltimore, the good 
bishop could not place himself at all in Father Gallitzin's po- 
sition; it is evident that all his attempts to do so were com- 
plete failures. The very reasons and motives which caused 
the formation of Loretto, were the very ones which made an 
interference in the people's affairs, temporal as .well as spiri- 
tual, imperative and a matter of course. For the greater 
number of the people that he did so was the greatest indu- 
cement held out to them to settle in Loretto, and its vicinity. 
To them it was no interference, but the guidance of a strong 
hand which sustained them, upheld them in all their troubles, 
cares, and perplexities, blessed their joys, and crowned their 
happiness. The bishop could hardly realize, not seeing it, 
that in a settlement of the kind, even in one self^constructed, 
or made up by accident, the priest is often the only man of 
education within reach, the only one who knows anything, of 
"familiar science", who is .looked to in every emergency, 
without whom every thing, would go wrong; he it is who 
knows best the different talents,, dispositions, capabilities 
and temper of each member of each family, and is consulted 
with as inuch faith in questions concerning the choice of 
employment, of marriage, all perplexing and disputed points 
of ordinary life, as in matters of religion, about which, in- 
deed, there could be no .doubt or question, and if a rebellious 
child received little sympathy from the pastor of Loretto, or 
an over exacting parent found the decision going against 
him ; if where brothers disputed and came to him, one was 
pronounced right and the other in fault, he was not to blame ; 
it was in the nature of things. Nothing could be more touch- 
ing and more safe in its way, than the confidence thus begun, 
continuing from parents to children, so that the little ones 
who came sobbing to him, in disgrace at home, and. were 
)ed back to be reconciled and made happy again, felt no hesi- 
tation in later years in opening to him thoughts and feelings, 
intimated to no other, which if kept in silence and conceal- 
ment, would, have become sickly, and injurious to the whole 
system, but brought into the clear and radiant atmosphere 
surrounding him, bloomed into fresh and vigorous life, to 


to bear abundant fruit in days to come. He knew them all 
so well, just how they were suited to each other, that a 
courtship or an engagement approved by him, was sure to 
be blessed, and the marriage happy in true and constant af- 
fection; if sorrows came, if the cares of life pressed hard, no 
man, no woman, however stricken, sorrowed alone, while he 
lived. No skeletons were hidden in closets, no poverty 
thrust out of sight when his foot was on their step, and many 
and many the ugly gap, the breaking plank bridged over, 
and the sliding feet upheld by him in the darkest hour of 
temptation, passed in safety, that no one knew of, and many 
a gray head went on in merited honor to its final rest, saved 
by just such interference in its youth, from a reckless life of 
sin, of every disgrace, unsuspected of any. 

Had Father Gallitzin shut himself into those things which 
strictly belonged to his ministry, he would have done but 
half his work; it must be remembered he was not simply a 
priest sent to a certain parish to perform the regular spiri- 
tual duties, he was far more, he had formed the parish of 
which he was pastor, he had chosen the people who com- 
posed it, he had bought the land on which they dwelt and 
given it to them for a merely .nominal price, enough to save 
their independence ; there was a tacit understanding, as clear 
to both as the most imposing parchment contract, between 
him and the people, that they were to live a life with higher 
aims than those they had left, that they were to strive for 
the highest perfection possible in the world, that their Sun- 
day piety was not to be contradicted by their week day in- 
difference ; to see them once a week at Mass, to hear their 
sins in confession, to visit them in an emergency, and the 
rest of the time to let their lives run on as they might, was 
by no means the idea upon which he had planned and found- 
ed Loretto. Only those who were in every way unworthy 
of this, disputed it, but those who disputed, disputed vehe- 
mently, madly, and nothing could turn them from their course; 
no law ecclesiastical or civil could restrain them. 

In the very beginning of trouble, when the first intimation 

of calumny came to his ears, Father Gallitzin rose up and 

210 - 

traced it to its originators, lie knew that his good name was 
the good name of the Church, and not for a moment would 
he let it be. trifled with, if any means within his reach could 
stop it, a slur upon it was a shadow upon religion, and filled 
him with double indignation. He demanded . an instant re- 
traction, it was not given, and he then sued the chief speaker 
for slander; a court of inquiry was held composed entirely 
of Protestants of the highest standing in Huntingdon County, 
nearly all of Scotch Irish parentage, not disposed by reli- 
gion or nationality to be over partial to a Catholic and a 
German, as he was generally supposed to be; they decided 
entirely in his favor, awarding him three hundred and fifty 
dollars damages, a large sum in those days. The money 
was never collected, and the defendant made a full and ex- 
plicit denial of his belief in a single one of the charges, as 
well as of having made them. This certificate of denial is 
now on the records of the county, the calumny and the ca- 
lumniators forgotten*. For a short time this resolute meas- 
ure awed his enemies into silence and caution; afterwards, 
as we have seen, they revived. 

It was during this time of real persecution that his ene- 
mies, their ranks recruited by .two or three worse even than 
themselves, wild "border ruffians" who attracted by the 
mischief gathering there, had drifted to the frontiers of his 
parish, to be on hand, ready for any wickedness that could be 
devised, forced their way, armed with congenial clubs and 
sticks, into the church, to tear him as they had threatened, 
from the altar, if he' made the first attempt to say Mass. It 
was a terrible day, and a really awful hush that fell upon 
the people, as his ringing step bore him with head erect, and 
keen, searching gaze past the little altar, to the stand on 
which his vestments awaited him. All knew what was in- 
tended, all more than half expected to see him murdered be- 
fore their very eyes, while they looked on as if in a spell; for 
although his friends were many and strong, they were cowed, 

* From Mr. McCabe's unpublished notes. 


as the orderly and quiet majority too often is by the swear- 
ing, swaggering few. But Elias, the prophet, stood up as a, 
fire, and his loords burnt like a torch. 

When he was ready for the Asperges, he turned and faced 
the people, for one moment under his stern and steady look 
there was utter stillness, the next, and there was a muttering 
and surging towards that slender figure, standing there 
defenceless, in his long white robe, which rose, and swelled 
and swept forward as the mad ocean waves, black and tumul- 
tuous, against some fair white sail riding for an instaat 
upon their breast. He took one step to meet it, something 
rising into his eyes and bearing more powerful than their 
rage, and quietly said: 

"I now proceed to offer up the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. 
Let no one dare to profane this church, or insult the Christ 
here present, -by one word or movement. And I tell you 
this," advancing one step more, and speaking in a voice of 
concentrated power, "and I tell you this, if any man raises 
hand or foot to take me from this altar, or to interrupt my 
words this day, another day shall come when he will call for 
me, and I shall not be there." As he spoke the uplifted 
arms fell as if paralyzed, he .alone was calm and firm, as 
he walked through the aisle, singing the Asperges and sprink- 
ing the holy water. Mass went on without interruptions 
and never again did any one dare repeat the attempt to pre- 
vent it. 

His words were never forgotten, and of those who at this 
time, or later, publicly defied him, not one, since dead, re- 
ceived the last consolations of religion, although, in one cas^ 
at least, that of a man suddenly injured, almost superhuman 
efforts were made by the priest sent for, to reach, him while 
life remained, but it was not to be; no human effort of re- 
ligious zeal or Christian charity was permitted to over-ride 
the decree of the Almighty. Tossed ivith tempest, imthout 08, 
comfort, behold I loill lay thy stones in order, and will lay thy 
foundations ivith sapphires ! 




J have fougld a goodfigld, I have finished 
my course, I have kept the faith. 

iv, 7.) 

How the news was received. Consolations. The princess' last illness 
and death. Some traits of her character. Effect of his sorrow upon 
Father Gallitzin. 

In Father Gallitzin's life at this time, blow followed blow 
so thick and fast that often several struck together. In the 
midst of the coldness of those whose reverent affection should 
have been the warmest, the apparent aversion of others, the 
multiplied insults of his enemies, it pleased the God who 
rules us all, to deprive him of the only strong hand that .had 
ever been reached out to him, the only heart that had ever 
beat firm and fearless response to his own. 

He was standing one morning in the late Auttimn of 1806, 
by the door of his cabin, whither he had hastened to meet a 
returning messenger from Baltimore, - there were no post- 
offices as yet any where near Loretto, when a letter was 
handed him from the bishop. He opened it quickly and 
found enclosed another, heavily sealed with black, that for 
an instant made his heart stand still. He read but a few 
minutes before the crowd of children composing his house- 
hold, who had been half unconsciously watching him, saw 
that something dreadful had happened, and were so terrified 
at the sight of his face convulsed with grief and tears, that 
they burst into frightened sobs and suppressed wails, with- 
out in the least understanding why. After a while with 


that instinctive blind reaching out for human sympathy 
which belonged to his loving nature, he said to them, " It is 
my mother; she is dead." She was no stranger to them; it 
was his delight to tell of her, and all who had ever heard 
him allude to her, however slightly, felt a fascination in the 
least word concerning that brave, generous, beautiful lady, 
around whom even the rudest of them wreathed their scraps 
of young romance. What it was to him no one can say, 
when the youngest child there was stunned with wonder at 
the incomprehensible sorrow. No one could know the bitter- 
ness of that hour, the agony of that loss. May it be that for 
the sake of the motherless little ones whom he had cared for, 
some comfort came from God through them that sustained 
him then! 

When he had become more collected his love, as it always 
did, found expression in action, he prepared to pay her mem- 
ory the last honors, and to procure for her soul all the com- 
forts and blessings of the Church, though hoping she was 
past all need of help ; to have had nothing left to do for her 
would have teen to sink exhausted and beyond rescue into 
the depths of sorrow and despondency. He sent the chil- 
dren for. the two men who composed his choir to receive his 
orders, and as they went on their errand, crying all the way, 
so that they could scarcely deliver their message in the end, 
every one learned at once of their pastor's affliction, in 
which even the coldest hearted of his parishioners could 
hardly fail to bear part. 

In the package of letters was one from the bishop, as an 
accompaniment to the packet enclosed to his care, the others 
were written on one large sheet, by five different persons, 
Princess Mimi, Count and Countess von Stolberg, and the 
two brothers von Droste*. 


Rev. and very dear Sir, 
The enclosed contains an account which will be very pain- 

* Rev. H. Lemcke, p. 238. Unfortunately Rev. Mr. Lemcke gives only 
the letters of the princess and the count, and all efforts to obtain the 
original letter or even an authentic copy, have proved unavailing. 


iul to your feeling's, but full of comfort to your more deliber- 
ate and Christian reflections. It was enclosed to me in a 
letter from Count Stolberg who requests me to prepare you 
gradually for the intelligence conveyed by your sister's 
letter. Not being able, considering our distance from each 
other, to comply with this request, and knowing- that after 
leaving your father, mother and kindred, you will find the 
test motives present to your mind, I have determined to 
send you the letter without any other preparation than this 
cover to it. Since I received it, I have often recommended 
Jier myself, and prayed our other brethren to recommend her 
to the mercy of God, tho' I entertain no doubt of her eternal 
felicity. It is not only 011 account of her relationship to you 
that I interest myself and desire others to interest them- 
selves for her, but because she was the active, useful, and 
earnest friend of religion in this diocese, and earnestly 
sought to promote it. On this occasion I will only add my 
sincere condolence with you at being deprived, in this world, 
of the blessing of possessing a mother so truly estimable, 
and who has the merit of being, under God, the chief instru- 
ment of those precious graces which have been showered on 

I am with the greatest attachment 
Eev. Dear Sir, 

Your most obdt st, 
f J. Bishop of Baltimore. 


Muenster, April 28, 1806. 
Dearest, best brother, 

The paper which I must, now use in writing you, will an- 
nounce to you at once that which it is so hard for me to put 
into words. Yesterday morning at half past two o'clock, the 
dearest, the best, and the most precious of mothers, now our 
guardian angel before God, fell gently asleep in the Lord. 
My mind, as well as my heart, is so stunned by this hard 
Mow, that you must forgive me if, for the present, I can say 
no more. As soon as I shall have recovered myself and be- 


come somewhat collected, I will more fully detail to you her 
sufferings, her splendid patience in her trials, her happy 
death in Christ, a death at which I had the intensely pain- 
ful, but never-to-be forgotten satisfaction of assisting, hold- 
ing her in my arms at the last moment. Best of brothers, 
forgive me, indeed, I can write no more. I am weaker to 
bear this grief than I can express. May God strengthen 
you, and enable you to find our dear mother in Him when 
this life is. ended. 

Your faithful sister, 

M. Gallitzin. 


Praise be to Christ Jesus !* 

She praises him now better than we, dearest Mitri! I 
cannot call the dear son of my dearest friend by any name 
but the one she used, and which you will surely allow to me. 
She praises him now better than we, but we still praise him 
the best we can, and not only in a general way, for that is 
understood, even with every breath we draw, but in special 
manner now that he has so unspeakably blessed your heav- 
enly mother. He visited her with long, painful, and in- 
describable sufferings, but in those sufferings he was unut- 
terably dear to her. She resembled him in pain that she 
might resemble him in eternal glory. You do not need, best 
Mitri, that I should tell you what an angel your mother was, 
but in my deep sorrow I long to say to you that, since I came 
to know her, I cou'td think of her only with the most pro- 
found veneration, and the most devoted love, rejoicing in the 
chain which God in his mercy linked between -her and my- 
self. My soul is deeply grieved, but at the same time my 
spirit rejoices for she has reached, her goal, and by her power- 
ful intercession draws me after her. Kejoice you also, dearest 
Mitri, that jo\\ are the beloved son of a saint, that you caused 

* Gelobt sel Jesus Ghristus, the salutation of the Germans, especially 
when meeting a priest. The one saluted in this beautiful manner re- 
plies In Ewigkeii For all Eternity. 


her such great happiness even here; to know that with un- 
utterable mother-love she blesses and prays for you, is in- 
deed a great joy. I reach you my hand over the sea, be- 
loved Mitri, and unite myself in spirit with you and our 
glorified one, in the salutation .of the earth pilgrim, and of 
those whose pilgrimage is over: Praise be to Christ Jesus in 

all eternity. 

F. L. Stolberg. 

Sometime during that sad day Father Gallitzin made an 
attempt to write in reply to the bishop, but it is apparent 
from the circumstances mentioned in the letter that, al- 
though the date is not changed, only the first paragraph was 
written at that time, which is almost the only instance of 
inaccuracy to be found in his whole correspondence; his 
letters being singularly neat, precise, and carefully written. 


Nov. 11, 1806. 
My Lord, 

Your favor of Oct. 6, White Marsh, and Oct. 13, Baltimore, 
I only received this morning, together with the enclosed 
letters from my sister, etc., announcing the doleful news of 
that fatal stroke which deprived me of a most tender and 
aifectionate mother, and your diocese of a most zealous 
friend and protector. The flood of tears it drew from my 
eyes, were chiefly tears of joy and exultation at the happy 
exchange she made after long continued sufferings of - every 
kind. Thanks be to God, I was sufficiently prepared for the 
stroke by several letters previously received from several 
friends in ' Baltimore, Philadelphia, etc., early in September. 

In conjunction with Rev Mr. Heilbron, I celebrated her 
funeral during three successive days, in as splendid a man- 
ner as the narrowness of my circumstances admitted. The 
church was crowded and about forty dollars collected for 
Masses for her departed soul*. As I wish to make a little 

* It is customary among Catholics, when they wish Mass offered for a 
special intention, to make a small offering, the amount of which is 


offering for the benefit of her departed (though I trust al- 
ready happy) soul, I beg of your Lordship to accept of this 
watch, a most excellent one of its kind, and formerly belong- 
ing to my father; nobody, in fact, is more entitled to it thait- 
your Lordship who has been a father to me and more so than, 
my real father according to the flesh. 

Although the bishop perfectly understood that Gallitzin; 
desired to apply the merit of the self-denial, slight as it was r . 
necessary in parting with his watch, to his mother, in case- 
she should yet be deficient in merits, he scrupled accepting 
so valuable a present, which drew from Father Gallitzin a 
grateful explanation. 


My Lord, 

Your kind favor of Nov. It, I received whilst in the court- 
house of Somerset .... I am sensibly affected by the share- 
Avhich your "Lordship takes in my affliction, and sincerely 
offer you my grateful thanks for remembering my departed 
mother at the altar, and causing your clergy to do the same.. 
I wish your Lordship to be convinced that it was not without 
mature deliberation that I made this small offering for the-, 
benefit of her departed soul, not meaning at the same time 
(as your Lordship seems to have understood) to have as- 
many Masses said as the value of the watch would be com- 
puted to amount to. No, my Lord, I know that my mother 
always had a share in your prayers, before she departed as 
well as since. It was this as well as the remembrance of" 
your personal favors to my own unworthy person, and espe- 
cially your protection and patronage at the time when the 
opposition of all my friends in Europe seemed to frustrate; 

fixed by the laws of each diocese, to the priest of -whom they request it, 
not in payment for the Sacrifice, for that can never be paid for, being- 
infinitely valuable, but in order that by the deprivation, mortification or- 
self-denial caused by the offering they may have closer part in the Holy 
Sacrifice, as in the Old Law the faithful were required to bring the> 
lambs, etc., which the priests were to sacrifice. 

. 218 

my intention of embracing the clerical state, it was this, I 
say, made me consider it one of 'the sacred duties incumbent 
-on me to make an offering of the only thing I possess worthy 
of notice, to your person, arid in your person (as the highest 
representative of Almighty God in this country) to God 
Himself, for the benefit of my departed mother. I beg of 
your Lordship to accept of the watch, and keep it as an 
offering from your most sincere friend, for the above inten- 

In reply to a letter of condolence written her by the bish- 
op at about the time the sad news reached her brother, Prin- 
cess Mavianua wrote: 



The letter with which your Lordship so kindly honored 
me, dated Nov. 6, 1806, excited the liveliest gratitude in my 
lieart, while giving me also the first news I have had. of my 
brother since my mother's death. Alas ! Monseigneur, you 
have too high an opinion of me, and that which you had the 
goodness to say of me to Count de Stolberg very much hu- 
miliated me, by causing me to recollect that, having had the 
happiness of a saint for my mother, and having still a brother 
-who gives me such a beautiful example, God imposes upon 
me duties which I so poorly fulfill. I recommend myself, 
Monseigneur, in special manner to your charity, and hope 
that you will not refuse me the aid of your pious prayers. 

I have since received a letter from my brother which gives 
me great pleasure, as it proves to me that God sustained 
him with his grace in the saddest -moment he could pass 
iipon earth. God be a thousand, thousand times blessed for 
it! I have the greatest confidence in the intercession of our 
dear departed, and- do not doubt she is by the side of God 
the special patron of my brother's flock, and of all your dio- 

* From the original in French, belonging .to the arch-episcopal ar- 
chives of Baltimore. 


cese, Monseigneur, because she had for your Lordship the 
particular respect and veneration. I have written to 
brother, addressing the letter to Philadelphia, as he ex- 
pressed the desire I should, but profiting by your great kind- 
ness, I take the liberty, Monseigneur, of sending you a dupli- 
-.saate of the letter with a box for him, which I will send by 

.. Anisterdam. 

* * 


Among my dear mother's papers I have found a letter ad- 
<3ressed to you, Monseigneur, which I will take the liberty 
of sending you, with a copy of this*, and the packet for my 
%rother, by Amsterdam, as also the .two letters' Mr. Gouppy 
='5>egs me to send you. 

They write me from Brabant that this spring you will 
''^ave two excellent missionaries; I pray God to bless their 

Accept, Monseigneur, the assurance of the profound re- 
-:.spect and lively gratitude with which I have the honor to be, 
Your Lordship's most humble and obedient servant, 

Marianna Gallitzin. 

JMuenster, 8 April 1807. 

It was no mere conventional form which prompted the 
-assurances of the eternal welfare of the dear princess con- 
tained in all these letters. So far as human eyes could see 
..she had always lived the best life she could find, and had 
-conscientiously and anxiously sought to find the best; after 
liar conversion she had indeed lived as those to whom the 
Asternal reward is promised. In early days, as one of her 
Sm'graphers expresses it,f " she had earnestly sought to satis- 
"^y a ky means of philosophy, the cravings of her soul after 
^knowledge and virtue, with the sacrifice of all the advantages 
- which the world had bestowed upon her in rich abundance. 

* On account of the uncertainty of the mails, letters were generally 
swat in duplicates, each copy by a different vessel. 

t Life of Bernard Overberg, translated from the German by the Hon. 
Eev. George Spencer. Derby 1844. 


" She had striven in this way, with persevering 1 courage, after- 
a more elevated ennobling of herself; she had searched, she-- 
had practised, she had fought, she had suffered; hut she* 
could find no rest for her soul, till she came to Him, who 
calls to himself all who are laden with toil and trouble, who 
invites them to learn of Him. meekness and humility, ami 
promises peace to their soul. She captivated her understand 
ing to the obedience of faith in Him who was crucified, whc- 
to the Jews indeed was a stumbling block, and to the Gen- 
tiles foolishness, but to those who are called, the power of" 
God and the wisdom of God." 

Especially was this true after her son's entrance into the - 
priesthood; her prayers had undoubtedly obtained great . 
graces for him, to which he did not fail to respond, and he 
repaid them with abundance when, as a priest of God, be 
asked, at the altar, grace and help for her in the noble striv- - 
ing for the highest perfection, which she never allowed her- - 
self to abate, and which even on his account she felt incum- 
bent upon her, as when a great king elevates one of his 
subjects to a position of the highest honor and trust, the- 
family of the new favorite rise with him, and the mother-., 
long content with the simple name of gentlewoman, strives - 
now, in honor to the son whom the king has honored, as In- 
gratitude to the king himself, to carry herself with all 
graciousiiess and state, as becomes the mother of him whom, 
his sovereign ennobles. 

The princess never wholly recovered from her illness of " 
1783, and as years advanced the seeds of disease left in her~ 
system, bore fruit in bitter sufferings, from which she seMon* 
obtained even temporary relief. In 1805 6 she became so- 
constantly ill that she could hardly be said to have a well 
day, but her immense cheerfulness in great measure con-- 
cealed her sufferings and her danger. In the spring of 1SO&- 
she was so much worse as to be unable to leave her room., 
and arranged everything for whatever might ensue. Dr~. 
Overberg, who continued to be her friend and confessor, re- 
mained in her house, consoling and sustaining her by exhor- 
tations which she well understood; Princess Mimi antL 


^Countess Amalia took turns in watching l>y her, entreating 
'iier to permit them to do so, day and night, while one or 
: more of the servants remained in a room near at hand within 
--call; as the princess soon found herself unable to have more 
than one or two persons by her at once, and permitted only 
-womanly hands to serve her. For her children, Mimi and 
Amalia, as for the persons who remained within immediate 
-.sail, she was thoughtful and considerate as ever, careful that 
iJiey should have refreshment during the night, be warm and 
-comfortable, and so on. To keep her mind employed she was 
;-glad to have any one read to her, sometimes Overberg, 
;,3ometimes Amalia or Mimi, and she would listen so atten- 
tively, in spite of her great pain and weakness, and with 
.-^ruch lively interest that the one reading would be greatly 
-pleased and instructed. 

On the afternoon of the 26th of April, her physician came 

"to see her, and after a lively interview left her without any 

fears of a critical accident occurring before morning. In the 

-early part of her illness he had remained all night in her 

.Jioase whenever he saw any critical symptoms, but this time 

Ifc did not seem to him necessaiy. But about midnight she 

was attacked by pains, and an overpowering depression, 

which made her apprehend that her last hour had come ; she 

..igjave orders for the inmates of the house to be awakened, 

which she had never done before, because she did not wish 
"to disturb any one unnecessarily and was not willing to 

any more spectators of her suffering than was needful; 
physician, who had been called, came after these, and 
-found her writhing in pain, invoking the holy names: 
-Jesus! Mary! Joseph! imploring strength to bear her suffer- 
ing with resignation, and supported in the bed by a maid, 
-'kneeling beside her. While the pains continued, she said 
^tfetween the pronounciation of the holy names: "I see you 
-all, my dear children," who were present, and afterwards 
aiarned: Puerstenberg, Stolberg, Meerfeld, Droste, and others; 
-at the entrance to eternity, to which she was now hastening, 

.she wished to leave her friends the assurance that the love 
-and care which she had had for them in this life she took 


with her into the better life. Friendship was for her se~ 
sacred spiritual bond, which bid defiance to time and space. 
The physician asked her if she would take something- - 
strengthening ; she immediately answered in accordance wiiii.- 
her first impulse. "No!" but a moment afterwards, recol- 
lecting that her answer was self-willed, she said "Yes, every- 
thing you wish," and took something he gave her. 

There followed a moment of apparent calmness; the phy- 
sician asked if she felt somewhat less pain. " No," sLe 
answered, "I suffer as before, but I am so exhausted thai 
the ' pain cannot express itself." Some one asked her if slie-- 
would not feel easier if she laid on the bed. "Oh, yes, "she- 
said, " only tell me where I shall lay myself, right soon to 
die," "'To die?" repeated Overberg, in order to sustain her 133*; 
continued resignation and submission, "Would we thenr 
not suffer as long as God wills ?" She replied in a tone iis. 
which the whole fulness of her interior spirit was expressed,,. 
" Oh yes, that is understood, with my whole heart willingly l >y 
Then she turned, with such help as they could give her, tc> 
lay herself upon the bed. 

In the meantime midnight had gone by, the beginning oil 
Sunday had come, and time was precious, so Overberg, vribo. 
in the first year of the princess' illness had obtained permis.- 
sion from the spiritual authorities to celebrate Mass by hear: 
sick bed, to sustain her with the atoning sacrifice the Son csT 
God had made, and with the bread of life, now proposed if 
to her; but she wished to make preparation in this hour oi" 
death as in days of health, for this sublime act, yet felt herscli" 
unable to do so. Overberg, who knew her wish, overcame- 
her scruples by speaking to her of the Saviour, and the- 
strength the offering of the Lamb, slain for the sins of the- 
world for all time, would procure her at the judgment seat oi" 

The altar was arranged in the large room near at hanc^. 
the door of the smaller room in which the sick bed stood., 
being left open, so that the sufferer could see the altar; the 
physician and Princess Mimi remained with her to give heir 

- 223 

the last attentions, while the others surrounded the altar in 
the main room. It was an hour of sadness and solemnity 
beyond description. 

The prayer of the Church (collect) for the day prayed that 
God, who shows the light of His truth- to those who go 
astray, that they may return to righteousness, would grant 
that all who profess the Christian name may forsake what- 
ever is contrary to that profession, and closely pursue that 
which is in conformity to it. 

The Gospel repeated the words of Jesus to his disciples: 
A little -while, and now you shall not see me: because I go to the 
Father. .... and you shall be made sorrouful, but yo&r sorrow 
shall be turned into joy. A u-oman, when she is in labor, hath 
sorrow because her hour is come: but lohen she hath brought 
forth the child she remembereth no more her anguish for joy- 
that a new man is. born into the world. . . . and your joy no man 
sliall take from you. (JOHN xvi 1623.) Words of signifi- 
cant promise to her who had so truly forsaken all that was- 
contrary to the profession of Catholic faith, and so closety 
pursued that which was in conformity with it. 

Overberg gave her Holy Communion with a few words of 
exhortation in Latin, from the Bible, which she loved best to- 
read in that language. After Mass, she made her thanks- 
giving in quiet, the physician silent on one side, and Mimi, 
weeping bitterly, with her arms around her, on the other. 
That thanksgiving was never finished in this world; she died 
between half past two and three o'clock on the morning- 
of the 27th April 1806, third Sunday after Easter, called 

For two days after her death the remains of the be- 
loved princess were visited by great crowds, drawn not 
from curiosity, but sorrowful aifection, the rich and the 
learned were there with the poor and the ignorant who wept 
for the mother lost in her. On the third day she was taken 
to Angelrnodde, as she had requested, and buried by the 
little village church she had so often visited, not as a guest , 

* Kater camp's life of tin princess, pages 289295. 


'l)ut as beloved child of the house. Her friends followed in 
-crowds, with emotions too deep for words. Her monument 
Is a large crucifix on a square pedestal, and the words which 
so truly describe her Christian life : 

"I count all things to be but loss for the excellent knowledge of 
~ Jesus Christ my Lord, for whom I have suffered the loss of all 
. things, and count them but as dung that I may gain Christ." 
(PHIL, iii, 8.) 

" So thought, so lived the Mother of the Poor and Op- 
pressed, Princess Amalia von Gallitzin, born Countess 
von Schmettau, who rests at the feet of this Image 
(crucifix) in the hope of her glorious Resurrection." 

Dr. Overberg who had daily received edification from her 
earnest strivings after perfection, and from her eminent 
Christian wisdom, intended to write her life, the better to 
keep her memory and her example before his vision, and 
among his papers were found some relating to her youth, 
prefaced by these words: "I thought it agreeable to the will 
of God, that I should bring this matter into written form, in 
order that I might the better be able to put before my mind's 
eye, and also in future keep in sight, for my edification, the 
deceased and her virtuous life, which I, as her confessor, 
was best acquainted with. If what I write should also con- 
duce to the edification and instruction of others, to God be 
the praise*." But it is not always those who have known us 
the most intimately who can best present us to others; the 
artist who would take a bold, distinct, and accurate view, 
stands at a little distance from his subject, and for some 
reason, Overberg relinquished his intention. Numerous 
sketches have been given in different languages, but it was 
reserved for Dr. Katercamp, who had known her well, to 
write the most complete biography yet published. " Exter- 
nal energy," he says, in commenting upon her character*, 
"and even great intellect are in themselves but doubtful 

* Life of Ovei-lerg, p. 144. 
t Page 298. 


.gifts. As long as it remains undecided whether they are to 

be used for egotistical or for higher purposes they are a soil 

on which vice may take root as well as virtue. Even with 

the highest moral standard it is not one and the same thing 

-whether the'will is determined by principles of reason, or by 

-the sanction and unction of faith. 

"The life of the princess presents this two-fold view: great- 
ness of mind judged, first by the natural moral estimation, 
and then by supernatural worth, that is, the relation of the 
human spirit to grace. 

" Clearness and strict consequence in thought and action, 
with rarest gifts of intuition, animated by elevated percep- 
tion to spiritual aims, were in her natural gifts, which even 
in her early youth won her, by interior impulse, a decided, 
conquest over sensuality. These gifts which urged her to 
poetry as to speculative philosophy, in consequence of her 
self-cultivation . used for the harmony and elevation of her 
disposition reached, in her later years, such a wonderful 
height, that with the same logical consequence, and an even 
greater^ intuitive perception, she thought in sleep as when 

"The strict moral standard which she prescribed herself 
in the philosophic period, preserved her from the ambition of 
displaying her talents to the world, by which the character 
of so many eminent persons, lacking moral principle, goes 
to ruin. 

"This native dignity of -her moral character, and her pecu- 
liar love for the beautiful hindered, for a time, her perception 
-of the seed of evil in us all, and its gradual development, 
A certain passionate excitement in her mind stimulating her 
not only to her own perfection, but that of her children and 
friends, showed her wherein lay the peril of her life, that a 
subtile and secret pride was the motive of her aiming for 
perfection. After this discovery appears the great difference 
between her purely philosophic and her Christian efforts 
for it. 

"True perfection, which harmonizes the interior discord, 

should lay the fonundation of God's peace which is above 


time and space, is a gift from on high, and can be obtained 

, only through unconditional dependence of the mind on God, 

-through the divine institution of reconciliation, that is from 

Jesus Christ, the mediator between God and men, in other 

words, by faith and humility. When any one by aid of faith 

comes to this conviction he knows that he has not to climb 

.-steep heights, nor sink to deep abysses, because the end he 

aims at is not far from him, but near and, direct, not only 

. near but.m him, in his heart (Ron. x.). This end is the 

highest good that can be obtained here or in eternity: Union 

.with God, by which the human mind places itself, or rather, 

. is placed in eternity, notwithstanding the change that occurs. 

. in time in the external demonstration, for it consists in the 

. mutual intercourse between God and the faithful soul ; 'God 

descends to her by grace, and she ascends to Him by prayer, 

that is, reaches up to God as with two spiritual arms: desire 

and confidence. 

"This end of Christian life although the most sublime that 
men can reach is, at the same time, so simple that on ac- 
count of its very simplicity it is often passed over and 
unnoticed in the strain of tendencies separated from faith; 
for usually in the agitation of search those things which 
operate least on the senses, are least observed. To obtain 
i this end man must seek, turning the will from earthly in- 
clinations, to open his mind to the influence of grace and 
carefully notice and quietly but attentively consider, as 
. Mary at the Saviour's feet, every word that comes from 
. God; first, that which is given us in external revelation, 
following no less with faithful love that which is caused by 
the internal and by other means within us, especially that 
which urges us onward .... This voice of God which urges 
onward (to virtue) speaks much lower than the voice which 
restrains, (from sin) and is, consequently, easily missed .by 
the inattentive, and if neglected, unfaithfulness to it is not 
so severely punished; we are therefore easier satisfied in 
regard to it, more indifferent to it. This is the cause of the 
moral stand-still of numbers of really good and blameless 
people. . It belonged to the Christian wisdom of the princess' 


life to listen with great attention and fidelity to the inward 
voice of God urging onward Christian life for her con- 
sisted in two exercises, in continual interchange with one 

Going into herself by meditation and prayer, 
Coming out of herself in active love, for which prayer 
gives the strength. 

"What she effected by these exercises, partly in bringing 
souls back from evil ways, partly by personal deprivation in 
order to use her mean's for good to the widest extent, will 
only be shown at the great day when the conscience of man 
will be judged, for here it was for the most part hidden. 
She publicly declared the principles of her life, but 'her good 
works were done in secret. One of her household often 'ac- 
companied her in the evenings, after dark, to the cabins of 
the poor, he carrying the money she was to spend in pro- 
viding for their needs, while her friends, even the other per- 
sons in the house, knew nothing of these works of love and 

"When she was not so ill as to be compelled to remain 
constantly in bed, and yet suffered at every step she took in 
her drawing room, in consequence of the shock the motion 
of walking gave her, a carpet was considered necessary that 
she might be able to take less painful exercise. ' She ordered 
an ordinary one from Amsterdam, but by the mistake of the 
person commissioned to procure it, a Turkey carpet was sent, 
truly more appropriate, but much more expensive. She re- 
quired that it should be sold again, a cheaper one bought, and 
the surplus given as alms: 'It is not right,' she said, 'that' I 
should trample under my feet that which would support a 
poor family for quite a while.' Fortunately, it did not come 
to the selling of it, for it was soon evident that an ordinary 
one would not be soft enough for the desired purpose. 

"In returning to the Christian religion, she returned to the 
Catholic Church. The conviction in each respect was the 
result of three years of deliberation (17831786); she re- 
cognized in the Catholic Church, as she was in the habit of 
saying, the more correct result, and she was not contented 


TV-hen her Protestant friends spoke with praise as if in 
"her circle there prevailed a better Catholicism than else- 

"Her adherence to the Cathblic Church was unconditional 
and without reservation, as well in her reverence for its dis- 
cipline, as for its public worship and dogma. 

"She was hurt to her inmost soul when she heard that on 
Catholic pulpits, or from Catholic chairs in schools, the dogma 
of the Church was violated. 

"The Church was especially venerated by. her in the Sa- 
craments. She never neglected to be present when Over- 
: berg gave instruction to the ladies at the Academy, or when 
jfirst communion or confirmation was given. Her faith en- 
abled her thus to see the Divine friend of children, who said: 
:i Si(ffer little children to come to me and forbid them not,' 
pouring out the plentitude of His graces for these pure and 
innocent souls, whom she so willingly joined in thought and 

"But especially did she venerate that great and holy Sa- 
crament in which Christ Jesus, the Lamb slain from the 
beginning, the Sacrifice of all time, offers Himself with the 
.fulness of His graces as the fountain of grace; at the same 
.time giver and gift, sacrifice and high priest. 

"In this Sacrament, as in the food of the soul she sought 
and found the strength by which the yoke of suffering, bitter 
a8 it was became sweet and light. Strengthened with this 
food she went, though under great bodily anguish, consoled 
and full of confidence to eternity." 

All possible comfort which the knowledge of her life in 
this world, and the assured hope of her eternal happiness 
in heaven could inspire, was given to Father Gallitzin, he 
looked confidently forward to an eternal reunion with her, 
felt her presence ever about 'him, and. that she now loved 
and guarded and prayed for him as she never could upon 
earth, and yet her death was a grief from which he could 
never hope to recover. But this bitterest of all earthly sor- 
rows, running through his true heart, devoted to God, sweet- 
ened and softened his nature, and brought ever nearer the 


weak human hearts that looked to him for comfort, and 
showed him how to lead them onward to the unfailing foun- 
tain of divine compassion and eternal recompense. 




All my enemies ichispered together against 
me ; ihey devised evils to me. 

For even the man of my peace, . in whom 
I trusted, who ate my bread, hath greatly sup- 
planted me. (Pa. XL.) 

Kenewal of trouble. Mr. Phelan again. The Westmoreland conspiracy. 
Jacob. E. V. J.'s retraction. The committee visit Bishop Carroll. 
John "Weakland's argument. Broken down. End of the slander. 

When Father Gallitzin at the foot of the altar turned and 
faced his defamers, the bitter waters of their hatred were 
turned backward upon themselves, but though intercepted, 
obstructed, divided, powerless to leap the mighty arm thus 
stretched across their course, they retained volume enough 
to gather once more, and swollen with all stormy passions 
to wear themselves another channel through which, by a 
more circuitous aad less headlong descent, to sweep over 
him and bear him onward to the deepest gulf of shame and 
oblivion. Of those who quailed before him on that memo- 
rable day, many were struck with instant fear, and suddenly 
awoke to overwhelming consciousness of the wrong they had 
'done him, others who. had weakly doubted, or but feebly 
sustained him, felt sharp conviction" flashed through their in- 
most soul, and for all their after lives bore unshaken testi- 
mony to his perfect integrity; so true it is that when truth 
dwells, as with Gallitzin, unshackled, master of its own 
abode, it scarcely needs to raise its voice to be recognized as 


master of all others not wholly dead to sight' and sound; 
"crushed to earth" it can never be, save by the cowardice^ 
the treason, or the pusillanimity of its own household. 

Though few of the old enemies were left to oppose him^ 
new ones were not lacking to keep their courage up, and to 
lead them in another persecution more violent and more sys- 
tematic than any yet attempted. The reverend gentleman- 
who had already caused so much mischief, far more, it is to 
be hoped, than he knew or intended, continued to press hie 
services, causing great annoyance to Dr. Gallitzin, and ser- 
ving to keep alive the hostile feeling now so nearly extinct. 
This person had faults which caused Father Gallitzin to fear 
his coming, lest they should break out to the" scandal of his 
people, undermining the walls of sobriety and regularity 
with which he had striven to surround them on every side; 
at the same time, Christian charity forbade him to give the 
reasons which alone could justify his refusal and satisfy 'the 
disaffected, who were not slow to put their own interpreter 
tions upon all his acts. The bishop also felt delicate about 
taking any decided step in the matter, perhaps even, in the 
kindness of his heart, hoped some compromise would be ef- 
fected, though at the sacrifice of a little of Father Gallitzin's 
austerity, but he by no means approved of his residence for 
any length of time with the pastor of Loretto: ' 

"With regard to the Rev. Mr. Phelan," Gailitzin wrote 
Dec. 19th, 1806, "I am happy to find that 1 have anticipated 
your Lordship's desire. As soon as .1 heard of his being in 
Bedford, and desiring to reside with nie until Easter, I sent 
him a letter in which I made mention of several reasons why 
I thought it very improper that he should absent himself 
during so long a time from his own congregation, and come 
to reside with me. One reason was that he was not law- 

fully sent._ I concluded with inviting him to spend a couple 
of weeks with me as he had done last October, knowing or 
'believing, at least, that this would not be contrary but 
lather conformable to your Lordship's desire. Knowing as 
I did that the greatest part ^>f my congregation being Irish 
would be very much -displeased at my opposing -Mr. Phelart's 


coming, I thought it necessary to keep a copy of my letter 
to him, that I might be able by producing the same to you to 
justify myself, in case any one should attempt to misrepre- 
sent the matter to your Lordship. I should be very happy if 
you would mention a few words in your next letter to me 
testifying your approbation of my conduct on that occasion, 
that I may be able to satisfy those who think they have law- 
ful reasons of complaining against me for not accepting of" 
Mr. Phelan's services when he offered them." 

Whether the invitation thus tendered was accepted, or not,., 
or if accepted whether any open scandal occured, does not ap- 
jifar, it can only be inferred that additional reasons were*; 
given to increase the reluctance already felt, for when next 
he applied Father Gallitzin saw fit to decline his service en- 
tirely, and to give his reasons for doing so, which ended;, 
their aquaintance. The whole affair had served to estrange 
some of the members of the congregation, who with the pro- 
verbial devotion of the Irish people to their clergy, would 
Lave overlooked many faults in order to retain one of their 
own among them, but these were almost without exception, 
new comers, to whom all their pastor's ways were unfamiliar,, 
unlike anything they had ever seen before, and to which they 
believed they could never become accustomed, but in time 
they became so much attached to him, so thoroughly at home 
under his pastoral care, that the Germans, to whom they had 
given, him up at first, became really jealous of them, so that- 
the slightest appearance of preference on his part for cither- 
nationality made the other quite unhappy, until, as time 
passed on, the dividing lines growing fainter, all, of what- 
ever birth, began to feel themselves, like their beloved pastor, 
Americans; at present in Loretto and its vicinity, as in 
"great measure throughout the. whole of his former charge,.- 
"when one side of a family is found to be of German extrac- 
tion, it is pretty safe to infer that the other is' of Irish. 
descent. . 

At first, though he spoke English as he wrote it, easily,, 
fluently and with precision, Father Gallitzin was generally 
et down as a German; he understood the feeling with 


he was regarded on this account, and would willingly have 
gratified the desire of his Irish parishioners, but all his at- 
tempts to do so only added to his own troubles, increasing 
the, discontent already felt; for all who could be induced to 
seek a home in the wilderness with him as his assistant in 
early days, chanced to be of those who were unable, either 
by nature or grace, to understand his views or motives, or 
to endure at all the privations of his austere life, although he 
procured all possible alleviations for them, waiting on them 
himself, as he permitted no person to wait on him, preparing 
comforts for them with his own hands, such as he never 
accepted for himself. 

The reverend gentleman mentioned was by no means the 
only one for whom strenuous efforts were made; in a more 
malignant spirit than he ever excited, three or four men, 
social outlaws whom their own countrymen scorned, work- 
ing through others less disreputable than themselves, took 
advantage of this feeling, and of that other feeling of uneasi- 
ness lest if they broke away from Dr. Gallitzin they would 
be left without a priest altogether, to prepare the way for 
another, undoubtedly entirely unconscious of their schemes, 
of unusual talents and excellent reputation; thus by sending 
abroad the report that such a one would accept the other's 
place, these men quieted the fears while they excited the 
hopes of those who as yet were neutral, and succeeded in 
drawing a few strong allies to their aid, who would have 
scorned any part with them for other reasons; others on 
various pretexts, and by countless falsehoods were Avon 
over, and a real conspiracy was formed, in which, as usual 
in such cases, a few reckless men used all the rest for their 
own base purposes, many working for them who never sus- 
pected what they were doing. It was determined that if the 
bishop still refused to remove him, he should be made by 
fair means or foul, small matter which, to resign .as of his 
own accord, leave them in possession of the land, the church, 
and all that belonged to it, after which they would see that 
the bishop sent them a pastor who would be more pliable in 
their hands. 


It will be remembered that E. V. J. had alone corne for- 
ward, with formal accusations to the bishop, at the time of 
the Munster difficulties, and that Mr. Little hastened, at the 
request of the better portion of the congregation, to Baltimore 
with an appeal to Bishop Carroll to pay no heed to any 
charges which might be made, and by no means to remove 
their pastor, in whom they had every confidence ; returning, 
Mr. Little brought to Gallitzin his first knowledge, beyond 
the wild reports and rumors of the villagers, of these 
charges hurridly referred to in the bishop's letter of Feb. 23, 

" I have received your answer by Mr. Barney Little," Gal- 
litzin wrote in reply, April 13, 1806, "which gave me a good 
deal of comfort, but at the same time,. it did not a little sur- 
prise me to see Mr. J 's complaints and accusations against 
me. His own conscience bears testimony to the falseness of 
these accusations. God may forgive him: I can safely ap. 
peal to the Searcher of Hearts, before whom I am to appear 
at the Last Day, that nothing but a sincere wish for the wel- 
fare of my congregation in general and for the happiness 
and safety of Mr. J . in particular, has directed my steps in 
all those matters of which he so much complains." 

At the same time it began to be suspected that an- 
other person, Jacob B : . who had lived in Gallitzin's house 
having care of his farm, but treated more as a friend than a 
hired laborer, who had said, in the midst of the slanders 
against his generous benefactor, and this in the presence of 
Eev. Mr. Heilbron, Simon Ruffner and others, that having 
lived so many years with Doctor Gallitzin, so 'far from hav- 
ing observed anything irregular in his conduct, he was 
obliged to own'that though acquainted with numbers of cler- 
gymen in Baltimore, Philadelphia and other places, he had 
never seen a better one; at another time declaring that he 
did not believe the merest child could be more innocent than 
he was, now, for certain ends of his own, was setting very 
different ^reports in circulation, and when they had grown 
enough not to be -easily traced to himself, repeated them, 
with .much apparent sorrow, to the object of them all, al- 


ways expressing surprise and indignation at their malignity 
and falsehood; together they talked over these stories, for 
Father Gallitzin never encased himself in the armor of self- 
righteousness, invulnerable to all suggestions, but when he 
heard any falsehood of himself keenly examined his cons- 
cience, his actions, his motives, lest there might be some- 
where in himself the pebble of truth with which the pyra- 
mids of slander are so often constructed; to the eyes of his 
most delicate and sensitive humility many an error ap- 
peared, as under a microscope, which to other eyes, however 
acute, showed not so much as the merest speck; with his ex- 
quisite simplicity, it was natural, then, for him to own to 
faults, to distrust in himself, to review the circumstances 
surrounding him, and in the intimacy of friendship to show 
where they were the hardest to explain, to speak freely of 
his family affairs, his financial embarrassments, his fears for 
the future which he dared not show to any other, lest 
his creditors, becoming alarmed, should embarrass him still 
further. Cut off from all relations, from all society, sur- 
rounded by suspicions, by slanders of the most atrocious 
kind, watched continually, his lightest word weighed, 
twisted and wrought into a sword against him, what 
wonder the full heart overflowed sometimes, when with 
the mail whom he trusted implicitly, who was bound to 
him by every tie of reverence, affection, and gratitude, who 
listened deferentially and spoke in deepest sympathy ? By 
and bye those words thus spoken came back, poisoned 
weapons, to the generous heart that sent them forth. 

Even yet he had not fathomed the baseness of liuman 
nature, but ascribed the treachery to a moment's anger at a 
passing difficulty, even refused to believe in spite of all evi- 
dence, though cut to the heart as only the treason of a false 
friend, long loved and trusted, has power to do. He recalled 
the many confidences given, the errors and shortcomings, 
magnified by his humility, which he had bewailed to this 
friend; he could not believe him lost to all honor, and as the 
man avoided him, wrote him in holy week 1807, the tcn- 
'derest appeal he, could put into words. 

236 - 

Dear Friend, 

We are now in the middle of Holy Week which, loudly 
proclaims the obligation of forgiveness and reconciliation. I. 
wish to take the hint and to be reconciled with everybody, 
and therefore beg if I ever offended you that you would for- 
give me, and consider me henceforward as a friend, as I make 
a firm resolution to be and remain in peace with you. I shall 
forever remember with pleasure the many happy hours you 
and I spent together both at home and abroad, the many 
hours when (with mutual confidence and friendship) we dis- 
closed our thoughts to one another. To be sure many an im- 
prudent thing may have been said or done at those times be- 
cause friends do not guard against each other. I knew that 
you were my friend, and I knew that as a man of honor you 
would never betray my secrets, nor those of my family, no 
more than a priest would betray the sins and the secrets of 
his penitents. I knew that as a man of honor and integrity 
being besides engaged* in my service, you would never (even 
if you got angry) take advantage of anything I did or said, 
to make me one cent the worse before other people. 

I was confirmed in this opinion by what you said about 
three or four weeks ago to myself, viz: that you only went 
away because you were determined never to be at variance 
with me again, and you thought we could be better friends 
at a distance than so close together. 

Dear friend, I cannot deny a great deal has been told me 
about what you and your wife have said. ... 

Dear friend, I leave all this to your own conscience, I 
know that you have a good opinion of my moral conduct, I 

know that if I heard forty stories alleged against you, 

I would despise them all, and I trust you would never be- 
lieve any story that could be alledged against me 

It is true as a confidential friend, I never guarded against 
you and therefore have said and done a thousand things be- 
fore you which though innocently meant, and innocent in 
themselves yet by interpretation and malicious constructions 


could be completely handled against me. Yet it is certainly 
not my old friend Jacob, so well used at my house, that 
would be_ guilty of so base and treacherous a conduct. 

Certainly it is not my old friend Jacob, entrusted with 
my secrets and confidence, that would betray those secrets. 

Certainly it is not my old friend Jacob, witness of my up- 
right conduct, though at the same time imprudent in many 
respects, that would betray me to the world, and taking ad- 
vantage of what happened in the secret recess of private and 
confidential conversation, that would make a handle of it 
against myself. . . . Certainly, it is not our old friend Jacob 
that man noted for his religious principles, that would vent 
his tongue against the anointed of the Lord, and by such 
sacrilegious conduct, entail the curse of God upon himself 
and his family. No, from his principles', he would rather 
throw his cloack over them to hide their real failings than to 
divulge them. 

See here, dear friend, the opinion which I would wish to 
harbor of you .in spite of all I can be told, and the senti- 
ments of friendship which I haA r e awakened in my heart, in 
spite of all the devil's temptations, and which I shall try to 
harbor as long as I live. Any time you come you shall be 
made welcome here, and should I be away and the key of 
the cupboard out of the way, I beg you will try. ... to open 
the lock sooner than to suffer for the want of any thing; 
there are no locks between friends .... 

Jacob, Jacob, do not suffer the devil to lead you-to des- 
truction, but come as quick as you can to make up with 

Yr. sincere friend 

D. A. Gallitzin. 

The childlike simplicity of this letter, from which besides 
some unnecessary words only two paragraphs have been 
omitted, one enumerating under five heads the petty gossip 
accredited to Jacob, which though too contemptible for re- 
pitition or refutation was excessively annoying at the time, 
and the other relating to another person, not connected with 
this subject, so far from reaching the heart to which in 


utmost humility and exquisite delicacy it was addressed, 
caused it to be paraded as testimony to the recipient's in- 
tegrity and an admission of the writer's misconduct. Gal- 
litzin sp9ke of secrets, meaning the matters concerning his 
property, his life at home, annoyances of his boyhood, per- 
haps childish tricks upon his grave professors, which he 
could hardly forbear talking over in the freedom of friendly 
intimacy, but which if spoken of in public would soon fur- 
nish food for the gossips, and tend to lessen his dignity if 
no more, as their grave and stately pastor, whom they could 
hardly imagine, and could not have understood, as a boy 
with a boy's mischief, love of freedom and out of door sports, 
hatred of books, and of restraint; a whisper of the most in- 
nocent boyish frolic, an intimation of difficulties now, delays 
and possible loss of money belonging to him, would have 
been as oil on fire, and blazed into the most extraordinary 
romances, and new accusations; thus, at that time, he was 
not able to unbend at all, as in later years when all 
were his friends, as Jacob well knew, but holding this 
letter, hardly a word or a look was required to convert the 
admission of secrets into a confession of things little short 
of crime, an acknowledgment that he was surrounded by 
mysteries. Father Gallitziu alluded to imprudent words 
and acts, in the general way in which the most saintly per- 
son might have used the words, but they conveyed no im- 
pression of holy humility to the coarse minds that now con- 
strued them; men who called the seven deadly sins lying 
heavy on their own conscience, "the imperfections to which 
. we are all liable", mere peccadillos, would not be the ones to 
handle delicately the faint meaning of imprudent acts in one 
it was their policy to represent as a malefactor. 

Father Gallitzin thus learned that 

"When faith is lost, when honor dies, 

The man is dead," 

and that it is easier to raise the dead from their graves than 
to resuscitate a broken friendship. 

Nothing could have given his enemies greater satisfaction 
that this affectionate letter; possessing it they felt they 


could do with him, his name and his fame as they pleased; 
it was made to cover every slander their cunning could de- 
vise, so that even good old Father Heilbron, who never could 
master the simplest sentence of the English language, was 
staggered by it, even to the extent of not opposing the 
final appeal to the bishop which they now undertook with 
greatest confidence, for unable to accomplish anything of in- 
creased consequence in Loretto, where the majority of the 
people stood firm by their pastor, they had transferred their 
headquarters to Greensburg, the seat of Westmoreland 
County, where Gallitzin was not so well known, and to 
which a number of his opponents had taken refuge when 
frowned upon by the better portion of the Loretto congre- 
gation; their plan was to commence their work at that dis- 
tance, and then to roll it along, like a dirty snowball, through 
the various parishes which he attended, in each of which 
they expected to find some accessions, until it should become 
so formidable as to alarm the Loretto people and gather 
them in. Some intimations of this reached his ears, and 
he promptly investigated it, as he wrote to the bishop whom 
he kept advised of all his movements. 


May 11. 1807. 
My Lord, 

I am on the point of starting for Greensburg; whilst my 
horse is eating his feed, I cannot forbear giving myself the 
satisfaction of writing a few lines to your Lordship. I feel 
very curious to know what is going on at Greensburg, I 
doubt very foul and dirty work. . . . However, I shall know 
better to-morrow evening .... The greatest satisfaction to 
me is that I am completely innocent in all those cases in 
which I am accused, as far as I have been informed of the 
accusations. Another satisfaction is that not one person in 
the whole congregation except a handful of the vilest black- 
guards, believes any of tfte accusations. No, my very Pro- 
testant neighbors have showed as much indignation at the 


base, malicious, and foul steps that are taking, as some of 
the most zealous Catholics ; they have offered their signatures 
to the within instrument which the trustees and congrega- 
tion thought fit to send to your Lordship. I thanked them 
very kindly for their offers, but did not think proper to in- 
sert their names, wishing to confine myself to my own' con- 

Another satisfaction is that notwithstanding all the en- 
deavors of Jacob B., J. C. M. etc., to set the whole congre- 
gation against me, and to represent me under the most 
odious and scandalous colours, their endeavors are fruitless, 
the number of my friends increases. N. M. himself and W. 
"W. until lately my enemies, still pressed and solicited to 
join the plot, have on the contrary embraced this oppor- 
tunity to get reconciled, and signalize themselves in my 

Another satisfaction is the increase of the Church amidst 
these persecutions; three of my Protestant neighbors have 
come forward since Easter and solemnly abjured heresy and 
made profession of Catholic faith, and there are more coming. 

Jacob B - has spread the most infamous lies on purpose 

to make people talk, and afterwards with a grave and sor- 
rowful countenance and a great many sighs, complained that 
he was very sorry to bear people talk so badly of me and 
that it had become his duty to inform the bishop ! . . . . This 
is the only kind of scandal here, Scandahiin Pharisaium. 

Being in a great hurry to start I shall conclude for this 
time, not thinking it necessary indeed to say much more on 
this subject, for I really cannot think that your Lordship can 
feel very uneasy about any of the accusations brought 
against me. As for the petition, if you would think it worth 
while to give me a list of the petitioners, I engage to prove 
the said petition to be a most infamous piece of forgery, and 
that there is no genuine name to it only names of notorious 
drunkards, blasphemers, robbers, etc., men that have no 
more religion than horses, that never or almost never fre- 
quent the sacraments, men who^publicly brag of their mis- 
deeds . 


I do not wish to dwell any longer on so disagreeable a 
subject, and shall only add that I have thought it necessary 
to subjoin and enclose a copy of a letter which I sent to 

Jacob B about six weeks ago, and which has been most 

infamously construed as an acknowledgment of my guilt. 
Your Lordship will judge what sentiments dictated it. 

I recommend myself to your Lordship's prayers and sacri- 
fices, and subscribe myself 
My. Lord* 

Yr most hble obdt servt, 
Demetrius Augustin Gallitzin. 


But before he had succeeded in mounting his horse the 

news was brought to him that I?. V. J. had returned from 
Baltimore, after a successful interview with the. bishop, of 
which he was at that moment giving triumphant account to 
the excited villagers. If half of what was said was true 
then indeed was he alone, without friend or counsel, or 
one human arm to defend him. This, then, was to be the 
end of all, for this he had left father and mother, home and 
country, honor and wealth, ease and renown, to be tried as 
a petty criminal before a crowd of gaping backwoodsmen! 
No such thought was permitted room in his heart; -he went . 
back to his rude table, and wrote a few lines full of gentle- 
ness and dignity to the bishop, not one syllable of expostu- 
lation, but as if his only thought were of the indignity to his 
sacred profession. But had he been speaking for another, as 
after years abundantly proved, not a hundredth part as in- 
nocent as he knew himself to be, his words would have 'burn- 
ed like a torch, and he would have given his life to save but 
the hem of the priestly garment from touching the mire 
through which he was now to be dragged. 


May 11. 1807. 
My Lord, 

E. V. J. is returned from Baltimore and already the news 
is in circulation that Mr. de Earth and Mr. Dubois are to be 

242 i' 

up immediately to judge me. I shall be very happy to see 
them or any other clergymen you would choose to send, al- 
though it would be a little hurtful to my feelings that they 
should come under that title. I cannot but feel uneasy at 

the thought that Jacob B , who has already sworn false 

against me and who I know has sworn vengeance and de- 
struction against me, should be admitted as evidence against 
me. Your Lordship knows it is very often impossible (for 
the want of evidences) to overset a false testimony, and 

Jacob B. is waiting with the most eager and sanguine 

expectation for the happy moment when he shall be called 
before your Lordship or before the clergymen you* shall send, 
in order to ruin me with his t depositions. 

. J. C. M. and E. V. J. and some more being partly 

through my fault disappointed of getting the offices of the 
county, are from disappointed ambition raised to the highest 
pitch of anger, and some of them have declared if they get 
no satisfaction from your Lordship, they will try the civil 
law, if that won't do they will try something else. 

This is the only favor I shall beg of your Lordship if you 
think it necessary to institute an examination of my conduct, 
that you will not allow every person to be a witness, but 
that you will lay down rules by which the priests appointed 
may know who can be allowed to appear as a witness 
against a clergyman, and who not. With great respect I 

My Lord, 

Yr most hble obdt servt, 

D. A. Gallitzin. 

P. S. I shall be back from Greensburg in about two 
weeks; if I find certain charges to be true I shall hardly 
leave Westmoreland County before I enter suits against 
John and Jacob B . Such men are not afraid of spirit- 
ual punishments, and therefore ought to be handled more 
roughly. : 

If the bishop ever- had any intention of sending either of 
these clergymen to investigate the indefinite and contradic- 


tory charges against him, which is not at all likely, the idea 
was undoubtedly at once abandoned, and put wholly out of 
mind by the consequences of the visit to Greensburg when. 
Father Gallitzin resolutely met his enemies, tracked all their 
ways, unmasked their devices, and made them his own justi- 
fiers. All that he had told the bishop he was sure of was 
abundantly proved, there were no genuine signatures to the 
petition for his removal except those of the lowest of the 
low, and those whose names had been forged were only too 
glad to exonerate themselves from standing as false witness- 
es before the bishop, as he relates in a letter written some- 
time after his return to Loretto: 


Loretto, June 20. 1801. 
My Lord,' 

It is now about two weeks since I returned from Greens- 
burg, and have been kept so busy since between the duties 
of my office and my duties as agent for Henry Drinker and 
company of Philadelphia, that little or no time was left to 
give your Lordship an account of my proceedings and succes- 
ses at Greensburg. Indeed I was not in very great hurry as 
I wished you to get informations from other quarters before 
you would hear any more from me, and I expect you have 
got by this time those informations that will completely re- 
move any uneasiness which the false accusations and forged 
certificates of my enemies may have occasioned. To my 
great surprise (though not althogether unexpectedly) I 
found out that a certain certificate (which must be in your 
hands) full of the most abominable charges, and having the 

signatures of John and Mary B was" fabricated by J. C. 

M , Esq., as well as those signatures, whilst neither John 

nor Mary even suspected that there was any such instrument 
in existence. Your Lordship has, no doubt, by this time 
received a genuine certificate, signed by John and Mary 
B , wherein the facts established in the forged one are 
completely contradicted. I was hardly two days in West- 
moreland County when I discovered by Simon Ruffner, and 

_ 244, . 

gome more of ray friends, the whole plot laid for my destruc- 
tion, which was,. by those certificates and oaths procured 
from Greensburg and circulated through this County of Can> 
bria, to procure subscribers to a petition against me, to have 
clergymen appointed to inspect my conduct, and when these 
would arrive to bring Jacob B forward to swear any- 
thing that would answer the purpose, which they were cer- 
tain would remove me immediately. Why so ? Because that 
your Lordship and those clergymen, could not refuse be- 
lieving what was proved on oath. After having , tried (in 
vain) all those means which charity and a desire of bringing 
my enemies to repentance could suggest, finding that they 
wilfully and maliciously persevered, and that even coming 
to church on Sundays and holydays was only a cloak to prop- 
agate their poison, and trying to gain proselytes, I publicly 
excluded them from the benefits of the Church, debarred 
them from polluting the floor of the church, or the holy 
ground on which it stands, with, their presence ; I refused 
sprinkling the holy water upon iny congregation until those 
ringleaders of rebellion, those forgers of libels against the 
anointed of the Lord would withdraw. ? I then commanded 
them by name to leave that church which under 'divine prov- 
idence I had established with the sweat of my br.ow for the 
Salvation of souls, and to which they only came for the ruin 
and damnation of their and their neighbors' souls, praying 
God to move their hearts to repentance, and to give them 
grace to reenter the -church at the gate of submission and 
humility. The 'next day I started for Greensburg; having 
received informations as above, I immediately applied for 
two writs of scandal and had them served as quick as pos- 
sible, which produced- a very happy change. 

John B though he proved himself and wife completely 

clear of the certificate above mentioned, candidly owned him- 
self guilty of many lies .... but he made it appear to my sat- 
isfaction that it was Jacob B and M- -s craft and 

cunning to raise anger and spite in his heart in order to 
make him tell lies against me, and whatever lies he would 
not tell) they supplied with their forgeries. He begged par- 


don in the most humble manner, offered to retract what he 
had said in as public a manner as I would think satisfactory, 
and promised never to suffer himself to be led astray in such 
a ma'nner again, and finally he and his wife to sign a cer- 
tificate contradicting the contents of the forged one, and -send 
the same to you; in consequence of this I have forgiven him, 
and sent orders to my lawyer to withdraw the suit against 
John B upon his fulfilling his promise and paying the 
cost and his fees. . . 

Jacob B (though equally as humble as John) was not 
as candid, but wished me to believe him completely innocent 
df ever having touched my character. ... I told him that I 
should, never be willing to make peace with him upon any 
terms that would leave so many respectable characters un- 
der the -blame of believing him, or that would put it in his 
power to renew his former attacks tipon ; my character; in 
short that there were no other terms I would ever agree to, 
except pleading guilty, retracting the foul abominable lies 
he had told and even retracting what he had sworn. He 
soon agreed to every thing except the retracting of his oath, 
but this not being sufficient I would not listen to him any 
further, but mounted my horse and started. Since I came 
home I found my enemies here (who had entirely depended 

upon John and Jacob B 's depositions) in the utmost 

consternation. We now enjoy perfect peace and quietness; 
. hot a loud word is to be heard; all their plots (they find) are 
defeated, and turned against themselves; they all wish to 
extricate themselves ; every one 'tries to clear himself and 
blames his neighbor for leading him astray. Some have 
sold their 'places and- are gone, others are in the way of sell- 
ing and in a short time, thanks be to God's mercies, our 
settlement will" get rid of one of the most corrupted set of 
villains that e'ver disgraced the Church, who were endeavor- 
ing to engross into their own hands all the most important 
offices of our new county, from which calamity, however, 
my persevering endeavors -have fortunately delivered our 
poor country. This it was that drew the whole weight of 
their 'anger and revenge upon my head and caused one of 


the blackest conspiracies to be instituted against me which 
human malice, assisted by the powers of hell, could devise. 
God be praised the storm has subsided, peace is restoring 
fast, and all the county offices will in a short time tie filled 
with the most respectable characters of the settlement, the 
ecclesiastical and civil authorities will then go hand in hand 
and mutually assist each other in promoting the public wel- 
fare and happiness. Amen. 
I remain with great respect 
My Lord, 

Yr most hble obdt serVt, 

Demetrius Atfgustine Gallitzin, 
Parish priest of Loretto. 

This letter was followed by a note with which he accom- 
panied the retraction of the most persistent of his opponents, 
of the longest standing and perhaps the least dishonest of 

any, E. V. J , who finally laid down his arms, convinced 

that he had been blinded by ambition, by desire of revenge 
and the cunning of false friends. 


Loretto, July 27. 1801. 
My Lord. 

It is with the greatest pleasure I comply with Mr. J s 
request of sending your Lordship the enclosed act of retrac- 
tion, which was also at his request read in .church last Sun- 
day week. Being on the point of mounting my horse for a 
little excursion, I shall only add assurances of the most 
profound respect and sincere attachment with which I re- 

My Lord, . 

Your most hble and obdt servt, 

Demetrius Aug. Gallitzin. 

P. S. I need .not add that I have not required of Mr. J 
any further satisfaction. . . 


Please to take good care of the enclosed and send it back 
by the first safe opportunity. 


18. July, 1801. 
My Dear and Revd Sir. 

The horror which I feel in the heinous crimes committed 
against your innocent character and the faults of my unsus- 
pected heart, demands of me to humble myself before you 
and the congregation. First, I sincerely ask your pardon 
and pardon from the congregation in general, to my Lord 
the Bishop of Baltimore I ask pardon, and to an injured and 
offended God I implore forgiveness and pardon. I am sin- 
cerely sorry from my heart [for] the many scandals I have 
committed by keeping bad company, and suffering myself to 
be deluded in believing the ^most abominable lies against 
your innocence, and in joining in plots against your Rever- 
ence, and being made the messenger of so many contamin- 
ated lies to my Lord the Bishop of Baltimore. 

I also feel sorry for breaking the laws of the Church by 
leaving you, my immediate pastor, to go to be married 
out of your parish. I do sincerely acknowledge the gra- 
titude I received from AJmighty God in opening my eyes 
and discovering the falsity of those infamous accusations 
alleged against your Eeverence. Tho' unworthy of the 
least favor from you, man, or from an injured God, I do 
solemnly declare in the presence of the congregation, future 
obedience and submission, with a determination of shunning 
all evil company, particularly those who have so basely, be- 
trayed me, which, if required I am willing to elucidate both 
their wicked proceedings and their names before the congre- 
gation. As to temporal punishment I will with cheerful- 
ness submit to your Reverence. I am willing to submit my 
bare back to flagellation publicly in the church by your 
trustees, for I consider no punishment too good to be inflicted 
on me the most unworthy of sinners. I ask no other favor 
of your Reverence but your prayers, and [of] the church, to 
obtain of Almighty God reconciliation and pardon &c. Any 


other circumstance which may be required which may have 
slipped my memory, I am willing to repair as far as God's 
grace and your Reverence may require. 

I am with sincere respect and great regard, 
Your Reverence's penitent and humble servant. 

.(Signed in full) E. V. J. 

N. B. With permission you may publish this. I am sorry 
it is out of my power to come to the church. I am called 
upon to go to Somerset; on my return. 1 will humbly submit 
-to the chastisements herein mentioned. 

But before the happy results to which Father Gallitzin 
looked forward so hopefully could be secured one effort more 
had to be made by his enemies to get him out of the way; the 
appeal to thebishop had so ignominiously failed that any satis- 
faction from the ecclesiastical law was put out of the question; 
when the last "delegates" or "committee" called upon Bishop 
Carroll, to state their grievances they found less courteous 
-reception than was formerly accorded to the humblest back- 
woodsman who entered that dignified but fatherly presence; 
the bishop listened to their stories in unbroken silence, and 
when the full amount of their venom had been poured out, 
and they paused for an answer, he turned to them, it is said, 
with the calm inquiry: " Is that all you have to say ?" They 
admitted it was, and then quietly rising he wished them 
good day, and looked after them as they awkwardly got out 
of the room, neither with anger nor contempt, but, if the 
truth must be told, with much the same absence of emotion 
with which one would look after some cowardly specimen 
-..of the canine species, who had ventured on forbidden ground. 

The civil law was no less hopeless for they were already 
under its ban, there was but one thing left and to that they 
now resorted; it was a kind of law, a sphere in- which they 
felt much more at home than in any other. 

Father Gallitzin's house was at some little distance from 
the village and from_ any other; the McGuire homestead and 
the few cabins surrounding it, the real McGuire settlement, 
was some two miles back of him, the village commenced 


much nearer on his right, on the left and in front were the 
woods, and a little clearing, so that his house and the church 
really stood isolated, out of the reach of assistance. A party, 
therefore, thought well to call upon him in his lonely resi- 
dence, and demand accession to all their wishes, with no 
idea of limiting themselves to mere words if he refused; after 
opposing them, defying them, scorning to enter into any 
thought of compromise with them, until he was perfectly 
exhausted, he succeeded in reaching the church, to die at 
the altar should they dare to attack him in the house of God. 
Vain precaution I they were too desperate to be deterred hy 
any- unseen arm, and no one knows wljat the end would have 
heen bifid not a solitary passer by, named John Weakland, 
been attracted by the tumult and looked around to see what 
it meant. " Now John was known far and wide as the tall- 
est and stoutest man ; within* a hundred miles," says Rev. 
Mr.- Lemcke*. "It was related of him that once for some 
hours he had maintained battle in the woods with a furious 
bear, his only weapon a branch hastily torn from the nearest 
tree; at another time he had captured a wolf, bound him 
and carried him home alive to amuse his children. At 
the same time he was known to be a man of few words, 
of a mild, peaceable nature who would not hurt a fly, as the 
saying is. He had great reverence for Father Gallitzin 
whom he had accompanied from Maryland to the mountains ; 
and when he saw what was going on concluded to make an 
exception to his general rule, which was to mind his own 
business, and looked about for a branch or something of the 
sort; this time his eye lighted on the rail of a fence which 
looked practicable, with which he at once advanced upon 
the mob, who started back in terror expecting him to lay 
about with it among, them, but before dqjng so John made 
them a speech, a much longer one than was customary with 
him, to this effect: 'I have fought with bears and wolves, it 
is true, but so far, thanks be to God, I have never done 
harm to man. Just now it might be otherwise. Go along 

: . ... ' . - 

* Page 229. . ' 


home then, and keep yourselves quiet, for, after this who- 
. ever shall make a disturbance or misbehave in the House of 
God, or lay his hand upon the Lord's anointed may look out', 
and here he raised his club, 'for as sure as I am a living 
man I will break his head, for him.' " 

This being an argument quite within the range of their 
intelligence settled the matter; the timid good who had 
looked on so long in consternation praying for better times, 
now that they had found some one to -fall back upon in 
case of need, rallied boldly to the pastor's side, seeking 
by renewed -zeal in all that he asked of them to advance the 
cause of religion an^d virtue, and thus obtain pardon of God 
*for their long inaction, while pouring balm into the sore 
heart of the priest, whose greatest happiness they knew lay 
in their fervor and piety. .John Weakland's stout arm was 
never needed again, he walked away calm and contented, 
living for nearly half a century longer, a patriarch beloved 
by an immense posterity, leaving a name to be ever remem- 
bered with honor and affection. 

But when all was over, the brave man who had struggled 
for so many years with foes whose contact was so loath- 
some, broke down Completely; the long strained nerves, the 
constant combat with trials so mean, so > petty, so vile that 
even to remember them, though crushed and conquered, 
was disgusting and distressing to the last degree, prostrated 
him entirely. There w,as no glory in such a victory, and the 
overpowering mortification, the countless stings. of a.battle 
infinitely more trying than to face racks, and torture in a 
grand and heroic manner, must have caused him more mis- 
ery in the recollection even than in the excitement of con- 
test. '' 

As soon as he was able, he wrote to his only friend, the 


Loretto, Sept. 1807. 
My jJord, 
With a feeble and trembling hand and a sorrowful, heart, 


full of the deepest and blackest melancholy, I take up the 
pen to give myself the comfort and consolation of addressing 
.a few lines to your Lordship. I am* hardly recovered from 
a severe spell of sickness which attacked me at Greens- 
burg, and which has left me so weak that I can scarcely 
crawl about, and have not been, able to begin as yet to 
say Mass again. Eev. Mr. Heilbron will be here to-morrow 
and stay with me a few weeks until I gain strength sufficient 
to discharge my duty. Permit me, dear Sir, to implore your 
patience and to beg of your Lordship to administer all 
ihe comfort and consolation your charity shall suggest to 
my poor broken and sorely afflicted heart. My constitution 
being weak, and my heart so susceptible of deep impres- 
sions from disappointments, losses, etc., I have been won- 
derfully low this great while and begin seriously to appre^ 
hend that my days will not be very long. I can better feel 
ihan describe the gloomy and melancholy state of my mind 
especially since the death of my mother, the remembrance of 
former times, her tender affection to me, her last dying ex- 
pressions concerning me, my own solitary situation in the 
wilds of Alleghany, my suffering and persecutions here, all 
seem to conspire to pverwhelm me with sorrow and melan- 
choly. my dear Lord! for God's sake send me a com- 
panion, a priest to help and assist me^ for my heart is ready 
to break; If you have one that does not even know one 
word of English, only for my comfort and consolation a 
good , virtuous clergyman, a friend to help me to bear the 

Your Lordship has heard . how much I have had to suffer 
from a restless set of unprincipled ruffians. Only one favor 
I beg of 'you which will give your Lordship very little 
trouble, and will I believe set everything to rights again. 
You know that I have sued the ringleaders of the conspiracy 
against me. God knows my intention was not to hurt them, 
no, I wish to return good for evil. No, my intention was 
only to frighten them, to compel them to do justice to my 
character, and to retract those abominable charges of which 
they know in their conscience I am entirely clear. 

_ .252 

.They have already began to enter into negotiations witb 
me, some have even already acknowledged their lies against 
me, and even in contradiction to their former lies given me 
a very good character. However, their 'acknowledgments 
and reparations were too private to be of any service to 
my character, Mr. J .-was the only one 'that had courage 
-enough to make a public reparation -before the whole 
congregation. It is my opinion that in the present state of 
things those unhappy people being -already a good deal 
frightened and humbled, their spite greatly abated, only 
wavering as yet between pride and fear, that a few words 
from your Lordship would turn the scales to the right side, 
and cause them to make an humble submission and save= 
them a great deal of trouble and loss. With submission,, 
therefore, to your superior prudence and knowledge, I'tMnk 
that if your Lordship would (after some little observations 
on the heinousness of the sin of slander and calumny espe- 
cially against a clergyman) require of them to give me in 
writing by way of reparation ; and retraction that testimony 
to my character which you think and which they know my 
conduct entitles me to, I think they would submit to it. If 
they do so, and pay the trifling cost of the suits, I am wil- 
ling to forgive them, and give them no further trouble, for in 
my present weak situation, I wish seriously to prepare for a- 

better life, and to live in peace 

I beg for a few words of a speedy answer to be 

sent (via Greensburg) to the postoffice at Beula, near Loret- 
io, Cambria County, 

And remain with great respect, 
My Lord, 

Your mosthble obdt Servt 

Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin. 

But the slander which, like a rank and poisonous weed 
shoots up in a night, dies as suddenly. The consolation he 
pleaded for so touchingly came to him from a higher source; 
Tvith the cool bracing autumn weather, he recovered health 
-and spirits, and the serenity of his Boul:came back to .him as. 

253 . 

. * 

clear and fleckless as the lovely skies that smiled upon his 
mountain home; all that had been said against him ap- 
peared . to be forgotten, and never again, in dark hours 
.or bright, did the faintest breath of calumny arise to stain 
his shining name; the foul miasma which had so long hung 
over him vanished all at once like the morning mists before 
the sun, and left the air pure and sweet. 

It is with unspeakable relief that this darkest chapter in 
his life is closed. ,For though the contumely and bitter per- 
secution which tracked his footsteps for so many years, noted 
all his* incomings and outgoings, caught every word that fell 
from his lips, keeping him day and night under the most in- 
tolerable surveillance, that of ravenous, wolfish hatred, only . 
served, by lifting the veil of his manly reserve and pious hu- 
mility, forcing his character into the full light of day^ to 
prove him, in radiant scorn of every slander, modest, gen- 
erous, good and great in every word and thought, astonish- 
ing even those who had most believed in him; though no 
virtue is secure until it is tried, no sanctity acceptable until 
it has been defamed, gladly would we have spared ourselves 
suffering the shame and pain which can never reach him 

Gladly, too, for the sake of those who kindled the fire in 
which his virtue was to be tested, would it have been passed 
by, were it possible to bury with them the evil men do. It 
is terrible to think that though one's sins are as scarlet and 
can be made as white as snow, the consequences of them 
may be stalking the earth, spreading new seeds of misery 
and wickedness, living and working for ruin long after the 
sinner having repented in sackcloth and ashes is at rest; the 
memory of their wrong must remain long after they are for- 

For those who at the time knew not what they did, and af- 
terwards learning sincerely repented, it is the last reparation 
they can make that through them he is shown more strong 
and fair; the last tribute their children can give them 
patiently for their sakes and in further expiation, to bear 
the pain the recollection must ever cause; for those who 


never repented, if there were such, let them stand as a warn- 
ing that "the evil men do lives after them," that God is no 
less just than merciful, that not only must men themselves 
suffer for their sins, but their names shall be in reproach 
long after their bodies are dust, and that an evil work 
deliberately pursued in the fancied security of solitude or 
obscurity, against the unknown and defenceless, shall be 
made known in the light, reprobated with horror, again to be 
blazoned before all the world at the day of final reckoning. 
And now should any say of Father Gallitzin and his true 
friends that he was beloved, respected, honored to the ut- 
most, revered in life and held sacred in death because of his 
name, his wealth, any accidents of his birth or secluded life, 
it will be seen pleased God that he should prove him- 
self, naided by any of these things, and fight his battle 
single handed and alone. It was no playful warfare nor 
doubtful victory; so thoroughly did he vindicate himself that 
afterwards it seemed impossible for him to be misunderstood, 
even under the most trying circumstances ; the most cordial 
sympathy was established between him and his people, he 
needed no longer to be on guard with any one, whatever he 
said or did being taken as meant, in honest, truthful spirit, 
and when, years afterwards, a stranger coming among his 
parishioners seeing them acting as one man according to his 
least word, ventured the astonished remark that no other 
priest in the United States would dare assert a tithe of his 
authority, he owed it to the very influence he affected to de- 
spise, that he escaped safe and unharmed from the indignant 
flock, every one of whom had become a John Weakland in 
defence of their pastor. 



Settlement of the Russian law suit, Computation of the estates. His 
sister's regard and solicitude. Building in Loretto. Effect of Gal- 
litzin's persecutions upon the Profestants of the neighborhood. His 
severe rule of life. Appointment of new bishops. 

For sometime previous to his mother's death Gallitzin had 
failed to receive the usual remittances from Europe; this, as 
he learned afterwards, on account of the great expenses of 
the Russian law suit, which very much embarrassed her 
own resources, no income being received by her from the 
contested property. However, as she knew the money was 
only detained, not lost, she encouraged him in patience, and 
wished him to rest secure that such delays would not often 
recur. Shortly after her death he received a small sum, 
with promises . of more right- away, but in the autumn of 
that year the frightful disasters to Prussia in consequence of 
the war with Prance, disarranged everything, depressed 
business and property, so that Princess Mimi found it unsafe 
to remain in her mother's house at Muenster; sea travelling 
had become more dangerous then ever on account of French 
interference so that letters arrived but seldom, and after long 
and perilous passage, oftener did not come at all. The af- 
fairs of the original church property in Loretto, that donated 
by Captain McGuire/ were of course kept separate from his 
own, under the care of the trustees of the church, but it, like 
the farms he held for the same purpose, was only kept up at 
great expense to him, and at best could do -no more than 
offer ground for future buildings. As he had in the begin- 


ning contracted in his own name for great quantities of land 
for the use of the church, and as homes for the congrega- 
iions, which returned him nothing, these delays kept him in 
& state of ever increasing anxiety and most painful suspense, 
-and the efforts he found himself continually obliged to make 
"to keep his embarrassments under control, finally filled him 
with real alarm, rendered the more vexatious, by renewed 
-assurances of speedy relief from home, which, for the reasons 
.given, were seldom fulfilled, and when they were the money 
.almost always lost on the way. He neglected no means in 
!his power to increase the independence of His American pos- 
sessions, but he was obliged to lose a great deal of the prp- 
perty he held, give up many of his most cherished plans for 
lack of means at the proper moment, and often compelled to 
entreat the forbearance of those with whom he had made the 
contracts, and others to whom he was otherwise in debt, for 
knowing the great wealth of his family and not knowing the 
depression caused by war all over Europe, he could not be- 
lieve that remittances, hardly missed at home, could long be 
withheld ; coming they would abundantly cover all that he 
owed, and leave a handsome amount for future operations; 
it was his great comfort in these trying days to plan agree- 
able surprises for those who had assisted him in times of 

"I am happy to see, that your Lordship,'' he wrote Bishop 
Carroll, April 13, 1806, "is not forgetful of my perilous 
situation in money matters. I have a great deal of money 
coming to me yet, but no prospect of getting any soon 
enough to prevent great losses. 

"Mr. Diggs who owes me about seven hundred (but is 
not able to make that money just now, as it is all. standing 
out) promised me to write to your Lordship, in order to en- 
courage you in assisting me, by showing that your Lord- 
. ship is perfectly safe in doing so. 

"I beg of your Lordship for. God's sake, .and for the sake, 
of my dear congregation, to help me immediately.' 7 ... . , 

Again in Sept. 180T: "There is another favor I must, beg 
of your Lordship which if granted would relieve my mind 

. 251 

greatly. I have formerly informed you of the state of my 
debts, and applied for the loan of money. Thank God my 
debts are greatly reduced, there is only one that makes me 
uneasy, though but a trifling one of about four hundred 
dollars, due in Philadelphia mostly to Lorent & Lang who 
were so kind as to advance the same to me, expecting to be 
reimbursed by Mr. Caspar Vogt of Hamburg, who. had re- 
ceived the amount from my mother, and had committed the 
payment of said money to F. L. Steinbach of New York; how- 
ever, Steinbach refusing to pay me, Lerent & Lang very 
kindly offered to advance me the money, and -took my draft 
upon Caspar Vogt for it; Caspar Vogt protested the bill as 
having already discharged the payment to F. L. Steinbach, 
in consequence of which I must lose that money with cost 
and interest. This is the second disappointment of the kind . 
I have met since I came to this country. Lorent & Lang 
have threatened to sue me immediately if I do not refund the 
money.. ' Where to get it I do not know unless your Lord- 
ship could borrow the same for me for about six months, 
when it shall be punctually returned with interest. . . . My 
sister laments very much that the present situation of affairs, 
the French army cutting off all communication between Ger- 
many and Eussia, puts it out of her power for the present 
(her letter is dated April 10.) to get any relief or to send me 
any. I beg your Lordship would pray for the happy recov- 
ery of my estate; you know it is not intended for my aggran- 
dizement, but for the good of your diocese." 

Sometimes by parting with a portion of his land, some- 
times by the patience of his creditors, Father Gallitzin gen- 
erally succeeded in meeting these immediate and pressing 
demands,, but their constant recurrence preceeded by such 
torturing anxiety, and followed by such exhaustion, coming, 
too, at the very time of his persecutions, threatening his own 
present, and the dearer future of his beloved congregations, 
for they depended upon him, and in many cases if lie had 
fallen would have lost all they held as their own from him, and 
endangering the loss of all that he had accomplished for the 

church, were almost more than he could bear, and his bravery 
18- . 


in standing against them is the more wonderful, because at 
any moment he had chosen to do so, he could have abandon- 
ed his whole undertaking without loss of personal credit, 
collected the money owing him, sold off land enough to pay 
all his debts, retaining sufficient to yield him a comfortable 
support, and either in some of the larger cities of the United 
States, where his talents would have made him famous, or 
by returning to Europe, fulfill his priestly duties -in a more 
cultivated sphere, with honor and regard. "So far from being 
censured for abandoning an apparently impracticable scheme, 
he would have been universally commended for the clearest 
exhibition of sound common sense he had yet made to the 
world. . 

But he never had the least idea of giving up, and it was, 
therefore, with imbounded gratitude that in the midst of his 
troubles, he received word that the Russian law suit was 
settled, and in his favor, or what was the same thing, his 
sister's; for as the princess, his mother, had often said in 
corroboration of his father's remark to the same effect, it 
made no difference which of her children, if only one, re- 
ceived the property, for both were loyal, and either would 
faithfully share with the other, as Mimi herself declared: "I 
need not repeat to' you," she wrote him in April 180*1*, "that 
you may be perfectly easy. If we only receive the property 
whether under your name or mine makes no odds amongst 
[between] us. I shall divide faithfully with you, dear 
brother, as I am certain you would with me, if all fell into 
your hands. Such was the wish and the will of our dear 
father, of our dearest mother, and such will always be the 
desire of my affectionate love and.devotedness towards you, 
my dearest brother." . 

The news of this settlement was sent him by his agents 
iii a report signed by them all: 


Dear Prince, 
The question concerning your and the princess, your 

* Gallitzin's own translation. 


sister's claims to your father's property in Russia, is so de- 
termined by the Seriate of Petersburg, that you, dearest 
prince, in consequence of your having embraced the Cath- 
olic faith, and the clerical profession, etc., cannot be ad- 
mitted to the possession of your deceased father's property, 
and that, therefore, the princess, your sister, is to be con- 
sidered as sole heiress to the said estate, and is to be put in 
possession of the same. The Council of State has given the 
same decision, and the Emperor has by his sanction given 
the sentence the force of law. 

The princess, your sister, has now by the laws of Russia, 
perfect control over the income, but cannot give the property 
away, or dispose of it by will; however, she is at liberty to 
sell it, and to dispose of the moneys arising from the sale. 

You see, then, dearest prince, that you are only nominally 
excluded. Your dear and respectable [respected] mother 
often thought it possible and even probable, that the decision 
would fall out the way it did, and was wont to say: "It is 
immaterial whether the sentence in Russia be pronounced in 
favor of both my children, or only of my daughter, my son can 
lose nothing by it." 

Even in Russia the business is considered in the same 
light. We can, therefore, ' congratulate you on the happy 
issue of that business, without minding the killing letter of 
the law, whereas in this case the spirit of justice .and cha- 
rity makes up the loss to you. 

With sincere respect arid friendship we remain, dearest 

Your devoted friends and servants 

FRANCIS, Baron de Fuerstenberg, 
PR. L., Count de Stolberg, 
C. AUG., Count de Merveldt*, 

Muenster, 1st of Febr. 1808. 

* This report is in Gallitzins own translation, certified as correct by 
Baron Francis de Mallitz, Charge d'affaires of the Emperor of all the 



The Princess Miini also wrote, though somewhat later, Aug. 
Cth and 18th 1808, and again on Sept. 12th and 24th of the 
.same year, in the most affectionate manner. After speaking 
of the decision of the court she says: "This sentence, which 
I know is perfectly in accordance with your feelings, and I 
can say also with your interest, leaves some 'uneasiness on 
my mind, for fear that I should be called out of this world 
"before I can have sold the property and thus saved it for 
you, as the law does not give me the liberty, either to give 
the property away, or to dispose of it by will. ... The wish, 
then, to take the necessary measures to secure you in all 
contingencies, and the repeated- assurances that thie could 
not be done without my personal appearance here [in St. 
Petersburg] prevailed with me to undertake this long jour- 
ney of six hundred leagues (eighteen hundred miles) not- 
-vvithstanding the weakness of my health. ... I repeat it, you 
may be quite easy. You are too good a brother to doubt of 
jny good will, and of the sincerity of my affection for you, 
and I am sure, were the case reversed, that you would do all 
in your power for me. But, perhaps, you may doubt and 
with good reason, of my capacity in transacting business 
matters; here, also, you may be perfectly easy as I do not 
take a step without the advice of some eminent characters, 
who are well acquainted with this country, its laws and 
customs, etc., so that I can flatter myself more and more 
with the hope that I shall die easy and contented, when 
reflecting that God has spared my days, in order to save for 
you a property which you certainly intend to spend for his 
glory, and which you wish to have only for this purpose." 

This property was computed by the distinguished gentle- 
men who acted as his agents to consist: 

1st. Of seventy thousand roubles (about twenty three 
thousand dollars) in money. 

2nd. Of real property: of the village of Lankolf in the 
Government of Waladmir, and the villages of Fabanzin and 
Nikulskin in the Government of Kostrom, with all the lands, 
mills and other property thereto belonging, with one thous. 
.and two hundred and sixty male subjects (serfs). 


. He was therefore the assured owner of immense wealth, 
of large and productive estates, and, dividing the ready 
money with his sister, something over twelve thousand dol- 
lars was awaiting an opportunity to reach him; was very 
likely already on its way to him, while he was happy in the 
assurance that large sums from the income of the property 
would follow regularly, until it should be sold, and the cap- 
ital placed in his hands. Those who had trusted him, were 
called upon to share his good fortune, to hear the glad tid- 
ings which secured, them the full payment of all he owed 
them, paltry sums indeed they appeared by the side of his 
colossal wealth. Still he was prudent and cautious aboiit 
building, not wishing to draw upon his property in advance 
.of its actual possession, and only went on with such work 
as he felt to be extremely necessary. 

In 1806 he found the grist mill which he 'had built in the 
beginning was re'ally an expense, it costing more to feed the 
horses than it. was worth, and replaced it by one worked by 
water, built at the foot of the eminence upon which the 
church stands, and put up in such fine style that it was the 
admiration of the surrounding country, "the pride' of the 
county". Indeed everything done at his order had to be of 
the best materials and of the most thorough workmanship, 
for which he was always charged at least twice as much as 
any other would have been. 

This famous mill, long in ruins and for years the object of 
sad and curious reflections to many who have come from 
afar to visit the scene of his labors, has now fallen, and 
hardly a stone is left upon a stone, bxit the spot on which it 
stood in its triumphant youth, will long be . pointed out as 
the beginning of the group of landmarks, ending with his 
monument, which sanctify the entrance to Loretto, witness- 
ing to his boundless charity, his indomitable courage, and 
splendid perseverance. 

Two years later (1808-) after receiving the news con- 
cerning the Russian property, the log church in which he 
had said the famous Midnight Mass, was doubled in size and 
renewed in strength, of course entirely a't his own expense, 


with many a pleasant meeting under his enlivening influence 
of the men and boys of the congregation, who were its build- 
ers. When the addition was completed, and the church 
reopened, the whole appeared so large that the wise men 
shook their heads, as wise men will, and groaned in spirit 
at the folly of it, for they knew very well it could never 
be comfortably filled, and if it should be, how would it 
be possible for any speaker ever to make his voice reach 
from the altar to the vestibule ? The latter fear, however, 
was dissipated upon the first intonations of the Asperges, 
or if any doubts lingered, as soon as Father Gallitzin com- 
menced his sermons, for when his voice was , raised it ap- 
peared as if the surrounding mountains might well have 
heard. Yet it was not so much that his voice was so 
powerful, as that it was clear, rather high, and exceedingly ' 
distinct, perfectly under his own command; in conversa- 
tion it was low and gentle, capable of every imaginable 

The wise men were also mistaken otherwise; people kept 
coming and coming to the mountains, up from -Virginia and 
Maryland, across from Southern and Eastern Pennsylvania, 
rejoicing at the prospect of procuring a comfortable home 
with small means, and of security in spiritual matters, for it 
was well known that Father Gallitzin was not a mere so- 
journer in the wilderness, but one who meant to stay as long 
as he lived with a congregation whom he dearly loved, and 
in an incredibly short time there was hardly room in the spa- 
cious edifice, at it was considered, for the late comers into 
their father's house, the many converts whom he received 
into the. Church. .--.- 

One-good and direct effect of the persecutions so violently 
assailing the pastor of Loretto was the. attention thus drawn 
to his character and conduct. Men who regarded whatever 
belonged to his belief and profession as something entirely 
put of the sphere of their thoughts or interests, hearing the 
whole neighborhood ringing with the' account of his alleged 
misdeeds, and obliged to listen to hot arguments about him, 
became curious in spite of themselves, wished to know more, 


and to a mind of any candor it soon appeared that he was, 
to say the least, a man of unsual force or there would not be 
all this tumult about him, a man who evidently had got some 
fixed idea in his 'head and knew very well what he was 
about. From further knowledge of his life and character 
they could hardly avoid speculating on his singular views, 
wondering what there could be of harmony between such a 
man and such a religion; some went farther, and as all the 
Church asks is to be investigated, they found to their amaze- 
ment that the man and the religion were one, that the 
mainspring of his acts was love of the faith he professed, 
the one true faith, complete in all its, parts, consistent, per- 
petual, thorough, containing all that the mind, the heart, the 
soul of man can desire. Unhappily to know is not always 
to do, and many stopped there, not dariag- to look, to think, 
to advance one step beyond, persisting in being blind, deaf 
dumb, motionless before the radiant truth, but some seeing 
believed and gladly enrolled themselves under the banner of 
the Cross. 

These troubles forced Gallitzin himself into a wider ac- 
quaintance with the lawyers, the magistrates, and the lead- 
ing men, most of whom were Protestants, of the western 
counties; many of these had never met a Catholic priest in 
conversation before, and with the readiness,, even eagerness 
of the American people to make religion the* subject of dis- 
cussion, his peculiar views, as they were considered, were 
almost* invariably brought up for elucidation; the great 
dignity of his bearing, the rare charms of his conversation, 
his delicate Burner, which made hours in his company pass 
away as one, gave grace to his clear, concise explanations; 
the terse logic of his arguments was not only unanswerable, 
for that counts for little, after all, but opened new trains of 
thought, lighted up dark chambers of the brain, and made 
the listener feel not that his retreat was cut off, but that 
there was a royal road opening before him which .rendered 
it unnecessary to retrace his steps through the dark defile, 
or wander longer by the obscure and tortuous path of doubt 
and uncertainty. 

264 - 

When the good Bishop Flaget was being received as a 
saint throughout France, and some one ventured to ask him 
if the honors lavished upon him did not make him fear for his 
humility, he replied that with great trials" God gives pro- 
portionate graces, and, speaking of what he might be called 
upon to endure, he added : " It would be the greatest happi- 
ness for me imprisoned; I may be deceived, but it 
seems to me I should glory in it. That which I fear, is an 
attack upon my character; for instance, were my reputation 
blackened by an atrocious calumny, I should be sorely tried."* 
That trial had come to Father Gallitzin, and the very sensi- 
tiveness with which he repelled the petty gossip, the atrocious 
calumny, which others might have treated with cool indiffer- 
ence or silent contempt, drew admiration and interest from, 
the more refined and manly spectators, however little versed 
in the science of the saints. It was instinctively felt that the 
man whose cheeks glowed, whose hear.t was pierced, spirits 
depressed and health destroyed by the imputation of wrongs 
which, judged by the world's standard, were hardly wrongs 
at all, must have within himself a moral code of his own of 
the most elevated and the most rigid character, for the resent- 
ment, the anguish so evidently endured were as different as 
possible from the ebullitions of wounded pride, or of artificial, 
conventional ideas of honor. Much as his stately appear- 
ance, his attractive manners had previously impressed the 
Protestants with whom he came in contact, the inner 
qualities thus brought to light surpassed all, and * gave 
authority to his words, a new inducement to learn more of 
the religion which shone through all his words and deeds, 
smiled from his eyes and rested ever on his lips. 

His converts were thorough ones who came to the Church 
fully understanding what they were about, knowing their 
only hope was -in her, their only heaven through her, and 
often shamed the older Catholics by their fresh vigorous 
faith, the courage with which they avowed their belief in all 

* Life of the Right Rev. B. J. Flagel, by M. J. Spalding, D. D. p ; 383. 


the doctrines of the Church, as well as by their pious and 
exemplary lives. 

But for every sign of prejudices giving way, of "grace not 
rejected, there came to him the longing for help which was 
the hourly cry of others far less isolated than himself. No 
longer for his own peace and comfort, but for the harvest so 
abundant and none to gather it in, he begged and prayed for 
one to labor with him. Well, too well, did Bishop Carroll 
know the burning desire underlying the apparent calmness of 
his request; it came to him from all quarters of the vineyard 
he held as his stewardship ; but he was no better able to res- 
pond to it now than he had been in the beginning; the good 
priests were bound to their own congregations; new priests 
were not yet to be had, and a hundred places were ready for 
every one that should come ; the only ones at liberty were 
the two or three or 'more who will be found to the end of 
time, weak, unprofitable servants. One of these, desirous of 
leading a better life, the bishop, after reading the pathetic 
letter of Sept. 1807, offered to send to Loretto, hoping that 
there he might be able with the assistance of its pastor's in- 
fluence, to overcome his temptations; an offer Father Gallitzin 
accepted not without misgivings, for though there would be 
many exterior aids to a sober life, there were, he knew, the 
trials of loneliness, of great physical exertions and conse- 
quent exhaustion incident to a missionary's life, to be met 
and conquered. 


Loretto Dec. 3. 1807. 
My Lord, 

Your favor of Nov. 20 was handed to me by Mr. Gills last 
Sunday after Mass, and gave me a great deal of comfort. I 
am so exceedingly fatigued after walking since last Monday 
about fifty miles through rocks and mire after sick people 
(having lost my riding horse,) that I am obliged to confine 
myself to a very few words. I am (thanks be to God) a 
good deal better in health than when I wrote last. In answer 
to your Lordship's proposal of sending a certain . . . priest to 


live with me, I shall only observe that I think myself in duty 
bound (and that for several reasons) to accept your proposal, 
provided your Lordship thinks it probable that the said 
clergyman is not likely to give any more scandal in the way 
you mention. From what little experience I have it appears 
to me that total abstinence from spirituous liquors is the 
only sure way of breaking a habit of that kind, and as I 
never keep any kind of liquor, nor drink anything but water 
or milk, I think if he seriously means to leave off the practice 
of drinking, he will have a fine chance of curing himself 
effectually by living with me. It is too late to expect that 
he could be here in time to afford me any assistance during 
the Christmas holidays. If he could be here, therefore, some- 
time before the beginning of Lent this is all I could expect, 
as it appears from your Lordship's letter that he lives in 
some distant country place. 

* * * 

I beg your Lordship to excuse my scrawl owing to exces- 
sive fatigue, 

And believe me most respectfully, 
My Lord, . 

Yr most hble & obdt servt, 

Demetrius Aug. Gallitzin. 

But the experiment like others of the same kind already 
attempted, appears to have been successful only for a short 
time, for the same entreaty is found in subsequent letters. 

Although no calm and experienced judgment will deny 
that Grailitzin's abstemious life was the best of all models for 
those with stronger inclination for the material good things 
pf this world than he ever knew, or that one overpowered 
by temptation could not feel secure Under any less austere 
regimen, for it is' the restive horse that needs the curb, it 
may be admitted that the manner of living which his noble 
nature, strong will, and religious culture made comparatively 
easy to him, would naturally appear rigid beyond endurance- 
to another whose evil inclinations scorned bit or bridle. 
Austere and overexacting in comparison with many others 


Father Gallitzin certainly was, his rules of life for himself 
and all under his guidance were taken, not from custom or 
the average conduct of other people, but from the lives of 
the saints and the teachings of the Church; if he knew they 
were thought severe he knew also, no man better, that it is 
an evil day for the cause of religion when the rein is loosen- 
ed and the law stretched to its utmost "liberality". No man 
can serve two masters; the master he. had come out into the 
desert to serve was not the delight of mere material exis- 
tence ; he never abated his austerity -nor relaxed the sev- 
erity of his discipline either for himself or others, but he 
made due allowance for the weakness of human nature, and 
with all the flowers and gems, the music and poetry, the wit 
and grace of spiritual things he strove to make beautiful the 
galling chain of restraint, knowing well that patiently borne . 
the iron . links become as silken cords. Few who came to 
him in their hour of trial long resisted the tenderness with 
which he received them, the courage with which he cauteriz- 
ed their wounds, the spirit, the real lively enjoyment with 
which he lightened the heavy days of depression and re- 
morse, which followed the breaking of old habits, and the 
weary bending to the new. ' But there were some whom he 
could, never reach, who never regarded his rigor as well 
timed or necessary, but of these none have, as yet, been pro- 
t posed for canonization. 


Loretto, Sept. 23, 1808. 
My Lord, 

Your last favor of Aug. llth I received at Greensburg 
two days after it had .been delivered by Major Noble of 
Brownsville*. The news contained in my sister's letter and 

* The name here mentioned will recall one of the most remarkable of 
the early Pennsylvania conversions. Major Noble \vas a Protestant of 
means, position, and unusual thought and culture, "who had long been 
unsettled, -in regard to religion, and had arrived so far as to be .con- 
vinced that of so many conflicting doctrines only one could be true, 
"when Eev. Stephen Badin, in 1807, stopped at the little village of 
Bro'wnsville, en route from Kentucky to Baltimore, and preached in the 


in that of my attorneys Baron de Fuerstenberg and Counts of 
Stolberg and of Merveldt, are of the most pleasing nature. 
Our whole property is recovered by a judgment of the Senate 
of St. Petersburg, confirmed by the Council of State, and' 
sanctioned by the Emperor, and although according to the 
said judgment I am declared (on account of my religion and* 
clerical profession) Unable to inherit, yet according to the 
declarations of my attorneys in Germany and of Baron de? 
Rosenkamp our common attorney in Petersburg, I am only 
nominally excluded, as according to the marriage contract 
of our dear parents of blessed memory, and according to 
their will, in every case the whole, property was to be- 
equally divided between my sister and me. These are the- 
words of my attorneys*. 

* * * 

I have great reason then to thank Almighty God for pro- 
tecting us so visibly, and granting us so complete a success, 
in an affair in which, according to human probability, a far 
different issue was to be expected. 

My sister, whose letter is dated February last, promises- 
me speedy assistance after leaving me two years without a- 
cent, . which after contracting to a very great amount for 
land, has left me in a very critical situation. I cannot, too 
much acknowledge my gratitude to Almighty God, for pro- 
tecting my little property here during this time of general 
distress, and not permitting any of my creditors to enter 
suit against me. 

I am now in daily expectation of a considerable sum of 
money which will probably come to your hands .... 

I find myself obliged to importune your Lordship again 
for the assistance of another clergyman. The enclosed from 

Methodist chapel there, after -which Major Noble, who had been much 
impressed by the sermon invited him to his house, which visit resulted 
in -the baptism and reception into the Church of the entire family. 
Other circumstances of a supernatural character combined to this end- 
See Sketches in Kentucky, p. 180. 
* As on page 258.' 


our trustees will be probably sufficient to prove the neces- 
sity of another one here. I should be very glad if your 
Lordship could send one about Christmas if no sooner con- 
venient. I am informed that Kev. Mr. Shaeffer is ordained; 
.although. I am very far from wishing to choose, yet from the 
.acquaintance I have with said Rev. gentleman I cannot 
refrain from testifying my opinion that we would very well 
agree together. I should be very happy to have him with 
jne, if he is not already disposed of. 

It is my wish to confine myself within the limits of Cam- 
bria County, which alone would be more than sufficient to 
occupy two clergymen. My best time is past, I am upon 
the brink of thirty nine: and besides its being contrary to 
the weakness of my constitution .... to ride about much, and 
live upon every kind of diet, I find I could render more es- 
sential services to the mission by being more at home, and 
carrying on a more regular correspondence with some able 
friends in Europe, of which I have received several very 
broad- hints. 

I beg of your Lordship to tell the clergyman whom you 
.shall pitch upon, that he may depend upon a handsome 
maintenance without being beholden to the congregation 
for one cent. I wish him to be convinced of the necessity of 
harmonizing with me in all matters: two clergymen well 
united, perfectly disinterested, and guided by the sole mo- 
tive of promoting the glory of God and salvation of souls, 
may do a great deal, in this part of the country. I have now 
on hand several Protestants and Presbyterians, who show a 
.great desire to embrace the Catholic faith. 

Besides the above reasons for staying at home I could 
mention another very material one, viz: that the manag- 
ement of my property here (which is, in fact, the property 
of the church), requires my constant attention and presence; 
an experience of several years teaches me that faithful do- 
mestics are very seldom to be found; after changing several 
"times, I got one whom (on account of her skill, age, and ex- 
perience, and especially her assiduity in frequenting the 
sacraments of the Church), I thought I might safely depend 


upon. After keeping her almost five years I had. to turn her 
off, finding her guilty of dissipating my substance to the 

benefit of her friends and relations Overpowered by the 

strongest evidences, with whom I confronted her, I was com- 
pelled to believe, ' and turned her away. I have enlarged the 
church property so considerably that with care anil prudent 
management it will be sufficient to maintain four clergymen, 
but I should be very sorry to depend again upon strangers, 
who through carelessness or knavery might during a few 
days' absence defeat" the fruits of a whole year's industry. 

, Your Lordship's circular* I read in the church on a Sunday 
and made it the theme of tha,t Sunday's sermon. God knows 
"whether it will be attended to, to answer your expectations. 
As soon as I am in possession of my property I shall not 
forget what I owe to your Lordship, and to the Church which 
has opened to me her sanctuary, although very unworthy 
of it, 

I am very much afraid of the issue of next electionf. Our 
Irishmen are ready to go mad for Snyder, and Charles Ken- 
ny, Esq., of West Chester, by his artful and virulent publi- 
cations in the Aurora, and in Dickson's Lancaster paper, 
keeps them up in a state of enthusiasm for Snyder, and 
against sound, genuine principles. Under the signature of 
Tyrconnell, he made an .attack upon my political character 
and principles, in order to prevent his countrymen of Cam- 
bria and Huntington Counties from listening to me. I yester- 
day sent my reply to be published in Hamilton's Federal 
Gazette of Lancaster. 

Eecommending myself to your sacrifices and prayers, I re- 
main with great respect, 
My Lord, 

Yr very hble & obdt servt, 

Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin, 

Parish priest of Loretto. 

* Asking contributions towards the building of a cathedral in Bal- 
timore, it is believed. 

f Gallitzin, like Bishop Carroll, was a strong Federalist in his polit- 
ical views. 


At this time the diocese .of Baltimore comprising the whole 
United States, could boast of eighty churches and sixty eight 
priests,* and Bishop Carroll earnestly entreated the Holy 
Sea to divide it into several bishoprics. At this very time 
Kome was occupied* by French troops under General Miollis,. 
who were endeavoring by every aggravation, annoyance, 
and even open insult to force a pretext for accomplishing the 
ruin of the Holy Father, Pius VII, but although his officers 
were taken from him under one pretence or another, even 
the members of his cabinet and his secretaries long subjected 
to humiliating espionage, being arrested or removed as 
rapidly as possible, his Holiness was able to attend to the 
request of the American bishop and by a Brief of April 8. 
1808 constituted Baltimore an Archbishopric, with four suf- 
fragan bishoprics: New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and 
Bardstown, with Rev. Luke Concannen, of the order of St. 
Dominic, Rev. Micheal Egan, order of St. Francis, both 
natives of Ireland; Rev. John L. Cheverus, and Rev. Benedict 
Flaget, Society of St. Sulpice, both of France, for their bish- 
ops. Rev. Luke Coricanuen, being in Rome at the time, was 
appointed bearer of all the necessary papers and rich pres- 
ents for the new bishops, and was himself consecrated by 
Cardinal Antonelli, prefect of the propaganda, April 24. 1808, 
after which he started for the United States, but at Naples 
he was detained by the French as a British subject, where 
he died a prisoner, two years later. The news of the ap- 
pointment, therefore," reached America long before the arrival 
of the official documents, and after the Holy Father had been 
hurried out of Rome in the dead of night by General Raget's 
gend'armes, and like his predecessor, made Bonaparte's* 

The new Bishop of Philadelphia, Micheal Egan, had been 
for many years a hard working priest at Lancaster, and was 
known to be a man of great piety, .earnest and selfdenying, 
still, the ties between Father Gallitzin and the bishop who 
had received him as a youth, had been his fatherly friend 

* Shea's History, p. 89. 


through his student life, had ordained him, and been his only 
confident through years of bitter trials, could not be broken 
without a pang. 


Loretto, Nov. 22d 1808. 
My Lord, 

Whilst I thank Almighty God for your Lordship's promo- 
tion, which adds so much 'to the lustre and dignity of the 
American Church, I sincerely regret and lament my own fate 
in being no longer under the immediate jurisdiction of your 
Lordship, whose paternal affection, prudence, and authority 
liave BO often afforded me most powerful protection against 
the poisonous shafts of slander and persecution, surrounded 
as I am by a set of the most corrupted class of Irish, who are 
as void of religion as they are of honor, or any kind of feel- 
ing that distinguishes man from the brute creation, and 
know of no kind of happiness but that of intemperance. ... I 
have reason to fear that my constant endeavours in trying to 
reclaim those unhappy men, condemning their abominable 
pratices...will cause many of them to embrace the chance of 
a new bishop (especially knowing that he is their country- 
man), in order to renew their persecution. It is a very un- 
happy circumstance that the triumph of -democracy in this 
state has raised their impudence, their ambition beyond all 
bounds. Their intrigues have already put them in possession 
of the most important offices of the county, which adds a 
great deal to their influence, and, no doubt they will be more 
successful under the next governor. I do not know whether 
I ever mentioned to your Lordship the attempt made last 
winter by two of those unhappy men, assisting a Presbyter- 
ian from Mifflin County in taking forcible possesion of some 
of my land, whilst I was performing my official duty in some 

distant settlements I have still reason to thank God for 

the increase and propagation of religion in this part of the 
world, the greater part of my congregation, and even a 
good many of the Irish, frequent the sacraments, and are of 
edifying principles ' and 'conduct. Some Protestants open 


their eyes; last month I took a whole numerous family of 
them into the Church; and I dare venture to assert that num- 
bers would follow their example were it not for the bad -and 
scandalous example of our own members. 

The Confraternity of the Scapular has made very great 
progress here, and- contains already a good many more mem- 
bers than I am able to hear on days of indulgence. 

I hope your Lordship received my last letter by John Mo- 
Lain from Sinking* Valley, in which I Immbly begged for the 
assistance of another priest. I now renew my prayer, the 
granting of which is, under present circumstances, of the 
highest importance for the benefit of religion. Besides many 
reasons I mentioned in my last, I cannot help adding that my 
absence from here (although sometimes unavoidably neces- 
sary whilst I am alone), has proved highly detrimental to 
my temporal affairs, which, whilst entirely deprived of any 
help from Europe, require a great deal of care and attention- 
After spending enormous sums in converting a most fright- 
ful forest into a fine plantation, I have met with serious 
losses by being obliged to depend in my absence upon un- 
faithful domestics. Besides that, I find that the absence of 
the pastor, even for one Sunday, from the flock, gives a 
great chance to the wolf /to tear the sheep ; instances of the 
kind have been so frequent here that I never absent myself 
from here, without the greatest uneasiness and anxiety of 
mind; being almost certain to hear bad news on my return. 
Rev. Mr. Heilbron, having lost the greatest part of his 
burden by the appointment of Rev. Mr.. O'Brien, writes to me 
that he expects to be with me pretty often for the time to 
come, and that he probably will be with me soon, I expect 
after Christmas duties at Greensburg. Your Lordship need 
not be uneasy, therefore, if you cannot provide the desired 
assistance for Christmas next. ... 

I once more venture to represent to your Lordship my 
present embarrassments in consequence of being for better 
than two years deprived of any help whatsoever from Eu- 
rope .... I have the greatest reason to thank God that I 
have been spared, during that time, by my creditors, other- ' 


wise I should have been ruined. The case, however, is a 
little altered of late, some of my creditors begin to get out 
of patience, and insist upon my entering judgment; this I 
would do without hesitation were it not that it woiild open- 
ths secret of my circumstances to those very persons in 
office, of whom I made mention above, and put me in their 
power; my situation would soon be made public and all the 
rest of my creditors would fall upon me. From the present 
state of my affairs in Europe it is morally* certain that relief 
will be in my hands before the expiration of six months .... 
It would be a great relief to my mind to hear that my prayer 
will be- granted .... 

Receive the assurances of the most profound respect with 
which I remain, 
My Lord, 

Yr most hble obdt servt, 

Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin, 
Parish priest of Loretto. 



Poverty of the clmrch. Gallitzin's appeals fruitless. Continual dis- 
appointments and losses. Visits Philadelphia. Bitter trials. A 
last offering. "Entertaining angels imavrares." His buildings and 
farms. Views on temperance. An Act of the Pennsylvania Legis- 

As the speedy assistance so solemnly assured him by his 
sister, in her letter of Feb. 1808, did not arrive, Father Gal- 
litzin wrote her in the early autumn fully explaining his 
position. The mails were so insecure that it was customary 
to send three or four copies of a letter, each by a different 
vessel, in hopes that at least one would succeed in reaching 
its destination, still, as demands were pressing upon him, he 
did not venture to await their xmccrtam course, but once 
more presented his case to the bishop, hoping that, at the 
prelate's request, some 9f the wealthy Catholics of Baltimore 
would advance him, at good interest, a sum sufficient to 
meet such debts as must be paid before an answer could be 
expected from Europe. But no words can describe the 
poverty of the church at that time, the bishop himself was in 
debt for church expenses, the newly appointed bishops 
could scarcely raise money enough to enable them to reach 
their dioceses, property which would to-day be worth mil- 
lions had to be refused when offered in various places, as a 
gift to the church, for lack of means to keep it, and although 
Father Galltzin had, not only in Europe, but in this country, 
property which offered excellent security, his letter was not 

even answered. It is true the debts which tormented him 


"were church debts such as no\v-a-days belong to the con- 
gregation to pay, but which he assumed as his own, weighed 
down by them as a man of the keenest sense of honor might- 
be by an unexpected failure, and consequent inability to dis- 
charge debts contracted for his own personal enjoyment, 
rendered in this case the more distressing and exasperating 
by the knowledge that there was belonging to him thousands 
of dollars for every hundred he owed, kept from him for no 
earthly reason that he could understand. 

The first letter on this subject to the bishop bringing no 
-answer, not even an acknowledgment of its receipt, he found 
himself forced to renew his appeals, making every offer his 
situation permitted, and which would seem to be all that 
could be required for the most prudent creditor. The second 
letter, that of January 1809, was perhaps not received, those 
which followed in March and April though they reached their 
destination, do not appear to have brought him any reply 
until sometime in August. 


Loretto, March 7, 1809. 
My Lord, 

Not having received an answer to a long letter which I 
sent to your Lordship about two months ago, I conclude that 
it never reached your hands, and find myself compelled by 
the most urgent necessity to renew the application made in 
said letter. 

It will soon be three years since I received the last re- 
mittance from Europe .... Having shortly after my father's 
decease contracted for land to a large amount, and that at 
a time when it was morally impossible to foresee the vexa- 
tious steps and attempts of some of our relations to wrest 
from our hands the estate lawfully derived from our an- 
cestors, I found myself suddenly involved, without any pos- 
sibility of-fulfilling my contracts, unless by exposing for sale 
the very lands I had purchased. This method I tried as 
.soon as the hopes had vanished of getting cash from Europe; 
but the general depression of business and scarcity of money 


rendered my endeavors nearly fruitless; my debts increased! 
from year to year (owing 1 to unavoidable expenses arid accru- 
ing interest), yet the astonishing indulgence of my creditors,,. 
and the happy news of the recovery of our estate, kept up nry 
spirits, and caused me to entertain no small hopes of a speedy 
and favorable change. 2^o doubt such a change will take 
place soon now, but it will in all probability be too late to 
prevent the greatest distress with regard to myself as well 
as to some of my creditors .... I have already three letters 
ready to my sister, containing a detailed account of my 
present situation, which will certainly produce upon her 
mind the desired effect. 

I shall with the greatest anxiety of mind expect your 
Lordship's, answer. ... I am 'very sorry that the throng of 
business daily increasing upon my hands, besides the want 
of money, deprives me of the satisfaction of waiting per- 
sonally on your Lordship. 

Receive the assurances of the high respect with which I 

My Lord, 

Yr most hble obdt servt, 
Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin. 


Loretto, April 23, 1809. 
My Lord, 

1 gave myself the pleasure of writing two letters to y ova- 
Lordship, one sometime in January, I believe, and the other 
in March, neither of which came to your hands, I fe'ar. I. 
therefore take the liberty of repeating what I have presum- 
ed to represent in those letters, viz: that my situation has ; 
become truly alarming, this being the third year that I air i 
left destitute of any help whatever from Europe.- 

Mr. Haiden (Heyden), merchant in Bedford, is to be 
your Lordship in a few days; as a particular friend of mine,., 


who feels very much for me, he will be apt to confer with 
your Lordship on "that subject, and I shall consider it a very 
great favor to receive by him a few lines of information 
from your Lordship on a subject so interesting to me, and 
more so to the welfare of religion in this county. 

The three enclosed are to my correspondents in London 
enclosing letters to my sister, in order to procure in the 
speediest manner what will repay your Lordship. These 
I would wish, therefore, to be sent by three different vessels. 

In hopes that my distress will be considered a sufficient 
apology for my boldness and presumption in intruding tipon 
your Lordship, I subscribe myself with the greatest respect, 

My Lord, 

Your most hble and obdt servt, 

Demetrius Au<nistine Gallitzin. 

"o % 

A period of the most intense and overpowering anxiety 
and suspense was now silently endured, for whatever answer, 
if any, Mr. Heyden brought back from Baltimore, it certainly 
was not one to relieve in the least the pressure of affairs. 
Had Gallitzin's embarrassments endangered all that ho 
owned for himself alone, they would have occasioned him but 
slight uneasiness, for he cared nothing about wealth for his 
own comfort, but the property he was braving these storms 
and floods to keep, was the church property, the lands which 
were to add to the support of the church erected there and 
its future pastors, without any tax upon the congregation 
who were for the most part, though prospering, sufficiently 
burdened with the care. of their families; lands that were to 
yield a rich revenue for colleges, convents, asylums, and all 
works of religious education and Christian charity. To let 
them go for the need of a few hundred dollars, which might 
arrive an hour after all was lost, was to throw away what 
could never be regained, for even at this time, had he but 
just arrived, instead of ten years earlier, it would have been 
impossible at five times the outlay, to secure as profitable 
beginning as had been made. It is said that the land on 


which Ebensburg stands, was cleared at the expense of a 
hundred dollars an acre, and that which Father Gallitzin 
owned must have cost fully as much; to throw away these 
rich farms just as their harvests became sure and abun- 
dant, to abandon the work of his life just as its labor was at 
the end and its reward beginning 1 , above all to leave his dear 
congregations, as ho well called them, to struggle on unas- 
sisted by word or deed was very hard. Any work an earnest 
man undertakes is relinquished only with a terrible wrench, 
.how much more so the work undertaken for God ! 

During all this time, whatever were his mental anxieties, 
lie was occupied with spiritual labor enough to keep four or 
five clergymen constantly employed, and never for a moment 
permitted temporal affairs to interfere with his smallest 
spiritual duties. In September he had the relief of receiving 
a note from the bishop, enclosing two letters from his sister, 
one of which had been nearly a year on its way, sent as 
usual, under cover to Bishop Carroll. In these she informed 
him that she had deposited live thousand roubles with the 
Russian Consul for him; the news came not an hour too soon, 
but ho thanked God, not too late; his creditors had not yet 
seized his property though on the very point of doing so; 
the rest is better told by himself. 


Loretto, Oct. 30. 1809. 

My Lord, 

I embrace the present safe opportunity to let your Lord- 
ship know my present distressful situation. Immediately 
after receiving the last from my sister, accompanied by your 
favor of August 29, I wrote a letter to Mr. Daschkoff to 
which I received the answer enclosed, the contents of which 
are so contradictory to that of my sister's, that it very much 
perplexes my mind. Her last to me of March 28, written 
about six months after her return from Petersburg", has tlie 
(following lines literally translated from the German : 


"I have (whilst in Petersburg 1 ) borrowed five thousand 
roubles for you, and paid the same to the Russian Consul, 
Mr. de Daschkoff, who is to go this spring as consul to Phil- 
adelphia, and he will likewise give you some letters which I 
entrusted to his care, whilst at Petersburg." 

In another letter, of Sept. 12. 1808, written at Petersburg, 
are the following lines: 

" Now in order to help you out of your present distress 
which you describe to me in so lively colors, I have borrowed 
five thousand roubles, and have paid the same to Mr. de 
Daschkoff," &c. &c. 

According to my sister's account Mr. de Daschkoffhas more 
than fourteen months ago received five thousand roubles for 
ine, according to his own -account he has not one cent for 
me. Unfortunately I, immediately after receiving my sister's 
letters, was compelled to divulge the good news of having 
five thousand roubles ready in Philadelphia, as my creditors 
at that very time began to urge immediate payments, having 
previously exacted judgment bonds from me. Your Lordship 
may guess what I felt when I received Mr. Daschkoff s letter... 

I am preparing to start for Philadelphia in order to try 
my fortune there. Mr. Daschkoft's letter came too late to 
hands to enable me to meet him in Philadelphia; where to 
find him I do not know, nor am I able, for want of cash, to 
travel very far after him. If I do not get speedy relief I 
cannot see any other method of extricating myself, except by 
giving up the little property gathered with a good deal of 
toil and labor, and applying for the benefit of the -act of in- 
solvency, which would be truly painful to my feelings 

....Mr. Daschkoff seems willing to certify the present 
good situation of my affairs in Russia, so as to convince any 
one disposed to help me, that this may be done with perfect 

So much on this truly disagreable subject. 

Mr. Byrne will be able to give your Lordship some circum- 
stantial account of my state of health .... I was very much 
pleased with Rev. Mr. Byrne, he promises fair to be a zeal- 
ous laborer in the Lord's vineyard 


To meet a few lines from your Lordship in Philadelphia 
would be highly gratifying to 
My Lord, 

Your most hblc obdt servt, 

Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin. 
Care of Mr. John Carroll, 

No. 32 High Street. 

The Eev. Mr.%3yrne here mentioned was the first of Father 
Gallitzin's congregation to enter the priesthood ; he was not 
young when admitted to the seminary, and had little previous 
education; ho wa.s, however, gifted with the liveliest faith 
and the most edifying piety, which with his exemplary con- 
duct, his remarkable perseverance and humble consciousness 
of his early disadvantages, won him the esteem and vener- 
ation of all who knew him. He only went to Loretto at this 
time to visit his parents and relatives, the bishop thinking 
he would be better placed among strangers, but in the short 
time spent with Father Gallitzin he gave evidences of a 
piety which could never be forgotten by those who wit- 
nessed it. 

It may be stated in explanation of the foregoing letter that 
the trip which the Princess Mimi made to St. Petersburg in 
order personally to attend to all necessary formalities, and 
to make arrangements to sell the estates whenever a favor- 
able opportunity occurred, cost her no less than eight thous- 
and dollars, and this taken in connection with the fact that 
the ready money due her could not be immediately collected 
from those who had been in temporary posession of the pro- 
perty, rendered it really difficult if not actually impossible 
for her to send her brother any of his portion sooner. The 
money which she borrowed for him, and believed sent him 
by Mr. de Daschkoff, is supposed to have been detained by 
some of her agents, 'as it never reached that gentleman's 
hands, to his sincere regret, for he greatly sympathized with 
Father Gallitzin's distress, as soon as he heard of it, strange 
as it must have appeared in view of the great wealth he knew 
him to possess in Russia. 


It was with the courage of desperation only, or more 
truly, with faith in God leading him on in spite of all human 
probabilities, which caused- Father Gallitzin to make one 
last eifort to save his property. 


Philadelphia, Nov. 29. 1809. 
Most Rev'd Sir. 

I feel very grateful [for] the interest whien your Lordship 
seems to take in my truly distressful situation. I arrived in 
the city on the eleventh day of this month very much fatigued 
and very much distressed in mind, not knowing how to ex- 
tricate myself, or where to apply for assistance, as I was 
sensible that I had not that kind of security to offer which 
would induce even the wealthiest to lend money .... I applied 
to many, all pitied me, and lamented my case, but nobody 
thought himself safe in assisting me. Mr. A. promised help, 
and (without assigning any reason) recalled his promise. 
Left with only a couple of dollars in my pocket, the remain- 
der of what I borrowed for travelling expenses, I was thrown 
into a state of despondency; the shock was so great, the 
anguish of my mind such, that I fainted upon Mr. Carroll's 

Such was my situation for several days after I came hither, 
and such it would be yet, if Divine Providence had not inter- 
fered: having gathered up all my little store of faith, I made 
a little offering to Almighty God .out of the remnant of my 
fortune, and in a short time I found myself in possession of 
what will be sufficient to discharge my most pressing debts. 
John and Edward Carrell, Chief Justice Tilghman, Mr. Benj- 
amin R. Morgan, a lawyer and a quaker, and Mr. Springer 
of our congregation, have agreed to lend me as much as will 
disengage me from those pressing demands for most of which 
there were judgment bonds ag-ainst me, about two thousand 

Having received notice from a lawyer in Huntingdon that 
the judgments are due about the beginning of December, 
and not being able to spare any money, I am obliged to start 


immediately for Huntingdon, which deprives me of the very 
t great satisfaction of seeing your Lordship. I am very un- 
easy for fear that unfavorable reports with regard to my cir- 
cumstances, being, perhaps, occasioned by my long absence, 
would cause my creditors to fall upon my property. I shall, 
therefore, leave the city next Saturday, December the second, 
and expect to reach home about the Saturday following. 

I recommend myself -to your Lordship's prayers, and re- 
main with the greatest respect, my Lord, 

Yr most hble & obdt servt 

Demetrius Aug. Gallitzin. 

Mr. Daschkoff who probably will be in Baltimore in a fow 
days on his way to Washington, presents his respects and* 
compliments to your Lordship. 

This was not the only case in which Divine Providence had 

-come to his relief Avhen human hope had failed; there was 

-one other to which he never alluded without tears, though 

he related it not as having happened to himself, but as of 

one whom he had known; but his emotion in speaking of it, 

as well as other circumstances easily put together, betrayed 

him, and left no doubt of the real truth upon the minds of 

the persons to whom he mentioned it. 

Previous to his visit to Philadelphia he had received word, 
by Kev. Mr. Byrne, from a Baltimore firm, that a debt of 
something over four hundred and fifty dollars, which had 
been owing them for full two years, must be immediately 
paid or he would be sued for it; one lawsuit would have been 
the signal for all his creditors to fall upon him, and besides 
his fear of publicity, it was, of course, bitter misery for his 
natural high spirit, and religious principle to be in any one's 
debt, or to fear that others were suffering from his non-pay- 
ment as he from the dilatoriness of his sister, to whom, in- 
stead of his agents, he looked for his portion. It was just at 
this time that Mr. Dasohkoff's letter plunged him into cruellest, 
disappointment, his health had long been very poor, broken 
by the fatigues and privations to which he was necessarily 

__ 284 

subjected, the irregular meals, the constant anxiety for the 
spiritual welfare of his flock, the pressure of business mai- 
ters, the nerve-shattering suspense and distress endured by 
not knowing what to depend upon in regard to European 
affairs, and by the apparently inevitable failure of all that 
he had sacrificed his Jife to accomplish for the good of 
religion. Living in greatest poverty, misunderstood, mis- 
represented on every side, the very efforts he had made to 
raise up a happy community,' free from want and the temp- 
tations of worldly care, appearing to result only in dragging 
them and all who had trusted him into deepest distress, with- 
out friends to comfort him, or to believe in his plans, how- 
ever much they might credit his motives, the prospect before 
him became too dark for him to face. His nature was open, 
free, and simple, concealment was foreign and antagonistic 
to him at all times, but he was now like one passing over 
ice cracking beneath his feet, to go back was death, to stop 
to speak, to call a friend to his side, to patise for breath cer- 
tain ruin, his only safety was in rushing lightly bu.t steadily 
onward, a hurried movement or stumbling step would surely 
plunge him into the black waters surging beneath. 

His depression and distress, increased by lack of sleep 
and loss of appetite occasioned by his anxieties, culminated 
one bitter day in intolerable anguish; as the twilight came on 
with its saddening influences, his forebodings and gloom 
grew overpowering, and when he closed the door of his room 
for the companionless evening, the long, silent night, it was 
to look over the precipice of despair, and feel the un control- 
able longing to throw himself into the dark abyss, which is 
said to possess many healthy and even happy people when 
looking dizzily downwards from some dangerous point; as 
one thus sinking might grasp at a blade of grass or tuft of 
moss to break the fall, he mechanically looked about for one 
gleam of hope, one human hand which he might seize on his 
downward course, when, mind and sense, heart and faith 
seemed to have slipped over the brink of reason and of 
grace; there was nothing to cling to, not a sight or sound 
to arrest him, and he made no conscious resistance to the 


despair, the growing thought of self destruction which 
pressed upon him. 

Just then a light knock at his door, which he always open- 
ed himself, somewhat aroused him, its repetition fairly so, 
and if only -by force of habit, he arose and went rapidly to 
it, for he never kept any one waiting his humor or con- 
venience; he met on the threshold a young man whose face 
he did not remember to have seen before, who, indeed, ac- 
knowledged himself at once . a stranger, by asking if this 
was the priest's house. Hospitality was a virtue which. 
Father Gallitzin never failed to exercise in its fullest sense, 
even when, later, voice and motion lost to him, he could 
only slowly and painfully raise his weary eyelids to turn a 
welcoming look to his deathbed visitors, so he at once in- 
vited the stranger in, put his deep dejection aside as far as 

> human weakness permitted, and prepared to comfort, advise 
or console his visitor as might appear needful. But instead 
of commencing with his own affairs, as the custom was, the 
young man spoke of Loretto, which appeared to have great 
importance in his eyes, seeming to be sincerely desiroiis of 
learning more; a conversation interesting to both began at . 
once, for almost immediately Father Gallitzin found in his 
guest a ready, intelligent reponse and appreciation of the 
few brief remarks ho made concerning the little village's 
past and intended future, entirely new to him; he had been so 
accustomed, whenever the subject of his life's work was men- 
tioned, to be obliged to explain,- to arouse the listener's mind, 
to dwell upon the higher and better motives which should 
shape all our enterprises, and to feel that his most sympath- 
etic listener was more than half mazed and skeptical, that, 
with all his depression, he could not help remarking to him- 
self, with pleased surprise, that all these things were taken 
for granted now, and that he and his visitor were convers- 
ing on. the even ground of a perfect understanding-; he was 
even drawn into acknowledging that good and desirable as 

it had all seemed, at first, he was losing faith in his work 
himself, half doubting if it were God's will it should be con- 
tinued, fearful of the end; but here with a steady cheerful- 


ness the young man disagreed with him, pointed out phases 
of it which were new even to the worker, made practical 
suggestions, and perhaps spoke freely, without effort, and 
with the joyous enthusiasm which seldom if ever greeted 
Father Gallitzin's ears in those trying times, of the secure 
ways of the Almighty, and the impossibility of destruction, 
when we leave ourselves in the hands of God. At all events, 
in a short time Father Gallitzin had freed his Heart of its 
long accumulated load of sorrow and care, confided every- 
thing fully and without reserve to his visitor, or rather had 
seen that, by marvellous intuition and soul sympathy, all 
was known and understood, and now was more than ever his 
light-hearted, bouyant self again. When about half an hour, 
as he judged it, had passed, he suddenly recollected a host's 
first duty, reproaching himself for having been so absorbed 
in conversation as not to have considered that his guest, 
though it was not yet late, might be both hungry and tired. 
Apologising he arose at once, hastening to repair his incon- 
siderateness by providing something for him, but the young 
man, also rising, detained him, and pointing to the window, 
smilingly said: "It is not necessary, for, see, it is morning, 
and I must go." In amazement Father Gallitzin looked and 
saw that it was so, the East was already bright and glow- 
ing. No apologies, no entreaties could induce his guest to 
remain, and all he could do was to accompany him to the 
door and look lovingly after him as he crossed its thresh- 
hold, but after taking two or three steps the visitor dis- 
appeared, leaving his host brave and sustained as one might 
be who had opened his whole soul to an Angel of the Lord, 
in whose presence hours had flown as minutes. 

Although there is reason to believe this visit took place 
previous to the, journey to Philadelphia when his distress 
was the greatest, it is not impossible that it occurred after- 
wards, when the same debt still pressed heavily upon him, 
and though temporarily relieved of the others, he had abun- 
dant cause for overpowering anxiety, borne down as he was 
by the troubles of the past, the terrible mental strain so long 
kept up, and by the nervous and physical exhaustion which 


followed the heartbreaking trials and mortifications endured 
at Philadelphia. In his letter to the bishop, Nov. 22, writ- 
ten just previous to his return, the debt is mentioned as one 
impossible for him to pay until he should hear from his 
sister. The next he heard it was paid, it is g-enerally sup- 
posed by an unknown person, and the receipt sent him. 
Soon after reaching 1 home he received, most unexpectedly, 
five thousand roubles (fifteen hundred and ninety six dollars) 
from his sister, whether an additional five thousand, or the 
same she supposed sent by Mr. Daschkoff, miraculously res- 
tored, cannot now be ascertained. The fact of the debt, the 
visit, the sudden payment, the unhoped for receipt of the 
remittance are thoroughly authenticated and incontestibly 

After this he continued the cultivation of his land, although 
greatly annoyed and hampered in attempts to improve it, by 
continued delay in receiving the money expected, which 
would enable him to meet all his contracts, relieve him from 
the payment of interest which seriously diminished the 
amount received from the farms, and prevented the accom- 
plishment of the improvements, the buildings and the ad- 
ditions which he was most impatient to commence, for he 
was now nearly forty years of age and felt anxious to see 
greater practical results than yet appeared. 

When extra labor was required at seed and harvest times, 
he was in the habit of speaking a word or two about it when 
all met outside the church on Sundays, asking who would be 
willing to lend a hand during the week, and the response 
was almost universal, for such workdays were full of enjoy- 
ment for all. On the days appointed he remained for the 
greater part of the time in the field, walking along back and 
forth among the "hands", full of humor, making comical 
comments upon the work, telling amusing little anecdotes, 
and now and then good naturedly turning a joke upon some 
tnan or boy, who evidently enjoyed being the cause of wit in 
others, quite as much as they in laughing at him, for well 
they .knew they were safe with Doctor G alii tzin; if he had 
anything against a man he had no need to cut with a jest, 


or wound with a joke, if angry he was quite able to speak 
his mind in plainest fashion, without any disguise. He did 
not pay these voluntary laborers who willingly gave their 
work, but he provided an excellent dinner for them, kept 
them lively and merry all the day, and towards evening 
would bring out his violin and play all the airs he -knew 
while they finished off their work. Whatever cares were 
on his own mind, he 'never let any shadow rest from his 
on theirs, and he heartily delighted in amusing them and 
preparing pleasant surprises for them; it is still remem- 
bered how he brought his reapers home at sunset in great 
wagons drawn by stout mountain horses, the harness or- 
namented with vines and wreaths, the head of the village 
choir playing the clarinet, and he himself walking beside 
them. Days like these were like a rural idyll in the midst 
of the rude, realities of everyday life, and, undoubtedly, at- 
tached pastor and people to each other beyond what either 
knew or suspected; only one thing ever marred their festiv- 
ity; there was a distillery not a thousand miles away, and, 
although he was by choice in favor of abstinence Father 
Gallitzin did not object to a moderate stimulus for hard 
working, sober men, but as he walked up and down the 
lines, after dinner, if his keen eyes noticed the least sign of . 
one having gone too far, however slight the appearance, his 
face would change, the light vanish from his eyes, he would 
stop in the middle of a sentence, and without another word 
or look, walk briskly away, and no one need expect to see 
anything more of him that day; he was like a child whose 
play has been suddenly spoiled, a girl who has seen an asp 
in her bouquet, as well as a man vexed, a pastor grieved 
and disappointed. 

In the proper place he preached and labored against 
every thing' likely to lead to intemperance, it was a vice for 
which he had a most violent repugnance, and lie would not 
allow any notorious and unreclaimed drunkard to rest in the 
same church yard with the sober ones of his flock. In pro- 
portion to his contempt and hatred for the vice, was his pity 
for its victims, his unbounded sympathy for those families 


rendered wretched by one intemperate member; and many 
a hard contest was held between his rigorous principles and 
his loving heart, in such cases, and very transparent the ar- 
tifices by which he attempted compromises between the two. 
Fortunately, the glorious mountain air is stimulus enough of 
itself, a stranger going to Loretto from any of the cities, 
feels the very atmosphere to be as exhilarating, almost as 
intoxicating as champagne until he becomes somewhat ac- 
customed to it, and Doctor Gallitzin, as the people love to 
call him, had in his congregation for the most part, honest, 
hearty farmers, who brought healthy appetites to the meals 
won by honorable labor, whose blood coursed warm and red 
through the vigorous limbs, who had nothing to be ashamed 
of, no sins or cares they were afraid to face with due hope 
and trust in God's mercy, nor morbid cravings for unnatural 
stimulus. " 

If one fell away from the right path it grieved the doctor 
more than almost any calamity that could have occurred, 
and he especially forbade any such to be discussed or talked 
about, so far as' he could At one time a sad death 
occcured suddenly under most painful circumstances; a man 
full of life at night was found in the morning past all human, 
blame or pity. The good and pious mourners stricken with 
a grief beyond all others, because it feared for the soul more 
than it wailed for the .body, did not dare to call upon Dr. 
Gallitzin to share their sorrow, as was the first impulse al- 
ways of every one in trouble, knowing as they did the life 
the lost one hail led, and the circumstances of his death. In 
Loretto there were no secrets, with the first dawn of light 
every one knew what had happened, and rushed to the 
priest's house each eager to be the first to tell him of it, 
some of the "unco 7 gude", perhaps, not unwilling to gain 
esteem by their loud condemnation of the poor soul already 
before its judge. "Not a word," said he at the first sentence, 
in a stern voice that made sudden silence, "don't one of you 
dare to tell me one word about it. Not one single word more, 
do you hear?" and taking his hat and cane went straight to 
the house of death, before they had recovered breath. 


"Why would he not hear about it," oue asked when the 
incident was related. 

"Oh," answered the informant naively, "if he had known, 
it he couldn't have went to the house, him being the priest, 
you know." 

Besides the relief obtained by the visit to Philadelphia, the 
close of the year 1809 brought to Father Gallitzin another 
. satisfaction: the final settlement of all difficulties occasioned 
by the assumed name under which he had first become 
known in this country. Fearing serious difficulties in the fu- 
ture he was advised to apply to the legislature to legalize the 
acts and purchases made under that name, which he did in a 
petition read by Mr. McSherry of Adams County, Dec. 16, 


To the Honorable the Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in General 
Assembly met. 

The Petition of your very humble servant respectfully 

That your humble petitioner Demetrius Augustine, Prince 
of Gallitzin, having come to the United States about seven- 
teen years sgo, solely with the intention of improving him- 
self by travelling, and having in obedience to the dictates 
of his parents a'dopted the name of Augustine Smith, as they 
conceived that his name or title would or might expose him, 
when travelling through this and other parts of the world, 
to very considerable and useless expense: Your humble 
petitioner having afterwards abandoned the idea of return- 
ing to his own country, and having under his adopted name, 
Augustine Smith, by naturalization, become a citizen of the 
United States: finding, moreover, that his real name is 
known to a great many, which obliges him to make use of 
it on many occasions, and fearing that inconveniences, or, at 
least, trouble and uneasiness might arise to himself or Sthers 
after him, with regard to the holding of real property or con- 
veying of the same, etc., he, therefore, prays that 

honorable body may enact a law to establish his name, Deme- 
trius Augustine Gallitzin, so that he may under that name 
enjoy the same benefits and privileges to which he became 
entitled by naturalization, under the name of Augustine 
Smith, and your humble petitioner, as in duty bound, will 
ever pray, etc. 

Demetrius Augustine (Smith) Gallitzin. 
December. 5, 1809. 

This was referred on the 16th to a committee composed of 
Mr. McSherry, Mr. Bethel, and Mr. Weiss, and an Act was 
passed in compliance with the requests contained in it. 

This authoritatively settled the matter for which custom 
had already prepared the way, the name Smith having been 
gradually and imperceptibly dropped, the more easily that he 
was generally spoken of in his congregations as "the 
priest", and "the doctor". No occasion had as yet arisen 
for a more public use of his name; if such should come no 
one who knew him need doubt the spirit and firmness with 
which it would be sent forth. 




Princess Mimi's explanations. Troubles in Europe. Pius YJJL at Fon- 
tainebleau. On the way to Italy. His reception at Borne. Rejoic- 
ing throughout the Christian world. Loss by the invasion of Eussia 
and Prussia. A famous speculation. F. Gallitziu's care of the altar. 
ffis love of books. 

The letters which G-allitzin had sent to his sister on bus- 
iness matters caused her great distress, both on account of 
that which he was suffering, and the doubts they implied of 
her readiness to fulfill her promises. "However," she wrote 
him, after some complaints of his harshness, "however we 
will say no more about it, I know that a very great distress 
will sometimes overcome us, and cause us to become very 
bad humored, and full of suspicion. Only remain friendly 
and good to me and believe firmly in my sincere friendship." 
Better still, she gave him a partial explanation of the cause 
by allusions to the events transpiring in Europe, of which 
she took it too much for granted he was thoroughly infor- 
med, on which the archbishop, as we must now call him, tlic 
long delayed pontifical papers having at last arrived in this 
country, still further dwelt when forwarding the letters so 
anxiously awaited. 


Baltimore, Oct. It, 1810. 
Rev. and very dear Sir, 

The enclosed letter from the Princess, your sister, though 
brought by the worthy Bishop Flaget, was not delivered to 



me for more than a month afterwards, with another for my- 
self; and since I received them and knew of the importance 
of hers to you, I did not choose to send them before I had 
a safe and undoubted opportunity. Your sister desired me 
to read hers to you, 'and therefore did not seal it, and she 
desired me to efface such expressions, if any appeared in her 
writing, which might be thought disrespectful to you. How- 
ever, I did not tise this privilege for she exhibits evident 
marks of being most deeply and painfully affected by your 
displeasure, yet she never forgets that deference which she 
owes to you. Her heart is grievously wounded, but she 
retains all the warmth of sisterly affection. If she has been 
tardy in meeting and relieving your embarrassments, make 
allowance for her own, her health and necessary journeys, and 
the difficulties produced by the convulsive state of all public 
concerns in Europe. In a word, she deserves words of com- 
fort from you, and you, in obedience to the dictates of na- 
tural affection, as well as of Christian justice ought to give 
them to her. Do not alienate her heart from you .... Show 
in your answer the feelings of a brother for the morjtification 
you have caused her to suffer. 

I write this but a few days before the consecration -of Bish- 
ops Egan and Cheverus, and should be happy indeed if you 
could be here on that occasion. Whatever satisfaction I 
experience from the erection of new dioceses (and indeed the 
satisfaction is very great) ; yet it is accompanied with the 
painful consideration, that I am no longer so closely con- 
nected as heretofore with many clergymen who merit and 
enjoy my highest esteem and friendship; nor with many con- 
gregations and individuals to whom my heart clings with the 
warmest affection. Amongst those clergymen be assured 
that you hold a distinguished part, and that I am, dear and 
Reverend Prince, 

Your most obd't serv't. 
f J. Bp. Baltre. 


The advice thus enforced upon Father Gallitzin's already 
contrite heart, made him resolve never again under any cir- 


cumstances in thought or word to doubt his sister's good faith 
or feeling, and whatever happened, always to believe that 
she would in due time explain or right it; a resolution .he. 
kept only too faithfully. 

The near approach of the consecration of the new bishops, 
consequently of his passing under a new superior, awoke in 
his heart the old regrets at sundering the ties which had so 
long united him to Baltimore, and roused the fears of new 
troubles when he should be subject to one unaware of his 
former trials, and real character; he especially trembled lest 
Bishop Egan should be influenced to remove him, as he had 
the power to do at any moment at his own discretion, from 
his beloved Loretto. But, happily, Father Gallitzin was bet- 
ter known than he feared, and deeper rooted in the affections 
of his congregation .than he could have believed. 


April 8th 1811, Balt're. 
Kev. and dear Sir. 

Mr. "Wille arrived to day with your favour, of various 
dates* which I was indeed rejoiced to receive after so long 
interruption of our correspondence, but its contents respect- 
ing the deplorable state of your health abated much of the 
pleasure of hearing from you. Be assured that my endeavours 
shall not be wanting to urge Bishop Egan on the subject re- 
commended by you of sending a priest to your assistance: 
he may be more fortunate than I was in. being able to do so. 
His countrymen may. offer their services to him with a better 
assurance and reliance on his attachment, than, to me. It 
has been lately rumored here that your friend, Mr. Brosius, 
was endeavoring to dispose of his school, and adjoining lots 
of ground, and after settling his affairs to remove and unite 
himself with you. His solicitous and too timorous con- 
science disqualifies him for such duties, unless his mind has 
recovered from those pei-plexities, which disturbed him before 
he went to Philadelphia. 

These letters are missing. 


I am glad to hear of your having- written to your respected 
-sister a consolatory letter. Her inexperience exposed her 
probably to place undeserved confidence in her agents, and 
as I often hear (merchants) say, the furious enmity of Bona- 
parte to commerce, and the shackles multiplied every day 
^by him. on its transactions, produce incredible difficulties, 
sacrifices, and losses in the remittance of money from one 
country to another. Impute, therefore, your disappointments 
not to her negligence or a diminution of her affection but to 
the real and irremovable difficulties she has to encounter. 
Dabit Deus, as we may hope, his quo quefinem. It is certainly 
^ hard task to keep your mind in peace, whilst you are 86 
harrassed, but use your best efforts to compose it, on many 
other accounts, but especially because it will help to restore 
your health. Our latest accounts from His Holiness are that 
che is still (28th Dec.) a prisoner at Savona in the Territory 
of Genoa; not indeed a close, but always a guarded one. 
No communication is allowed between him and any of 
his flock, except the persons around him. Though a great 
^dinner is prepared every day for him nominally, yet in truth 
for the Emperor's minions and spies around him, yet he 
never partakes of and asks or accepts of no more than the 
common portion of common prisoners. 

The Kev. Mr. Enoch Pen wick -now lives with me; he is a 
pupil of Georgetown, but lived one year at the seminary 
where perhaps you knew him. His brother, Benedict, is at 
New York with Mr. Kohlman. Mr. Dubourg, after suffering 
-much from the rheumatism, went to Martini co in the winter, 
^proposing to return in May or June. The Right Rev. Bish- 
op of Kentucky [Flaget] and Mr. David leave Baltimore 
for their destination the last of this month, passing by and 
taking boat at Pittsburg. Mr. Heilbron's sickness gave me 
much uneasiness for that honest good man, a truly respect- 
able German character. Mr. Elling died last week but one at 
Philadelphia, leaving, as I hear, his property to a nephew in 

I am with the utmost affection dear and beloved Sir, 

Your most obd st. f J. Abp. of Brc. 


There were stirring events going on in Europe at this 
time, of the greatest interest to all men, and of special in- 
terest to Gallitzin as a Catholic, and as a Russian by birth 
and fortune. 

The glamour of enchantment which Bonaparte appeared to 
have thrown over the young Emperor Alexander after the 
defeat of Prussia in 1806, which resulted in the treaty of 
Tilsit and the great personal friendship of the two emperors, 
who planned to rule the destinies of Europe together, had 
worn away, and Alexander, more and more inclined to the 
policy of his own nobles, who were, all opposed to Bonaparte, 
refused him his sister's hand preferring to marry her to a 
comparatively obscure German prince; animosity followed 
coldness and reached a declaration of war in 1812. England 
and Sweden alone retained strength and boldness enough to 
openly side with Alexander. Napoleon marched so rapidly 
to Russia that the Emperor was taken by surprise and only 
saved himself by the retreat of which every one knows the 
terrors, the suffering, the heroism of the Russians who burnt 
their own cities and destroyed all supplies as they went, 
stationing starvation and bitter cold all along their route to 
receive the pursuing army, which after incredible sufferings 
and losses, escaped, as best it could, to France. But all the 
world knew that a defeat to Bonaparte was like a wound to 
a wild animal, it but made him attack again with redoubled 
fury, and, refusing all compromise which would but serve as 
a cloak for his enemy until he could recruit his strength, 
Alexander, urged on by England and reviving Prussia, ap- 
pealed, in 1813, to Europe as its redeemer, inaugurating a 
real crusade against the common foe, which brought the 
allied armies through the gates of Paris, in triumph, finally, 
by proving he fought against Bonaparte not against France, 
won high favor even with the French, and became the hero 
of the Congress of Vienna in 1814. After Napoleon's escape 
from Elba, Alexander signed the proclamation, which made 
his former friend an outlaw among the nations; Waterloo 
followed, the allies again entered Paris, and Bonaparte's 
power was forever at an end. 


, 291 

In the autumn of 1813 it became known at Fontainebleau, 
where Pius VII. was a prisoner, that an armistice had been 
agreed upon between the French and the allied armies, and that 
a Congress would be held at Prague to decide upon something 
which would secure peace to Europe. The Pope was advised 
to reclaim in the face of Europe his rights and those of the 
Holy See, and with his own hands expressed his rightful 
demand in a letter to the Emperor of Austria, Francis I., 
carried to the papal nuncio at Vienna, in spite of the vigi- 
lance of the French police, by young Count Benetti, after- 
wards Cardinal Secretary of State under Gregory XVI. 

Bonaparte, however, had already "begun to feel misgivings 
in regard to his conduct towards the Holy Father, even as a 
matter of policy, and various ambassadors, more or less 
formally accredited, were sent to negotiate with the Pope, 
one of these was what the witty Cardinal Pacca designated 
as veritably an ambassador extraordinaire, the Marquise de 
Brignole, but the lady of the court, bishops, and government 
officers received alike the same reply: "The restitution of 
the States of the Church was an act of justice, and could not 
be made the subject of a treaty.'' In January 1814, as mat- 
ters grew desperately dark for Bonaparte, he offered the 
Holy Father the restitution of Korne and the provinces as far 
as Perugia, but Pius refused to make any compromise or 
enter into any treaty whatever, and in a less formal conver- 
sation which followed this resolute decision, said that he 
demanded freedom to . return to Rome ; he had need of no as- 
sistance, Providence would conduct him there. 

Matters grew worse and worse for the man who had so 
long mastered fate; his enemies were fast approaching the 
capital, and the next they knew at Fontainebleau was the 
arrival of a string of empty carnages, followed by the in- 
formation of the officer in charge of the prisoners that he 
was to conduct the Pope to Rome, starting on the morrow. 
When this news was formally announced to the Holy Father 
he earnestly entreated that his cardinals might be allowed to 
accompany him, and when this was refused that even one 
might go with him, but in vain, Monsignore Bertozzoli alone 


was permitted in the same carriage with him; in a second 
carriage were the Pope's own physician and one appointed 
by the emperor, and with this simple retinue, surrounded by 
gend'armes, the successor of St. Peter made a march through 
France to Rome, more thrilling and wonderful than that of 
any Cesar from victorious battle. It was hardly possible for 
the soldiers to keep open a space wide enough for the car- 
riages to pass, through the crowds of men, women and child- 
ren who, indifferent to the sabres of the guards, threw them- 
selves upon their knees, under the horses' feet, or climbed 
the carriage wheels, begging the papal benediction. 

In April (1814) the Provisional Government of Paris issued 
orders to the civil and military authorities to- remove all 
obstacles, such as Bonaparte .had placed in the Holy Father's 
path, and to the uncontrollable demonstrations of the people 
was now added the official honors due to a sovereign. The 
firing of cannons, the peal of the joybells, salutes from 
all the ramparts, illuminations, announced his passing from 
city to city, while young men in uniform, meeting him out- 
aide the towns, took the horses from his carriage, attached 
ropes of red and yellow silk to it, and drew him onward 
tinder triumphal arches, amidst showers of bouquets and 
wreaths, and acclamations from a kneeling populace, who 
did .not cheer, as in other cases, with crape about their 

The cardinals who had not been permitted to depart for 
some days, and then only in parties of two and three, were 
able by rapid journeying to overtake the Pontiif at Sinigaglia, 
in the beginning of May, and to take part in his grand and 
magnificent entrance into Rome, pirthe twenty fourth of that 
month. They were joined, a few miles from Rome, by the 
King and Queen of Spain, Charles IY. and Maria Louisa, 
and their daughter and son in law, King and Queen of 
Etruria, and other noble personages ; at one of the gates of 
the city the Commission of State, that 'is to sayj the prelates 
and laymen charged with the Provisional Government of 
Rome, awaited His Holiness, with a vast concourse of people, 
and formally received him, twenty four young Roman gentle- 


men insisted upon drawing his carriage, while a crowd of 
little boys and girls, dressed in white, carrying palm bran- 
ches, supplied by the family of Bresca, to which, in recom- 
pense for services in the days of Sixtus V. was given the 
privilege of providing the palms used in the Roman church- 
es, flocked about the carriage, looking to the people like 
angels of peace, accompanying the Pope to the Quiririale 
palace, to which he was welcomed- with indescribable accla- 
mations, although, as Cardinal Pacca, who was in the same 
carriage with him, candidly admits, there were many who 
did not join in these demonstrations, but were silent in the 
midst of the tumult of happiness: their sobs and tears of 
relief and joy prevented any livelier welcome, tears streamed 
from the eyes of Pius himself, a"hd even the grave and stately 
cardinals were in danger of losing their self possession on 
that memorable da}*.* 

There were no Atlantic cables in those days, not even mail 
-steamers or regular sailing- packets, but is was understood 
in this country that the Pope was free, and the Eoman wel- 
come was echoed, clear and sweet, from the depths of the 
American forests, the wxioded heights of the Alleghanies: 


Loretto July 4. 1814. 
My Lord, 

The events which your Lordship anticipate'd have taken 
place, the Iron Scepter is broken, and all Europe at peace 
Ecce mulatto dextera Excelsi. In thanksgiving for so great a 
blessing, and especially for the restoration of our holy 
.father, the Pope, I i-ung Te Deum Laudamus on the day of 
St. Peter and St. Paul* and a solemn Mass. If I did not 
wait until the happy news was officially announced, it was 

* See Iiistoire du Pape Pie VII, par M. le Chevalier Arlaud, tomo 
iroisieme, chapitre V., and Memoirs of Cardinal Pacca, translated by 

;Sir George Head. Volume second, chapter zvi and xviii. 

* June 29. 


because I could not restrain the sentiments of gratitude and 
joy that filled my heart on receiving those tidings. Long- 
live Alexander ! To call him The Great would be to defame 
his character. May our once happy country obtain a share of 
those blessings granted to Europe after a scourge of twenty 
four years. 

But when the first emotions of joy at the restoration of the 
Supreme Pontiff" had subsided into deep and quiet gratitude,. 
and the full accounts of the disasters to so many of his 
friends, and to his own property arrived, Father Gallitzin 
found he" in his distant home had shared the misfortunes of 
his native land in no small degree. "I. feel very uneasy at 
not hearing a word of my sister these two years past," he 
wrote in the letter just quoted, "Muenster, her residence, 
must have suffered considerably from Davoust's army, situa- 
ted as it is in a straight direction from the Lower Rhine to 
Hamburg. God grant that she may have effected her escape 
to Vienna in time, for I think it probable she would choose 
that city above all others as a place of refuge." 

There was indeed reason for these fears, for he afterwards- 
learned that the French had been quartered upon his mother's 
house, to the injury of the property, and great loss to his 
sister, while in Russia the burning of Moscow, near which 
were his estates, rendered them unproductive for some years; 
he had not received any remittances since 1811, and then by 
the difference In currency he lost nearly three hundred out 
of every four hundred dollars. He was, however cheerful 
and kept up good courage, as the same letter shows: 

Under continual disappointments, and with severe losses, 
I cannot be too thankful to Divine Providence for having so- 
often protected me and my property, when I saw myself re- 
peatedly on the brink of ruin. I am greatly indebted to the 
exertions of the Honorable Judge Tilghman and other gentle- 
men of Philadelphia. I have finally applied to and obtained 
from several banks . considerable sums of money which will 
be left in my "hands until sufficient remittances from Europe 


enable me to refund those sums. We are literaly surroun- 
ded with banking institutions, thanks be to the wisdom &c. 
of our legislators. 

I should be happy if my circumstances, and my business 
spiritual and temporal, would afford me money and time to 
visit Baltimore, and to pay my respects to your Lordship. 
After many years struggle I begin to reap the benefit of my 
labor, and find myself able by means of my farm, stock, 
mills &c. to discharge gradually many debts, but my circum- 
stances are critical and require the utmost economy and at- 
tention to my business. Times are particularly favorable 
for our part of the country, and produce of every kind is very 
high and ready sale. ... 

If I should receive in the course of this summer a letter 
from my sister, or any information from Baron Rail [Russian, 
agent] relating to remittances, it is more than probable that 
I shall then immediately repair to Philadelphia, and on my 
way home to -Baltimoi'e, which will afford me an opportunity 
of testifying personally to your Lordship the great respect 
with which I remain, 

My Lord, 

Yr most hble & obdt servt, 
' Demetrius Aug. Gallitzin. 

It was always a great grief to Dr. Gallitzin that the fail- 
ure of his European supplies compelled him to divert the 
profits of his American farm and mills from their original 
purpose, the cause of religion and charity, but it was a 
source of great comfort to him that there was no failure 
about them; all that his most sanguine hopes had promised 
him of their productiveness, was verified, and though he 
made mistakes sometimes, which the old farmers would have 
avoided, he made many discoveries and applied theories suc- 
cessfully which they would never have dreamed of; no 
farmer far or wide could equal the richnes and abundance of 
his harvests, the excellence of everything raised by him. His 
barns and granaries were filled to overflowing, and what he 
did not and could not need for his own use, was never wasted 


nor given carelessly away; when his cattle were killed, he- 
had an abundance put by for himself, that is, for the house- 
hold which consisted always of one, generally of two or more 
families of orphans, several widows to look after them, the 
men in charge of the farm, and the stranger within his gates 
then this old woman, that sick or helpless old man, the 
family lately arrived and hardly yet settled, and another 
which had not been successful this season, all received 
a portion ; after which the store houses were shut up, and the 
barns closed; but when the storms came and the scanty sup- 
ply of smaller or less careful farmers came to an end, it was 
not hard to find who owned their contents; and the good 
pastor took his frugal meals just as contentedly, if not more 
so, when his abundant supplies were exhausted, as' when 
there had been plenty and to spare. In time of scarcity, it 
is . said, he opened the doors and gates, and all who wished, 
to come did so, helping themselves without a -word ; some- 
times even that permission was not waited for, though 
against this he took the greatest precautions, for he would 
not leave a loophole for temptation to enter, and could be as 
vexed as any other careful farmer at any poaching on his 
-domains. He had the ears of a lynx for such, and they tell 
how one evening in particular he started .to.hear the stealthy 
step of an intruder, evidently desirous of secrecy, passing nis 
window on the way to the barn where his hay was kept, 
and as quietly and more lightly he followed in pursuit. It 
was, however, no ordinary thief who was fumbling at the 
doors, but a poor man driven out of his sober reason -by 
hard necessity and long contemplation of the last wisp of 
hay which had made the scanty supper of his only cow, the 
faithful animal upon which all his dependence was placed; it 
was not a mind, this poor man's, of very broad or complica- 
ted dimensions, there was only room in it for a very simple 
course of reasoning; if the cow had no food she would give 
no milk, and if the children had no milk, they would starve, 
for there certainly was nothing else for them; when this 
thought was sufficiently considered it went out of sight, 
while the narrow stage of his mind gave room for the next 


one; Dr. Gallitzin had plenty, he always did have plenty, he 
never refused anybody anything, and he had a mint of money 
across the sea, that would make all right as soon as he got 
it, and what was a handful of hay, more or less, to a man of 
such expectations ? Putting these two thoughts together 
they took him to Gallitzin's barn and inside the doors; while 
there a third idea, founded on the seventh commandement, 
tried to push itself forward, but there was hardly room for 
it; he was one of those who sometimes, in unaccustomed 
mental excitement, mutter their thoughts aloud, as Dr. Gal- 
litzin reached the outer side of the barndoors he heard a 
^yoice repeating slowly, like a half forgotten lesson: "Hon- 
esty is the best .policy," after which a pause, a rustling as of 
an armful of hay being pressed into a bundle, and again the 
words, spoken this time with more assurance: "Honesty is 
the best policy," followed -by a sound, light indeed, as of a' 
bundle dropped and falling apart, and a muttering as of one 
in deepest thought: "If the cow has no hay, the children 
will have no milk," and so on, over and over again, until, at 
last, Dr. Gallitein drew hastily aside as a man passed, empty 
handed, with drooping head bu,t resolute step, without a 
glance at the temptation thrown behind ; he knew the voice 
and guessed at the face vaguely seen in the starlight, but he 
neither spoke nor moved until the man was well out of reach, 
then he carefully closed and secured the too easily opened 
doors, and going lightly by another path, roused his deeply 
sleeping serving man. 

"Come ! Come ! wake up; I want you." 

"Ah! ah!" groaned and ejaculated that astonished in- 
dividual, " Is it me, your Keverence ? " 

"Yes, you, get up quickly, and put up the sled " 

"Put up the sled!" repeated the man in amazement," why, 
your Reverence, it's the middle of the night!" 

"So the quicker the better. Put up the sled and carry a 

load of hay to right away." 

This was a most astounding order, and it was some little 
time before Dr. Gallitzin could make the good man com- 
prehend tl;at he was in earnest. 

304 . 

"Faith, and they'd think me crazy to wake them up at 
this hour," he repeated, puzzled, and none too good humored, 
reluctantly and with much grumbling preparing to obey, as 
there seemed no help for it. 

"Well," he asked gruffly, coming around to Father Gal- 
litzin's room, at last, when his hay was loaded, "what will I 
say for rousing up like this ? " 

"Oh," answered the priest, glancing up from Ms book, with 
a very demure look about the comers of his mouth, "just 
leave the hay and tell him: Honesty is the best policy" 

Not much enlightened, the other went his way, carrying 
out the unaccountable freak of his master; it is likely, how- 
ever, that the receiver of- the. hay was not so slow of com- 

Once the doctor undertook a small speculation; the results 
are historical. It was quite at the beginning of his career 
in the mountains that the idea struck him and some of the 
farmers that they paid a very high price for the few luxuries 
which were brought around at times from the cities, and 
sold to them for several times their cost, and that it would 
be an admirable plan to go into the exchange business on. 
their own account; accordingly they combined together to 
load up a wagon with different kinds of farm-produce which 
they proposed to send to Baltimore, to receive in return 
tea, coffee, and other domestic articles not easily obtained 
in the country. This grand cooperative scheme met. with 
the most thorough approbation from all who were able to 
invest in it; the famous wagon was loaded, drawn by five 
splendid horses got up in the best possible style, at Father 
Gallitzin's expense, and "deep freighted with human hopes" 
was driven gaily out of Loretto, by a young man in whom 
the priest had every confidence, amidst the cheers of the 
whole village. 

In course of time the women began to look uneasily down 
the road for its return, rich laden with tea and calico, while 
the less patient sex knocked out the ashes of the last bit of 
toba-cco, fuming considerably at the slowness of the five 
horse team, and as people wait and look and watch and 


question of some fair ship long since, if they but knew it, at 
the bottom of the ocean, the good people sought of every trav- 
eller news of their venture. At last, the driver returned to 
Loretto to recount wonderful escapes and marvellous ad- 
ventures, by wood and field, from which he did not return 
empty handed, for he still retained possession, it is believed, 
of the whip which he had cracked and flourished in triumph 
when setting out .upon his travels. For the rest, their ship 
had gone down forever, but the sea that engulfed it was 
never that of clear cold ivater. It may be considered a strik- 
ing evidence of the hard heartedness of human nature, that 
there was a plain lack of appreciation of the boldness and 
adroitness with which (when his money was at an end), this 
" sole surviver", had eifected his escape from the snares and 
pitfalls of the city, and brought his own precious self back 
to Loretto. Father Gallitzin alone appeared touched by this 
result, and in response to the man's entreaties for forgive- 
ness took him into favor again, appointing him overseer of 
a saw-mill, which he had put up at great expense, and lost 
by fire in one night through the carelessness of this very 
pereon, who seemed born into the world for the express pur- 
pose of injuring his benefactor.* 

After this he sent his own wagon down, under the charge 
of more reliable persons it is to be presumed, in the autumn 
of each year, until better means of transportation became 
available, with the surplus of his farm produce, when his 
winter purchases would be made for himself, his farm and 
the church. He was even in his deepest poverty extremely 
fastidious about everything used for the service of the altar, 
all the linen was of the finest, and not an atom of dust ever 
permitted to. rest about the sanctuary, inside the rails of 
which he never permitted layman or woman; his sacristy for 
a long time was a wardrobe or bureau in the sanctuary, and 
every vestment was folded without wrinkle or. crease and 
with the utmost precision. Fortunately for his slender means, 

* See Lemcke, p. 183, and Dr. Heyden's Life of the Bev. Prince D. A. 
G-allitzin, p. 98. 

306 -- 

the greater portion of the articles required for the altar had 
been sent him by his mother, sister, and European friends ; 
they were of the finest material and workmanship, such as 
few city churches could aspire to at the time. He also re- 
ceived from home some excellent religious paintings of Ger- 
man masters, one of which, The Adoration of the Magi, still 
hangs over the chapel altar at Loretto, half lost, however, in 
the dimness of age; some small engravings for his own 
room, and abundance of little pictures for the children. He 
conscientiously contributed his mite towards the foundation 
of Catholic literature in this country, by purchases of books 
in Baltimore, which with those he had brought with him 
when he came to America, and those sent him in profusion by 
his mother, made up a choice and excellent library.* The 
severe training of his youth which impressed .upon his mind 
the works of the greatest writers, even before he could under- 
stand or care for the subjects of which they treated, served 
him admirably in later life, by placing at his command 
authorities and notes which a life long student might have 
envied. Many and many a time in law, history, most of all 
in religious discussions, it was attempted to trip him up 
with some high sounding quotation, or some crushing fact 
of which the quiet mountain pastor, clad in homespun, over- 
whelmed with business and the care of honest but uneduca- 
ted congregatic ns, was supposed to be as a matter of course 
entirely ignorant; nothing could be more amusing than his 
opponents' consternation at the easy way in which he would 
then turn their own guns against them. 

The time was at hand when the store house of his mind 
would be called upon to show forth its treasures. 

* The remains of this library are said to be carefully preserved at the 
pastoral residence in Loretto, but the writer was not permitted to see 
them. Prince Augustine Gallitzin remarks in Un Missionaire russe en 
Amerique, p. 29: "He loved books, he could not pass them by; he had 
collected a large number, seeking to do good in taking them, and com- 
mitting no error in inscribing on the dear companions of his solitude 
this formula of dedication: Gallitzini et amicorum. 



"J never see a Seventy-four without render- 
ing a more lively and appreciative homage to 
ike canoe of the first navigator." 

Madame Swetehine. 

The war of 1812. Captain Richard McGuire. The Loretto recruits. 
A national fast. A war sermon. DEFENCE OP CATHOLIC PRINCIPLES. 
Mr. Hayden Smith. Mr. Douglas. The minister's vindication. 
LETTEB ON THE HOLY ScBrpTOTES. Personal influence. A spirited 
woman. Mixed marriages. A public announcement. 

While the Old World was racked with wars and rumors 
of wars, the New World was not allowed to remain in peace. 
The long war between England and France had thrown the 
business of ocean commerce into the hands of the neutral 
nations, especially of the United States, and as the Ameri- 
cans were accused of making money under the shield of neu- 
trality, England and France proclaimed the most extensive 
blockades, disregarding the rights and interest of commerce. 

Our government had been so very economical that we had 
no navy of any accotint to protect our trading vessels, which 
were seized on the slightest pretext, and the sailors impres- 
sed into the British service; this, led, after great injury to 
business and bitter humiliations to the young republic, to 
that which is known as the war of 1812, in which the despis- 
ed little navy gloriously resented Brittania's rule of the 

In the late summer of 1814 word reached the remote dis- 
tricts of Pennsylvania telling that the British troops were 


advancing on Washington; the President [Madison] ap- 
pointed a day of fasting and prayer; enlistments were made 
in haste, and the citizen soldiers hurried to the defence of 
the national capital, arriving rather late in the day, however, 
for the English had already leisurely entered Washington, 
burnt, pillaged, and as leisurely left it. Captain Kichard, 
son of the old chief McGuire, already in the army, came to 
raise a company of volunteers, in which he was ably assisted 
by Dr. Gallitzin, whose soldier-nature had long outstripped 
his Federal politics. While Captain McGhiire drilled his 
recruits in the open space near the pastoral residence, Gal- 
litzin would "often stand at his door or window, looking on; 
they were not quite such fencing lessons as he had received 
in the military academies of Europe, but the captain was 
very proud of his men as of his own skill in handling a 
sword, and when, one day, the pastor was seen coming 
quietly from the village towards the parade ground, his 
hands behind him, as usual, crossed on the slender sword 
cane he always carried, the officer took the liberty of meet- 
ing him, and taking the proper attitude, made a show of 
fencing with him. The challenge was accepted without any 
ceremony, and with hardly a perceptible change of position, 
while the men looked on in breathless interest, to see the 
captain's sword meeting the doctor's cane; after two or three 
movements, enough to put the officer on his mettle in earn- 
est, the spectators were amazed to see a sword whirling in 
the air, and almost at the same instant the doctor, absorbed 
in his own thoughts, his hands behind him, crossed upon his 
cane, quietly pursuing his way, as if there had been no in- 
terruption. Captain McGuire picked up his sword and went 
on with his drill, rather proud than otherwise at defeat from 
such skilful and honored hands. 

Nothing could be more touching than the departure of this 
little band from Loretto. After Mass, at which each member 
received communion, they were drawn up in front of the 
church, their banner blessed with the greatest solemnity, 
a parting blessing given with an exhortation to courage, to 
faithful devotion to God and their country, fresh from the 


heart of the soldier priest who bade farewell to each as to 
a beloved son. When, later, one proved recreant to his duty, 
and slipped away from his post, as we have seen, his wel- 
come was as stern as the parting 1 had been tender. 

The day appointed by the President for fasting and prayer 
was observed at Loretto with rigorous exactness, with the 
oftering of the Holy Sacrifice, alms and mortification, in the 
Catholic manner of humiliation. Elsewhere the occasion was 
seized for political sermons by the ministers of the various 
denominations, who not unlike their brethren of the present, 
day, having exhausted the Bible, were driven to take their 
texts and inspiration from the newspapers and to hold forth 
on the last sensation. For these the public penance was a 
special blessing; they prepared for it by most elaborate ser- 
mons, knowing that they could seldom look for fuller houses 
and better opportunity for the display of their too often un- 
appreciated eloquence. By a happy unity of sentiment, de- 
lightful to notice in the disseminators of so many opposite 
doctrines and ever clashing creeds, these sermons all dis- 
played more or less animosity to Catholics, Papists and 
Romanists, as these high bred gentlemen nicknamed them 
and had for their general text the disloyalty of the Cath- 
olics in the United States, and the crying necessity of 
their extermination. Some of these sermons were so well 
liked that the amiable hearers obtained that they should 
be printed in the newspapers, even in pamphlet form; one 
preached by a Eev. Mr. Johnson of Huntingdon county, 
though mainly a re-hash of one got up by Dr. Smith of Phil- 
adelphia/ attracted considerable attention as it was particu- 
larly happy in its allusions to the pope, the priests, the Church 
in general. In this elegant discourse the Succesor of St. 
Peter was gracefully introduced as an old cow; the famous 
paintings at which the whole world has gazed in rapturous 
admiration for centuries, were defamed as the monstrous 
idols before which the heathen papists bent the servile knee; 
in a word, it contained all, or nearly all, the slanders which 
successive generations of heretics and infidels have been 
able to concoct against the Church of Christ. The Protes- 


tants were jubilant; if their minister had not, by prayer and 
fasting, -driven the British out of Washington, it was plain 
he had dealt the Catholics some staggering blows. 

So much was said of this master piece of pulpit eloquence 
that Dr. Gallitzin, judging that silence under all such attacks 
might be misunderstood, addressed the minister, through, the 
Huntingdon Gazette, demanding an apology and retraction 
of his slanders. This receiving no answer, he published 
several Letters explaining the true doctrine of the Church and 
answering such of the minister's objections as a gentleman 
could notice. 

These Letters created a great exiteuient, were soon pub- 
lished in one pamphlet, and went through many editions in a 
few years. Later they were enlarged " by permission of the 
author," somewhat toned down, diluted, changed in arrange- 
ment, and published in Baltimore as : "A Defence of Catholic 
Principles in a letter to a Protestant Clergyman, by Rev. Deme- 
trius A. Gallitzin.* Originally the signature was in full with 
his favorite addition Catholic Priest of Loretto, and was the 
first public use of his name beyond the columns of the 
newspapers of the vicinity. When he thus came out of 
the obscurity of his mountain , parish, and boldly advanced 
to take up the gauntlet for the Church, it was like the com- 
ing forth from their desert caves of Anthony and the old 
hermits into the streets of Alexandria and Kome, when perse- 
cution was at hand; their long silent lips pouring forth the 
hoarded eloquence of their prolific solitude, confounding the 
scholars, the great, and wise, hurling the thunderbolts of un- 
alterable truth in the face of despots; going about exhorting 
the timid, sustaining the weak, laying holy hands upon the 
heads so soon to wear the martyr's crown, gathering up sacred 
relics for generations to come, and when persecution dropped 
exhausted, returning to silence and the desert as before. 

By means of these letters Gallitzin, if we mistake not,, was 
the first in this country to enter the controversial lists in be- 
half of the Church. His success was from the beginning 

Now published by the Catholic Publication Society, .New York. 


most remarkable ; this and a second little book written some 
years later, have been translated into German and French, 
and widely circulated in England, Ireland, France and Ger- 
many, as well af all over the United States; it is said by 
American and Irish bishops and priests, who have ample op- 
portunities for judging, that they know of no books of their 
kind in the English language which have made so many con- 
verts. Hardly was the Defence published than he was ap- 
plied to for instruction and reception into the Church, by 
whole families of his own neighborhood, among ttiem persons 
who had been notoriously bitter against Catholics, while 
others came great distances for the same purpose, most 
of whom had never heard or read a word in explanation of 
the Church's doctrines beyond that contained in his letters 
to Mr. Johnson; after the publication of his second pamphlet, 
the Letter on tlie Holy Scriptures, as raany as seventeen stood 
up at one time in the little church at Loretto and made their 
profesion of faith. The incidents related in connection with 
these conversions are innumerable; one of the best known is, 
perhaps, that of Hayden Smith, the architect, son of Irish 
Protestants, brought up in such hatred of the Church that his 
father when dying, enjoined upon him never to associate 
with Catholics, or touch their books or anything' belonging 
to them, of course never to enter a Catholic church, if pos- 
sible to avoid living in the same town with Catholics. So 
solemn and earnest, we should say so horrible, was this death- 
bed injunction that It made the deepest impression and the 
youth determined to carry it out to the very letter; he jour- 
neyed from city to city in England, Ireland, Canada and the 
United States, but everywhere the cross was before him, the 
Catholics about him; finally, he found himself in one of the 
bitterest towns of Pennsylvania, where the most violent 
animosity to the Catholics was freely displayed. In that 
very stronghold of ignorance and prejudice, Mr. Smith met 
with a copy of the Defence of Catholic Principles, he was 
about to throw it down in disgust, when it occurred to him 
that nothing could afford him better arguments against the 
despised Catholics than one of their own absurd books; he 


read, and he believed; he could not doubt, was received into 
the Church, and spent the greater portion of his long life in 
planning Catholic churches; he was the architect of the brick 
church in Loretto, of St. -Mary's in Lancaster, and many 
others, and at the time of his death was occupied in beauti- 
fying the famous Central Park in New York. 

An Irish Protestant is a hard man to soften, but he is more 
than matched by an old fashioned Scotch Presbyterian. The 
first Protestant family to settle in the present Cambria 
county is believed to be that of John Douglas, a rigid Pres- 
byterian in whose mind the wars of the Stuarts was fresh 
and intensely clear. His descendants were not less bitterly 
anti-papist, never could they bring themselves to call Cath : 
olics by their right name, and in the midst of the Catholics 
constantly increasing about them, preserved all the bitter- 
ness and hatred of their creed and country, and being stal- 
wart, athletic men worthy of their famous name, gifted with 
"unco" power in argument, discussions with them were not 
very eagerly sought; one in particular seemed endowed with 
an especial gift for "rigging the papishers," as his neigh- 
bors expressed it; ridicule, contradiction, contempt, the 
most venemous abuse was always ready for the least allusion 
to anything Catholic, .while in argument he had the true 
Presbyterian long-windedness, only growing' more power- 
ful as his adversary's lungs and brains showed signs of 
weakness and- confusion; he not only had the Bible at his 
finger's end, but he could expound on any text,. "as good as 
any preacher," and interpret the knottiest point, the most 
confused metaphor, the most mystical expression with per- 
fect ease. It is true, he was not afraid of his enemy, and 
would listen very willingly to hear what his opponents 
might wish to say for themselves, but it sometimes appeared 
that the canny Scot only listened for a purpose, for he would 
forge weapons out of their own words' to fight them anew. 

It happened that this gentleman one morning called upon 
a Catholic family, whom he found at breakfast; as he had 
already breakfasted, he declined their invitation to join 
them, and took up a book with which to entertain himself 


while waiting; it proved to be a controversial work, such as 
Gallitzin approved of and was glad to see in the houses of 
his' parishioners. When about leaving Mr. Douglas asked 
permission to take it with him, but a young lady of the 
house said: " Oh, it is a religious book and I am sure you 
won't like it," but he insisted and carried it away with him, 
and it perhaps made a deeper impression upon him than he 
knew or would have owned to himself. He read the Hun- 
tingdon war sermon with triumphant delight, and looked for 
Gallitzin's letters with great eagerness, but their effect was 
very opposite to his expectations; he saw to his dismay that 
the arguments were unanswerable, and too brave a character 
to fail -acting in accordance with his convictions, he gave in 
his allegiance to the truth. Gallitzin welcomed him right 
warmly (an honest foe turned to a friend is far more to be 
loved arid trusted than one who is a little of each), and with 
a certain kindly humor peculiarly his own, very winning to 
a rugged, earnest nature. Dr. Gallitzin did not think it ne- 
cessary in this conversation to make any elaborate ^attack 
on Protestantism, for, like a house of cards, that uncertain 
structure does not require to be fought in detail, the very 
breath of truth passing by, makes it sh'ake and totter to its 
fall, and, perhaps, he shrewdly surmised that the affair 
would long ago have tumbled for Mr. Douglas, had not its 
crumbling sides been held together by the iron bands of ha- 
tred of the Church. In the end Mr. Douglas became a devout 
Catholic, an ardent champion of the religion he had so long 
abused, so much so that it was said there was not a layman 
far or near, who could so well explain and expound the Cathr 
olie doctrine as he; but this not without many trials, for his 
relatives were almost heartbroken at the change, and felt 
it as a disgrace to the family. It required the greatest ef- 
fort of Christian charity on his part to forgi-ve the Catholics 
of his early acquaintance for not knowing their religion bet- 
ter, and for letting him so often silence or. confuse them ia 
argument; he himself brought a number of others to .Gal- 
litzin for final instruction and reception into the Church. It 
was remarkable that Dr. Gallitzin's converts though not al- 


ways of high standing or wide influence, almost invariably 
brought him more, as if they could never rest until they 'had 
proved their gratitude to God for the grace bestowed upon 
them, by being his instrument in conveying the same glo- 
rious gift to others, which is, indeed, the feeling of all true 
converts, the world over. 

In those days the spirit which warred against the Church, 
though no more malicious than now, was less subtle and in- 
sidious; it was bold, vituperative, ill bred, very loud and 
vulgar; Gallitzin met it with manly courtesy and true Chris- 
tian charity. 

The Protestant minister had represented the Catholic reli- 
gion as the grossest superstition, and went over the huge 
catalogue of slanders with which we are as familiar as with 
the nursery story of the HOUSE THAT JACK BUILT, which is 
one much more logically founded and put together than the 
edifice of falsehood which is ever falling down, and ever 
being built up again by the votaries of error, who, as the 
world .goes on, pick up the dropping stones, laying them on 
again, anywhere where they can be made to stay, until the 
whole affair has come to present such an incongruous and 
unsafe appearance that its defenders are growing ashamed 
. of it themselves, and would willingly destroy it and build it 
anew, could they find any but the same old crumbling stones, 
thrown up in heretical eruptions, years 'ago, to do it with. 

Dr. Gallitzin took up the general charge of superstition, 
defined the word's meaning, and reviewed the doctrines of 
the Church to see if among them could be found one to 
agree with the definition and support the minister's accusa- 
tion. This- summary of the Catholic doctrine is brief, clear, 
and concise, every point supported by passages from Scrip- 
ture. This done he takes up "those tenets which distinguish 
the Catholic Church from all others", these are: Confession, 
the Holy Eucharist, the Sacrifice of the Mass, Communion 
under one kind or form, Purgatory and prayers for the dead, 
Honoring the Saints and applying for their intercession, Ve- 
neration of images, pictures and relics, and the Pope. In 
explanation of each he gives the real Catholic doctrine, the 


scriptural texts which support it, brief testimony of the 
Fathers of the Church, references to the Councils which have 
defined it, even the approval and belief of Protestant leaders, 
especially of the reformers, for it appears that each of these 
clung to some one doctrine of the Church, while rejecting' 
the rest, so that. among them all pretty much the whole 
truth may be found, broken, mutilated disfigured, buried in 
the rubbish of error, of no use to the owners, until they join 
hands, put what they have together and find completion in 
th Catholic Church. He then passes on to consider and re- 
fute the principal objections urged against these doctrines, 
and all this with such force and clearness, such unexpected 
and subtle charm of chosen words, with now and then a 
gleam of quiet humor, of keenest sarcasm,, that the attention 
is riveted to the least detail, and even the dryest explana- 
tion has its own fascination. When, by consideration of the 
doctrines peculiar to the Church, he has shown the charge 
of superstition to be entirely giTmndless, Gallitzin answers 
admirably the charge of intolerance, so often brought against 
the Church by those whose limited understanding can see 
no reason why truth should object to fraternize with error, 
and in conclusion adresses the minister directly, with true 
priestly dignity and soul stirring eloquence. 

The ministers had so long had it all their own way that 
a reply from the Catholic side had never entered their cal- 
culations; such an answer as this in language suited to the 
simplest intelligence, and yet taxing the profonndest intel- 
lect, by an evident masterhand, could not be passed over. 
The members of Mr. Johnson's congregation freely admitted 
their inability, to confute it, controversy was not their bus- 
iness, but it 'was their minister's, it was one of the things 
they had engaged him for, and they looked to him to de- 
molish his antagonist. Mr. Johnson spent nearly two years 
in preparing a reply which he entitled: A Vindication of the 
Reformation, in which he made a show of answering the ar- 
guments put forward in the DEFENCE, taking up certain 
minor points to which Gallitzin had alluded, and misquoting- 
his words with that lovely disregard for the sacredness of 


quotation marks which is the instinctive refuge of hunted 
error, all the world over; the rest of his pamphlet being 
made up of the old slanders, so fully met \>y the DEFENCE, 
and such other loud assertions of things he ranst have 
known to be false as his ingenuity could devise ov reading 
furnish, Gallitzin did not deem him worthy of reply, but ad- 
dressed an APPEAL TO THE PROTESTANT PUBLIC in which the 
weakness of the Vindication was thoroughly exposed, with 
an entreaty to right minded- people to seek the truth above 
all things. 

Mr. Johnson's congregation were so vexed at his failure 
to sustain his part in the controversy that they turned him 
off as an incompetent workman. This was manifest in- 
justice, for although the minister had not shown himself foc- 
man worthy of Gallitzin's steel, he had by no means fallen 
below his brethren in logic or in style; his Vindication as an 
argument for Protestantism was much superior to many 
more pretentious books published before and since in the 
same interest; but, unfortunately for his credit, his lot was 
cast among a set of people who did not understand the dif- 
ficulty of his position, and when they saw their cause get- 
ting the worst of it believed it to be all the fault of their 
champion. It is consoling to learn that, later, a number of 
Protestants who had taken part against him after his dis- 
comfiture, becoming better acquainted with the subject of 
discussion, openly acknowledged their injustice, for he had 
really gallantly defended a very weak cause. Gallitzin him- 
self, a few years afterwards, publicly 'thanked him for his 
Vindication which had considerably enlarged the congrega- 
tion of St. Michael's, and "if I had any favor," he said*, "to 
ask of the Protestant minister, it would be that he would 
please continue to write against" the Catholic Church, and to 
vindicate the doctrines of the reformation. I promise to 
make a good use of his writings, and to draw from them a 
great deal of useful information, for the conversion of all 
sorts of Protestants to the Catholic faith." 

* Preface to Letter on the Holy Scriptures. 


The DEFENCE was not only carefully read by many Pro- 
testants, and eagerly welcomed by all the Catholics of Penn- 
sylvania who had long borne the sneers and gibes of their 
Protestant neighbors, without any authority to show for 
their replies beyond their own word, but it was of the great- 
est service to the priests all over the country, who were, for 
the most part, the hard-working pastors of poor, despised and 
illiterate flocks, set in the midst of sharp Yankee wits and 
shrewd American Protestants not very well read, but with 
the Bible at their finger ends, as familiar to them as the 
Multiplication Table, men with keen, investigating minds, 
however narrow their mental vision, who could discuss reli- 
gion day in and day out, with Jew, Christian and Maho- 
medan, in season and out of sdason, with cheerful and serene 
disregard of all logical rules. Many of the priests had diffi- 
culty in speaking English fluently, and though of necessity 
patient and admirable controversialists once they set about 
it, had seldom half an hour to spare for an "argument"; the 
DEFENCE was short, cheap, suited to the most ordinary intel- 
ligence, if those who sought discussion were sincere they 
would find in the little pamphlet all explanation and instruc- 
tion that could be desired, if they were not sincere the less 
of our clergymen's precious time they took up in useless dis- 
course the better. "I am on my way to my native country 
(Orleans)," Rev. Stephen Badin wrote in May 1819," where 
I have family concerns to settle. I take with me your Apo- 
logy for the Catholic Religion" (Mr. Badin means DEFENCE, Gal- 
litzin was the last man in the world to make an apology for 
that which never could require one) "which will be a memo- 
randum ever de*r to me. I am informed that you are about 
to reply to an answer of the minister; it would be equally 
agreeable to me to take that additional token of your faith 
to Europe .... I have made remittances to the Rev. Mr. 
O'Brien for the one hundred copies of your work. ..." 

The Defence was written in the winter of 1814-15 and the 
Appeal to the Protestant Public, in consequence of the length 
of time required for the minister's rejoinder, full two years 
l^ter; but though the controversy ended there as far as dis- 


cussion between the original combatants was concerned, Dr. 
Grallitzin was not allowed to lay down his pen as easily as it 
had been taken up. He received letters from all parts of the 
country in relation to the subjects treated in his little book, 
and was drawn into correspondence with many Protestants, 
strangers to him, who wished to discuss further some points 
of difference between Catholics and Protestants, to whom he 
had not always time 'to reply; he was strongly urged to ap- 
pear once more in print and in a letter to one answer the 
questions and solve the doubts of many, who were not ready 
to acknowledge themselves convinced by what he had al- 
ready written, to which he finally consented, and in 1819 
SCRIPTURES, being a continuation of the Defence of Catholic 
Principles* already mentioned. This is a complete and 
elaborate refutation of the charge that the Catholic Church 
rejects the Bible, which was a famous accusation in those 
days, when nearly all the sects professed the most extra- 
ordinary reverence and affection for the Holy Scriptures, 
from which they drew the religion or creed which best suited 
themselves. It is written in a more polished and leisurely 
manner than the Defence, which was necessarily more of a 
summary, full of unction, and ardent charity, and lighted by 
his own peculiar humor, keen, delicate, lightly veiled, the 
gleam of summer sunshine through the fast falling rain of 
grave and earnest thoughts. After answering the absurd 
charge that the Church concealed the Scriptures, when it is 
to her alone we owe their preservation, proving the necessity 
of an infallible guide to make us sure that the Bible is really 
the word of God, devoting three chapters Jo the canon, the 
faithful translation and the true sense of Scripture, he explains 
some matters of Church discipline which distorted, like her 
doctrines, by those who hate her, had reached and troubled 
the mind of his "Protestant friend;" they haVe a whole re- 
pertory of these which they go through year after year, 
generation after generation, just as comfortably as though 

New York ; Catholic Publication Society, 


the calumnies had never been told or refuted before. In this 
Letter Gallitzin took up and explained the true meaning, 
history, or reason of adoption of the celibacy of the clergy, the 
Inquisition, works of superogation, persecution of Protestants, 
miracles wrought by priests and monks, and the celebration 
of Mass in an unknown tongue, and concludes: 
My dear Protestant brethren: 

"Do not be deceived; there is only ONE LOKD, ONE FAITH, 
AND ONE BAPTISM. (Eph. iv.) Only ONE church, raised by the 
hands of Jesus Christ, against which all the powers of hell 
shall never prevail. (Mat. xvi. 18.) Only ONE church in 
which the Spirit of Truth* abides for ever. (John, xiv. 16.) 
Only OXE ark of salvation, of which Jesus Christ is the pilot, 
until the consummation of the world. (Mat. xxviii. 20.) 
Whoever is not in that one only vessel shall suffer shipwreck; 
whoever will not hear that church will meet the fate of 
heathens and publicans. (Mat. xviii. It.) 

"To know all these things, my brethren, 

is so essentially necessary for salvation, and to know them 
is so completely impossible, without a divine infallible or 
unerring authority, that, to deny this infallible authority, 
so clearly and pointedly established by Christ, is to subvert 
the religion of Jesus Christ, and to establish in its place 
the fluctuating opinions of men. 

"Pray then, my friends, pray sincerely, that your eyes may 
be opened ; pray for humility to submit your understanding 
in all matters of religion to the dictates of the ancient church 
of Jesus Christ, which alone, is guided by the Spirit of Truth 
for ever, which alone is Catholic or .universal, spread among 
all nations and embracing about three-fourths of Christendom, 
which alone is the immaculate spouse of Christ, without spot 
or wrinkle." 

With these two volumes in their hands, there was little, 
if they dared to read them, left for Protestants to doubt or 
misunderstand. Gallitzin. never went out of his way to 
rcike converts, but as he said well:* "Protestants, as 

* Preface to Letter on the Holy Scriptures. 


long as I live I shall consider it my duty to undeceive 
you; to remove the prejudices in which you have been raised; 
to counteract the schemes by which the ministers of the pre- 
tended reformation have ever tried to render the Catholic 
Church odious and ridiculous. I shall never cease calling 
upon you in the name of your and my Saviour, to forsake the 
criminal schism in which you live, and to return to the pale 
of the Catholic Church from which your ancestors departed." 
He never permitted them to pass over the plain words of the 
Bible: who believeth not shall be condemned. Once they saw the 
necessity of a consistent religion their path to the Church 
lay plain enough before them, but'he was well aware that to 
know is not .always to do ; he did not expect intellectual con- 
viction to make men Catholics, it is not every one who has 
looked at the truth who is found worthy to receive it, and of 
all miseries what can be more poignant, more crushing, than 
to stand outside the barred gates of the Church, knowing 
heaven can be reached only through them, and lack the lov- 
ing will to throw one's sins or worldly belongings behind and 
enter in ! So to his instructions Gallitzin added the sweet 
example of a most beautiful life, fasted, prayed, and endured , 
many mortifications for others' sake, obtaining grace for 
many a wavering one to walk firmly over the pitfalls of 
doubt and temptation into the safety of the Church; he 
seemed given a special wonderful power to melt their hearts 
as the rock of old undSr Aaron's rod; his voice, his eyes, his 
least touch was magnetic, ever more so as years passed on, 
and he grew thinner and more saintly in his appearance, as 
if the soul, for which his body was but the slight, transpar- 
ent shell, was every day increasing its dominion, shining out 
fairer and stronger, and mastering the base material in all 
others. Great, hearty, blustering men, full of their own con- 
ceits, would come to out-argue the frail and low-voiced priest, 
and when they had been a few minutes in his presence for- 
got every argument so carefully impressed on their memory 
before coming, or felt what they would say answered before 
spoken," dissolving into puerility as they were about to sound 
it forth; even strangers passing him in the street, having no 


idea who he was, and merely glancing indifferently at him 
have mentioned the singular impression made npon them, as 
in the instant of passing, the bright, gleaming eyes with 
one glance startled and aroused them as from sleep, puzzling 
and piercing them through with a passing look, and in more 
than one case the most unexpected results followed words 
and actions of his, apparently certain of producing the very 
opposite effect. 

The story is told or' ;i stranger going, as the Protestants 
of the whole neighborhood often did, to the church at Lor- 
etto to hear "Priest G-allitzin" preach, -- his sermons were 
much like his writings, animated, always dignified, and 
pointed, who found it so crowded that he could only get 
about half way tip the stairs to the choir, where he stood 
wedged in with others pressed out like himself, who, being 
Catholics, were all devoutly kneeling, which he scorned 
to do. He was gazing . intently at the " popish " altar, 
with due disgust for Hie prostrate crowd, standing more 
upright and rigid as he marked their lowliness, when the 
priest, in his cassock, came to the stairs above him: sud- 
denly a hand jus-t touched his shoulder, as Gallitzin said, 
gently: "Every one kneels here," and he told afterwards, 
that the instant the priest touched him, he felt as if he had 
been struck by lightning, his knees trembled and gave way 
before the last word was spoken, so that he could not have 
stood again during the service had he- tried. 

Usually a look, to a stranger, however obdurate and deter- 
mined, was enough, but once a look did not suffice. One of 
his most trusted parishioners had married a Protestant lady 
residing some distance from Loretto, whom he brought home 
with him, to the no small distraction of his neighbors, for 
she was plentifully supplied with all the fine fashions which 
had- been so rigidly excluded from Father Gallitzin's con- 
gregation. She was very much "down" on the Catholics, 
although she had so far conquered her distaste as to marry 
one, probably expecting him to beep his religion entirely 
in the background. She listened rather contemptuously to 
the conversations in which the pastor of Loretto was men- 


tioned, and understood that he was law and gospel for the 
poor, benighted people surrounding her, which, likely, height- 
ened her antagonism and strengthened her opposition to him, 
his Church, and all connected with his religion or influence; 
but of this she said little, and consented, to her husband's 
delighted surprise, to accompany him to church on the Sun- 
day following her removal to Loretto. Naturally her ap- 
pearance was an event; she was large and fine looking, 
handsomely dressed, thorough mistress of herself, and stood 
conspicuously on tho women's side, near the boundary line, 
calmly but intently watching every movement of the priest, 
too well bred to affect indifference, vulgar curiosity or to 
show fatigue. The least irregularity, the slightest move- 
ment, not in order, of any of his congregation, never failed 
to attract Dr. Gallitzin's attention, drawing upon the offender 
a rebuke as straight and swift as a flash of lightning; no one 
ventured to watch the new comer lest they should be sud- 
denly in disgrace, but those whose hearts were not as ab- 
sorbed in their prayers as they should have been, though 
they knelt like marble statues, motionless, expected every 
second to hear the very rafters tremble at his voice comman- 
ding her to kneel. But Mass went on quietly, and whenever 
they dared steal a look from under demure eyelashes at the 
stranger, they saw her standing unflinchingly, steadily, 
quietly watching all that was passing at the altar; whatever 
distress the irreverence caused Father G-allitzin he made no 
sign, until his very silence became more oppressive to the 
others than the most ringing command, perhaps he saw 
what no one else did. that in her defiance there was no bold- 
ness, nor thought of what she was doing, but a simple de- 
termination naver to bend her knee to the idols of the 
heathen. Finally, he turned to give communion, facing the 
congregation, the chalice in his hands; before giving the 
absolution, he looked at -her signing to her with, that look to 
kneel; but she confronted him with perfect calmness, gazed 
straight at him, and remained standing as a sentry at his 
post; then his eyes flashed with the eagle look that terrified 
the children, and before which an army might well go down 

as one man,. but she did not waver even when he motioned 
to her to kneel; then he said in a low voice, never disobeyed 
before, "Kneel down, woman, kneel down!" but she changed 
neither her attitude nor expression, though around her the 
women and girls nearly fainted in terror, half expecting 
some visible judgment from heaven to fall upon them all, in 
revenge for the disobedience to God's minister, the irreve- 
rence to the Blessed Sacrament; an instant after, as the thun- 
der breaks through the dark, intolerable calm before the 
storm, it came again, crashing through the church, far be- 
yond the church, terrible in wrath: " WOMAN, KNEEL DOWN"; 
and she knelt ; not the stoutest oak of the forest but 
would crouch before the tornado of those three words thus 

He went on with the remainder of the Mass, unagitated, 
stately, gentle, reverential as ever. But he had not forgot- 
ten what had occurred. After Mass he always read the 
Gospel of the day in English and in German, and gave his 
sermon; for his English sermon of this day he made some, 
remarks telling why he could not give communion while any 
head was unbowed or knee unbent, because it is the body 
and blood of Christ, actually present. 

"You who are Catholics," he said, "know well that the 
Sacrifice of the Mass at which you have just assisted, is 
the greatest of all Sacrifices, of which the offerings of the 
Old Law, the most holy and the most sacred which the world 
knew of for thousands of years, were but figures and types. 
You know what terrible punishments were inflicted by God 
upon the Israelites for the least transgression of the ceremo- 
nies prescribed for their sacrifices, the least irreverence in 
holy places; if then, so much, under such dreadful penalties, 
.was required for the type what must be the demand for the 
reality, and the punishment of transgression?" He then 
spoke of the awfulness of the Sacrament for which the Mass 
was a preparation and a thanksgiving, and of the grief caused 
to every Catholic heart by any irreverence to it, so much 
so that for ages people have devoted their lives to prayers 
and mortification and adoration in reparation for the cold- 

. 324 

ness and disrespect of the world, while others have gladly 
laid down their lives to preserve it from insult. Why this 
belief should be held he explained at length, giving the his- 
tory of the institution of this most holy Sacrament, and a 
most clear and thorough account of the doctrine concerning 
which even the disciples exclaimed: TJiis is a hard saying; 
who can believe it. 

All this was spoken in a kindly manner, but full of autho- 
rity, as of a father explaining to his children, and like all his 
sermons was given in language so concise, so free from ver- 
biage of ornament or repetition, that no one could fail to un- 
derstand and remember it; many old persons whose memory 
was never cultivated, could repeat in their old age instruc- 
tions he had given from the altar when they were but chil- 
dren, and this when thej 7 could hardly remember anything 
else. Generally he spoke quietly, but, at times, as on this 
occasion, his deep emotion would burst the bonds of self im- 
posed restraint, his eyes would light up, his voice round to 
wondrous power and flexibility, and words of burning elo- 
quence come forth as from lips verily touched with sacred 
fire, until recollecting himself, he would force it back, and 
resume his calm, explanatory manner. 

It was impossible to tell from the attitude of the lady who 
had given occasion for this incident, if she were staing* to 
indignant resentment, ready to break forth at -any moment, 
of if she were deeply and seriously offended beyond all future 
forgiveness; as she made no allusion to what had occurred, 
but refused to go again to church, to mention the subject of 
religion, or to read a Catholic book, her husband and family 
felt convinced it was an anger which would never pass 
away, and they deeply regretted that she had gone to church 
at all, since Dr. -Gallitzir) was so uncompromising, and de- 
void of tact. 

"It is all up with her becoming a Catholic now," her hus- 
band said to his friends, "Dr. Gallitzin has settled that ques- 
tion," forgetting there was no question to settle, for she had 
never given the least hope of any change. "There was no 
occasion for such severit}'; ray wife has been accustomed to 


kindness and respect, all her life, and now she is dead set 
against everything Catholic." ' 

"Now, John," some one replied, "Yon have been so much 
among Protestants that you think too much of them. You 
know very well that a priest could not give communion with 
a person standing up -in that way. T only wondered he 
didn't come out with it sooner. 1 never knew him wait so 
long before." 

In a short timo the young 1 couple moved away from Lor- 
etto, the husband still feeling' sore against its pastor, for his 
lack of conciliation, none the less so, that no one quite sym- 
pathized with him. About six months afterwards a lady ac- 
companied by a young relative came to the village, and send- 
ing her escort in another direction went alone to the priest's 
house. Dr. Gallitzin received her, as he did every one, with 
a, cordial smile and a hospitable welcome, but without res- 
ponding to his courtesy, she said: "I do not suppose you 
know me, Sir; I am Mrs. So and So, the woman you told to 
kneel down in church about six months ago," as if that an- 
nouncement would surely chill his reception of her, but he 
continued smiling, rather amused by her stiffness and expec- 
tation of severity from him. When she was seated, he 
looked up brightly to hear what she had to say, and when 
she reminded him that she was the Protestant wife of a Cath- 
olic husband, he answered frankly: 

"I know it, I was very sorry indeed that one of my 'best 
parishioners should have married outside the Church." 

" You do not approve of the marriage of Catholics and 
Protestants ?" 

" By no means," with emphasis, "the Church disapproves 
of it most decidedly, and I never permit it in my congrega- 

"But what could you expect John to do," she asked, "if 
we loved each other and were otherwise suited?" 

"Did he not instruct you in the Catholic religion?" 

"I would not listen to one word about it." 

"Djd he not give you any books to read ?" 

"I would not have touched them." 

__ 326 

"He did very wrong," replied the priest gravely, "I would 
not have thought it possible one of my own boys that I hav 
instructed from his cradle, would have done such a thing- j 
he should have explained his religion to you." 

The lady smiled a little; the priest- unconsciously assumed 
that had she known she would, of course, have believed. " I 
have come to you now to know if you will receive me," she 
answered. He brightened up with almost childlike joy, and 
answered warmly: "Ah, I ought to know John would attend 
to his duty! So he has explained to you?" 

" John has nothing to do with it," she replied, " I have 
never said one word about it, but I have believed the Cath- 
olic religion to be the true one from the moment you told me 
to kneel down that day in church. I never had an idea that 
Catholics really believed as they said in the Real Presence 
and other things, but I knew you did or you would not have 
spoken to me, and as 1 knelt I believed myself." 

" Why did you not come sooner?" 

"I wanted to be calm about it, and, besides, all my hus- 
band's relations wanted to convert me, and force me into the 
Church to please him." 

Gallitzin understood perfectly, and did not too severely 
rebuke the natural pride which had endeavored to show she 
had become a Catholic from conviction, not from compliance, 
or the influence of affection. Great was the surprise and 
joy of all when, having been duly prepared, she came out 
and bravely announced herself a Catholic. Afterwards she 
removed with her husband to Baltimore where he acquired 
a large fortune, and high social standing, establishing a 
character for uprightness and charity which was more pre- 
cious still, and which his wife fully sustained. 

Thus by his writings, his personal influence, the light of 
his own faith, his saintly life, assisted by the piety and 
virtue of his once obdurate congregation, now thoroughly 
devoted to their religion in practice as in theory, Father Gal- 
litzin enlivened the faith in many cold and indifferent hearts, 
and brought into the fold of the Church many and many of 
those stray sheep for whom the Good Shepherd searches so 


anxiously. So many were prepared by reading and by his 
indirect influence, whom he could not personally address, 
that he needed to call them together by a public announce- 
ment, one of the most curious of advertisements, which ap- 
peared in the Cambi'ia County Gazette in 1825: 


"A certain number of Protestants having: mani- 
fested a great desire of becoming- members of the 
Roman Catholic Church, I hereby acquaint the said 
Protestants, and the public in general, that I have 
appointed the Second Sunday after Easter (17. April), 
for admitting them into the Church, according to the 
Rites and Ceremonies of the Roman Ritual. 

"Demetrius A. Gallitzin, 

Parish Priest. 
"Loretto, March 22, 1825." 

This was 'responded to by calls for the necessary prepara- 
tion, and a large group was received into the Church at the 
time specified, and many more during the summer. 



Death of Archbishop Carroll. Of Mr. Nagot. Withdrawal from th 
Society of Saint Sulpice. Bishop Egan. Philadelphia difficulties. 
Bishop Gonwell. Father G-allitzin's plan for a diocese in Western 
Pennsylvania. Bishoprics refused by him. Death of Rev. Mr. Heil- 
bron. Appointment of Rev. F. X. O'Brien. Irish laborers. Rev. C. 
B. Maguire. Rev. T. McGirr. European affairs and marriage of the 

In the meantime inaiiy changes more or less directly af- 
fecting the pastor and people of Loretto, were taking place in 
the outside world. On the 3rd of December 1815 Archbishop 
Carroll breathed his last, at the age of eighty, after quarter 
of a century's service in the episcopal chair; a loss which 
caused Father Gallitzin double sorrow, for he mourned in 
the venerable prelate not only the deeply lamented father of 
the Church in the United States, but a friend and spiritual 
guide, who had been the first to receive him when he came 
in his youth to this country, a haughty young prince, full of 
ambition and affections long repressed, and yet a lonely boy 
in the crisis days of his life, had opened for him the gates 
of his ministry, and for twenty years had received his un- 
limited confidence, his unvarying reverence and affection. 
He could never enough admire the calm and prudent judg- 
ment, the cool, collected bearing, which distinguished the 
archbishop, and were so far beyond the reach of his own 
fiery and impetuous temperament; under the most trying 
circumstances their mutual esteem and affection seemed only 


to brighten and increase, continuing unabated even when the 
priest and his charge had passed to the jurisdiction of an- 
other bishop. 

Archbishop Carroll was succeeded by Rev. Leonard Neale 
who had been his venerable coadjutor; at this time there" 
were in the whole United States but eighty-five priests, of 
whom forty-six belonged to the diocese of Baltimore.* Arch- 
bishop Neale was already seventy years old, and laden with 
infirmities; he died in June 181*1, and was succeeded by Rev. 
Ambrose Marechal. 

Only a few months after the death of Archbishop Carroll 
Father Gallitzin in common with the whole Church in Amer- 
ica, was called upon to mourn the loss of his early director 
and superior, Rev. Francis Nagot. Although Father Gal- 
litzin had joined the Society of Saint Sulpice while yet a 
deacon, and to the end of his life looked upon the seminary, 
where he was greatly beloved, as his home whenever he 
went to Baltimore, the great financial difficulties in which he 
had of late years been involved by the failure of his Euro- 
pean remittances, caused him, with characteristic delicacy, 
to gradually avoid appearing as a Sulpitian, lest his tem- 
poral troubles might indirectly reflec.t discredit upon the 
Society, or possibly convey the idea that the seminary was 
in some way responsible for his debts, in which his superiors 
tacitly concurred, but this by no means diminished the af- 
fection existing between him and the venerable president, 
who 'had spoken so bravely and firmly for him in the days 
when 'alt his friends united t6 oppose his entrance into "the 
priesthood. He revered the president as he did the "arch-' 
bishop; as fathers of his clerical state; their loss left him the ' 
more desolate because they' alone' on this side of the ocean/ 
had known his mother's character and devotion, and by heir 
correspondence with her up to the time of her death, had 
linked themselves 1 with her in his thoughts, so that their 
death seemed to renew hers. 

Shea's History, p. 93. 


When his charge passed from the Baltimore diocese to the 
new diocese of Philadelphia, Bishop Egan made no changes 
in his regard, but left him to go on in his own way with his 
work. Only one thing had he desired of the bishop but this 
without avail: that he would visit the interior of the state, 
and administer confirmation to all his congregations. Bish- 
op Carroll had attempted to do so, but when he. got so far. as 
Chambersburg the accounts given him of the terrible stale .of 
the" country, its .wild -forests, its impassable, roads, its. entire 
lack of accommodation, so alarmed him that he turned back, 
and those who desired to : receive the strengthening sacrament 
and could; afford the journey were obliged to go to Baltimore 
for .it; Bishop Egan ,did reach Pittsburg, which .was a faat- 
growing .town, wher.e the Catholics were just beginning. to 
rise from a most deplorable, condition of spiritual poverty 
and -ignorance, having been until late years entirely without 
a priest, save when Father Heilbron, at long intervals,. was 
able to visit them and say Mass in an old house hardly be.tter 
than a. stable, and also Brownsville where he celebrated Mass 
and- administered confirmation in Major Noble's log cabin, 
but avoided as much as he could the rough interior, much as 
his heart must, have yearned to leave the ninety-nine .and 
seek .the' one lost in. its wildernesses, this probably on .ac- 
cqunt of the hatdj travelling : and the great expense, the only 
mode of -travelling practicable being on horseback; the con- 
gregations however desirous 4x> see a bishop among. them 
were unable to provide for him,, and,, he himself felt .too poor 
to. undertake., the long and toilsome., journey on his own ; ac- 
count... .This:: was a.bitter.;disappqintment -to the pastor,, who 
burned, to, Qbtajji this blessing for his people, se.t in .the mids,t 
of temptations ; o_f all, kinds,; and greatly in .need .of the strong, 
sustaining and steadfast gifts ? .of - the Ilply, Ghost .to enable 
.them .to battle manfujly against all outer -and..inaejr. foes, to in virtue and . preserve their faith ..-.through . all 
things; there is no doubt that he was fully .resolved .the 
moment he received his patrimony to cheerfully bear the 
whole burden of expense, the whole labor of providing en- 
durable means of travelling, smoothing by every effort of 


self-sacrifice and unlimited devotion the rugged mountain 
ways, if by so doing- he could enable a bishop to reach his 
congregations. . . 

Bishop Egan was a man of the most edifying piety and 
exemplary virtue, but it has been thought he lacked spirit 
and firmness in the matter of the Philadelphia church troubles, 
which rapidly grew beyond his control and undoubtedly 
shortened the years of his life; he died in 1814, and the 
greatest difficulty was experienced in finding a willing suc- 
cessor to his thorny mitre. It was first offered to Rev. Mr. 
Marechal, on his refusal to Rev. Mr. David, who hastily de- 
clined it, then to Rev. Louis de Earth who had administered 
the affairs of the diocese since the death of the bishop with 
signal ability, but, perhaps because he knew better than any 
one else the difficulties of the position, he more positively and 
determinedly refused to hear of it, and it was finally bestowed 
upon Rev. Henry Conwell, Vicar-general of the diocese of 
Armagh, Ireland, a venerable clergyman, past seventy years 
of age, who ignorant of the state of affairs, accepted, was 
consecrated in London, immediately embarked for the United 
States, and entered into possession .in 1820, perhaps" as little 
fitted by age, temperament, and association to put down a 
fierce rebellion as any man who could have been chosen. 

There was one person, much nearer the scene of action, 
who alone appears to have had the necessary force and firm- 
ness, the indomitable courage, and the all-mastering will to 
face and to thoroughly conquer the storm the others dared 
not meet; it was the place for Father Gallitzin's immense 
faith and magnificent spirit; he alone appears endowed with 
that lion like nature, fortified by long trials and experienced 
in the wickedness of rebellious man,-, inspired and strength- 
ened beyond all human force by the battle cry forever in his 
ears : God wills it, which fears not, single handed, to meet a 
legion of enemies. But a superior wisdom so ordered it that 
the evil thing should have its day and run its course. 

Father Gallitzin had already been many times proposed 
for ne.w bishoprics, and had steadily refused, finally stating 


his reasons in a letter to Bishop Flaget,* when becoming ac- 
quainted with the proposal to nominate him Bishop of Cin- 
cinnati, and afterwards to Archbishop Marechal when nomi- 
nated or Detroit, in such clear and decided manner, dwelling 
upon the position in which he stood towards his present 
charge, that it was plainly understood he was in earnest in 
his refusal, and would never voluntarily accept any position, 
however desirable, which should separate him from those 
who had become dependent upon him as upon a temporal 
and spiritual father, and for some years his peace was not 
disturbed by such proposals. For a time they had made him 
very unhappy, .the fear that his objections would be over- 
ruled hung over him for many weeks, and when, at one 
time, all appearances indicated that he would be forced to 
accept a distant bishopric he was so depressed at the idea 
of going among strangers, of being placed in such an exalted 
position, from which his humility revolted all the more that 
he had the very highest idea of its dignity and responsibi- 
lities that his trouble communicated itself to his parishioners, 
and many of them came to feel almost as grieved for the dis- 
tress it would be to him, as for the loss to themselves, and a 
great number were prepared to go with him, if he were 
forced to accept, that they might not be deprived of his care 
and he not be left alone among new scenes and new people. 
But in regard to the Philadelphia diocese it is possible, in 
view of the bitter troubles there, and its comparative near- 
ness to Loretto which would still be in his charge, he might 
have been induced to accept had it been offered, but in that 
case it is hardly likely that the schism would have had full 
opportunity to manifest its malignity, or the tares been per- 
mitted to grow with the wheat until harvest time. 

Biit though Father Gallitzin escaped the well known Phil- 
adelphia rebellion, he was not wholly relieved from the ne- 
cessity of facing other troubles which rent his heart to see, 
and roused his very soul to meet. One Of Bishop Conwell's 
first acts had been to appoint the pastor of Loretto vicar- 

* Lift of Bishop Maget, by Archbishop Spaulding, pp. 166, 216, 250. 


general of Western Pennsylvania, as he had been in reality 
for many years, all the congregations and the priests who 
from time to time officiated there looking up to him for ad- 
vice for the settlement of difficulties of all kinds, but as the 
bishop did not define the limits of his jurisdiction he did not 
for some time exercise it in any formal manner. 

In "Westmoreland county, or that part of it which was in 
Mr. Heilbron's charge, the Catholics were very badly off in- 
deed ; the land left by Mr. Brauers, for lack of means to cul- 
tivate and keep it up failed to supply even the simple wants 
of good old Father Heilbron, while the congregations he was 
still able to attend having every reason to believe that 
were he a better farmer it would be fully sufficient, and feel- 
ing their purses well emptied by the expense of putting up a 
shed-church next his unfinished log-hotise, for which even 
the nails were an important item procured only with the 
greatest difficulty and at great price, paid him no salary, so 
that towards the end of his life, when his health and strength 
failed him his poverty was very great, until the congregations 
under his immediate care made him up a sum which secured 
him from actual need; he grew very feeble and was besides 
painfully afflicted by a tumor in the neck, for which he was 
induced to make a journey to Philadelphia, where the physi- 
cians advised him not to attempt having it removed; on his 
return he was obliged to rest at Carlisle, and his health not 
improving was overpersuaded to have the tumor taken out, 
after which he sank rapidly, and died there in 1815 or 16, at 
about seventy years of age; he was buried near the sacristy 
of St. Patrick's church. He was a most estimable priest, a 
courteous whole-souled gentleman, cheerful, affable, kind to 
all, excellent company and most thorough and exact in his 
spiritual duties, with a soldier like discipline and careful re- 
gard to details very rare to meet; his life in Westmoreland 
county was a most laborious one, and as he was past fifty 
when appointed to share with Father Gallitzin the immense 
district, now forming the dioceses of Pittsburg and Erie, his 
endurance appears almost miraculous. For the greater part 
of the first year of his missionary duties he attended mainly 


to the Catholics within comparatively easy reach of " Sports- 
man's Hall,'' as they had been so long without a priest, and 
required constant attention, instruction, and all the efforts of 
a zealous pastor to secure them in the practices of their re- 
ligion; as soon as this was done he sought out Catholics 
everywhere, riding as Father G-allitzin in his district, thirty 
. and forty miles to say Mass for two or thrjee families in some 
lonely forest, with the same interest and willingness with 
which he visited the larger settlements, the principal of 
which were: Brownsville on the banks of the Monongahela 
River at the boundary of Fayette and Washington counties; 
the "Settlement," near Jacob's Creek, between Mount Plea- 
sant, Westmoreland and Connellsville, Fayette County; Pitts- 
burg, Redbank, Clarion County; Slippery Rock, Butler County, 
and Buffalo Creek, Armstrong County. After his death some 
of his parishioners moved to different parts of the state, and 
others unable to preserve their faith through the trials and 
spiritual neglect which ensued, fell away from their religion 
altogether; these were principally Irish families; but the 
generality retained the impress of his priestly care and im- 
parted it to their descendants, missionaries who have since 
attended congregations once under his charge, most of whom 
were baptized by him, have joyfully observed the quiet and 
regularity with which they attended to their spiritual duties, 
without any of the extravagances and^ eccentricities of 
superficial piety, and the order and harmony of their sober, 

industrious lives.* 

Shortly before the division of the original Baltimore 
diocese, Bishop Carroll appointed Rev. G. F. X. O'Brien, 
une of the earliest priests ordained by him, pastor of 

* The greatest gratitude is due to Very Rev. James A. Stillinger for 
these reminiscenses of Rev. Mr. Heilbron, whose apostolic labors for 
sixteen long years under the most trying circumstances, have been en- 
tirely overlooked by our historians. Very Rev. Mr. Stillinger has made 
it a labor of love to collect and preserve the memory of his venerable 
predecessor in the Westmoreland mission, and to keep'alive the recol- 
lection of his edifying virtues and inestimable services to the Church in 
the United States. 


Pittsburg, where there were not more than twenty Cath- 
olics, thus relieving Mr. Heilbron of the stations in its vici- 
nity and farthest from " Sportsman's Hall". Father Gallitzin 
had earnestly entreated that Mr. O'Brien might be permitted 
to reside with him as assistant in his burdensome mission, 
for he knew him to be just such a priest as he would desire 
to have associated with him in his labors, but the bishop 
thought best to place him at Pittsburg within reach of the 
older missionary. He visited Mr. Heilbron, probably for the 
first time, on the feast of All Saints, Nov. 1. 1808, shortly 
after his ordination, and then set about building St. Patrick's 
church in Pittsburg, riding on horseback from there to Bal- 
timore and back to obtain contributions from priests and 
laity; Bishop Carroll also subscribed liberally for it. 
. Besides attending this church, the Catholics in Brownsville 
and vicinity, he made occasional visits to Erie, where Mr. 
Heilbron had established a station, and at times, during Mr. 
Heilbron's sickness visited Greensburg, Sportsman's Hall, 
and Butler connty, that these congregations might not be 
too long deprived of the sacraments and of the Holy Sacrifice. 
But though there were now three missionaries laboring in the 
field where there had so long been but two, Father Gallitzin 
obtained no relief from his burden, on the contrary, as time 
passed and the country filled up more rapidly, he found his 
own portion heavily increasing, while Mr. Heilbron's failing 
health obliged him to have an anxious care for those nearest 
his own district and beyond their pastor's ever shortening 
reach. After Mr. Heilbron's death, he and Mr. O'Brien had 
all upon their shoulders while awaiting the appointment 
of another pastor; Mr. O'Brien felt the strain greatly and his 
health very soon showed signs of breaking, under the accu- 
mulation of hardships and solicitude, which had so long 
weighed upon his co-laborer. But as if their situation were 
not already hard enough it was decreed that a national turn- 
pike should be made through TJniontown, Fayette County, 
and Brownsville, a state road from Chambersburg to Bed- 
ford, thence over the Alleghany mountains to Greensburg 
and Pittsburg, and still another from Harrisburg to Hunting- 


don, thence to Holidaysburg, by way of Ebensburg to Pitts- 
burg; to be built by Irish laborers, Catholics, who rapidly 
emigrated to "this country and lined the sides of the projected 
roads,*, all clamorous for the attendance of a priest, and 
only these two missionaries, already pressed beyond en- 
durance, to find time to visit them in their rough unfurnished 
shanties, put up for the moment's shelter, to say Mass on 
such a temporary altar as could be made from a few boards 
placed over barrels, when such props could be obtained which 
was only in the more luxurious quarters, eating, sleeping 
among them, and, it may be truly said, edified by them, for 
never does our religion appear more sublime, more catholic, 
than under such circumstances. Finally, in 1811, a new 
priest, Rev. Charles B. Maguire, arriving in this country, the 
administrator of the diocese, Very Rev. Louis de Barth, has- 
tened to request him to take Mr. Heilbron's place at Sports- 
man's Hall, as it continued to be styled. ~ ; Mr. Maguire ac- 
cepted the charge, and .having relatives in Cambria county, 
visited Father Gallitzin on the way, preaching a German 
sermon in the Loretto church, while the pastor, -who was al- 
ways regarded as a German, gave an English exhortation, 
somewhat to the surprise of .the faithful who said* "Here an 
-Irishman preaches in German and a German in English!" 

Mr. Maguire was born in the County of Tyrone, Ireland, 
Dec. 16, 1710, just six days previous to Father Gallitzin's 
birth, in Holland; was educated at the propaganda, where 
he was ordained, and sent to Germany. His adventures 
there and afterwards in France during the stormiest days of 
the Revolution, his narrow escapes would fill a volume. At 
the time of his arrival in this country he was in the full 
vigor of his manhood, tall and portly,. of a commanding pre- 
sence, with a good -humored, highly colored countenance, a 
rich, sonorous voice, ready command of language;- a pop- 
ular preacher with no apparent predilections for the caves 

* Again thanks to Very Kev." Mr. Stillingsr. Much confusion has 
hitherto existed in regard to Mr. O'Brien, on account, of different ways'. 
of spelling his name. He himself wrote it as here given. 


of Egypt or the rocks of Subiaco, but one who thoroughly 
appreciated an easy chair, a dinner well served, a good story 
well told; jovial, witty, equal to any emergency, and over- 
powering in argument He was heartily welcomed by the 
Catholics of his new charge, and as "Sportsman's Hall" 
wore a very poverty-stricken appearance, it was thought by 
some of the flock to be entirely unworthy of so fine a per- 
sonage, an<l an effort was made to have an exchange effected 
between it and Loretto, at which it is needless to say Father 
G-allitzin's long silenced enemies took heart and hope, but 
only for a moment, for the plan failed ignominiously. 

The aspect of the farm at Sportsman's Hall was desolate 
indeed. Nothing could better illustrate the wisdom of 
Father Gallitzin's course in personally assuming all the 
debts of the church in his mission, retaining the land bought 
for it out of his own money, in his own name, to the en- 
durance of the odium and distress occasioned by the neces- 
sary expense of keeping it up which he was so often unable 
to meet, than the troubles occasioned by the opposite way of 
necessity pursued in Westmoreland. There a few hundred 
acres of land given to the church some ten years previous to 
his purchase, had proved for already over twenty-five years 
a source of continual expense, of long litigation, of quarrels 
innumerable, unproductive, worse than useless, for lack of 
means or credit on the part of pastor or people to keep it 
in order, even to give it the first necessary cultivation. 
When it was clearly settled by the famous trial, that it 
should remain the property of the church as it was known 
Mr. Braiiers intended, subject to the reverend occupant duly, 
appointed, it was found necessary to let out portions of it, 
as the only means of getting it cleared and" cultivated, but 
the tenants generally failed to make a living from it, no one 
having money enough to start it, as Father G-allitziri had : his; : 

: ' By 1 the 'ad Vice of Mr. O'Brien ' the ' congregation 'prepared- - 
for Mr. Heilbron's successor by finishing the log .house, 
he had left, adding a new room to it. There had been a 
barn on the premises for many years but as it was now 
nearly in ruins, Mr. Maguire, who, like his predecessors in- 


tended to "farm" the land, promised the congregation if 
they would put him up a new one, he would go to. Europe 
and collect money enough to build' them a brick church on 
the site designated by Father Brauers, but he was not able to 
do so, although the congregation at once generously ac- 
ceeded to his request, taking upon themselves the whole 
labor and expense which, for those times and their means, 
was very great indeed. Mr. Maguire, who had his brother 
and sister with him, found himself unable to bear the tem- 
poral difficulties and spiritual burdens his position imposed 
upon him, and in 1820 retired to Pittsburg, to the great dis- 
satisfaction of the people who had done their best to keep 
Mm, and were distressed at the prospect of being again 
without a resident pastor. 

Mr. O'Brien's -health had become so much impaired by his 
laborious life, that he was obliged at this time to yield up 
his charge, and retire to Maryland, where he died on the feast 
of All Saints 1832, just twenty-four years from the day he 
first visited Mr. Heilbron at Sportsman's Hall. 

"I became acquainted with Rev. Father O'Brien," writes 
Rev. Mr. Stillinger, " at Conewagq whilst I was a student 
at Mt. St. Mary's .... He related to me some of his hardships 
on the mission in Western Pennsylvania. I did not think 
at that time that I should be going over the same ground. 
His health was delicate and his constitution so much im- 
paired that he had no hopes of recruiting it again. He was, 
however, pleasant and cheerful, and his conversation very^ 
edifying and agreeable." 

..By Mr. O'Brien's retirement Mr. Maguire became pastor of 
St. Patrick's, the Westmoreland Catholics were again with- 
out a shepherd, and once more Western Pennsylvania was 
shared by two priests. Mr. Maguire, however, made one or 
two visits to his .former charge, where his brother still re-' 
tained possession of the farm, and Bishop Conwell ; ' being 
now settled in Philadelphia, appointed Rev. Terrence McGirr 
resident pastor, who arrived in 1821, but was not able to . ' 
move at once to Sportsman's Hall, as Mr. Maguire's brother 
was yet ther 

. __ 339 

Mr. McGirr was just such an Irish priest as we some- 
times read about, but now rarely meet; he was good at 
heart, devoted to his religion, equal to any hardship it might 
require of him, humble, simple minded, sound and ripe with- 
in undoubtedly, but with the roughest and most prickly 
outer shell, entirely undisturbed by the ufeual conventional- 
ities of life, and, unfortunately, as careless of the decorum 
and dignity his sacred profession required; his manner of 
speaking from the altar was the same he used in ordinary 
life, and in ordinary life it was rough, unreserved, often 
harsh and in the last degree overbearing. Father G-al- 
litzin had only time to thank God for a third missionary, 
before his heart was rent by rumors of disagreements be- 
tween the new comer and his parishioners, between those in 
possession of the farm upon his arrival and those who ex- 
pected to have charge of it xinder him. 

No one could have a higher conception of the dignity of 
the character of a clergyman than Father Gallitzin, in his 
own person he never departed from it, and in whatever cir- 
cumstances he was placed, whether in his own church, by 
the sick-bod of his people, in the laborer's shanty,- among 
the children, in the offices of business men, or in the courts, 
his sacred calling could never be mistaken, the Catholic 
priest breathed in every word he spoke, was engraven in 
every line of his countenance. He burned with indignation 
at the account of any indignity to a clergyman, and the mis- 
conduct of one filled his eyes with tears, while it aroused his 
fiercest wrath. Not only in life and in manner but even in 
the smallest details of dress and bearing he desired to see 
only the priest. It is related that he was one day called 
upon by a gentleman of unusually elegant appearance, wear- 
ing a high standing collar and the elaborate ruffles then in 
fashion. As he saw the visitor coming up the path to his 
door, he met him with the kindly smile, the softly searching 
gaze, the cordial welcome which never failed friend or stran- 
ger, rich or poor, the known or unknown, who crossed his 
threshold ; he drew him gently in, and not until the guest 
was as comfortably placed as the simply furnished room per- 

_ 340 ... 

mitted did he leave opportunity for the self introduction he 
appeared eager to make; when all hospitable duties were 
complied with, for 

" The -good house, though ruined, my son, 
Endures not that her guest should serve himself," 

he listened attentively to his explanation, from which it ap- 
peared that the visitor was a Catholic clergyman, at which 
Father Gallitzin expressed some surprise: "I had no idea of 
it," he said; "from your dress and general appearance I sup- 
posed you a man of the world. No man should -disdain his 
uniform. We should always bear our sacred calling with 
us wherever we may go," he added kindly, rising as he 
spoke, and gravely but with irresistible gentleness, with 
light and rapid touch turning down the high collar, and 
buttoning the coat over the ruffles which had so misled him, 
and then surveying the change, continued: "Whenever you 
do me the honor to call upon me in the dress suited to your 
rank, I shall be most happy to receive you." 

Inhospitality to a priest was a crime in his eyes, as one 
instance never to be forgotten in Cambria County attests. 
A poor priest, homeless and ill, found his way to Loretto, 
and appealed to the pastor -for- aid. Father G allitzin saw 
that on account of his own limited quarters he could not 
give him the comfort, the space, and attention his health 
required, and made arrangements with a well-to-do couple 
living in a commodious house near at hand, to receive the 
sick man and take all care of him. Soon- afterwards he him- 
self was obliged to go to" Philadelphia, and the first news he 
heard on his return was that, during his absence, the sick 
priest had been .sent away by the people with whom he had 
been placed, had dragged himself to a stump of a tree in a 
neighboring field, where he was found half sitting, half lying 
down, and nearly dying, by some passers by who carried 
him to the nearest shelter, where he died. Nothing could 
exceed Father Gallitzin's indignation and anguish at the 
news, he turned about and went at once to those who had 
done the inhuman deed, and for once in his life threatened 

. 341 

vengeance, God's vengeance upon an evil doer: "You could 
not even leave him a bed to die in," he. said, "and neither of 
3'ou shall die in your bed." Not long after the woman died 
a wretched death, frozen at night in the open field not far 
from her own door, and the man was eaten up by wild ani- 
mals in the woods. 

With such veneration for the priesthood it can be imagined 
with what grief he heard, first that Mr. Maguire had left his 
charge, and next that Mr. McGirr was meeting with opposi- 
tion on all hands. It also revived the memory of all that he 
himself had suffered, and crediting Mr.. McGirr with a sen- 
sitiveness others failed to discover, he treated him with the 
utmost kindness, and was repaid by discovering under the 
rude and despotic exterior a warmth of attachment to him- 
self, a submission to his advice which gave him great hopes 
that he would soon win his way to the affection of his con- 
gregations. But still foreseeing difficulties in the future, he 
felt anxious and troubled, distressed to see such a large por- 
tion of the beautiful vineyard of the Lord permitted to run 
to waste, the places already promising fruitful harvest be- 
coming oversowed with tares, and the bishop whose ' strong 
hands should guard the land, too far away, and harrassed by 
more immediate cares to attend to it. It was at this time 
he began to press his idea of forming a' new diocese out of 
the western portion of the state, with the episcopal see in its 
centre, from which the whole could be easily overlooked.* 

His own private aftairs continued to give him much un- 
easiness and to exercise all his prudence and skill. In 1817 
he received a letter from his sister in which it was written: 
"In order to save the property for you I have sold it." This 
was indeed joyful news, for it was sold to a person worth 
millions, and he considered himself perfectly safe, master of 
a handsome property and as he said himself, his only un- 
easiness in that year proceeded from his temporary inability 

* Axchbishop Spanieling considers this idea to have been first men- 
tioned in 1825, by whom not stated (Life of Bishop fflaget, p. 250), but as 
will be seen by the letter about to be given of Father Gallitzin to Arch- 
bishop Marechal, the plan was proposed by him at least as early as 1823. 


to satisfy his creditors who began to complain seriously of 
long protracted payments; people were now as anxious to 
lend him money as thej r had formerly been reluctant to do 
so, for no one could doubt that a magnificent sum would soon 
reach him. With these loans he paid off a large portion of 
his debts, built and invested in several mills, tanneries, etc., 
in order to start such industries, no one else having any 
capital to put into them, and then built the famous frame 
church which in size, style, and thorough workmanship sur- 
passed anything even contemplated in that whole section of 
country. Catholics and Protestants came great distances 
just to see it, and when they went home described it to their 
neighbors as something really fine. It was built on an ele- 
vation near his own house, in the simplest form, but in the 
most durable manner, the altar at the east end, a gallery for 
the choir opposite, and from the door from early spring to 
late autumn as lovely a view as the eye may often meet, 
and in midsummer, when fields on fields of many colored 
grain, with here and there the dark foliage of the innumer- 
able hills' to guard them, glance in the brilliant sunlight, 
there is seen a luxuriant feast of color never to be forgotten. 
Standing on the church steps it is as if nature laid all her 
wealth and beauty at its feet, and within all that could be 
done to make the house of the Lord fair and edifying had 
been thoroughly secured; it is true, that was but little, but 
the very absence of profuse ornament, the quiet-colored walls, 
the simple altar free from all glaring, discordant hues, would 
prove a rest and solace to the eyes of the devout worshipper 
even in. our day. An exquisite neatness, a general air of 
devoticn pervaded it, and only God can tell what beautiful 
souls went straight to heaven through the narrow doors of 
that now neglected and discarded temple. 

The murmurs which had arisen when the log church was 
enlarged were, of course, renewed when a far larger and 
handsomer church was planned, but as Father Gallitzin paid 
all the expenses no murmurs prevented its completion, and 
though for a short time the congregation seemed lost in it, as 
before children grew up, new people moved into the neighbor- 


hood, conrerts came and brought their families, so that soon 
they were kneeling close together even in that roomy temple, 
then the gallery stairs and outside steps became so crowded 
the door could not be closed, and, at last, even the windows 
had to be left open that those who could not get inside 
might still hear Mass, and see the altar. 

But while he was building this church with gratitude to 
(rod for his final success, a new and most unexpected blow 
was being prepared for him; in that very year his sister, 
then forty-eight years old, became a bride, and two weeks 
afterwards wrote to her brother as the Princess of Salm Beif- 
ferscheid-Krantham, saying: "However, dearest brother, my 
new state of life will not cause the least alteration in the re- 
lation which exists between you and me. My husband is too 
noble minded to have sought anything else by forming this 
new connection than a helpmate and a friend .... and would 
have it that I should keep the full possession and control 
over my property, and declared before our marriage that you 
should lose nothing by it." 

But although he did not in the least doubt his sister's word, 
knowing her embarrassments being now ended by the pos- 
session of so much ready money at her command, paid and 
due her and him for the Russian property, that she could no 
longer have any difficulty in transmitting hundreds of thou- 
' sands belonging to him, he was 'extremely impatient to have it 
in his hands, and as month after month passed away without 
any fulfillment of her promises, wrote the most earnest let- 
ters, not only to his sister as formerly, but to his mother's 
old friends also, insisting that something should be done, 
for he had not even yet received his share of his mother's 
property left to him in the most explicit manner by her will. 
These letters occasioned the greatest amazement among his 
friends abroad, who had hundreds of times heard his sister 
express the most anxious care for his interests, and under- 
stood from her that she was constantly dividing the income 
of her mother's and her father's property with him. 

Instead of the promised payment he received about two 
years after the marriage, a letter without signature, but 


from a source he could easily divine, in which the writer, 
having heard of his situation by means of these informations, 
"considered himself bound in conscience," to inform him of 
the manner in which large sums paid into certain hands for 
him had been " applied for their own benefit, expenses in- 
curred by their marriage, removing from Muenster to Duessel- 
dorf, payment of some of their own debts" and also that 
they received regular remittances from Russia. This letter 
would have aroused him to the truth, and have led him to 
different measures than any yet employed, had it not. been 
immediately followed by various sums, amounting in all to 
something over eleven thousand dollars, accompanied by the 
most solemn assurances that the rest was on its way, which 
restored his confidence. 

Sixteen years had now passed since his mother's death and 
not a penny of her legacy had ever reached him; her executor 
Count Von Stolberg, who was also one of his own agents, 
died in 1819, and Baron von Fuerstenberg nine years earlier, 
both, as it afterwards appeared, undreaming of any wrong 
to him, supposing, with Count de Merveldt, that after the 
decision of the Russian law-suit their appointment was a 
mere matter of form, and that he was like his sister in regu- 
lar receipt of his property, and so though still far from sus- 
pecting the truth, Father Gallitzin decided at iast to attempt 
through the Russian ambassador to obtain less dilatory jus- 
tice; and for this purpose wrote to Archbishop Marechal to 
obtain an introduction to him; it is in this same letter that 
he unfolds -with greatest earnestness, his desires for the 
spiritual welfare 'of his flock. 


' ;' ''. Loretto, Cambria County, Oct. 28, 1823. 

'"'-.. ' Mon'seigneur, . '_ 

" 'I ta'ke the liberty of Addressing your "Grace, to leiarn if the 
Russian ambassador who left France with you has arrived 

* From the original in French belonging to the Archespicopal ar- 
chives at Baltimore. 


in this country, and where he now resides. My letters, al- 
though much diminished in number, are still sufficiently con- 
siderable to cause me uneasiness, and I have taken the reso- 
lution to seek our ambassador directly, to see if I cannot ob- 
tain from my sister, by his intervention, that which belongs 
to me. Four letters which I have written to my sister since 
my last journey to Baltimore still remain unanswered. 

I beg your Grace, therefore, to send me without delay a 
letter of introduction to the \ainbassador, with which I will 
visit the place you may indicate to me as his residence. 'It 
is likely he is acquainted with the Princes Gallitzin, my 
uncles and cousins, of whom several live at St. Petersburg, 
occupying various offices: Captains, of the G-nards, Grand 
Veneur, Chamberlain, &c. 

It seems to me you have been heard to say that the am- 
bassador is a Catholic. Will you have the kindness to give 
me the necessary information on these different points as 
noon as your leisure permits'. . . .Permit me to add that Lam, 
with the most profound respect, Monseigneur, 
Your most -humble and obedient servant, 

D. A., de Gallitzin. 

P. S. I hope that you have received the letter which I had 
the honor to write you in the spring, in which I detailed 
my reasons for refusing the bishopric of Detroit. As your 
G-race did not reply to it, I took your silence as proof of your 
approbation. Indeed if you knew the mission of Lorettol 
you would agree with me that it is one of the most impor- 
tant in 'the United States, and that it. would ruin it, and 
ruin me to remove me from this mission. When I -established 
myself here in 1800 the entire County of Cambria was but an 
immense forest and almost unpenetrable; by force of labor 
and expense (expenses which already reach to more than 
' forty thousand dollars), I have succeeded, with the help- of 
God, in forming an establishment wholly Catholic, extending 
over 'an immense extent of country, which is rapidly aug- 
mented by the annual accession of families who come here 
from Germany, Switzerland, Ireland, and from different parts 
of America. Now, to form my establishment, I have been 


to great expense in establishing the various trades which 
are the most necessary, so that I have part of my funds in 
tanneries, &c. &c. and it is impossible to draw them suddenly 
without ruining many families. 

Several years ago I formed a plan for the good of 

religion, for the success of which I desire to employ all the 
means at my disposal, when the remainder of my debts are 
paid. It is to form a diocese for the western part of Penn- 
sylvania. What a consolation for me if I might before I die 
see this plan carried out, and Loretto made an episcopal see, 
where the bishop by means of tfie lands -attached to the bish- 
opric, which are very fertile, would be independent, and 
where with very little expense could be erected college, 
seminary, and all that is required for an episcopal establish- 
ment! We have now a bishop without having one, the great 
distance of Philadelphia, the dependence of the bishop, [on 
the contributions of his flock.~\ his small means, the poverty of 
so many thousands of Catholics who are unable to reimburse 
him as they ought for visiting them, will remain for many 
years insurmountable obstacles, which would no longer exist 
if there was a diocese west of the mountains. It could be 
commenced by establishing a bishop here who would be 
merely Vicarius in PontificaMbus to the Bishop of Philadelphia, 
who would give great comfort by administering confirmation 
in all parts of Western Pennsylvania; at the death of the 
Bishop of Philadelphia two dioceses could be formed. If 
your Grace would take the trouble to look over the map of 
Pennsylvania and take notice of the chains of mountains 
which traverse the State, the great distance from Philadelphia 
to the western extremity of the State, on the other side of 
the mountains, your Grace would be of my opinion. If time 
permitted I should have other remarks to add to these, but 
the mail is about leaving and I have still several letters to 
write, and therefore, have the honor &c. &c. 

Permit me to add that no bishop has ever penetrated to 
the distant missions of Western Pennsylvania. Archbishop 
Carroll was on the way in 1802, but frightened by the hor- 
rible description they gave him at Chambersburg of the 


mountains, the roads &c. lie retraced his steps. Bishop 
Egan penetrated as far as Pittsburg and the neighboring 
congregations, but went no further. Bishop Con well has not 
done so much. There are, then, many^ missions which have 
never seen a bishop, and never will, at least not until a bish- 
op is established on the mountains, and one willing to fulfill 
the duties of his charge, ..even at his own expense, without 
waiting for other recompense than that which comes from 
above. I hope that my experience of more than twenty 
years on these missions will be a guarantee to you that I 
speak with knowledge of the subject, and that' I am animated 
with the sincere desire of advancing God's work. 



. . (18171828.) 

The Prince of Orange. King of the Netherlands. His affection for 
Gallitzin. Dr. Overberg comes to the rescue. The collection of an- 
tique stones. Count de Merveldt's intervention. Death of Princess 
Mimi. Her Will' Death of Overberg. Father Gallitzin' s position. 
' His statement of business matters. Visits Blairs ville and the Irish 
laborers on the canal. The Russian minister. 

It will be remembered that almost the earliest playmate 
of little Prince Mitri Gallitzin was Prince Frederick Wil- 
liam, son of William V, reigning sovereign of the country, 
whom his mother used to take with her lo Nithuys, to amuse 
himself with Mimi and Mitri while she and the princess con- 
versed on philosophy. The friendship thus formed continued 
through childhood and youth, and when Mitri was about 
starting for America, the two princes parted from each other 
with all the fervency of youthful friendship,* with mutual 
promises of assistance if the vicissitudes of life should ever 
place either in the position to need it, Mitri leaving in the 
other's charge a watch and chain, some rings and a snuff 
box, which of little value in themselves were probably made 
sacred by some special association^ too great for them to be 
risked in the American journey. 

Since then many changes had indeed come to both, hardly 
more to Prince Mitri than to the Prince of Orange. . About 

* Reminiscence* of Dr. Gallilzin by R. B. McCabe, Esq. Blairsville 
Record, July 14, 1858. 


the time that one entered the seminary, the other, who, in 
1792, had married his cousin, Princess Frederica of Prussia, 
was called upon to defend his country, throne, and family 
against the French, by taking command of the army of the 
Netherlands, which he retained with varying success until 
Jan. 1795 when the French entering Holland, the stadtholder 
was compelled to abdicate, and accoinpained by the prince 
retired to England, after which Holland was made a king- 
dom by Bonaparte with his brother Louis (who married Hor- 
tense Beauharnais and was the father of Napoleon HI) for 
its king. After the downfall of Bonaparte the Congress of 
Vienna annexed Belgium to Holland making it one kingdom, 
and the Prince of Orange was proclaimed its sovereign 
with the title of William I, King of the Netherlands and 
Duke of Luxembourg, residing alternately at the Hague and 
at Brussels. 

He is represented as having had a wonderful memory 
which retained the knowledge acquired in his youth under 
the severe training of his mother, with a clear head, prompt 
judgment, strict attention to his duties as sovereign, an ob- 
stinate temper, little love for art or literature, and econom- 
ical in the smallest details, even to parsimony. " He could 
make or sanction large expenditures, but he had neither 
natural generosity nor delicacy in his way of giving; if he 
opened his purse it was more from calculation, the 'demands 
of religion or the interests of his position, than from inclina. 
tion or the charm attached to the thought of making others 
happy."* However that may have been, he gave orders as 
soon as he came to the throne, to his minister in this country 
to t search out his old friend, of whom little was known a- 
broad beyond the bare fact of his residence in America. Mr. 
McCabe recollects letters passing between the Dutch minis- 
ter and prominent gentlemen of Pennsylvania in regard to 
this matter, which led to the discovery of the rich and hand- 
some Russian prince in the poor and harassed, but ever be- 
nign and stately priest of the Alleghany forests. Though 

* Revue des Deux Mondes, vol. HI, p. 64. 


the king assuredly had no temporal advantage to gain by a 
renewal of olden ties, he caused every offer of assistance tu 
be made in his name to the missionary, all of which, how- 
ever, were persistently declined, until he himself finally suc- 
ceeded in inducing him to accept of two thousand dollars in 
exchange for the articles entrusted to his friendly care so 
many years before, and which it was not likely there would 
soon, if ever, be an opportunity to return: "'I knew well 
enough/ said Dr. Galiitzin, relating the circumstance,* 'that 
this was done through friendship for me, for it was ten times 
the worth cf the articles. He thought I was poor, and his 
delicacy found this mode of approaching me ; I could not re- 
fuse to receive it, for our boyish vows of friendship, and 
every consideration that could move me was invoked, and I 
felt to repulse it would be rude aud ungrateful, for I believe 
its acceptance gratified him even more than it benefitted 


When by the letters written to his mother's friends Dr. 
Overberg, became aware of Father Gallitzin's embarrassed 
situation consequent upon the non-arrival of the money be- 
longing to him in Europe, his grief was excessive. It could 
not well be otherwise when the good priest remembered, as 

* Reminiscences of Dr. GalliMn, by B. B. McCabe, Esq. 

f By the Bevolution of 1830 the king lost his control over Belgium, 
and was finally obliged to acknowledge its independence; other troubles 
disturbed his reign and his attachment to Countess Henriette d'Outre- 
ment, a Belgian and a Catholic, gave great dissatisfaction to his Pro- 
testant subjects, so that he abdicated in 1840, married the countess and 
resided in Berlin as Count of Nassau until his death in 1843. He left a 
private fortune of forty million dollars. He was succeeded by his son, 
William II, who had been with Tiim in England, and just previous to 
the downfall of Napoleon I, expected to be married to the English Prin- 
cess Charlotte, but before it was entirely settled she refused him and ac- 
cepted Prince Leopold of Saxe Cobourg, who was just than visiting 
England with the allied sovereigns. When Belgium became indepen- 
dent the prince hoped to be its accepted king, but he was rejected, and 
the same rival preferred before him ; he married the sister of Alexander I 
of Russia. King Leopold of Belgium married for his second wife a 
daughter of Louis Philippe, by whom he had several children, one of 
thm the unhappy Carlotta, wife of Maximilian. 

_ Sol 

he ever did, the munificent generosity which had loaded him 
with favors and placed the princess' hotise and all possible 
comforts at his command, wherein the very lowest menial 
was better clothed, fed, sheltered and cared for in sickness 
and in health, than the only son of that house. What ex- 
planation the Princess Mimi may have made him is not- 
known, but he appears to have been satisfied she could not 
do more than she had done, so he set about to devise some 
means of assistance. The princess on her death-bed had 
given him a most valuable collection of Greek and Roman 
antiquities with the injunction to apply it for some pious 
purpose, according to his own discretion. It was a col- 
lection such as only a royal personage could be expected to 
purchase, and had one* been offered by the princess to Cath- 
arine of Russia, who. however, was obliged to decline it as at 
that moment she was somewhat embarrassed by difficulties 
with the Turks, which put it out of her power to make any 
addition to her scientific treasures at that time. Up to 181T 
Overberg had been unable to find a purchaser for the col- 
lection, on account of its great value, but in his anxiety 
to relieve Father Gallitzin he induced Princess Mimi to 
offer it to William I, who more out of regard for his early 
friend, it is likely, than from desire for the collection, va- 
luable though it was, agreed to take it for fifty thousand 
Holland guilders (twenty two thousand five hundred dol- 
lars), which he paid over to the princess, shortly after her 
marriage, for her brother, while Dr. Overberg was careful to 
take a receipt from the princess and her husband which was 
dated June 25, 1819, and later a written promise to send 
Father Gallitzin the money, for the good doctor wisely con- 
sidered the design of the princess could not be better carried 
out than by relieving the necessities of her beloved son, as- 
sisting a devout priest in his work for the good of religion.- 
and in promoting the success of the pious foundation of 
Loretto. Father Gallitzin's liabilities at this time were 
a,bout twenty thousand dollars, the king's Holland guilders 
were, therefore, enough to pay all he owed and to relieve 
him from anxiety, without regard to the hundreds of thou- 

_ 352 

ands coining to him from the sale of his father's property, 
and from his mother's legacy, which he every day expected. 
What joy-to the frail and sensitive priest when the burden 
borne for fifteen long- years, should be cast off, and he could 
stand once more erect and free ! 

Besides this the Duke de Serent, who had now returned to 
France with Louis XVIII, and was in g'ood circumstances, 
paid the princess twenty thousand francs, being half of a 
debt owing to her mother, of which,. according to the will of 
Princess Gallitzin which commanded an even division of her 
property between her children, one half belonged to Father 
Gallitzin, and was actually sent him ; it brought him about 
eighteen hundred dollars, which he paid over at once to his 
principal creditors. 

Letters still arriving in Germany urging expedition, Over- 
berg discovered to his intense amazement, that the monej 7 
obtained by the sale of the collection had not been sent, and, 
though little used to business or any severity, he demanded 
an explanation from Prince de Salms, who answered in July 

"On the 20th of July- 1821 I sent Prince Demetrius, my 
brother in law, a document signed and sealed by myself and 
my wife, promising him the quickest possible payment of 
twenty two thousand five hundred (22.500) Berlin dollars. 
The measures already taken by me give me a certain pros- 
pect of making remittances over' Holland &c. &c. and- in 
six months at furthest the money will be in his hands." 

Dr. Overberg sent this letter to Father Gallitzin, who, 
towards the end of the year receiving nothing further, drew 
upon his brother in law for the amount named; his bills 
were returned protested. The anonymous letter before men- 
tioned as arriving about this time, solemnly assured him that 
the m'oney received from the king was being spent by Prince 
de Salms and 'his wife for their own benefit. Count de Mer- 
veldt at last heard of these transactions, and roused to the 
highest indignation, though old and ill, drove seventy-five 
miles to Duesseldorf to see the prince and insist upon imme- 
diate payment, which resulted in something over half of this 

353 ' 

money being sent to Father Gallitzin, but of that received 
for the Russian property, the sale of his mother's house in 
Muenster, the income from other sources, nothing could be 
obtained, and just as he had decided to see the Russian am- 
bassador and force payment, his sister died; the news soon 
after reached him, with the announcement that all her pro- 
perty was left to her husband, though there was a show of 
something to him. "In her trouble," wrote the good and 
charitable Dr. Overberg*, "she could not do otherwise; she 
desired to help both you and her husband, for it is stipula- 
ted in her will that after all the debts [that is, the debts of 
Prince de Salms, which are supposed to have been legion, 
mainly the most dishonorable debts in the world, those 
called "of honor,"] are paid, the third of what remains over 
and above expenses, should be sent her brother. It is a 
satisfaction to me that you say in your last letter that you 
can get along now if Prince Salins, as you do not doubt, will 
' keep his word. His word he will keep undoubtedly, because 
he is a very religious gentleman; but whether he can do it, 
if he has not yet done 'it, is another thing, [rather an ob- 
scure passage.] He is deeply in debt. The word you refer 
to must be that which he wrote me in 1821, when he and his 
wife signed the document promising to pay you twenty-two 
thousand, five hundred dollars, the price of the stones- 
Thanks be to God you have already received part of it." 

Others informed him with full particulars of the substitu. 
tion of .a false will foV the one the princess supposed she was 
signing, a strong hand giiided hers, certain menials of her 
house-hold attested it,f and her brother was cut off from his 
inheritance beyond hope. She was not permitted in death 
to do that justice which for some reason, whether entirely 'her 
own fault or not, she had failed to secure him in life. ' He 
was strongly urged to return to Europe and have the will 
set aside, which it was thought could easily be effected, but 
he shrank from the exposure of other's sins or weaknesses, 

* Rev. H. Lemcke, p. 253. 
t E. B. McCabe's Eeminiscenses. 

. __ 354 

and could never raise himself to that point of severe justice 
which would nerve him to save himself at the expense of an- 
other, however guilty. 

Dr. Overberg once again endeavored to assist him by 
trying to dispose of the princess' library left to him in her 
will, and which he could not feel comfortable in retaining 
while her only son was in need; but as nothing more was 
said about it after the announcement of the intention, it is 
probable that he was unable to find a purchaser in the short 
time yet remaining to him. He died in 1826, a death worthy 
of his lovely and saintly life, and with him departed the last 
of that circle of fatherly friends, of which the princess had 
been the golden clasp, to whom her son could look for sym- 
pathy, if for nothing more. 

And thus, as he said himself, the farce was ended; his 
sister's death and the terms of her will deprived him of the 
last hope of justice; after being deluded for fifteen years by 
promises he would have considered it criminal to doubt, he 
was left penniless and forsaken at the very time when he 
had every reason to believe an' immense fortune was at his 
door; past fifty years of age, with no resources, with hun- 
dreds depending upon him in one way and another, he was 
obliged to pay a crushing debt, which .by interest and various 
extortions to which he would have to submit in order to ob- 
tain breathing space, would, he feared, not only not diminish 
but keep always on the increase, always ahead of him, threat- 
tening and reviling him, crossing his path at every step he 
would take for good, and crushing every effort he might 
make for the cause of religion. He had never before doubted 
that the day would come when he would gloriously redeem 
his word and lift every breath of misty doubt from his busi- 
ness fame, when he would not only pay to the last farthing 
all that he owed, but all that gratitude could suggest; a day 
when all would be explained and understood, and the world 
seeing his abundant means would wonder, not that he had 
been so lavish and extravagant, but that he had been so 
prudent and cautious. Now he knew that day would never 
come, and in all human, probability he would descend to 

. 355 

the grave under the cloud of distrust which even the most 
charitable of his friends had no means of dispelling. 

But the silver lining of the cloud was more widely visible 
than he could believe, and it was very beautiful. Though 
placed in a position inexplicable to others, almost to himself, 
a position which could not rebuke the darkest suspicions and 
the loudest reproaches of his creditors, and those aware of 
their claims, people knew not how to doubt his honesty or 
sincerity; he was believed in when every appearance was 
against him, and those who held faith in him could not lessen 
it even on the evidence of their own senses. How much 
more tender the good God seems to us than to his own Son, 
whom* he permits us to take as our model, likening our trials 
to his! The sneers and gibes of the rabble followed th 
Lord to the last, but now the rnob was dispersed, their 
mockeries and calumnies unheard, and kindly faces, pitying 
eyes, and hopeful words met the weary priest as once again 
he took up his cross and dragged it along his dreary via 

But for a time his great sensitiveness made him doubtful and 
fearful ;he knew how it could well appear to others, and that 
if the cruel voice of slander should again be raised to de- 
nounce him, he would have small evidence to produce against 
it. In justice to > his creditors as well as to his good name 
and his sacred calling, he drew up a full statement of his ex- 
pectations, their solid foundation, and their bitter disappoint- 
ment, that those who should lose through him might at least 
have the solace of knowing they had not been imposed npon 
by a deceiver, or that they had been over-credulous in their 
transactions with him. It is from this paper the greater 
portion of the foregoing details of his business affairs has 
been gathered. Next to the most rigid economy and un- 
flagging .efforts to do his utmost to pay what he owed, this 
was all he could see that he could do, although at times he had 
thoughts of making a voyage to Europe where he would he 
able, very likely, to obtain without any publicity, some small 
remnant of his fortune, which would suffice to ransom him. 
But unless certain of procuring this, and whose word could 


he -any longer trust ? he perhaps considered to undertake so 
expensive a journey was too great a risk, as it was possible 
for it to fail, and involve him in new difficulties from which 
he could never be able to free himself. He, therefore, finally 
abandoned the idea altogether, and set to work to do what 
he could with his farms and American investments ; he hardly 
permitted himself sufficient food, and what he did take was 
of the cheapest and simplest kind; his clothes were so old. 
and poor that they were pitiful to see, but with it all he 
could not save himself from his creditors; in 1828 his little 
cabin was advertised for Sheriff's sale, and the hour was at 
hand when the princely heir to grand old castles and lordly 
palaces, should find himself without a roof above his.head. 
Only a few hundred dollars was needed to rescue it, but he 
might as well have looked for millions. 

In this emergency it was proposed to the man whom kings 
cbuld not induce to accept presents, that he should visit the 
Irish laborers at work on the canal in Westmoreland and 
Indiana counties, for it is written that they ivho serve the altar 
should live by the altar, and perhaps obtain some little help 
from them. The men were always overjoyed when^, priest 
came among them and were very liberal to Mr. McGirr who 
made them occasional calls, though like the people- in the 
stations around, they thought it pretty hard to be forced to 
put up with that gentleman's peculiarites; it was therefore 
a double joy for them to learn that' Father Gallitzin would 
visit them. 

He arrived in Blairsville one Saturday and was enter- 
tained at the village hotel, where Mr. McCabe met him, as 
related in his Reminiscenses : 

."We had a very free conversation, jfor with all his acknow- 
. ledged intellectual ability arid superior 'education, in social 
intercourse he appeared as frank, sincerb and simple as a 

"In this conversation the doctrinal characteristics of 
various sects in religion, were discussed. He knew I was 
not of his communion, for he had learned from myself that I 
had been raised a Presbyterian. The fact was adverted to 


by him that the leading doctrines of those who separated 
from the Roman Church, or the Catholic Church as he pre- 
ferred to call it, as Protestants, had been taught by various 

distinguished men before the separation Having given 

a good deal of attention in previous years to theological read- 
dings, Church history and biography, I was not altogether 
unprepared to consider and understand his remarks upon 
the various topics of our discourse, and I observed next day 
'that his sermon, which I heard, noticed incidentally most of 

the doctrinal points we had conversed about. 

* * 


"At the very time of this conversation his homestead at 
Loretto was advertised for sale by the Sheriff of Cambria 
county, and I could not suppress all emotion in view of the 
hardships which appeared to menace his old age. And in- 
deed I ventured to say something to this effect. But he re- 
plied smiling, 'My son, the Lord has provided for me hither- 
to, and will hereafter. I have no doubt of that!'" 

In this same sermon Father G-allitzin spoke with great 
force of the duty of respect to pastors duly appointed for us, 
and very severely rebuked his listeners for their opposition 
to Mr. McGirr, who was a good and virtuous priest, whom 
they should obediently accept as such, whatever might be 
their feeling towards him otherwise. After the services were 
over Mr. Campbell, a Catholic gentleman present, obtained 
the honor and pleasure of Father Gallitzin's company to a 
quiet dinner, and the next day, Mr. John Brown, another 
resident of Blairsville, drove him to a station some miles 
away, where the laborers on the canal were collected to 
meet him as if it were Sunday; after Mass was over Mr. 
Brown went around and spoke to the people, and brought 
back quite a handsome subscription, which was 'probably the 
first collection Father Gallitzin ever received; it affected 
him deeply, and he never after spoke of it without emotion. 
At another station he arrived before the day appointed for 
.services, and for the first time saw the men at their work; 
Ireland has never sent us anything to surpass those first 
emigrants, and as the priest watched their strong arms, 


and noticed that none of them seemed much past their early 
youth, the hope of aged parents, perhaps, far away, he 
turned away and said to Mr. Fenlon, whose guest he was: 
"I cannot do it; when I saw how hard the poor fellows were 
working, licit I never could have the heart to take anything 
from their hard earnings." But his friend combatted this 
view of the case with easy spirit, and being highly gifted 
with the persuasive eloquence of his countrymen, proved 
conclusively that there was nothing the Irish would like 
better than to assist him. "I assure you," he said brightly, 
"there's not a man among them who would not cheerfully 
contribute his dollar for this purpose." 

The result is readily imagined; Father Gallitzin said Mass, 
preached, administered the sacraments as required, and Mr. 
Fenlon having influence and position, attended with a light 
heart to the rest; in a short time he collected some five or 
six hundred dollars, and the pastor of Loretto's home was 
saved. "The noble Irish" he said to Mr. McGabe, "re- 
lieved me at once, they raised the money and the debt is 

Among the loans which Father Gallitzin had sought or 
which were offered to him at the time his prospects were the 
brightest, was that of five thousand dollars pressed upon 
him by the Russian minister at Washington, who knew his 
urgent need; when his hopes failed Father Gallitzin was so 
distressed at his inability to repay this debt that he went to 
Washington. 'to have a personal interview with the ambas- 
sador, who invited Henry Clay, of whom the good priest was 
quite an admirer, the minister from Holland and others to 
meet him at dinner. " After dinner," Father Gallitzin rela- 
ted,* "some smoked cigars, and for their accommodation a 
lighted candle was placed on the table. I chanced to sit 
near the candle and noticed the Russian ambassador rolling 
up a paper very carefully to make a light. My eye involun- . 
tarily followed his hand till the paper was put to the candle. 
Then I discovered my name on the paper. It was my 

* Mr. McCabe's Reminiscences. 

bond for five thousand dollars he was burning. When I 
spoke to him on the subject, which I did at the first oppor- 
tunity, he declared it settled. Nor would he hear anything 
more from me about it." The same ambassador showed him 
the greatest deference and kindness, partly, as Gallitzin 
liked to believe, at the desire of the legal Prince Gallitzin 
who now occupied the place in the world for which he had 
been destined, and of whom, though he had never seen him, 
Father Gallitzin spoke with the most affectionate regard 

From time to time small suins arrived from Europe, not 
large enough to .be of any assistance in diminishing his 
debts, but of some help in his charities. He spent of his own 
money about one hundred and fifty thousand dollars for the 
foundation- of Loretto, erecting of churches, improving the 
surrounding farms, and buildings of various kinds; from the 
income derived from these he hoped by prudent and careful 
management, with God's help, to free all from debt before he 
died. The greatest patience and kindness was manifested 
towards him by all his creditors, while his own faith and 
fortitude will ever make his example an edification, and it 
is to be hoped, a bright encouragement to those who for one 
reason or another, may be tempted to feel that ruined hopes, 
plans destroyed, expectations come to naught, life's whole 
purpose crushed out, make a sea of troubles too wide and 
deep for manly honor or even religious principle to venture 
to cross. 




F. Gallitzin and Bishop Convell. IE 1 . Gallitzin as a mediator. Ex- 
tent of his jurisdiction. Rev. Mr. Heyden. Rev. Mr. . O'Bielly. 
Mr. McG-irr and'"t&lr. Maguire. F. Gallitzin uses his authority. Mr. 
McGirr's idiosyncrasies. F. Gallitzin's patience. 

The continued obstinacy of the rebellion in Philadelphia, 
rendered more complicated and painful by the unfortunate 
result of outside interference, bore heavily upon Bishop Con- 
well, and cast gloom and sadness over the faithful through- 
out the country, the more distressing that the prelate's coun- 
sellors were of many minds, and were not always personally 
attached to him, beyond the veneration due to their spiritual 
superior. The greatest .affection sprang up between the 
worn, harrassed, and constantly insulted bishop, and the 
good pastor of Loretto, who stood by him in his hour of trial 
with the devotion -of a woman, and the fearlessness of a 
giant. There was no room in Father Gallitzin's nature for 
any compromise with wilful resistance to the authority of the 
Church, and his advice was to the most vigorous -and decided 
measures; he was frequently called to Philadelphia for con- 
sultation, and always left the bishop strengthened and for- 
tified by the influence of his counsels, so that it was earnest- 
ly desired that he might be always at hand, but Father Gal- 
litzin was fast becoming a little bishop in his own field, to 
which new priests were now coming to take charge of con- 
gregations he had formed, and in 1827 the bishop formally 
defined the limits of his vicar-generalship, which very soon 


gave him ample occupation of a new kind. With all his 
stern and uncompromising nature, Father Gallitzin was a 
born mediator; his extreme tenderness of heart, his delicacy 
of feeling and inexhaustible charity, acting with his noble 
will and determined spirit, resulted in an influence which 
was irresistible; he denounced without estranging, warned 
without hardening-, and pleaded with the sinner without in 
the least veiling the sin, while with singular penetration he 
seemed to know the rocky soil from the- good, when all ap- 
pearances were against his judgment; thus he would be 
seen to uphold one in whom no sign for hope appeared to 
others, and would treat with crushing severity another in 
whom there was apparently little to blame. He was con- 
sulted and appealed to on matters of conscience, and his 
mediation sought in difficulties from all parts of the country, 
and in the most remote dioceses, and under the most eminent 
prelates, his judgment and influence saved many a bruised 
reed that seemed beyond hope, and drove more than one 
wolf in sheep's clothing from the fold, unsuspected of the 
world. Though often his decisions appeared against all 
reason, his charity to some entirely thrown away, and his 
severity to others unmerited, time invariably justified his 
actions; the priests on the point of irremedial disgrace, . 
whom he quietly rescued, begging with .tears that they 
might be given one chance more, proved to the astonishment 
of all who knew them, worthy of his boundless charity, lived 
penitent lives, performed their duties with noble results, and 
went to their graves honored and esteemed, full of hope in 
the mercy of the God who had sent them such a messenger 
in their hour of temptation and trial. His own persecutions, 
the sworn testimony of his enemies bearing false witness 
against him, gave him aninsight into the malice of evil 
which he never lost; no evidence against a priest could 
startle him, knowing what he knew of his own life, and -the 
accounts given of it by those who maligned him; against all 
proof he would believe that which he himself read in one 
accused, with firm faith in the guiding light of the Holy 
Spirit totpujAV he trust sun^pa decisions. Once learning 


that a quarrel had taken place* between a congregation and 
its pastor, which would undoubtedly lead to a law suit and 
angry scenes, he started immediately on a long and toilsome 
journey to the place, arrived unexpectedly, took the priest 
and those who were engaged in the difficulty into the church, 
threw himself upon his knees, and declared with tears that 
he would not rise until they had all promised reconciliation 
and friendship; an appeal that could not be resisted. 

At the time Bishop Conwell formally appointed him vicar 
general, there were four priests under his charge in what 
had formerly been his own and Mr. Heilbron's district; these 
were Mr. McGirr at "Sportsman's Hall", Mr. Heyden at 
Bedford, Mr. O'Rielly at Newry, and Mr. O'Neill who at- 
tended some of the other missions. 

Rev. Thomas Heyden, the son of Father Gallitzin's early 
friend, the merchant of Bedford, was ordained in Philadel- 
phia by Bishop Conwell, May 1, 1820, and soon after was' 
placed at Bedford, attending Ncwry. Sinking Valley, Phil- 
lips burg, Huntingdon and so many other stations which Dr. 
Gallitzin yielded up to him, that it took him four or five 
weeks to go the rounds of all, allowing one or two days to 
each. He was repeatedly called to Philadelphia, and for a 
time was the reluctant pastor of St. Mary's, the church so 
long the scene of rebellion, from which he returned to reside 
permanently at Bedford, where he wa's of the greatest com- 
fort to Dr. Gallitzin, to whom he was as a dear son. 

Rev. John O'Rielly who Avith Rev. Mr. Kerns of Chambers- 
burg, attended Mr. Hoyden's district during his absence in 
Philadelphia, at other times residing either at Newry or 
Huntingdon, was a native of Ireland, educated at Emmets- 
burg, ordained in 1826 and immediately appointed to assist 
Dr. Gallitzin in the Pennsylvania mission. Besides the 
numerous congregations passed over to him by the pastor 
of Loretto, Mr. O'Rielly attended to the spiritual wants of 
great numbers of the Irish laborers employed upon the canal, 
with whose assistance he built a brick church in Hunting- 

* Esv. H. Lemcke. p. 302. 

__ 363 

dou. and in Bellefonte, contracting- for another in Newry, 
where he was residing- when appointed, in 1831, to the as- 
sistance, of Mr. Maguire at St. Patrick's church in Pittsburg. 
Mr. O'Neill was an Irish priest ministering- to the faithful in 
Butler. Other priests than these occasionally attended to 
different stations, among- them Rev. Mr. Duffy who was for 
sometime at Ebensburg, and very kindly reg-arded by Dr. 
G-allitzin, who protected him from injustice upon several 
occasions. The burden was, however, still heavy upon the 
veteran missionary, the increase of population keeping his 
mission always great notwithstanding the zealous assistance 
of so many young and active priests, the more so that the dif- 
ficulties between Mr. McGirr and his flock continually requir- 
ed his mediation, which appeared to be effectual only for the 
moment, and so far from receiving advice or comfort from 
the bishop he was oblig-ed to keep his troubles somewhat in 
the back-ground, and do his utmost to uphold the bishop in 
his accumulated trials. 

In the hope of putting an end to the scandals in Philadel- 
phia, word was sent from Rome appointing Rev. William 
Matthews of Washington administrator of the diocese in- 
viting the bishop to Rome, and removing the priests, who 
had caused the trouble, to Ohio. It was at this time that 
Dr. Gallitzin Avas thinking of going to Europe to endeavor 
to obtain some portion of his inheritance, and was urged to 
accompany the bishop, as seen from a letter to Mr. Heydeu: 


f Loretto, Dec. 3. 1827. 

Rev'd Dear Sir. 

I returned from Washington and Baltimore via Harris- 
burgh, and got safely home Monday N"ov. 26th. My jour- 
ney was premature, which obliges me to go down again 
after Christmas, when I shall take Bedford in my way. I 
reached Baltimore Friday night, Nov. 9th and on the follow- 
ing Tuesda}^ whilst I was amusing myself on Madame Poch- 
on's piano, who should stand behind me but the Right Rev'd 
Bishop of Philadelphia. I had hardly time to look around, 


when both his arms were around my neck and myself over- 
whelmed with kisses. Pray, who are you? Why; don't you 
know Henry Conwell, B'p of Philadelphia? I really did not 
know him, he was [so] close to me. After getting his bles- 
sing he took me away to the Archbishop's, and told me on 
the road that he had nominated me his coadjutor and 
had written or was going to write to Home on the subject. 
I to4d him I hoped not. The Archbishop and the Bishop 
seem to be united in their desire to see me appointed. 
I don't know what to say about it there [are] so many ob- 
stacles in the way, so many difficulties to overcome .... my 
voyage to Europe which I shall (almost certainly) have to 
undertake next spring. When I mentioned iny voyage to 
Europe the Bishop replied that he was glad to hear it and 
would go with me, as they wanted to see him at Rome. 

I left the Rev. Enoch Fen wick almost dying at -Georgetown 
College, with poor hopes of his recovery. The Archbishop 
of Baltimore is also in a very bad way, Dr. Chatard and other 
attending physicians are of opinion that his' heart is affected; 
the former told me that he would not be surprised to hear of 
his sudden exit. Nothing positive has transpired in regard 
to his successor, some think that Rev'd Dr. Deluol is in nom- 
ination, others Rev'd William Matthews. From a conver- 
sation I had with the Archbishop I do not think he has 
nominated any one yet, but he thinks seriously about it. 
Excuse my hurry and believe me. 
Rev'd dear Sir, 

Yr very hble servt and friend 
Demetrius A. Gallitzin V. G. 

Dr. Gallitzin very soon found himself obliged to exercise 
the authority, given him at the time of this meeting, in the 
cause of Mr. McG-irr whose variance with his congregations 
had ripened to open quarrels, by no means subdued by the 
part which Mr. Maguire, who still kept an interest in Sports- 
man's Hall, thought proper to take in regard to the matters 
in dispute. Immediately upon the appointment of Mr. Mat- 
thews, and in the absence of the bishop who had refused to 


interfere, great efforts were made to have Mr. McGirr re- 
moved, and Mr. Magniive left free to visit the congregation 
from Pittsburg, retaining the honors and emoluments, such 
as they were, arising from Father Brauer's will, without the 
trials and privations of life upon his farm ; a course Dr. Gal- 
litzin resented with indignation. "My feelings are over- 
powered," he wrote Mr. Heyden, Dec. 13, 1828 "Oh, the 

abominable doings in Westmoreland! The impious K . 

after going from door to door, and getting" (Deus sail by 
what means) some persons to swear scandalous things 
against Mr. McG-irr, gets a petition with a number of subs- 
cribers, Mr. Maguire is prevailed upon to sign it K . 

goes down to Washington, is received by the Vicar Apostolic 
with distinction, obtains all he wants, and returns the bearer 
of Mr. Matthews' dispatches, one letter appointing Mr. Ma- 
guire judge of the charges against Mr. McGirr, and an. 
other letter enjoining upon Mr. McGirr .to abide by Mr- 
Maguire, his enemy's, decisions." 

" From all mendicant friars" he says again, " Lord de- 
liver us ! I have always revered the holy institutions of 
St. Francis whether Capuchins or Franciscans, but an ob- . 
servation of many years has convinced me, that if you take 
a member of these sacred institutions out of his monastery, 
and put him on a mission, you take the fish out of the water 
and put him on dry land to perish. This I believe admits of 
very few exceptions. Freed from their vow of poverty they, 
become most raving mad for money." 

Before the news of Mr. Mathews' action, in which the vicar- 
general of the district was not so much as consulted, as com- 
mon courtesy required, reached Loretto, Dr. Gallitzin having 
exhausted all arguments and entreaties, often visiting the 
disaffected, and exhorting them to obedience, without per- 
manent effect, Mr. McGirr being in great trouble and distress, 
he considered it incumbent upon him to address Mr. Ma- 
guire, whose influence constantly defeated his own, .directly 
upon the subject. The postcript, which has a characteristic 
ring, was added immediately upon hearing of Mr. Matthews' 



f Loretto, Nov. 23. 1828. 

Very Rev'd Sir. 

With heartfelt sorrow I find myself compelled to address 
your Reverence as a continuance of silence on my part would 
be criminal. 

Some years ago the Right Rev. Bishop saw fit to appoint 
me Vicar General, but having neglected to designate the 
limits of my jurisdiction, I considered the appointment, as 
nugatory, and did not act under it. However, happening 
to meet the Bishop in Baltimore, and the subject of my 
appointment being mentioned at the late Archbishop's, I 
requested him to state the limit of my jurisdiction ; where- 
upon, in the presence of the Archbishop and of his clergy, 
viz: the Rev. Messrs. Whitfield (now Archbishop) Smith 
and Peese, he replied that my jurisdiction embraced the 
districts of the Rev. Messrs. McG-irr, O'Neill, Heyden, 
and Rielly. Such being the case I now address your 
Reverence in my capacity of Vicar General of the above 

I have learnt from a respectable character in Ebensburg, 
that your Reverence has been prevailed upon to take an 
active part in the persecutions carried on by an impious set 
against the Rev'd Mr. McGirr. It does not belong to me to 
investigate your motives, which I hope are not revenge and 
self-interest (as is supposed by some persons) but this much 
I know, that a terrible woe must fall upon him who will seek 
or promote the downfall of a brother clergyman. More than 
thirty-three years spent on the mission have taught me thai 
Catholics will go any length when animated by a spirit of 
hatred against their pastors, and had your Reverence been 
in this country in 180*1, it .would have raised the hai>- on 
your head to have read the horrid Depositions and Certifi- 
cates fabricated against me, and sent to the Bishop by cer- 
tain persons well known to you, and among the rest by some 
of the very same whom I now find arrayed against Rev'd T. 
McGirr. Thanks be to Divine Providence, and to Bishop 
Carroll's wisdom and penetration, all their hellish plots 


proved harmless to me. but I am afraid not so to themselves; 
and I now declare unto your Reverence that with the help 
of Divine Providence I shall exert all lawful means in my 
power to render abortive and harmless to Mr. McGirr the 
machinations of the impious Catholics of Westmoreland, to- 
gether with your interference, and as a preliminary and pre- 
cautionary measure I, as Vicar General of the Westmore- 
land district, now positively release your Reverence from 
the trouble of interfering 1 directly or indirectly with the 
Catholics of said district, or from officiating in that district 
except in articulo mortis viz, in the case of a dying person 
who could not confess in the English language. If your 
Reverence had confined yourself to your own district, and 
not been so willing to admit the Westmoreland rebels 
(which I always refused to do) and if you had not been so 
willing even to officiate for them in Mr. McG-irr's district, 
(which caused your Reverence to meet with an unpleasant 
refusal and to be insulted) the rebellion never would have 
ripened to maturity or assumed so horrid a shape. 
I remain respectfully, 

Yr hble sorvt. 

Demetrius A. Gallitzin, 
Parish priest of Loretto and V. G. 

Dec. 13, 1828. 

P. S. I am just informed that you are appointed by Rev. 
Mr. Matthews to investigate Rev. Mr. McGirr's conduct. I 
cannot for a moment suppose that you, his professed adver- 
sary, would be so ungenerous, so mean, so void of all sense 
of propriety as to accept of such a commission. However, as 
the must unlikely things sometimes turn out to be matter 
of fact, I, as Vicar General of the Westmoreland district, do 
solemnly protest against your appointment as judge over 
Rev. T. McGirr, and I do again enjoin on your Reverence not 
to interfere with Rev. Mr. 'McGirr's district, or with any 
part of my district as Vicar General, unless superior orders 
(after receiving Mr. McGirr's protest) should finally compel 
you to it. The laws of both church and state authorize such 


a protest, and during its pendency before the superior, you 
are in duty bound not to begin proceedings, or to suspend 
them if already begun. 

Demetrius A. Gallitzin, 

Vicar General. 

Not content with this protest, for the cause of the priests 
under his charge was dearer to him even than though his 
own, Dr. Gallitzin wrote immediately to Rev. Mr. Heyden in- 
forming him of the steps taken, and urging him to lose no 
time in adding' his own testimony in favor of Mr. McGirr, lest 
it once becoming known that the poor priest was under 
censure, he might lose the few friends and the confidence he 
still retained. He comforted and consoled the one in trouble 
and at once wrote to Mr. Matthews a letter full of spirit and 
sorrowful indignation which it seems impossible could have 
failed of its object, the complete removal of all suspicion. 
These prompt and loving efforts, though falling' far short of 
their design, were not wholly unavailing; Mr. McGirr was 
not tried or removed, still less was he willingly accepted by 
all the members of his congregations, though many were 
able to overcome personal dislike and submit to his harsh- 
ness, in reverence for his sacred position. 


Very Rev. Sir, 

I just now read a letter which your Reverence wrote to 
Rev. Mr. McGirr, in which you state that you have ap- 
pointed Very Rev. Mr. Maguire to take cognizance of and to 
pronounce upon the subject of certain accusations against 
the said Rev. Mr. McGirr. This is tantamount to a suspen- 
sion. ... 

If Bishop Carroll (that almost perfect man) had proceeded 
in the same manner in my case in 1807 there can be no 
doubt that I should have been suspended; the accusations 

. * This letter is copied from one found among Dr. Gallitzin's papers, 
which appears to be merely the rough draft of the one sent. 


against me were more grievous than those against Mr. 
McGrirr, and also supported by an old clergyman; the 

messenger selected was E. J , Esq. protonotary of our 

county. Bishop Carroll having read the deposition and cer- 
tificate turned about and said: "Sir, I am very sorry for one 
thing." " What is that, 'my Lord?" "Why to find your 
name on this infamous paper, and now, Sir, clear yourself 
immediately from my presence, go home and give satisfac- 
tion to your pastor." 

This I have from Mr. J himself whose testimony in 

such a case cannot be suspected, and who, accordingly; 
came on the following Sunday to the church and at the foot 
of the altar, before the whole congregation, acknowledged 
and deplored his guilt in calumniating me; which example 
was followed by several more of them. Thus ended my 
business, and thus I contend, ought Rev. Mr. McGirr's bus- 
iness to end. 

It is shocking to both Catholics and Protestants (and you 
must know, Very Rev. Sir, that Rev. Mr. McGrirr, a gray- 
haired gentleman, is much respected by all the respectable 
characters of both parties) it is shocking, then, I say, to 

hear that impious free-mason, Mr. K who is no Catholic 

(no matter how many signs of Catholicity he may have ex- 
hibited at Washington), to hear him relate with how much 
respect he was received by you, to see him made by your 
feeverence the bearer of your letter to Mr. McGrirr, and to 
hear him exult in his victory. 

Did you know, Very Rev. Sir, that this detestable man 
travelled about from door to door, even to a distance of 
many miles sicut Corugiens on purpose to make persona 
swear against Mr. McGrirr, which besides being most in- 
famous in itself was a notorious breach of the law which he 
is sworn to support ? 

.... Would you be willing after the lapse of so many 
years, even to listen to such stuff or to permit the character 
and livelihood of a clergyman to have to depend on such un- 
timely testimonies ? . . . . When our worthy bishop appointed 
me vicar general over the districts of the Rev. Messrs. McGirr, 


O'Neill, Heyden and O'Rielly, he particularly recommended 
me to be like a father to them; it became my religious duty, 
of course, (whenever I heard of the accusation agajnst one 
of them by an impious set, before your Reverence) to pre- 
vent you from being taken by surprise and to put you upon 
your guard .... 

I had reason to suppose that my age, my thirty-three 
years' residence .on this mountain and thorough acquain- 
tancfe with persons and circumstances, would give my re- 
commendation some weight. Alas ! I find myself mistaken, 
and whilst on the one hand an impious man breathing spite 
and revenge brags of your respectful attention, I have to 
acknowledge that no attention whatever is paid to my 

Two or three ' years later Mr. McGirr was removed from 
Father Brauers' farm, and at the request of the bishop (Ken- 
rick) confined himself to such duties as Dr. Gallitzin should 
think proper to place upon him, and to say Mass only at Lo- 
retto or in his own house, near Ebensburg. He lived for a 
time with Dr. Gallitziu, or made him long and frequent, 
visits, and was always treated with the utmost kindness and 
regard, although it was a wonder to all how one so fasti- 
dious as the delicate doctor, could put up with the bluster- 
ing peculiarities of the less cultured priest. The country 
abounds with recollections of McGirr's idiosyncrasies; he" 
was especially particular about his food, not requiring 
dainties or luxuries, for to these things he never gave a 
thought, but determined to have substantial and abundant 
meals, and so many times had he been deluded in regard to 
such, and for want of what he. considered due precaution, 
been half starved on his missions, .that in later years he left 
nothing undone with which to reproach himself afterwards. 
In this respect,, as in so many others, Dr. Gallitzin was at 
thie. other extreme; people wondered that he could live on so 
little; he provided abundant meats for his guest, but under 
the plea of delicate health, poor appetite, or sudden calls, 
avoided as often as possible participating in the good things 


so keenly relished by the strong and hearty visitor, aud. 
would take his frugal meal, consisting of a single light and 
simple dish, by himself, in his own room, reading "or stand- 
ing, or sitting on the door step, as Rev. Mr. Lemcke relates*, 
after the daily Mass, which, on account of the day's work 
was said very early, taking a. breakfast of soup from the 
plate on his knees, while the children, who also had to make 
themselves useful during the day, played around him, eat- 
ing the- bread and butter they had brought from home, 
preparatory to the lesson in the Catechism he would give 
them before they went to their work. When he was on 
his missions, he passed by the more pretentious houses of 
those well pleased at getting up in the world, and made his 
home with some pious family in humbler circumstances, 
where he would sit surrounded by the delighted children, for 
whom he had always some little picture or keepsake, satis- 
fied with the milk po.rriclge or potatoes placed before him. 
If he arrived too late for the regular meals, he would not 
allow anything to be cooked for him, taking nothing but a 
piece of bread and a glass of water until the usual time. 
When Mr. McGirr accompanied him on his missions the case 
was different: before dismounting, Mr. McGirr would closely 
question the landlord, or house father, who had hastened out 
to hold the horses and receive the distinguished guests with 
due hospitality, as to the resources of the house they were 
about to honor, and if the essentials were found lacking, he 
would persist in riding on to some better filled larder. "Mr. 
McGirr," said the doctor to him with great politeness, after 
listening, with a peculiar smile, to one of these long col- 
loquies between host and guest, to which- he had now be- 
come accustomed, "Mr. McGirr, don't you think the next time 
you had better bring the potatoes (for these were the abso- 
lutely essential) with you in your saddle bags, and then, you 
know, you would always be sure of them ? " 

An advice which was probably not taken, for some time 
afterwards, the two gentlemen went out about three miles 

* Page 314. 


from Loretto, to look at one of Dr. Gallitzin's mills, he having 
sent word in advance to a bountiful provider in the neighbor- 
hood, that he and Mr. McGirr Avould take dinner at his house. 
The good woman of the house at once made all possible pro- 
vision to show her delight at the favor, but in those days, in 
such places, cookery was hardly one of the fine arts, there 
was only a fire-place to work by, and not much variety was 
admitted. When the mill had been properly investigated 
Dr. Gallitzin brought his visitor to the house where a bounti- 
ful dinner awaited them ; Mr. McGirr looked intently at the 
table, with the eye of a general reviewing his troops before 
the battle, the house-mother stood by in conscious virtue, 
having surpassed herself, the children hung about in respect- 
ful shade, and perhaps mentally calculated probable remain- 
ders, Dr. Gallitzin sat at a distance apparently unconscious 
of any unusual pause; all at once Mr. McGirr broke the 
solemn silence, and his words were not of commendation; 
the famous potatoes were not du nature! as he always desir- 
ed, and the good woman, with tears of vexation and wounded 
pride in her eyes, had no choice but to prepare them accor- 
ding to his orders, as quickly as possible; what made her 
humiliation almost intolerable was, that her own pastor, Dr. 
Gallitzin, for whom she would have died a hundred deaths, 
witnessed her undeserved condemnation, without a word or 
look of exciise or regret. All was finalty satisfactory, and 
Mr. McGirr did justice to the amended meal. When all was 
over, and they were about leaving, Dr. Gallitzin lingered a 
moment, quietly asked for some wrapping paper, which was 
brought him with a little silent wonder; he spread it upon 
the table, apparently too absorbed in his work to be con- 
scious of any one's presence, much less that all were watch- 
ing him, puzzled beyond measure; as daintily as a French 
confectioniere picking out candied fruit for a favorite cus- 
tomer, he delicately lifted the brown skinned potatoes left 
upon the table, until not one remained, then making them 
into an eve.n package with elaborate care, he folded them up, 
and for the first time raising his eyes, turning- with an ex- 
pression of childlike innocence to his companion he handed 


him the bundle saying, softly: "They will be all ready for 
the next time," then made his adieux and rode away, leaving 
his good parishioner perfectly satisfied with the reparation, 
and Mr. McG-irr himself could not help a hearty laugh at the 

But though he might, in his own way, take notice of Mr. 
McGirr's little unconventionalities, Dr. Gallitzin would not 
permit others to speak of them, and everywhere insisted 
upon due reverence being paid him, and people were some- 
times at a loss how to show their decided preference for. the 
doctor, without offending him by any apparent depreciation 
of his guest, who was also his assistant; the pastor's own 
tact and delicacy alone helped them out of their difficulty, 
sometimes when they least expected it. For instance, some- 
what later, when he was n;uch past sixty, and suffering 
from an attack of severe illness, a little girl of twelve or 
thirteen, living with her parents at Minister, was in danger 
of death, and Mr. McGirr was requested, as the doctor could 
not leave his room, to come and hear her confession; but 
when he came to the sick child, and she saw who it was, she 
burst into violent crying, and no commands or entreaties no 
fear of death, or terror of unforgiven sins, could induce her, 
though an unusually pious girl, to go to confession to any 
one but Dr. Gallitzin ; they told her the doctor was sick in 
bed, it was impossible to ask him, and that he would be 
very angry if he knew of her resistance, she only cried the 
more and refused Mr. McGirr's assistance the more decided- 
ly. The family were very much frightened and distressed,, 
a priest was a priest, and if she died in that- spirit they 
knew not what would become of her; finally one of them, a 
young woman who, perhaps, fully sympathized with the 
child's feeling, on account of her own veneration for their 
pastor, proposed that she should go to Loretto, and if Dr. 
Gallitzin would see her for a lew minutes, tell him of the 
matter, and obtain some message which would cause the 
sick girl to submit. 

When he learned that her errand was of importance, the 
doctor admitted her, he was sitting in an arm-chair (wooden, 


imcushioned, and straight-backed) looking pale and very 
feeble; she told her story: "Poor child!" he said, calling the 
girl by name, showing no vexation, and paying no attention 
to the messenger's excuses, " of course, she could not go to 
confession to him. Will it be soon enough if I go to-morrow 
morning ? " 

"You, doctor, you do not think of such a thing?" 
" Yes, please God, I will go up in the morning." 
She begged to be permitted to accompany him, she could 
remain with her relatives all night, and .it was unsafe for 
him, so ill as he was, to go out alone, especially such a dis- 

"By no means," he said, "it is best you should try to go 
back this evening, and tell them that I will come in the morn- 
ing, then they will not be uneasy, and to-morrow I will take 
my dog and my stick, that is all I need, and walk over." 

The messenger was, therefore, obliged to return that she 
might relieve the anxiety of the family, whose joy at his 
coming could not but be shadowed by the thought of the 
pain and danger to him. Early the next day the children 
of the house went of their own accord down the road to 
watch for him, when they saw him coming, ran to meet him, 
and one on each side of him, holding an end of his coat, ac- 
companied him through the village street, to their sister's 
door. The sick child cried softly with joy and relief when 
he came to her, made her confession with fervor, received 
the last sacraments, and died like a little saint, who feels 
that her soul's father stands beside her, to lift her firmly 
over the dark passage from life to death, and place her se- 
curely in the strong arms of the waiting angels.' 

Mr. McGirr occasionally celebrated High Mass at Loretto, 
upon which occasions Dr. Gallitzin would go into the choir 
and sing the responses. As soon as he left the altar, it was 
Mr. McGirr's way to go up to the little stand on which the 
vestments were kept, and drag those he was wearing over 
his head, often turning the sleeves of the alb inside out, as 
the quickest way of getting it off; the moment he turned 
away, having unvested himself, and thrown the garments, 


all in a confused heap upon the stand, Dr. Gallitzin would 
be seen in his place, with rapid and reverent touch smooth- 
ing out every wrinkle, folding every article with tenderest 
care, Mr. McGirr serenely unconscious of anything out of 
the way, saying his prayers undisturbed, while the pastor 
laid all away, and closed the drawers. 



Rev. Mr. Matthows resigns. Rev. Mr. Kenrick appointed coadjutor. 
F. Gallitzin's anxieties in regard to Rev. Mr. McGirr. His coun- 
sels to Bishop Kenrick. Pleads for his reverend brethren. Confirma- 
tion at Loretto. The missing mitre. Sir. Heyden's disappointments. 

Rev. Mr. Matthews retained the position of administrator 
of the diocese of Philadelphia, until 1830, when he insisted 
upon resigning the burdensome charge, which ho had long 
felt heavy upon his shoulders. The bishop having returned 
from Rome and consenting to the suggestion of -the council 
of Baltimore to receive Rev. Francis Patrick Kenrick, of the 
diocese of Bardstown, as his coadjutor, Mr. Matthews' re- 
signation was accepted, and Mr. Kenrick being appointed 
by the Holy See, was consecrated at Bardstown, Kentucky, 
in June 1830, taking the place which had been so much 
urged upon Dr. Gallitzin, and which it. was generally sup- 
posed he would be induced to accept. 

Rev. Mr. Kenrick was a much younger man, to whom the 
Bishop of Bardstown, the venerable B. J. Flaget,. was so 
devotedly attached that it almost broke his heart to part 
with him, he had not even the courage at first to announce 
to the bishop elect the great honor awaiting him. 

Immediately upon receiving the news of his appointment 
Rev. Mr. Kenrick wrote to Dr. Gallitzin: 


Bardstown, May 3, 1830. 
Rev. and very dear Sir, 
The intelligence of my appointment to the coadjutorship 


and full administration of the diocese of Philadelphia, has, 
of course, ere this reached you. To me it is a matter of 
serious regret that you or some of the veteran missionaries 
of the diocese have been left in the humbler and more tran- 
quil spheres of yoiir ministry, whilst I am called from this 
peaceful recess to so perilous an elevation. Opposition, 
however, I have deemed fruitless, and have, therefore, pre- 
ferred a ready acceptance to any exercise or display of 
humility. I am consoled by the reflection that the diocese 
offers me several learned and zealous co-operators, amongst 
whom the Defender of the Faith holds a conspicuous place. 
I flatter myself, then, that those talents which have been so 
successfully employed from the pulpit and the press in de- 
fence of our holy religion, will continue devoted to the same 
great ends in the same diocese which has already derived 
from them such advantage, and that, your counsels, and 
prayers, and exertions, will considerably aid me in the dis- 
charge of the arduous duties of my station. On my part, 
as no ambition has prompted my acceptance, no spirit of 
domination shall characterize my exercise of authority, but 
I shall regard myself as a brother of all my clergymen, 
above whom, though far inferior in merits and services to 
several, I am raised by the inscrutable councils of Pro- 
vidence. For you, Reverend Sir, I shall cherish an affection 
blended with veneration, and grounded on the solid basis of 
ycur universally acknowledged merits. 

I beg of you to continue to exercise the faculties which 
you already possess, in all their amplitude, and I further 
empower you to grant all such matrimonial dispensations 
and exercise all auch other powers as may not already be 
contained in your faculties, and which I could impart were 
I personally consulted. These extraordinary powers you 
will at discretion exercise until such time as I shall be with- 
in the limits of the diocese. 

The consecration is intended to take place in the cathe- 
dral of Bardstown on Whit-Sunday, if it suits the con- 
venience of Dr. England whom I have invited to preach on 
the occasion, otherwise shortly after, perhaps on Corpus 


Chrisii. I should have chosen Philadelphia for the p^ace of 
consecration, but I was anxious to give, this mark of my 
' attachment to the apostolic prelate of this diocese, who 
parts from me with all the impassioned sorrow of a parent. 
The precise day I shall endeavor to have notified in the 
public prints. If you could conveniently attend, you will 
confer on me a high favor, and I am confident you will feel 
no small gratification in witnessing the splendid edifices 
which religion has raised in this country. 

In conclusion I request the participation of your prayers 
and sacrifices for me personally, and for the diocese to whose 
administration Divine Providence has called me. 

With sentiments of profound respect and warm attachment 
Your affectionate friend and brother in Christ, 

Francis P. Kenrick, 
Bishop el Aratha and Coadjutor Phila. 

But not even these flattering expressions of the esteem 
and veneration of the expectant bishop could conciliate the 
lion-hearted missionary, who saw in the appointment of one 
so ready to exercise his full authority, a slight to the vener- 
able prelate whose cruel sufferings he had taken grievously 
to heart. With his usual sensitiveness Dr. Gallitzin, after 
the sense of relief at his own escape was over, thought only 
of the feeling Bishop Conwell would naturally experience by 
being, in reality, superseded by a young priest from a dis- 
tant diocese, who had never felt with him the stings of in- 
sult and bitterest opposition in the discharge of his rightful 
authority; he feared that no stranger would render to the 
aged bishop the deference due to his position, and his sorely 
wounded heart, in which spirit he replied :- 


- - . t - 

Loretto, May 22, .1830. 

Right Rev. Sir, 

Ybur favour conveying the intelligence of your appoint- 
ment to the coadjutorship and full administration etc. was 

* From a copy found among Dr. Gallitzin's papers. 


duly received. Whilst on the one hand it relieves my mind 
from the most serious apprehensions, it, on the other, throws 
me into a state of perplexity having only a few days since 
received a communication from the clergy of Philadelphia, 
conveying the pleasing intelligence of the full restoration of 
our worthy bishop to his episcopacy, authority and juris- 
diction. It does not belong to me as an inferior to judge 
between my superiors, and in fact I am not in possession of 
any data on which to form a judgment; from the time that 
our Bishop took his departure from Rome until the present 
day, I have never received any authentic comrminication 
concerning ecclestical affairs, and all the information I have 
had on these important subjects, including the late synod 
and your appointment etc-., was derived from newspaper, and 
from flying and often contradictory reports. In short, Right 
Rev. Sir, I never was in the secrets of the cabinet, and to 
this day have not even been favoured with a copy of the 
pastoral letter directed to the clergy, though report says 
that such a letter was published by the Synod of Baltimore. 
From the above you will at once agree that my line of con- 
duct is plainly 'marked out for me, viz: to leave it to my 
superiors to settle the question of jurisdiction between them, 
and to await the result. Dr. Conwell was once declared to 
be my bishop, his jurisdiction suspended pro tern, is now de- 
clared to be fully restored, of course my allegiance to him 
. still continues, until I am released by himself, or by an au 
thority superior to his. In this declaration you will discover 
nothing, I hope, but a sure pledge of my future fidelity and 
obedience to yourself; whenever it is made manifest to me 
. that you are my bishop, I shall cheerfully acquiesce and 
sincerely thank Divine Providence which in his kindness has 
relieved me from all apprehension of ever becoming Bishop 
of Philadelphia. Both the late archbishop (a very particular 
friend of mine) and our own present bishop spoke to me in 
Baltimore, November 1827, and begged of me to suffer my 
name to be mentioned at Rome for the coadjutorship of Phil- 
adelphia. I at first opposed it, and if I finally concluded to 
remain neutral, it was merely with the view of availing 1 


myself of the chance I might derive from such a nomination, 
to obtain from Some a division of this immense diocese, and 
to have this place, which is the centre of a large Catholic 
settlement, raised to the dignity of an episcopal see, for 1 
always dreaded the idea of being Bishop of Philadelphia. 

.... I have stood by him [Bishop Conwell] and the most 
of his clergy have stood by him. We considered him as an 
injured and persecuted man; it was not enough that he was 
spit upon and dirt thrown at him in the streets of Philadel- 
phia, which he bore with the utmost meekness .... I have . 
spent thirty-five years in this mission, and I can safely de- 
clare that during the seven or eight years of Dr. Con well's 
administration, religion has made more rapid strides than it 
had during the twenty-six, or twenty-seven proceeding years, 
and to the present moment we are left to guess what could 
have been the crimes, for which nearly the heaviest punish- 
ment is inflicted, which the Church can inflict upon a bishop. 
Permit me now, Right Rev. Sir, to give you my humble opin- 
ion as to the course you had better pursue under the above 

Instead of conferring confirmation in the various congre- 
gations on your way to Philadelphia, as you propose, I 
would beg of you to post on recta via to headquarters, in 
"order to have the main question settled at once, that no dif- 
ficulty, no scruple, or perplexity may remain in the minds of 
the clergy you would meet on the road. At any rate giving 
confirmation now would be premature. I wish to have at 
least the month [of June] to prepare my immense congre- 
gation for so great a blessing, of which as many as one hun- 
dred will partake, and which cannot be reiterated. For this 
extensive congregation, the members of which have almost 
exclusively to earn their living by hard labor, the very best 
time for confirmation would be after harvest, say at the end 
of September, or beginning of October. In the eastern part 
of the diocese, where the congregations are chiefly confined 
to towns, any time will do ; 

Moreover, I must beg of you, and this 1 would do on both 
my knees, not to interfere with the Westmoreland ques- 


tion* until you have first been in Philadelphia, and after- 
wards at Loretto, at which two places you will obtain full 
possession of all the facts necessary to be known, in order to 
enable you' to form a sound judgment. As vicar-general I 
have been obliged to interfere, 'and I can safely say the dif- 
ficulties are so great, that were you just now in Westmore- 
land, without a miraculous interposition of Providence you 
could never succeed in settling matters, whilst in Philadel- 
phia and Loretto you would have time to collect your mate- 
rials and digest your plan .... 

. Bishop Kenrick was consecrated on June 6th, with great 
ceremony; and on the eleventh replied to Dr. jG-allitzin: 


Bardstowu, June 11. 1830. 
Rev'd and dear Sir 

Your favor of the 22. ult. reached me on the 9th instant, 
three days after my consecration. This was performed by 
the Right Rev. Dr. Flaget, assisted by the Right Rev. Dr. 
Con well, the Right Rev. Dr. David, the Right Rev. Dr. Eng- 
land and the Right Rev. Dr. Edward Penwick being also in 
choir on the occasion. Your presence would have been grate- 
fnl to many who were desirous to see the man whose writings 
had edified and enlightened them, and to some who longed 
to see once more him whom, at an early period of his minis- 
try they had viewed with veneration. Among the latter are 
the families of Messrs. Elder and Moore who desire to be re- 
uiembered kindly to you. To me it would have been in a 
high degree gratifying, but I could not claim or expect the 

Your letter exhibits the candid and uncompromising spirit 
of a veteran missionary who, through a principle of duty, 
adheres to a prelate, dear to his heart on account of the ob- 
loquy and affiic.tions unjustly heaped upon him. M I join fully 

* Mr. McGirr was still there, contending with great difficulties, and 
the quarrels at their height. 


with you in these strong and generous feelings, and I hope 
we shall both equally concur in the adoption of those mea- 
sures which, in the judgment of the American prelates, and 
of the Holy See, seem necessary to terminate his afflictions. 
His age and his troubles demand, as they have thought, that 
he should be liberated from the burden of governing the 
diocese; and without imputing to him criminality, which the 
enemies of religion could alone imagine, they have provided 
for his future happiness. A regard for.his welfare, and a 
still greater concern for the interests of our holy religion in 
his diocese, induced my acquiesence when my youth, ill- 
health, and other circumstances, would have required my 
refusal of the episcopal dignity. God is my witness that 1 
did not ambition it; and at this moment I could without a 
struggle part with the high but awful honor. In accepting 
it I bowed only to the will of heaven, manifested by proper 
authority, and in exercising it, I am determined only to 
seek the greater glory of God, and my own salvation, with 
that of the flock committed to my care. Your piety and long 
tried zeal promised me much aid in the arduous undertaking, 
and though the language of your answer would appear dis- 
heartening, I feel fully persuaded that on receiving a distinct 
notification of my authority, you will support me most ar- 
dently in endeavoring to solace and honor the declining age 
of the venerable Bishop of Philadelphia, and to promote the 
peace and prosperity of the diocese. Should your opinion as 
to the expediency of the measures adopted be different from 
that of the American prelacy, and as to the selection of the 
individual should you also think differently from them, still 
you will no doubt yield in deference to their judgment, sustain- 
ed by the solemn sanction of the Apostolic See. To dissipate 
every doubt" arising from the rumors that have reached you, 
or the statements made from rumor by clergymen who had 
i- not seen the documents, I take the trouble of making an 
extract from the letter written by Cardinal Cappellan, prefect 
of the Congregation, and to which reference was made in 
the Papal Bulls': 


* * * The bishop is still left at liberty to exercise all 
public functions, to administer confirmation, and even orders, 
to such as with .my consent shall be presented for ordination. 
........ I have requested him, therefore, t;> administer confir- 
mation in Pittsburg, on Sunday, the 20th inst. Rev. Mr. 
Maguire having solicited me to administer it; and I meant 
to give him in the other congregations, as we passed forward, 
a similiar mark of my respect, and the public this testimony 
of his still being recognized as a worthy prelate, though un- 
fortunate in the difficulties which he encountered. Thus his 
return to Philadelphia would have been a species of triumph, 
and I would stand by his side to support, vindicate, and com- 
fort him. This I am still determined to do, and if ever I 
recede from the kindest and most respectful course of con- 
duct in his regard, the fault shall not be mine. I did intend 
to visit Rev. Mr. McGirr's congregation with the others on 
my way, but I was determined not to adopt any precipitate 
measures. The information which you can afford me on this 
and other subjects will be most acceptable, and I hope to 
receive it by word or letter speedily. Being sollicited to go 
to Huntingdon by Rev. Mr. O'Rielly to dedicate a church, and 
give confirmation, I may be prevented from calling at 
Loretto, which I greatly desire to do in order to form a per- 
sonal acquaintance with its venerated pastor. If, in my 
power, I will gladly visit your congregation and administer 
confirmation at another time that may better suit. 

I take this opportunity of informing you that I have direc- 
ted the Jubilee Indulgence to be published by the respective 
pastors throughout the diocese, leaving it at their option to 
choose any two weeks within six months from the 13th of 
June. I empower all of them during that period to exercise, 
in favor of those who are determined to comply with the 
conditions of the Jubilee, all such powers as I can delegate. 

I have shown, as you requested, your letter to the 
bishops^ and believe that they lament that your not being- 
fully informed of the extent of my powers, has led you 
to indicate something like dissent from measures adopted by 
the Holy See, at the particular suggestion of all the Ameri- 


can prelacy in council. Your letter indeed is not in accord 
with those which I have received from Reverend Messrs. 
Maguire, Hurley, Hughes, Heyden, Kenney, O'Eielly &c. &c. 
But on a better acquaintance I hope every difficulty will 
vanish. Pray for me. dear and Reverend Sir, and believe in 
the sincerity of my respect and attachment. 
Your affectionate brother in Christ, 

f Francis Patrick Kenrick, 

Bp Arath and Coadj. Phila. 

Of course this was all sufficient, and Dr. Gallitzin at once 
gave in his allegiance to the lawfully appointed adminis- 

He was now overpowered with anxiety lest Mr. McGirr's 
enemies, gaining the ear of the new bishop should succeed in 
effecting the long sought disgrace of a good priest, one who 
with all his faults, was willing and able to accomplish great 
good, and rough though he might be, was as a rock in his 
faith, and untiring in the performance of his duties. Faith- 
fulness and good intentions were merits of inestimable value 
in the eyes of the vicar-general, and in his opinion atoned 
for multitudes of faults and shortcomings; it is known that 
he appealed with seemingly irresistable eloquence to the 
new bishop to be merciful, to accept no doubtful evidence, to 
consider the sacred character of a priest, the marvellous 
graces given, which, though long abused and resisted, must 
almost assuredly triumph in the end, of the terrible evil of 
human interference, of the hope that should never be shadow- 
ed, of the reputation which, like the uncertain glimmer of a 
feeble fire, might be made the last expiring spark, put out 
forever by a sudden breath, or the quivering gleam, gently 
strengthened and softly fanned until it becomes a steady 
flame, and brillant light, not easily extinguished. "The wel- 
fare of the accused," he said in the case of another of the 
priests under his protection, who certainly was innocent of 
the acts laid to his charge,* "perhaps his eternal happiness 

* Eev. H. Lemcke, p. 301. 


or misery is at stake, for a priest, whose name and raputa- 
tidn have once been shadowed, will generally be entirely 
ruined. Are you willing to take such a responsibility upon 
yourself? Kemember that you will one day have to appear 
with him before God. I regard him as innocent, and insist 
that the case shall be more thoroughly examined, according 
to St. Paul's law: Against a priest receive not an accusation 
but under two or three witnesses (Tim. v. 19) Where are your 
witnesses and who are they ?" 

But the bishop was disposed to take a more severe view of 
all such cases, and to exact that his priests should be above 
suspicion, not knowing the circumstances and character of 
life and judgment in the still not over-refined districts of 
Pennsylvania, where the ordinary civilities and meaningless 
courtesies of city life, were liable to the grossest interpreta- 
tion, and where a momentary indiscretion, which was per- 
haps atoned before God by sincere contrition and bitter 
penance, might easily be regarded as a crime never to be 
forgiven or forgotten ; he desired also, with a most noble 
ambition, to raise the standard of exellence among priests and 
people, to the very highest point, and felt himself constrained 
to answer Gallitzin's appeals in a spirit of severe justice : 


Aug. 4. 18$0. 

.... With regard to your counsels I am grateful, and 
assure you I am determined to respect the forms of justice 
as well as the substance, yet I cannot promise you that to 
investigate charges against a priest I shall impanel a jury, 
or examine and confront witnesses in the presence of the 
multitude, though such be the forms of administering civil 
justice in this country. Ecclesiastical tribunals have rules 
peculiar to themselves for the great ends to which they are 
directed, and these rules I shall assuredly observe. . . .There 
are two extremes which I mean to avoid, one that of proceed- 
ing precipitately on a mere rumor or suspicious accusation, 
the other that of making matters of a delicate nature the 

386 - 

subject of a tedious investigation. I am determined always 
to require positive testimony, delivered in the presence of 
respectable clergymen. 

. . . .But do not, 'I pray you, bold forth the least hope, save 
in a temperate vindication by unsuspicious testimoay. I 
own I am liable to be deceived, my youth may be imposed 
upon by designing men, but I study at least to avoid de- 
ception and bias and I pray to the God of light to direct me. 
Never shall I proceed in these critical matters without hav- 
ing first fervently implored his assistance. Age would not 
of itself secure me from deception, the wily may impose on 
the good faith of a veteran missionary, whose innocence and 
virtue may leave him to judge favorably of those who speak 
the language, and wear the appearance of piety. 

Permit me to entreat you not to suppose too readily that 
without strong cause I would deprive myself of -the services 
of a missionary. Let not delinquents find any hope of pro- 
tection in your name, which to me is dear and venerable, but 
tell them to have recourse to me, and prove their innocence, 

and that they may be assured of my favor .... 


All that could be obtained for Mr. McGirr, under these 
circumstances, was the permission to remain in Dr. Gallitzin's 
immediate neighborhood, and exercise his priestly powers 
under his direction, an order which, as we have seen, 
was softened and made endurable by the delicacy, the 
tact, and the unvarying respect of the pastor of Lore tto. In 
'the" other case in which a blameless priest was the victim of 
appearances, reported to the bishop by the proprietor of a 
nbtel'( called & tavern in those days), not far from Loretto, 
who undoubtedly was himself deceived, Dr. Gallitzin though 
Perfectly certain 'that there was 'not a shadow of truth" in 
"the i "accusations', could' not shield the accused from severe 
censure, unless the whole matter was investigated thorough- 
ly,' winch -the bishop considered undesirable, and requiring 
too great publicity. The. unfortunate priest went to another 
diocese, arid Dr. Gallitzin wrote indignantly, but with ut- 
most politeness and deference to the bishop, that "since it 


had pleased his Lordship to make a tavern keeper vicar 
general of the mountains, and there was no need of two, he 
begged to resign his position as vicar general," and after- 
wards worked less directly in the cause of those who ap- 
pealed to him, always encouraging and sustaining them, 
joining them in prayers, but preferring to have their case 
advocated by other clergymen as well as by himself, think- 
ing thus to inspire the bishop with more confidence in their 

In the early autumn after his consecration, Bishop Ken- 
rick visited Sportsman's Hall, Blairsville, Loretto and the 
various missions of Western Pennsylvania, accompanied by 
Eev. John Hughes, and part of the way by Rev. Mr. Heyden, 
giving confirmation, listening to grievances, and carefully 
studying the spiritual affairs of the country through which 
he passed. He was received at Loretto with . every demon- 
stration of veneration and delight, and administered confir- 
mation in the church there to no less than five hundred per- 
sons, old men of eighty and even ninety years of age, women 
beni nearly double with the weight of years, and boys and 
girls of twelve and fourteen, people of all ages and condi- 
tions, who were gathered together to receive the all sustain- 
ing sacrament, some as a treasure for their life's journey 
just commencing, some as a seal upon the course so near its 
end. Mr. Heyden assisted and counted them as they went 
up to be confirmed. The bishop was amazed at the eviden- 
ces of piety and unexpected refinement which met him every- 
where in this little mountain village, .of which he had re- 
ceived accounts most favorable, but far below the truth. The 
whole party was greatly impressed by the simple but stately 
hospitality of the pastor from whom there radiated a peculiar 
gentleness and sanctity which, in spite of the simplicity and 
cheerfulness which accompanied it, inspired the bishop with 
a certain awe and a profound veneration. 

"The roads and conveniences for travelling," a writer re- 
marks concerning this visit*, " in the interior of Pennsylvania 

Mr. Hassard in Life of Archbishop Hughes. 


were not much better at that time, than when Mr. Hughes 
went about preaching with Dr. Conwell. In journeying 
from Loretto to Newry, Bishop Kenrick managed to obtain 
a seat in some public conveyance; Mr. Hughes and Father 
Heyden were left to follow him with the baggage in an open 
wagon. Night overto'ok them long before they reached their 
destination. A few miles distant from Newry they examined 
their baggage to see if all was safe. Behold ! the mitre 
and crozier were missing, they had fallen out of the wagon. 
'We must turn back,' said Father Hughes, but to this 
Father Heyden and the driver objected ; the road was danger 
ous ; the night was very dark, and it would be impossible to 
find the lost articles. Father Hughes cut short the discus- 
sion by seizing the reins, and turning the horses himself. 
The mitre and crozier were picked up before they had gone 
far. A believer in omens might have thought this little in- 
cident prophetic." At all events it was characteristic; the 
very mitre once urged upon him now dropped at Gallitzin's 
door, for which Father Heyden, who also refused several 
bishoprics during his life would not turn back, could by no 
means be left behind by Dr. Hughes. - 

Rev. Mr. Heyden was not without his own little troubles 
at this time, in which Dr. Gallitzin deeply sympathized. 
Newry was one of Mr. Heyden's stations, and with the fer- 
vent ambition of youth, and the burning desire for God's 
glory .of a true priest, he was anxious to make greater im- 
provements than the bishop thought prudent or advisable. It 
is likely the simplicity of the mountain villages, their many 
inconveniences, were more noticed by the bishop as they 
would be by any stranger, than by Dr. Gallitzin, Mr. Heyden, 
and those who had seen these settlements growing up around 
them, and so far from considering them as indicating poverty 
and insignificance, looked upon each new cabin added to the 
place, as proof of the prosperous and flourishing condition of 
of the country; a view which the bishop could hardly be ex- 
pected to take. Bishop Kenrick visited the district again in 
1831, and made some slight changes, upon which Dr. Gallit- 
zin wrote Mr. Heyden with his usual readiness to unite with 


all who were in the least troubled, or disturbed by the pas- 
sing disappointments, from which no life worth living can 
ever be exempt: 



Loretto Aug. 27. 1831. 

Rev and dear Friend, 

You are no doubt apprised by this time that your letter in- 
viting me to Newry did not reach me until Sunday about 
ten o'clock. Dr. Kenrick's letter of invitation also came too 
late. I wrote to him and sent the letter by my young man, 
giving him my ideas on the subject of building churches in 
Newry and Holidaysburgh, (as he had requested my advice.) 
However, I think his mind was made up'. ... I feel much 
afflicted and sincerely sympathize with you, however, there 
is no remedy but submission. I am sorry, that your affliction 
prevented your coming to Loretto; on the contrary, in times 
of sorrow, you should visit your real friend to seek consola- 
tion. As you have more leisure in your present situation 
than formerly, I hope you will pay me a visit as soon as con- 
venient. I met the bishop at Ebensburg; he arrived on the 
18th at two o'clock, and left next day at seven, without being 
able to promise positively to return the same way. Whilst 
at Ebensburg he received four letters from Philadelphia, 
which seemed to agitate his mind considerably, from what I 
could learn it is not the trustees alone that give him trouble. 
____ Poor bishop 1 had he known (whilst in Kentucky) all 
that was before him, he would have paused a while before 
he consented to accept of the mitre. my friend! how much 
reason I have to thank God 1 
Yours forever 

Demetrius A. Gallitzin. 



Changes. Rev. James A. Stillinger. Rev. James Bradley. A singular 
call. Ebensburg. Rev. P. H. Lemcke. His w first impressions of Dr. 
Gallitzin. The chapel at Loretto. Carfollto-wn. At. Augustine. 
Summit. Gallitzin. 

The influence of the new bishop was very soon felt in the 
vast district of Western Pennsylvania, where Dr. Gallitzin 
had so long struggled single handed, only aided at times by 
priests who came and went, without that attachment to a 
permanent home in the mountains with which he so much 
desired to see hfs co-laborers animated. Mr. McGirr was 
removed from Sportsman's Hall, and a young priest, Rev. 
James A. Stillinger, just ordained, designated for his place, 
and another, Rev. James Bradley, the first priest ordained 
by Bishop Kenrick, appointed to Ebensburg, to take charge 
of the large mission near that growing town, and to be a 
comfort and solace to Dr. Gallitzin. Mr. Stillinger was born 
in Baltimore of American parents, April 19th 1801, educated 
at Mt. St. Mary's, - Emmetsburg, ordained at the Sulpitian 
Seminary in t Baltimore, by Archbishop Whitfield, Feb. 28, 
1830, and 'attended the congregations attached to Mt. St. 
Mary's, until November of the same year, when Bishop Ken- 
rick appointed him pastor of a little brick church in Blairs- 
ville, thirty by forty feet, and unfinished, which had been 
dedicated to St. Simon and St. Jude on their feast-day, Oct. 
22, 1830, by the bishop, assisted by Rev. Mr. Hughes; his 
mission included Sportsman's Hall, and the entire county of 

-- 391 

Rev. James Bradley was a native of the County of Tyrone, 
Ireland, received his classical education at Londonderry, 
emigrated to this country in 1825, entered Mt. St. Mary's 
college in the same year, was ordained by Bishop Kenrick 
at the Jesuits' church in Conewago in September 1830, and 
almost immediately appointed to the mountains. These 
young priests set out in the same carriage from Emmets- 
burg, November 1830, travelling together until they reached 
Bedford, where they staid overnight with Mr. Heyden, and 
then parted for their respective missions, Mr. Stillinger pro- 
ceeding directly to Westmoreland, and Mr. Bradley making 
haste to call upon the venerable pastor of Loretto, whose 

, honored name had so often reached his ears. "He received 
me then and always," writes Rev. Mr. Bradley, " with true 
paternal kindness. I remained with him a few days, sung 
High Mass for him on Sunday, and he preached. . . . His 
manner was dignified, his language clear and impressive, 
his trumpet voice could be heard at a great distance, his 
articulation perfectly distinct, although he had accidentally 
lost all his teeth His discourses were generally on 

.controversy, having been led in that direction by being 
obliged to defend Catholic principles, from the incessant at- 
tacks and misrepresentations of them, by the various Pro- 
testant sects. However, he forcibly inculcated all the Chris- 
tian virtues, especially humility, and declaimed against the 
sin of pride." 

. Mr. Stillinger was not able to visit him until later. "In 
1831," he writes, " I went to see him for the first time. On 
entering the hall he met me, and took my hand with both of 
his, so beautifully and delicately formed, looking intently 
into my face with -his dark hazel eyes, quick and penetrat- 
ing, .and a countenance beaming full of benevolence and 
kindness, and an address so graceful, so bland, so fatherly 
and accomplished as at once to indicate the nobleman, the 
high-bred" gentleman, and the self sacrificing convert and 

missionary Before I could give him my address, he said: 

' Your name is Stillinger, I said Mass in your grandfather's 
house before you were born. You are welcome,' he con' 

- 392 

tinned, and said that on his first visit to Chambersburg, 
when he was within two or three miles of the place, he met 
some persons on the road and asked them if they knew where 
Michael Stillinger lived; they said they did, and gave him 
the direction by pointing to the part of the town where he 
lived; he thanked them kindly and rode on, but he had not 
gone far when he heard a person calling: 'Stranger! Stran- 
ger!' he stopped until the person came up to him, almost out 
of breath from running, who said: ' I come to tell you, Sir, 
that Stillinger is a PAPIST!' 'Very well, Sir, I am thankful 
to you for the information, I will see to that.' We enjoyed a 
pleasant laugh, and entertained ourselves agreeably with 
other matters. Next morning, though there were others 
that could serve Mass, he insisted upon serving my Mass, I, 
of course, felt honored aiid have ever since, for it was not 
deserved on my part, the reward went to him, and would 
add to his crown in heaven. How humble and how great! 
1 shall ever remember the impression it made on my mind. 
I was the young priest but little over a year ordained, he 
was the nobleman, greatest among the great, the self sacri- 
ficing convert, and a Catholic in faith to the marrow; he 
was the devoted, humble and learned priest and venerable 
missionary of the Alleghany mountains." 

The church at Sportsman's Hall, which was now con- 
signed to the care of Rev. Mr. Stillinger, was a small frame 
building about forty by thirty feet, unnamed, and as far as 
was known, undedicated, no record of any such ceremony 
existing. Its affairs were in a most complicated and un- 
happy condition, and its surrounding influences of the most 
depressing and disheartening character, but the zealous 
young priest, with an admirable mixture of mildness and 
severity, of tact and plain-speaking, aided no little by a 
most commanding and attractive presence, to Dr. Gallitzin's 
great joy and relief, speedily adjusted many disputed mat- 
ters, and placed others in a way of a peaceable termination. 

Rev. Mr. Bradley after the short and edifying visit to 
Loretto already mentioned, established himself at' Ebens- 
burg where there was little frame church, with a small con- 


gregation. His mission included a little settlement some 
fifteen miles from Loretto, called Hart's Sleeping Place, in 
remembrance of an old Indian trader who, when all was n 
wilderness, occasionally rested there in his journeys, when' 
with great energy the few families composing the village, 
all Catholics, whom Dr. Gallitzin had previously visited and 
instructed, combined to put up quite'a large log church; an- 
other station about fourteen miles west of Ebensburg where 
there were about a dozen families, mostly emigrants from 
Loretto, headed by our old friend, John Weakland, who had 
gathered themselves about a small church which Dr. Gallitzij, 
had very recently dedicated to St. Joseph; Indiana, about 
-thirty miles west of Ebensburg, where there were but four 
or five Catholic families, Germans; Johnstown, where there 
was about the same number, and Jefferson or Wilmore, near 
Ebensburg where a negro family from Maryland had settled, 
been converted and received into the Church sometime pre 
viously by Dr. Gallitzin, who said Mass at their house, or in 
their barn, which was much more commodious, whenever hi^ 
was able to visit the little hamlet where they resided. Upon 
these occasions the barn was duly swept and made perfectly 
neat, its usual inmates penned up elsewhere, not so far away 
but that the -melancholy lowing of banished cows, the cack- 
ling of astonished hens, and the loud crowing of discom- 
fitted roosters, could be heard from the place of their exile, 
during the most solemn part of divine service, but so sincere 
and unaffected was the devotion of the worshippers, thai 
this was never an interruption, scarcely even a momentary 
distraction. After the service Dr, Gallitzin always dined 
with the family in whose house he had ojficiated, and perhaps 
none in the whole of his mission entertained him with more 
interior joy, and more charming demonstration, than thir 
Maryland family, so ardently attached to him 

Besides taking the place of the pastor of Loretto in these 
stations, Eev. Mr. Bradley had in his charge about half the 
laborers, of which there were several hundred in all, work- 
ing on the old portage railroad from Johnstown to Hollidaye 
burg, at the same time attending whenever he could to the 

~~ 394 -- 

distant sick calls in Father Gallitzin's remaining district, 
which the well-worn missionary could scarcely reach. Mr. 
Bradley remembers among* these calls, one which illustrates 
the great interest and care which our guardian angels exer- 
cise for our souls. "I was roused one night from my deep 
slumber," he relates, " by knocks at my door. I raised 
my window, but the night was so dark that I could see no 
one, I enquired what the matter was, and a clear, loud voice 
answered that there was a man at the point of death, at the 
viaduct about eighteen or twenty miles distant, eight miles 
of a turnpike and the balance of the road through a dense 
forest, through which a wagon road had been cut a few days 
before. I was anxious to have some one accompany me 
through that dismal path, and asked the messenger if he was 
riding, he answered 'No'. I requested him to go on ahead 
of me and I would get my horse and soon overtake him. 
But I saw no one until I emerged- from that dreary path, by 
early dawn the next morning, near the place where I was 
informed the man was at the point of death. I met a num. 
ber of laborers coining out to work, I enquired where the 
sick man was and no one could tell me. 'What' I thought 
to myself, ' what can be the meaning of all this ? Could any 
one be so cruel as to call me out such a night,, such a dis- 
tance, and over such a road, without any necessity?' and 
whilst these thoughts were running through my mind I 
found myself in sight of the viaduct, I saw something fal- 
ling, and presently three or four men carrying a man into a 
shanty. I arrived there simultaneously with them; a log 
had fallen upon the poor man as they were in the act of 
removing the centers from the viaduct. He did not seem to 
me to be much hurt, t>ut he earnestly craved the last sacra- 
ments. I heard his confession, gave him absolution, etc. 
He cried out aloud: ' Glory be to God,' the soul left the body, 
the. man dead! Then I remembered and fully under- 
stood the nature of the call I had received: 'Unless you 
make .haste you will not overtake him alive,' and, in truth, if 
I had been any later that poor man would have died without 
the benefit of sacramental absolution. Thanks be to his 


guardian angel! In relating- this to some of my brother 
priests, almost all of them could relate striking- instances of 
nearly a similar nature." 

Two years later Bishop Kenrick extended Mr. Bradley's 
mission to the eastern slope of the Alleghany mountains, with 
his residence at Newry, whence he attended Sinking Valley, 
Huntingdon, and a great many other stations, some of which 
belonged to Mr. Heyden's district, from which he was at 
this time absent, having been again called to Philadelphia. 
This change placed old cares again upon Dr. GaUitzin's shoul- 
der's, which he was now scarcely able to sustain, and also de- 
prived him of the near neighborhood of a brother priest, and 
that he must have felt his loneliness very much, may be 
gathered from his note to Mr. Heyden upon his return to 



Loretto, April 30, 1833. 

Rev'd and my very dear Friend, 

1 feel grieved and mortified at your long continued silence, 
and being so long deprived of the pleasure of your company. 
1 do not know a brother clergyman for whom I feel a greater 
affection, and I am not sensible of having -ever offended 
you. ... I long to see you. Could you not (after the holi- 
days) spare a little time, say one week, from your mission- 
ary avocations ? . . . . 

Give my respects to Mr. and Mrs. Heyden, and my af- 
fectionate compliments to Mr. and Mrs. Lyon, and to Mr. and 
Mrs. Jameson, and believe me xisque ad idtimum spiritum, 
My dear and Rev'd friend, 

tuus in Christo addictissimus, 
Demetrius A. Gallitziu. 

The people of Ebensburg and adjacent stations were also 
deeply grieved at being left without a priest near at hand, 
and in sympathy with them Father Gallitzin, who could only 

occasionally attend them, pleaded their cause before the 
bishop, who replied: 


Philadelphia, Jan. 10, 1833. 
Rev'd and dear Sir, 

1 am pleased to learn from your favour of the 3d inst. the 
prospects which the Ebensburg and adjacent congregations 
afford for the reasonable support of a pastor. You may rely 
upon it that 1 shall seize an opportunity of meeting with 
your and their wishes, though the necessity of providing for 
other places equally or more destitute, and the scarcity of 
missionaries leave me unable to say when. As to the good 
will of the people I never entertained the least doubt; though 
L knew not whether their number or means would enable 
them, after the completion of the Railroad, to. support a resi- 
dent priest. . . . If I had a German priest at my disposal, 1 
would cherfully attend to your suggestion, but several other 
places need a German priest and cannot obtain him. By the 
aid of the Rev. F. Guth (from Alsace) I hope to succeed in 
obtaining some, of unquestionable merit. 

As I suppose that the editors of the Catholic Herald have 
forwarded the two numbers already published of this paper, 
1 need scarcely say that the Press has entirely ceased, and 
been succeeded by the Herald. The Rev. Messrs. Donahoe 
and O'Donnell are the editors and Rev. Mr. Hughes, being 
engaged to repel a Presbyterian assailant, will fill the co- 
lumns with interesting letters 

I wish you many years of health and happiness and abun- 
dance of those consolations which heaven usually bestows 
un the veteran champions of religion. Your prayers are in 
return asked by 

Your affectionate friend in Christ, 

f Francis Patrick Kenrick, 
Bp. etc. 

About this time, Rev. P. H. Lemcke, a Prussian and a 
convert, came to this country to offer his services to the 
American mission, and, as he himself so well relates (Leben 


und Wirken, p. 13), was in the summer of 1834, "stationed 
in Philadelphia, at the church of the Holy Trinity. I did not 
like it there .... The bishop could not let me resign until he 
could find another German priest to take my place. I had 
before this somewhere read a biography of Princess Gal- 
litzin, and gathered from it that she had a son, a Catholic 
missionary in America, but no one could give any informa- 
tion concerning him." Mr. Lemcke at this time, did not speak 
English, and perhaps his inquiries were therefore somewhat 
limited. ."At last I asked the bishop. 'He is in Loretto/ 
was the answer, ' in Western Pennsylvania in this diocese.' 
'Is he, then, still living?' 'Certainly, but he is old and 
delicate, greatly in need of assistance in his widely spread 
congregation. As you desire to be removed from here, and 
I have now a German priest to take your place, you can go 
to him. But he is a singular old saint: many others have 
tired to live with him, but it seems as . if no one could get 
along with him.' I agreed with him, and as soon as I con- 
veniently could set out on my journey. A journey from Phila- 
delphia to Loretto can be made now by the Pennsylvania 
Central Railroad in nine or ten hours, at that time it was a 
break -neck affair: one had then to be dragged about in 
miserable stages for at least three days and nights .... I ar- 
rived at last in safety at Munster, a little village laid out by 
Irish people on a tableland of the Alleghany mountains, 
only four miles from Gallitzin's residence. The stage stop- 
ped at the house of a certain Peter Collins, a genuine Irish- 
man, who kept the post-office and hotel. From the first 
moment I felt at home with them, (Mr. Collins' family) as if 
all had grown up about me; soon it was found that I was 
about to visit the venerated Gallitzin and then old and 
young crowded around me, showing me all possible love and 
reverence .... 

" . . . . The next morning, for it was evening when I arriv- 
ed, and they would not on any account let me go on, a horse 
was saddled for me and Thomas, one of the numerous Col- 
lins' children, now a man of influence and reputation, stood 
ready .... with a stick in his hand .... to show me the way, 


and to bring back the horse. Thus we went oft', my com- 
panion talking- to me without cessation, and of what he said 
I understood as much as I did ol' the chirping- of the birds, 
and the screech of the squirrel, and other inmates of the 
woods, whom the dog, coming- along with us, chased up the 
trees. We had gone about a mile or two in the woods when 
1 saw a sled corning along drawn by two strong horses. 
N. B. in September, in the most beautiful summer weather. 
In- the sled half sat and half reclined a venerable looking 
man in an old, much worn overcoat, wearing n peasant's 
hat which no one, it is likely, would have cared to pick up 
in the street, and carrying 1 a book in his hand. I thought 
seeing him brought along in this way, that there must have 
been an accident, that perhaps the old gentleman had dis- 
located a limb in the woods, but Thomas, w\io had been on 
ahead, came running back, and said: 'THERE COMES THE 
PRIEST, 'pointing to the man in the sled. I rode up and asked: 
'Are you really the pastor of Loretto?' 'Yes, I am he.' 
'Prince Gallitzin?' 'At your service, Sir, I am that very 
exalted personage,' saying this he laughed heartily. '-You 
may, perhaps, wonder,' he continued, when I had presented 
him a letter from the Bishop of Philadelphia, ' at my singular 
retinue. But how can it be helped? We have not as yet, - 
as 3 r ou see, roads fit for wagons, we should be either fast or 
upset every moment. I cannot any longer ride horseback, 
having injured myself by a fall, and it is also coming hard 
to me to. walk; besides I have all the requirements for Mass 
to take with me. I am now on my way to a place where I 
have had for some years a station. You can now go on 
quietly to Loretto, and make yourself comfortable there, J 
shall be at home this evening; or if you like better you can 
come with me, perhaps it may interest you.' I chose to ac- 
company him, and after riding some miles through the woods 
we reached a genuine Pennsylvania farm house. 

" Here lived Josuah Parish one of the first settlers of that 
country, and the ancestor of a numerous posterity. The 
Catholics of the neighborhood, men, women and children 
were already assembled in great numbers around the house, 


in which an altar was put up. its principal materials hav- 
ing been taken from the slou; Gallitzin then sat down in 
one corner of the house to hear confessions, and I, in another 
corner, attended to a few Germans. The whole affair ap- 
peared very strange to me, but it was extremely touching 
to see the simple peasant home, with all its house furniture, 
and the great fireplace, in which there was roasting and 
boiling going on at the same time, changed, into a church, 
while the people with their prayer books", and their reveren-. 
tial manners, stood or knelt under the low projecting roof, 
or under the trees, going in and out, just as their turn came 
for confession. After Mass, at which Father Gallitzin preach- 
ed, and when a few children had been baptized, the altar 
was taken away, and the dinner table set in its place. It 
was, of course, too small, but it was understood to remedy 
this evil for one party to sit down, after another party had 
dined, the children, meanwhile, standing about in the corners 
with their hands full, while the mother and daughters of the 
house went back and forth, replenishing the empty dishes 
from the pots in the fireplace, and pressing the food upon 
their guests. In a word, all was so pleasant and friendly 
that involuntarily, the love-feasts of the first Christians came 
to my mind. In the afternoon we went slowly on our way, 
Gallitzin in his sled and I on horseback, arriving at nightfall 
at Loretto .... 

" .... In the evening we had much to talk about. Forty- 
two years had already passed since Gallitzin had left Ger- 
many, and in that time how much had happened! The 
French Eevolution .... had ceased its rage. Napoleon had 
I'isen and disappeared, all Europe and especially our beloved 
Germany had been formed anew .... And while all this was 
passing, had this man destined by his birth as well as his 
. talents, to play a grand role in the world's theatre, been an- 
nouncing in the Alleghany mountains the kingdom of the 
Prince of Peace .... All those statesmen and warriors, who 
for sixty years caused so much talk, and to whom he would 
probably have belonged, are gone and there is no one to 
bless their memory; the deeds produced by their intrigues 


and blood-shed are almost forgotten, but what the humble, 
hidden man in the Alleghany mountains accomplished, has 
so beautifully unfolded itself, that coming generations will 

hold his memory in benediction. 

* * 


" While we were thus, deeply engaged in conversation, 
it grew very late, and then I saw an illustration of old 
time Catholic discipline, and home regularity. One of the 
.old women of whom there were several living in the house, 
put her head in the doorway, asking if there would be 
prayers that night. 'Certainly,' said Gallitzin rising at 
once, and. a signal being given, the household came to- 
gether; the old nobleman knelt without any ceremony near 
the table by which he had been standing, took his rosary 
from his pocket and began it. After the prayers were over, 
he took his breviary, I did the same, the house was as quiet 
as a monastery. When I left my room the next morning I 
met the prince with his arms full of wood, intending to 
make a fire as it had grown quite cold during the night, 
afterwards when I went to the chapel to say Mass he insist- 
ed upon serving me." 

This chapel . had just been added to Father Gallitzin's 
residence, so that he could reach it from his own room with- 
out going out of doors, it was arranged so that it could be 
warmed, as was absolutely necessary, for in the church the 
cold was so intense in the winters that when Mass was over, 
he often had the greatest difficulty in restoring animation to 
his nearly frozen hands; as he advanced in years he was 
obliged to have little braziers placed at each end of the altar, 
from which enough warmth was obtained to keep his fingers 
from becoming so numb and stiff that he. could not use them. 
He said Mass on week days in this chapel of which he took 
the greatest care, and had decorated to the utmost extent of 
his resources: the walls were papered, the footboards smooth 
and painted, and the wooden altar a triumph of rustic art; 
in the vestibule there still hang the printed instructions 
which he framed and placed there, for the preservation of 
order and cleanliness: 



1. Scrape the dirt off your shoes on the iron scrapers 
provided for that purpose. 

2. Do not spit on the floor of the chapel. 

3. Do not put your hats and caps on the chapel windows. 

4. Do not rub against the papered walls of the chapel. 

5. Do not put your heels on the washboards. 

6. After coming in at the passage door, shut the door 
after you. . ' .' 

Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin, 
Parish Priest of Loretto. 

It still remains in excellent order, almost the only mate- 
rial remembrance of him in Loretto that has been preserved 
as he left it; a few benches have been admitted since his 
time, for the accommodation of the faithful, who gather there 
in good numbers every week day morning. 

"The next day," Mr. Lemcke continues, "was Sunday. 
The people began coming very early in the morning, from 
all directions, to go to confession. At ten o'clock I celebra- 
ted High Mass, at which the organ was played, and there 
was some pretty good singing. After the gospel, the old 
pastor .... stepped quickly towards me at the altar, put me 
one side, and commenced to preach, of course in English, of 
which I understood but little. As well as I could make it 
out it was strong against pride and vanity. Nothing in the 
world excited the humble man more than to perceive any 
luxury, love of finery, or new fashions creeping in among 
his children, though I must admit, there was scarcely ten 
dollars worth of superfluities and luxuries to be seen in the 
entire congregation; what special thing had aroused him 
just then I could not tell. Perhaps it was that at this time 
the 'first modern carriage made its appearance at the door of 
the Loretto church, for a man of the neighborhood who had 
grown rich, and now and then went to Philadelphia on bus- 
iness, had brought back with him a very fine carriage, in 
which with his family, all adorned to suit, he drove to church 

on Sundays, creating a great sensation. At the time the 

402 ~ 

marvel was expected to make its appearance, the boys would 
climb the trees and fences keeping- their eyes fixed in the 
direction from which it would probably come; in a word, it 
was like the Indians on the upper Missouri, when 'the first 
steamboat was seen. 

"When Gallitzin had finished his English sermon, he be- 
gan another in German, but ,to me it sounded altogether 
foreign; it is true he had received a German education, al- 
though at the time when the influence of the French lan- 
guage was at its height, but in his forty-two years in Ame- 
rica he had had little or no practice in speaking it .... He 
introduced me formally to the Germans who were then pretty 
numerous, intimating to them that for the future I would 
attend to them, 'and that I would now preach them a German 
sermon, which they had not heard in a long time. He then 
moved aside, bowing to me with a mischievous smile, a 
much as to say: 'I have got through, now it is your turn.' 
There had been nothing of the kind intimated to me pre- 
viously, he had merely requested me to celebrate High Mass, 
there was nothing for it, but for me to preach, more decidedly 
ex tempore than ever before in my life. When I spoke to him 
about it later, he laughed and said he wished to know whether 
I was fitted for a missionary, for he would have a treasure 
iii one who could at a moment bring out the old and new. 

"I lived in the belief that I was now at home with Gal- 
litzin, and made my plans accordingly, how I would live 
with this singular old gentleman, how I would go to work 
to break through the crust which had formed over this noble 
nature, in the long battle with an ungrateful and wicked 
world, and how I would win myself a place in his heart. But 
I found I had reckoned without my host. 

" On Monday morning he was ready to start out again: 
the horses were harnessed to the wagon, for now it was to 
go to Ebensburg, the county-town, to which the roads were 
so good that the sled was only required for them in the win- 
ter time. We stopped at the house of a Mrs. Ivory, who had 
grown up in Gallitzin's house, while her mother and two of 
her sisters still remained with' him keeping house for him. 


The old nobleman went about all the morning*, from one 
house to another, and I conld not imagine what he had on 
hand. After dinner the matter was explained. He handed 
me a paper saying: 'Here is a list of t the Catholics of the 
place. Each one of them has bound himself by this paper to 
contribute a certain sum annually for your support. There 
is a little church here, biit for some time there has been no 
priest; the congregation is small and hardly able to support 
one. But y ou will stay in this house, there are some really 
pretty rooms up-stairs, Mrs. Ivory is a good cook, and will 
treat you in the best manner possible. I will pay the board 
for you in advance, and in return you will come to me once 
a month to preach to the Germans, -assist in the confessional; 
you will also have to attend to -the stations and sick calls 
which lean no longer reach/ 'But,' said I, 'what are jo\\ 
thinking of? What .am I to do heve among the English, for 
as far as I can learn, there is not a German in the place ?' 
'That makes no difference, it is all the better for you, you 
will then learn English nolens volens. You have already 
made a good beginning, and as you have by no means ap- 
peared to fall on your head, you will soon be able to preach.' 
'It may be so, but we can speak English in Loretto also, and 
it would in every way be better for me to live with you, and 
save paying for board.' 'Well, you see,' he said, rubbing 
his- nose, as his way was when he was embarrased, 'winter is* 
near, as you have observed, and there is only one room in 
my house, beside the kitchen, in which there is a fireplace.' 
I could hardly keep in the laughter at this, for the bishop 
had told me he would not let another priest live with him, 
and had arranged his house in a way to have a good excuse 
for declining." 

Mr. Lemcke therefore remained at Ebensburg, attending 
to a portion of Father Gallitzin's district some forty or 
fifty miles in extent, so that he had often to ride two 
days to administer the last sacraments, "but everywhere I 
went, "he says,* "I found it light work, for Gallitzin had 

' Page 331. 


been before me and commenced it, laying the solid founda- 
tion.'' Once a month he visited Loretto as desired, with in- 
creased attachment to its venerable pastor. The off-shoot 
from Loretto, sometimes called the Weakland Settlement, 
which formed the congregation of St. Joseph's church, some 
twelve or fourteen miles distant, had long seemed to Dr. Gal- 
litzin well fitted to serve as the nucleus of another Catholic 
town, upon the plan which he had himself carried through, 
after years of toil and bitter opposition, and with keen pene- 
tration he saw in Mr. Lemcke's immense energy and persist- 
ent nature, one well able to put the wish into practice, once 
he could be inspired with the desire of undertaking it. "He 
was continually urging me," says Mr. Lemcke*, "to do there 
as he had done in Loretto, promising to give me every aid 
and assistance." In 1836 Mr. Lemcke was able to purchase 
some land, and make some necessary arrangements to this 
end, and removed from Ebensburg to a farm near St. Joseph's, 
visiting Loretto and his district as before. Dr. Gallitzin 
would some times go over to visit him in the famous sled, 
and would heartily rejoice if he met with anything similar 
to his own beginning thirty years before. Mr. Lemcke in 
time laid out a village in this place, which he desired to call 
Gallitzin, but the venerable missionary learning qf his inten- 
tion put a stop to it at once, and suggested the name of 
'Bishop Carroll, always so dear to him, in its place; although 
it must have been a great trial for Mr. Lemcke to yield the 
point so close to his own heart, he did so and called his vil- 
lage Carroltown. 

Many other oft-shoots from Loretto took root and grew into 
Catholic villages about the same time, St. Augustine's, some 
times called The Loup from a peculiarity in the mountains 
just at the place, Summit at the highest point of the Alle- 
ghanies, a few miles beyond Loretto, which can be seen half 
hidden in the clustering foliage, as in a lovely nest among- 
the mountain hillocks just below, and two miles further on, 
a little hamlet, at that time without a name, since increased, 

* Page 334. 


and resting for the most part t over the longest tunnel of 
the Pennsylvania Central railroad, a tunnel cnt through the 
rock, the very monarch of the mountains, and named by the 
railroad company in honor of the pastor of the Alleghanies. 
One is hurried onward through dense and unbroken darkness, 
and just as the first-ray of light, the very first breath of glo- 
rious mountain air breaks in, there is heard the echoing cry: 
(TALLITZIN! the far resounding name of him who, with feet 
beautiful upon the mountains opened to the entrancing sun- 
light of faith the gloomy caverns of heresy and sin, ^a name 
shouted there with a startling appropriateness rendered the 
more striking that its deep significance was probably neith- 
er intended nor suspected. At this point the threshold of his 
mountain district is entirely passed, and the great church in 
- which he praised the Lord, entered upon; it stretches onward, 
broad and far, 'in all directions for forty or fifty miles. 

Thus after years of hoping against all hope, of heartfelt 
prayer, the ever present longing of the all sacrificing priest 
was reaching its fulfillment. He saw about him a little 
band of clergymen, young, [active, fervent, endowed with 
great energy of character, and rare physical endurance, 
burning with zeal for the cause of Christ; high-toned, devo- 
ted, full of talents, asking only to labor how and where God 
willed, in obscurity, in privation, in solicitude and sufferings 
of all kinds if it so pleased Him. They were all [devoted to 
the gentle, calm and saintly old priest, whose beautiful dark 
eyes never rested on theirs without shedding a silent bene- 
diction upon them; they were as dear to the old warrior as 
his dauntless young captains to the hero of a thousand 
battles; he looked upon them with utmost tenderness, as 
upon dearly loved sons into whose brave and honest hands 
he could freely leave his work and all his accumulated 
treasures; that their names were over in his .prayers the 
results abundantly proved. 




Tranqnility of the present. Peace in Loretto, The outside battle. 
The Presbyterian Synod. Dr. Gallitzin's reply. 

The establishment of this little band of assistants, not 
only relieved Dr. Gallitzin from the long- journeys in all 
directions, which he conld no longer endure, but that which 
was even more desirable, they lessened greatly the burden 
of care which for thirty -five years had weighed heavily upon 
" him. Each in his appointed place applied his whole soul to 
the work at hand, with such prudeifce and such steady devo- 
tion, that the old missionary felt that the evening of his life 
was to be tranquil and freed from fear for those he should 
leave behind; and the children of his heart, his beloved con- 
gregations, those under his immediate care, and those who 
were beyond the reach of his voice, added greatly to this 
blessed assurance, all was orderly, regular, harmonious and 
as it should be, children followed in the footsteps of their 
parents, who, as children, had been trained by him, and if 
now and then evil made its appearance to grieve the heart 
of the pastor, it found no congenial soil upon which to take 
root. His debts were nrnch decreased, no one was suffering' 
for the little he still owed, and he lived in the firm hope 
that the.^-ood God, who was bringing so many of his desires 
to their fulfillment, would not send him to his grave with 
any shadow upon his name, a farthing of what was due to 
others loft unpaid. Love and veneration met him every 


where he passed, and better still, love and harmony existed 
among his children. 

But he did not forget that outside the world was rushing 
onward with the greatest tumult; that the devil was all 
alive and going about as actively as ever; that truth was 
struggling, hard pressed, but never overcome, against a 
thousand foes, and even in his tranquil retreat the noise of 
war stirred the old hero's spirit, and called upon him once 
again to take down his ExcaUbur, and send it flashing and 
shining with a brilliancy that dazzled as it slew, among "the 
godless hosts of heathens". 

A Presbyterian Synod held at Columbia (Peun) drew from 
him six letters, published first in a newspaper, and after- 
wards in pamphlet-form,* under the title, of: 

Mix Letters of Advice to the Gentlemen Presbyterian Parsons, 
who lately met at Columbia, Pa., for the purpose of Dedariiv:/ 
War against the Catholic Church. By Demetrius Augustine 


January 14th 1884. 
Gentlemen Parsons, 

You have -lately met in Synod, appointed a Committee to 
whom was referred the subject of a Presbyterian Tract and 
Sunday-school Society; and your committee hath made the 
following report, which you were pleased to adopt: 

RESOLVED, That the Synod do hereby constitute a Board ul 
Managers, to prepare, publish and circulate Presbyterian 
tracts and books, inculcating the distinctive doctrines of our 
standards, etc. 

You have also appointed a committee to whom was refer- 
red the subject of Romanism, and that committee adopted the 
following wise preamble and resolutions: 

WHEREAS the existence and prevalence of Romuuism in 

* As this little book is out of print, it is here given entire, with the 
exception of two or three local allusions, which have now lost their 

* Ebensburg: Printed by Canan& Scott, 1834, pp. 28. 

_ 408 ~ 

this country endangers our civil and religious institutions, 
as shown by the nature of the system, and by the means 
adopted for its extension; and whereas the apathy of the 
Protestant Church on the subject and her general want of 
information in regard to the true principles and designs of 
Romanism, increase the danger. Therefore 

EESOLVED ls,t, That the Synod earnestly recommend to the 
ministry and members under our care, a more careful study 
of this subject, and a more intimate acquaintance with the 

2nd, That our ministers more frequently and distinctly 
portray to their people the true features of Popery, in the 
way in which they judge most expedient. 

3rd, Particularly, that our ministers be requested to hold 
up constantly to the people, the prophetic page [having] 
reference to the rise, the progress, the characteristics, and 
the fall of Popery. 

4th, That standard books and well written tracts on the 
subject of Romanism be extensively and carefully circulated. 

5th, That our churches be affectionately warned against 
the practice of patronizing Ron.-ish- institutions, either by 
making pecuniary contributions, or by placing their children 
and wards under their instruction and influence. 

6th, That our ministers be requested, if they think it ex- 
pedient, to read the foregoing Preamble and Resolutions to 
their congregations. 

Well done, gentlemen! Thus, you have sounded the tocsin 
of Avar. You have drawn the sword and thrown away the 
scabbard. Like so many heroes you stand in battle array to 
fight the battles of the Lord against Pope and Popery. 
Fame, which hath already wafted across the Atlantic the 
account of your heroic deeds during the ravages of the 
cholera, will bring your declaration of war to Rome, and fill 
the Pope and his cardinals with terror and dismay. 

But now, gentlemen, let me tell you it is not sufficient to 
know how to declare war; you ought also to know how to 
carry it on; and as I am somewhat acquainted with military 


tactics (having formerly held a commission in the Russian 
army), charity impels me to assist you with my advice. 

To secure a little respect to my advice, I wish you to ob- 
serve: 1st, That I am in my sixty-fourth year; 2ndly, That 
I was educated in the Greek Protestant church, the mem- 
bers of which bear a greater hatred to the Pope than ever 
you did; 3rdly, That I am now, and since the year It 95 have 
been a minister of that religious system which you, very 
gentlemanly, designate by the nicknames of Romanism or 
Popery, .and which I call the Roman Catholic Church, alias 
the church of Jesus Christ. 

Prom the premises the conclusion is rational, that, know- 
ing both sides of the question, I ought to be tolerably well 
qualified to advise you how to carry on a war successfully 
against the Pope. 

Your committee tu. whom was referred the subject of a 
Presbyterian Tract and Sunday-school Society, made the 
following report*. 

RESOLVED, That the Synod do hereby constitute a Board of 
Managers to prepare, publish, and circulate Presbyterian 
Tracts and Books inculcating the distinctive doctrine of OUR 
standards, &c., &c. 

What? Tracts and Books, the produce of the intellect of 
man, to inculcate the doctrine said to be plainly inculcated 
by the Bible? Is it possible? Your great champion has lately 
and repeatedly told us (in his controversy with the Rev. 
John Hughes) that the Bible, and the Bible alone, is the rule 
of faith of Protestants. Your Bible Societies everywhere pro" 
claim their principle of sending forth the Bible among all na- 
tions of the globe, without note or comment. Yet you begin 
your warfare against the Catholic Church by entrenching 
yourselves within and surrounding yourselves by, Tracts and 
Books, the productions of mere men! Take my advice, gentle- 
men, knock the above Resolution in the head, and stick to 
YOUK BIBLE ALONE. Above all things, be consistent if you 
wish to succeed in your warfare; else your members may 
perhaps suspect the soundness of your cause. 


The next and, I believe, the main subject which occupied 
your attention, was the subject of Eomanism. 

Tour committee on that subject adopted the Preamble and 
six Resolutions above quoted. The Preamble consists of 
two parts: 

1st WHEREAS the existence and prevalence of Eomanism 
in this country endangers our civil and religious institutions, 
as shown by the nature of the system, and by the means 
adopted for its extension; and 

2nd WHEREAS the apathy of the Protestant Church, on the 
subject, and her general want of information in regard to 
the true principles and designs of Eomanism, increase the 
danger, .&c. 

Now, with regard to the first part of the above preamble, 
I have the following remarks to make. 

Assertion, you know, is no proof. Give us proofs: show 
us how the existence and prevalence of the Catholic Church 
endangers our civil and religious institutions. The mem- 
bers of your church at least many of them, are too intelligent, 
to believe, upon your bare word, what the history of the 
United States since the Revolution, and indeed the history 
of many other countries, completely contradicts. And as 
for the second part of your preamble, I fully admit the gene- 
ral want of information in regard to the principles of the 
Catholic Church. But does not this declaration contradict 
your above assertion? If you acknowledge your ignorance 
with regard to our true principles and designs, how can you 
peremptorily decide on their dangerous tendency? 

Take -my advice, gentlemen, suppress the above preamble, 
and to rid you of the trouble of having anything to prove, 
substitute the following: 

WHEREAS by our ministry we would wish to secure an 
ample living and respectability to ourselves, our wives and 
children; and 

WHEREAS from the unexampled and alarming increase of 
Romanism it is to be dreaded that before many yeart 1 ., the 
Romans will cover the land like the locusts of Egypt; and 

WHEREAS many of our neighbors are so infatuated as to 


leave pure light of the Gospelthe and to embrace Eomanism, 
which threatens to leave onr temples desolate and our purses 
empty, and 

WSEREAS we are ashamed to beg, and not able to dig; 

RESOLVKD, &c., &c. 

Gentlemen, the last named preamble leaves you nothing 
to prove. I advise you to adopt it. With this advice I 
shall leave yoTi for a while, subscribing myself respectfully 

Your very humble servant, 

Demetrius Augustin Gallitzin. 


January 21, 1834. 
Gentlemen Parsons, 

I have carefully examined your six Resolutions. I shall 
take them up, one by one, and give you my advice upon 
each of them.' 

No. 1, That the Synod earnestly recommend to the min- 
istry and members under our care, a more careful study 
of this subject (of Romanism) and a more intimate acquain- 
tance with the system. 

Here is surely a great blunder. Ever since the pretended 
reformation, the reformers, and their successors to the pre- 
sent day, have been attacking what you call ROMANISM the 
Church, at present, of one hundred and seventy millions, 
spread over all nations of the globe, and now, after three 
hundred years, you publish to the world, what amounts to 
. an acknowledgment that you hardly know what Romanism 
is. So all along you have been putting the cart before the 
horse. You have been preaching, praying, and cursing down 
Romanism, with which you were but little acquainted. 

I fully agree with you that it is high time you should 
know, thoroughly know, the system which, these three hun- 
dred years past, you have been endeavoring to piill down. 

Now, gentlemen, are you . in earnest ? Do you wish to 
know what the Roman Catholic Church really is? If so, I 
shall send you at once to our bishops and priests. If I 


wished to know the principles of the Presbyterian Church, it 
is to you I should apply for information: to learn the prii - 
ciples of the Catholic Church, I must, of course, send you 1 i 
our bishops, and to the priests by them appointed to teach 
the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church. Apply to nun .- 
bers of them, from different parts of the globe, too; the 
more the better. If you could catch them in contradiction , 
you must be aware what a great chance it would give you 
in your warfare against ROJIANISJI. 

Then, gentlemen, take the Bible: let them shew you upo.i 
what texts they bottom their doctrine. Above all things', 
remember your favorite principle, the Bible, the whole Bible, 
and nothing but the Bible. Do not suffer them to say Jt 
means, but let the text speak for itself. 

You know, gentlemen, for you 1 are professional characters, 
you know the magic power belonging to those two words, 
It means, which in your mouth transform the flesh and blood 
of Jesus Christ into mere bread and wine, in the mouth of 
the Unitarian the adorable person of Jesus Christ into a mere 
man, and in the mouth of all reformers, a system of divine 
revelation into a system of human philosophy or of human 

But stop! what do I hear? Some friends of mine, who 
pretend to be much better acquainted with your views than 
I, laugh at my stupidity; they are very near supposing me 
to be a fool, for believing that you are in earnest, when you 
publish to the world your intention of becoming intimately 
acquainted with the Roman Catholic system. They tell me 
that the whole affair is a humbug, a farce to save appeaiv 
ances, and that, per fas et nefas, your determination is to 
find our religious system to be the very sink of abomina- 
tions, to exhibit the same in the most odious colors before 
the world, and to offer the monstrosity of that system as 
your apology for waging war against it. 

The opinion of my friends, which at first sight might ap- 
pear uncharitable, rests upon strong arguments. Among 
all the publications (they say), that ever issued from the 
Protestant presses on the subject of Roman Catholic doctrine' 


from a two-penny pamphlet to a ponderous folio, there never 
was one yet, that exhibited the said doctrine in its trnc 
colors. This, gentlemen, needs no proof; and let me tell 
you, en passant, that this is one of the great causes of the 
surprising increase of what you call Eomanism. 

Your hearers are not all fools willing to believe every- 
thing you assert. They have eyes to see, and ears to hear, 
and an intellect to judge for themselves. Thus, many of 
them, finding the Catholic Church far different from what 
you represented it to be, unwilling to be imposed upon any 
longer, leave your ranks to crowd the ranks of Romanism. 

A careful study of the subject of Romanism is recommend- 
ded by your Synod to both ministers and members ; and I, 
by way of advice, would also recommend a more careful 
study of that certain nondescript and indescribable thing 
called the Protestant Religion. If you are to pull down, it is 
for the purpose, (we may suppose) that (after removing the 
rubbish) you may bxiild up again; and when you wish to de- 
prive our members of their religious system, or to prevent 
your members from embracing it, you ought to have a very 
clear and distinct idea of the thing you mean to substitute in 
the place of what you call Romanism. 

Your great champion was requested by the Rev. Mr. 
Hughes, to give a definition of the Protestant religion ; but 
he, poor man, could give no satisfactory answer. However, 
gentlemen, the intellect has been marching since; and, be- 
sides, a dozen or two of intellects meeting together in synod 
can surmount difficulties, and iinravel mysteries, for which 
one single intellect however exalted, might prove inadequate. 
No doubt, your collected wisdom will be able to discover the 
solution of the important question; what is the Protestant 
Religion? No doubt, you will be able to exhibit the discord- 
ant materials of the reformation and all its contradictory sys- 
tems, as forming (like President Jackson's cabinet) one 
unit. No doubt you will be able to convince us that all the 
ministers of the reformation, setting* iip hundreds of contra- 
dictory systems, are lineal descendents of the apostles, and 
are all (even when preaching in contradiction to one another) 


under the influence of the same Spirit of Truth which Jesus 

Christ promised to his ministers forever. 

No. 2. That our ministers more frequently and distinctly 

portray to their people the true features of popery in the 

way in which they judge most expedient. Alias thai' 
"A hideous figure .of their foes they draw, 
Nor lines, nor looks, nor shades nor colours true; 

And this grotesque design expose to public view." 


After having spent some hours in your laboratory, in making 
up a monster composed of idolatry, superstition, cruelty, &c. 
&c. hideous enough to frighten the devil out of his kingdom, 
you are to mount the pulpit, and there exhibiting the mon- 
ster, the work of your own creation, you are to work your- 
selves up into a holy rage, call that monster Genuine Popery, 
and consign it and us to the lowest pit. 

Now, Gentlemen, as in doing so, you will have to exhibit 
yourselves before the public in the ludicrous character of 
Clerical Mountebanks, I advise you before you mount the 
pulpit, to gather a good deal of brass. Do not suifer a blush 
to suffuse your cheeks, but, stamping with a holy rage, and 
with now and then a hard knock of the fist upon the pulpit, 
go on roaring, foaming and bawling, with a voice of thun- 
der, against the wickedness of Pope and Popery, not to forget 
now and then a seasonable sneer, and expressions of con- 
tempt at its absurdities. Thus you will rivet the attention 
of your hearers, who, almost stunned by your vociferations 
and frightened by your thunderings, will have no time or 
[opportunity] left for reflection. 

Leaving you in the pulpit for a while I remain respectfully, 


Your very humble Servant, 

Demetrius A. Gallitzin. 


January 28, 1834. 
Gentlemen Parsons, 

A very serious task is imposed upon you by your synod in 
their third resohition, in the following words: 


3rd Particularly, that our ministers be requested to hold 
up constantly to the people, the prophetic page [having] re- 
ference to the rise, the progress, the characteristics, and the 
fall of popery. 

The task is so very serious, that I must advise you, in the 
first place, to produce and exhibit before your people the 
credentials of your mission. To put confidence in your de- 
nunciations against Popery (for not all of them will be sub- 
dued by your thundering) but more especially to put confi- 
dence in your prophecies concerning the downfall of Popery- 
your people ought not to harbor the least suspicion that you 
are either self sent or sent by a self-constituted body of men, 
who never received any authority from Jesus Christ. 

Sow can they preach ^tnless they be sent? (Eon. x. 15.) 
Sent as Jesus Christ himself ivas sent by his Heavenly Fa- 
ther. (JOHN xx. 21.) 

Prove, then, through the long vista of ages, an uninter- 
rupted, unbroken chain of Presbyterian ministers, beginning 
with the Apostles of Jesus Christ as the first links, and com- 
ing down to you. 

Prove that you are among those of whom Jesus Christ 
says: He that heareth you, heareth me. (LUKE x. 16.) 

Prove that you are of the number of those with whom, ac- 
cording to the promise of Christ, the Paraclete, the Spirit of 
Truth is to remain forever. ( JOHN xiv. 16, 11.) 

Prove that you are some of those whom Jesus Christ had 
in view when he said, I am loith you all days, even to the con- 
summation of the ivorld. (MATT, xxviii. 20.) 

In short, prove that you are real ministers of Christ, not 
imposters; prove that you really know, not the letter only 
but the sense of the Scriptures, at least that part of the 
Scripture intended for the regulation of ovir faith and morals, 
and that you are not left to the feeble light of your weak, 
corrupted, and fallible reason, in interpreting the sacred 
records .of infallible wisdom. Prove that, in delivering to 
your people not the words only, but the meaning of Scripture, 
you are not guilty of sacrilegious presumption giving for 
the sense of the Holy Ghost your own fluctuating opinions. 


Prove, in short, that [without being infallible as indivi- 
duals] you derive your knowledge of the sense of Scripture 
from an infallible, unerring authority. 

Gentlemen, I see you sneer contemptuously at the words 
"infallible authority," and I hear you ask: "Can any body 
of men pretend to infallibillity any more than individuals ?" 
I ask you again: can you have the presumption to offer your- 
selves as guides in the paths of religious truth, which alone 
save us, unless yourselves are guided by an unerring or in- 
fallible authority? I know you will tell me, that you are 
guided by the infallible authority of the Bible. Ay, sure 
enough; and so are all your brethren of the pretended re- 
formation, Lutherans and Calvinists, Baptists and Brown- 
ists, Universalists, Arians, Trinitarians, Unitarians, Baxter- 
ians, Sabbatarians, Moravians, Antinomians, Sandemonians, 
Jumpers or Bunkers, Shakers and Quakers, Burghers, Kirk- 
ers, Independents, Covenanters, Puritans, Hutchinsons, Mug- 
letonians, &c. &c. &c. &c. 

All these say they are guided by the infallible authority 
of the Bible; yet from the same source they draw contra^dic- 
tory doctrines. Suppose, now, there are but twenty different 
. systems of religion contradicting one another in some point 
of doctrine said to be divinely revealed; does not your com- 
mon sense tell you that but one out of the twenty can pos- 
sibly be the system established by Jesus Christ, that system 
which exclusively contains the truth, and nothing but the 
truth, that religious system which if you beli&ve not you shall 
be damned, as your Testament expresses it? [MARK xvi. 16] 

When Jesus Christ made this awful declaration, was it 
the uncertain, fluctuating opinions of men, or their arbitrary 
interpretations of Scripture he had in view? Truly, to make 
damnation just, as a reward for unbelief, .there, must have 
been, some means left by Jesus Christ, by which we are to 
know infallibly what to believe. 

I hear you exclaim: "What is the human intellect for? 
If the Almighty gave us the Holy Scriptures, was it not his 
will that man should exert his intellectual faculties in order 
to come to the true understanding of them? And did he not 


promise that pray and you shall receive; seek and you shall 

True, gentlemen; very true: but tell me, were not your 
reformers generally men . of intellect? Did not all of them 
pray? Luther prayed, Calvin prayed, Knox prayed, George 
Fox prayed; still, after all their prayers, it. appears plainly 
that Luther's intellect pointed a different way from palvin's, 
Knox's a different way from George Fox's. 

The more they reasoned, and the more they prayed, the 
more their systems of religion increased in number. 

I will give you a friendly advice, gentlemen. Take a 
looking glass in your hand, and hold it before your face. 
Now, look at that little box of yours which stands on your 
shoulders containing a handful or two of brains. I ask you 
is that little box capable of compassing the immensity of 
God's infinite wisdom? 

Perhaps, as true heirs to the presumption of your father 
reformers, you will say "yes". If so I propose to you the 
following case in point, as lawyers would say; and I ask 
you by the mere liglit of your little intellect as applied to 
Scripture, to give me an infallible solution of said case. 

In a little town close by, there are two meeting houses: 
in one of them Infant Baptism is upheld and proved from 
Scripture; in the other it is condemned and its condemna- 
tion also proved from Scripture. Of course, one of these 
contradictory doctrines must be false; now, as he who be- 
lieves not (the truth) shall be damned, it is absolutely neces- 
sary to know infallibly which of the two is the doctrine of 
Jesus Christ. 

Applying, then, your intellect to the Scripture, give tis, 
not [your opinions, but an infallible solution of the above 
case, such a one, I mean, upon which we may, without pre- 
sumption, venture our salvation. In. matters of revelation, 
but ^specially in practical truths of religion, nothing but 
perfect certainty, certainty equal to that of the existence of 
God, will ever satisfy us. 

This, gentlemen, brings me back to the much heavier task 
imposed upon you by your synod (Resolve No. 3), which re- 


quires of you to hold up to the people the prophetic page 
having reference to the rise, progress, the characteristics, 
and the fall of Popery. This naturally "points at the book 
ol' Revelations containing almost as" many mysteries as sen- 
tences. In this labyrinth of divine mysteries, in this un- 
J'athomablc abyss of divine wisdom, you are, by the light of 
your puny reason, to trace, step by step, the rise, progress, 
characteristics and (getting yourself inspired with the spirit 
of prophecy) even the downfall of Popery; for, you know, 
Popery, as you call it, is not down yet; and it is principally 
for the purpose of preventing any further increase, or to put 
an end to the whole system, that your synod was called. 

^1 propos, I had, some time ago, a little tract, containing 
a collection of prophecies concerning the downfall of Popery, 
by a number of your brother parsons. It was printed in 
Carlisle (Pa.) and was very amusing. I advise you to pro- 
cure it. Not two of them agreed about the period of the 
downfall of Popery. All these different periods, however, 
(iv most of them, have passed away; and so have the auth'ors 
of those prophecies, leaving behind them Popery on the in- 
crease, and the pamphlet as a monument of their folly and 

Now, gentlemen, if you wish to avoid the same fate, if 
you wish to slum the rock upon which your brother parsons 
split, either get yourselves inspired, or shelter yourselves 
under an ambiguous mode of prophesying, somewhat in the 
style of the famous oracle of Delphos: 

Aio te Eacidam Romanes vincere posse. 
With this advice I bid you farewell and remain, gentlemen, 

your very obedient servant, 

Demetrius A. Gallitzin. 



February 4th, 1884. 
Gentlemen Parsons, 

No. 4 of your resolutions requires standard books and well 
written tracts on the subject of Romanism to be extensively 
and carefully circulated. 


Gentlemen, if you apply to onr Catholic booksellers in any 
of onr cities yon can prociire hundreds of well written works 
on the subject of ROMANISM; but this would not answer your 
purpose. Yonr words have to be interpreted by the same 
rule by which yon interpret the Bible. They say one thins?; 
but mean another. In short you are to write the tracts 
yourselves, to be at liberty to represent Romanism just as 
yon please. 

So you are convinced that THE BIBLE ALONE, THE BIBLE 
VVITHOUT NOTE OR COMMENT, won't do! That Bible stands in 
need of your assistance, to have the desired effect: the word 
of God must be propped by the word of man; and although 
to keep up an appearance of consistency, the margin of your 
Bible is left blank, you are to supply the deficiency both by 
well written tracts and by well preached sermons ! 

Now, gentlemen, tell me, do you really believe all your 
hearers to be fools ? Do you really believe that sincere in- 
quirers after truth, sincere wishers for salvation, will limit, 
up the doctrinqs of the Catholic Church in the writings of its 
enemies ? They will do no such thing. Catholic books are 
spread far and near, and those of your hearers, who are pos- 
sessed of only common sense, know very well that to Cath- 
olic publications they must apply for a knowledge of Catholic 
doctrine, not to the productions of professed enemies, stimu- 
lated by self interest. 

The very caution you would give your hearers against 
Catholic books, besides rendering you highly ridiculous 
would, in the thinking part of your community, create a 
suspicion against the soundness of your cause, and have nn 
effect directly contrary to your views, for Nitimiir in velilu-m 
semper, cujnmusque negata. 

My advice, then, woiild be to suppress Resolve the 4th 
and, consistent with yourselves, to depend upon your Bible 
alone, as a sufficient antidote against what yon call Roman- 

No. 5 comes a little nearer to the point. It has the words 
PECUNIARY CONTRIBUTIONS in it, and is somewhat more me 1 
lifluous than the preceding ones: 


"That our churches be affectionately warned against the 
practice of patronizing Romish institutions,_either by mak- 
ing pecuniary contributions, or by placing their children 
and wards tinder their instruction and influence." 

Bravo, gentlemen! Don't suffer pecuniary contributions 
to be : diverted from their proper channels. The hundreds 
and thousands yon have laid out on Bibles and tracts have 
drained your pockets, not to speak of your celebrated Mis- 
sionary Establishments, which, considering the immense 
sums they have already swallowed up, must by this time 
have converted half the Pagan world. 

Here I would suggest the propriety of an additional af- 
fectionate address to Congress and to the Legislatures of 
the States, to caution them against a repitition of the crimes 
they have been guilty of, the former in appointing what you 
would call a Popish priest their chaplain, and the latter in 
granting charters to Catholic colleges, and raising some of 
them to the rank of universities. 

.....'.* * * 

Gentlemen Parsons, if you wish to succeed in your under- 
taking of pulling down what you call ROMANISM, you will 
have to devise new means; for all those that have been tried, 
since the pretended reformation, have proved vain and fruit- 

The British Government, that stronghold of Protestantism, 
tried its best during more than two hundred years. The 
whole power of that formidable empire, both spiritual and 
temporal, stood arrayed against ROMANISM. The most san- 
gxiinary laws were enacted and enforced against the Irish 
to compel them to renounce the religion of Jesus Christ, and 
to embrace the reformation, so called. After two hundred 
years [of] relentless persecution we- find in Ireland about 
seven millions of Catholics, and hardly one tenth that num- 
ber of Protestants of the Law-church. 

Now, tell me, gentlemen, do you really think that if you 
could ever persuade the people of the United States to alter 
their Constitution, so as to deprive the Catholics of their 
citizenship, and by laws enacted for that purpose, have them 


reduced to beggary and subjected to the punishment of 
death, for hearing Mass or for going to confession, do you 
really think that you would then get your ends accom- 
plished? Oh, no! the gates of hell shall never prevail against 
the Catholic Church! 

There is only one means by which you will succeed. You 
have read, I suppose, how the Giants of Old tried, by piling 
mountain upon mountain to scale the heavens, and to wrest 
the thunderbolts out of the hands of Jupiter. Had they suc- 
ceeded they might have ruled the universe according to their 
own views. This is a fable, I hear you say. Call it what 
you please, I tell you it is just as true as it is true that you 
can put down the Catholic Church or prevent its increase, 
without first wresting the power out of the hands of the Al. 
mighty. Do so, and then yon may overthrow the Catholic 
Church, and upon its ruins erect your own systems. 

Gentlemen, if you shudder at the ' impiety of my advice 
and feel anger rising in your breasts against me for suppos- 
ing yon capable of thus bidding defiance to the Powers of 
Heaven, I shall bid you turn yoiir anger against yourselves 
and your Father Reformers. What else, indeed, have the 
Reformers and their successors been doing these three hun- 
dred years past? 

They set out with the avowed and daring purpose of re- 
forming the noblest of all the works of God. The same God 
who, about six thousand years ago, created the whole uni- 
verse, this material world out of nothing (and, when created, 
it was perfect at once, and has continued so to the present 
day) the very same God created that spiritual world which 
we call the Church, and which, coming out of the hands of 
God, was perfect at once. Why so ? For this simple reason ; 
because it was the work of infinite wisdom. 

Now this, the noblest, the greatest of all the works of God, 
your reformers, (as they impudently, impiously, and blas- 
phemously are called) about fifteen hundred years after its 
establishment, undertook to reform that is, to change for 
the bettei'. Great God! to make better, to improve that 
which the infinite wisdom of God had made perfect from the 


very start! No language ever invented by man is sufficient 
to furnish terms to convey to our minds an adequate idea of 
the superlative wickedness of such an attempt. No history 
of this wicked world furnishes a parallel to it. 

Something similiar to it is found in Tsaias xiv, 14: 

"I will ascend (says Lucifer) into heaven; I will exalt my throne 

above the stars of God I will ascend above the heights of the clouds: 

I will be like the Most High. " 

Gentlemen, leaving you to draw the parallel, 
I remain 

Your Immble servant, 

Demetrius A. Gallitzin. 


Feb. 11, 1834. . 
Gentlemen Parsons, 

I hope you have attended to my last advice. If so, you 
must have found a striking resemblance between the attempt 
of Satan and that of the reformers, as you call them. 

His attempt was to raise himself to a higher degree of 
power and dignity than was allotted to him by infinite wis- 
dom, to improve in his -own person the work of God, even so 
far as to make himself equal to his Creator. 

The reformers' attempt was to improve, to make better the 
holy Church, the sacred spouse of Jesus Christ (Ephes. v, 2o); 
to improve what the great and omnipotent God-man, at the 
expense of his sacred blood had made glorious, without spot 
or wrinkle, holy and without blemish (v, 27). To present the 
reformers' attempt in its true light, in all its enormity, and 
to prove that it is the most sacrilegious attempt, ever made 
by man, I shall bring you back to the Bible alone, to the 
Bible without note or comment. I shall not leave it in your 
power to say, that I gave you my own silly interpretation 
for the Word of God. It shall be completely argumenlum ad 
hominem, an argument entirely founded on your own prin- 

By way of preliminary observation, I suppose I may take 
it for granted that you reall}' believe in a Church founded by 


Jesus Christ as a vessel of salvation for all nations of the 
globe, and as a sure guide in the ways of salvation for all 
men, both learned and illiterate. Starting, then, from that, 
supposition, I ask you, upon what foundation did Christ raise 
the sacred edifice? 

The Bible says upon a rock- (Matt, xvi, 18). What pro- 
mise did Christ make concerning the Church? 

The Bible says: 

"The gates of hell shall not prevail against it." (Ibid.) 

Did Jesus Christ appoint any persons as our guides or 
teachers in the ways of salvation ? 
The Bible says: 

"Jesus coming spoke to them, saying: All power is given to me in 
heaven and on earth. Go, ye, therefore, and teach all nations; baptiz- 
ing them in the name of the Father, and of the SOH, and of the Holy 
Ghost, teaching them to observe all things "whatsoever I have commanded 
you." (Mall, xxvin, 18,20.) 

Did Christ enable them to remember all these things? 
The Bible says: 

" Behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the 
-world." (Ibid.) 

The Bible says: 

' ' I will ask the Father and he shall give you another Paraclete, that 
he may abide with you for ever, the Spirit of Truth." (John xiv, 16, 17.) 

The Bible says: 

" The Paraclete, the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my 
name, he will teach you ALL THINGS, and bring ALL THINGS to your 
mind, whatsoever I have said to you." (Ibid. 26,) 

The Bible says : 

" "When he, the Spirit of Truth, is come he will teach you ALL truth. 1 ' 
(John xvi, 13.) 

For what purpose did Christ appoint teachers, and scud 
the Spirit of Truth to them for ever ? 
The Bible says: 

"For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of ministry, for the 

edifying of the body of Christ: Until we all meet in the unity of faith 

That henceforth" (Mind this, gentlemen of the Reformation, with its 
hundreds of contradictory systems) "we be no more children, tossed to 

424 . 

and fro, and carried about by every wind of doctrine." . (Ephes. rv, 12, 
13, 14.) 

How long was the Spirit of Truth to continue with the 
teachers of Jesus Christ, .to bring- back to their minds what- 
ever he had commanded them ? 

The Bible says: 

"Even to the consummation of the world; (Malt, xxvin.) "for ever." 
(John xrv, 1C.) 

Did Christ give no other power to his teachers except that 
of teaching? 
The Bible says: 

" Go ye, therefore baptizing all nations in the name of the Father, 

and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." (Matt, xxvm, 19.) 

The Bible says: 

"As the Father hath sent me, I also send you. When he had said 
this, he breathed on them; and he said to them: lleceive ye the Holy 
Ghost: Whose sins you shall forgive they are forgiven them; and whose 
bins you shall retain, they are retained." (Jo/mxx, 21, 23.) 

The Bible says: 

"Whatsoever you shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and 
whatsoever you shall loose upon earth, shall be loosed in h?aven." (Matt. 
xvm, 13.) 

The Bible says: 

. " All things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself, by Christ; 
and hath given to us the ministry of Reconciliation." (H. Cor. v, 18.) 

The Bible says: 

"Except you eat the flesh of the son of man, and drink his blood, you 
shall not have life in you. He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my 
blood, hath everlasting life: and I will raise him up at the last day. 
For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed: He that 
eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, abideth in me, and I in him. 
As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father: so he that 
eateth me, the same also shall live by me." (John rv, 54-58.) 

The Bible says: 

: "And taking bread, he gave thanks, and brake and gave to them, 
saying: This is my body, which is given for you. Do this for a com- 
memoration of me. In like manner the chalice also, after he had 
supped, saying: This is the chalice the New Testament in my blood, 
which shall be shed for you." (Luke xxn, 19, 20.) 

"This do ye, as often as ye shall drink it for the commemoration of 

425 -, 

me." (I. Cor. xi, 25.) "He that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth 
and drinketh judgment to. himself, not discerning the body of the 
Lord." (Ibid. 29.) 

.Here, gentlemen, you have the BIBLE ALOXE without note 
or comment. Now look at your reformers. 

They set out with the avowed intention to reform the 
noblest of alt the works of God, the sacred Spouse, the 
Church of Jesus Christ, which the infinite power and wisdom 
of Jesus Christ himself had built, which his infinite charity 
had cemented with his own sacred blood, which his un- 
bounded mercy and love for men had provided with all those 
powers and those sacred and awful institutions, necessary 
for the sanctification and final salvation of man. 

Only think of that, and say where we shall find words 
sufficiently expressive of the enormity of the attempt? 

Satan-like they say: "I will be like the Most High. (/sat. 
xiv, 14.) For the Spirit of Truth imparted forever by Jesus 
Christ, I will substitute my own puny reason. Instead of 
being directed by the word of God (the sense of which is ex- 
plained by the Spirit of Truth in the Church), I will direct 
the word of God what to say. 

"The divine System of religion proceeding from the foun- 
tain of eternal wisdom, shall be moulded into a system of 
human philosophy. Those sublime institutions, the pledge 
of God's unbounded charity for man, those ordinances, so 
perfectly mysterious (and therefore to the reformers so per- 
fectly absurd) shall be brought down to the level -of the 
human intellect." 

What more ? " Why, pull down Jesus Christ from his seat 
of eternal glory: make a mere man, of him," say some of the 
reformers. "Curtail the power of Jesus Christ," say others, 
" set bounds to his infinite power and charity. Convert his 
sacred institutions into mere human schemes; his flesh and 
blood into mere bread and wine; deprive Jesus Christ of the 
power of forgiving sins through the agency of his Ministers 
of Reconciliation," &c., &c. 

Now, gentlemen Parsons, with looking glass in hand, take 

another view of that little box upon your shoulders, con- 


taining a handful or two of brains, the seat of that puny in- 
tellect (from which as from Pandora's box this abomination 
of desolation proceeds), which rising in its pride above Jesus 
Christ and all his sacred institutions, presumes to sit in judg- 
ment over the word of God, and to decide its meaning ; to 
measure what is immeasurable, and to fathom what is un- 

Farewell, gentlemen", and believe me 

Your very humble servant, 

Demetrius A. Gallitzin. 


February 18. 1834. 
Gentlemen Parsons, 

The Sixth Resolution requires of you, if you think it ex- 
pedient to read the foregoing Preamble and Resolutions to 
your congregations. 

No doubt you will think it expedient. If so, I must repeat the 
advice given in Letter II. viz: to gather a great deal of brass 
and to provide yourselves with a good many bags of dust. 
If you wish to succeed in ycfur undertaking, you cannot 
throw too much dust in the eyes of your hearers: 

1st. To hide from .their view the sublimity, the beauty, 
the immensity, the perfect unity, the sanctity of that sacred 
edifice erected by the hands of Jesus Christ. 

2d. To hide from their view the deformity of the preten- 
ded Reformation, exhibiting hundreds of jarring sects, con- 
tradictory systems of religion, built upon the quicksand of 
your puny reason; and especially to prevent their discover- 
ing your inconsistencies, and your arbitrary perversion of 
the Holy Scriptures. 

' Does it not indeed require a great deal of impudence to 
deny the unerring authority of the Church, when the veracity 
of Jesus Christ stands pledged for the continuance of the 
Spirit of Truth forever in the Church ? And if your hearers 
were only permitted to consult their common sense, would 
they not, at once, come to the very rational conclusion that 
a Church which is not unerring, not infallible, not under the 


guidance of the Spirit of Truth, cannot be the Church of 
Christ, but must be a mere human institution, and of course, 
"that its ministers cannot be ministers of Jesus Christ. 

Does it not require a great deal of impudence, and of the 
most daring impiety, for poor worms of the earth,' poor miser- 
able sinners, to exhibit themselves as reformers of the no- 
blest work of God, of that very work of God which Jesus 
Christ, in very unequivocal terms, declared should never re- 
quire a reformation ? 

Does it not require a superlative degree of impudence to 
make your hearers believe that the pretented reformation, 
this prolific source of hundreds of contradictory doctrines, 
that this reformation, which in fact was nothing but a rebel- 
lion against Christ and the authority of his Church, and 
which was everywhere established by. murder, robbery, sacri- 
lege, and all manner of crime, that this reformation was the 
work of God ? . 

Talk of the corruption of Rome indeed ! whilst your pre- 
tended reformation is corruption from head to foot. 

Corruption of the understanding, which, forgetting its 
place, disregarding the limits to which infinite wisdom hath 
confined it, hath the diabolical presumption to penetrate into 
the arena of Revelation and, usurping the place of the Spirit 
of Truth promised to the Church forever, substitutes its fluc- 
tuating opinions for the positive and unerring testimony of 
the Holy Ghost on faith and morals. 

Corruption of the understanding, which proves itself by 
the hundreds of contradictory interpretations of the sacred 
text, upon which as upon quicksand, are founded as many 
different contradictory systems of religion, the aggregate of 
which makes up the grand, unum totum, which the pretended 
reformers have the impious boldness to designate with the 
name of the Church of Jesus Christ, whereas the true Church 
of Christ, is essentially one in faith, morals, and "general dis- 
cipline . 

Corruption of. the heart, which, abhorring the sacred doc- 
trine of humility, becomes the victim of the most inconceiv- 
able pride, so as to arise in judgment over the Divine Reve- 


laticms, and to assume an authority paramount to that of the 
Holy Spirit of Truth, speaking in and through the Church. 

Corruption of the heart which, being a slave to the sug- 
gestions of flesh and blood, breaks down all the barriers 
which infinite wisdom had erected to stem the torrent of our 
ungovernable passions, overthrows the sacrament of recon- 
ciliation, profanes the sanctity and indissolubillity of mar- 
riage, breaks the last will and testament of Jesus Christ, 
robs his children of their spiritual food and nourishment, the 
sacred flesh and blood of Christ, and of the great - and per- 
petual sacrifice and p'ure oblation, which, according to Mala- 
ehi, w-as to be offered up from the rising to the setting of the 

Now, gentlemen parsons, will yon stand up in your pulpit 
and tell your people % that all this is a reformation, or a 
change for the better? That all this is the work of God? 
Will you indeed? Then remember my advice: gather all 
the boldness and impudence you can, -and do not forget at 
every sentence to throw abundance of dust in the eyes of 
your unfortunate hearers; stun them with your thunderiugs, 
and give them no time for reflection, for fear that, perceiving 
and admiring the perfect unity and beauty of the Universal 
Church, the Church of all ages and 'nations, the Church (at 
present) of about one hundred and seventy millions of human 
beings, (and you know that unity is a necessary criterion of 
truth), for fear, I say, that preferring the salvation, of their 
souls to 3 T our temporal interest, they may turn their backs to 
your barren reformation forever, and enter the green and life 
giving pastures of the Church of Jesiis Christ. 

Many of your hearers have done so already. Lately, qiiite 
lately, I have had several of your members at confession ; 
and now, whilst I am writing these lines, there is a letter on 
my table, written me by one of your Protestants, about one 
hundred miles from here, who laments bitterly that surroun- 
ded by so many contradictory systems of religion he .had 
almost come to the conclusion that religion itself was u 
solecism when suddenly a flash of light (guess from what 
quarter), revived his hopes. He hath the following- remark- 


able words: '! have never yet eat and drank the flesh and 
blood of the Son of God, and therefore have no life in me." 

This, gentlemen, was the Bible alone. 

* * * When standing in the pulpit, 'to caution your 
hearers against the evils of Romanism, you will remember, 
no doubt, to exhibit the whole of us as wicked idolaters for 
worshipping Jesus Christ where we know him to be present 
viz: in the Holy Sacrament. "When on that subject do not 
let your hearers know that Luther, the Father of the Reforma- 
tion, worshipped Jesus Christ in the Holy Sacrament; do not 
let them know that Bishops Andrews, Forbes, Taylor, and 
many more bishops and doctors of the first English reforma- 
tion, adored the living flesh of Christ in the Sacrament. 

Above all things take care not to give your hearers a defi- 
nition of the word Idolatry, lest some of them might retort 
the charge of Idolatry against yourselves. 

"What," I hear you exclaim with rage and i'nry in your 
countenance, " against ourselves? Who will dare accuse us of 
Idolatry?" Why, gentlemen, did yon never read in your 
Bible the celebrated history of the Golden Calf? No doul)t 
you have. Well, now, suppose that Golden Calf to be mel- 
ted and being cast into new moulds, to come out of them in . 
the shape of Eagles, half-Eagles, Guineas or Sovereigns &c. 
&c., would not the Idol in this new form, find a far greater 
number of worshippers ay! and more devout ones, more 
sincei'e worshippers than the Calf did? Worshippers willing 1 
to sacrifice to that Idol their God, their own conscience, the 
Church and all the holy institutions of Jesus Christ, the souls 
of millions, and their own souls into the bargain? This you 
know from EPHES. v. 5, would be real genuine Idolatry. 

Now, gentlemen parsons, to prevent your hearers from 
harbori7ig the least suspicion on that score, speak in glow- 
ing terms about your missions: exhibit your missionaries, 
fearless of dangers, dashing into the midst of Pagan nations, 
suffering hunger and thirst, poverty, persecutions, torments, 
and death by Martyrdom for the sake of Christ, and to preserve- 
thousands of souls from eternal damnation. Exhibit before 
your hearers a faithful list of your missionaries [who] have 


fallen martyrs in the glorious cause of converting' the heath- 
en. Publish a catalogue of the many nations which the im- 
mense sums, collected yearly among your hearers, have been 
the means of converting to Jesus Christ. 

Conceal from your hearers the fact that, in the East India 
Mission alone, the Catholic missionaries are [as we are told 
by the London papers] to your Protestant missionaries as 
three hundred to one ! Above all things, dont let them know 
that the Pages of the Bible which you send by millions to all 
parts of the globe, are (as we are told by a letter from the 
British Lieutenant Slade, a Protestant) by many of them 
used as wadding for their guns. Conceal all these things 
from your hearers, for fear that, growing- cool in this work 
of 'charity, of throwing pearls before swine, the rivers of dol- 
lars would shrink into small rivulets, and perhaps finally dry 
up altogether. 

And now, Gentlemen Parsons, I bid you a final farewell, 
Remaining your very humble servant, 


good gray head ichich all men knew, 

iron nerve to true-occasion true, 
Ofall'n at length that tower of strength, 
Which stood four-square to all the winds that blew! 

(Tennyson.) . 

In 1834 First signs of failing strength. The winter of 1839-40. 
Lenten duties. Easter Sunday. His last sermon. Mr. Bradley, Mr. 
Lemcke, and Mr. Heyden called to Loretto. Wednesday, May 6th, 

"When I first saw Gallitzin/' says Rev. Mr. Lemcke*, "he 
was certainly very thin and his general appearance fragile, 
but he was erect, his walk firm and rapid, his voice loud and 
sonorous, his look keen and decided." He was never absent 
from his place on Sundays, continuing full of vigor and life, 
taking the same lively interest in the affairs of the Church, 
and the welfare of the clergymen of his neighborhood, wlfose 
cares and troubles he always knew to understand, even to 
anticipate, which had always distinguished him, writing in 
1818 to Mr. Heyden, who was then in Philadelphia, with his 
usual vigorous and kindly thought for all : 


Loretto, Jan. 24, 1838. 
Rev. and- very dear Friend, 

Your favor of the 16th ult. was about two weeks on the 
road before it came to my hands. The duties of the holidays 
together with a little spell of sickness which kept me con- 

* Page 355. 

. 432 

fined for about eight or nine days are my apology for not 
replying sooner to your friendly letter. Your appointment 
for Philadelphia was fully anticipated by me, and affords an 
ample field for the display of your zeal and talents in the 
cause of God. In consequence of your promise to render me 
any office of friendship in your power, I beg of you, my dear 
friend, to reject as a temptation the wish to See me appoint- 
ed to an' episcopal sec. Could I even deceive myself so far 
as to suppose (which God forbid) that I really possess the 
necessary qualifications, my age (I am since Dec. 22, in my 
68th year), and niy inability to travel, are insuperable ob- 
stacles to the discharge of episcopal functions. The only 
object of my ambition is to give the finishing strobe to my 
undertaking in this flourishing Catholic establishment, by 
building a*Iarge and permanent church, as soon as a favor- 
able change of times will justify so costly an undertaking- 
This being accomplished, I shall then, (if I live to see it ac~ 
complishecl), consider it my duty to resign my Trust into my 
bishop's hands, to enable him to transfer it into better hands. 
Permit me now, dear friend, to add (principally for the bish- 
op's perusal) some observations I wisli to present to his con- 
sideration on the subject, of the Synod contemplated by him 
to be held in May next. 

1st, One of the priests who attended the late Diocesan 
Synod, who lives about two hundred and forty miles from 
Philadelphia, complained to me, or told me, that attending 
the Synod put him to the expense of nearly one hundred 
dollars. Those priests who live in the westernmost parts 
of Pennsylvania have a far greater distance to travel, say 
from three hundred miles, and are, of course, put to a far 
greater expense. This it must be confessed, is a very heavy 
tax which falls exclusively upon those who have nothing to 
spare, while, the city priests, who receive handsome salaries, 
besides no inconsiderable amount in perquisites, are (by- 
attending the Synod) not put to any expense whatever. 

To illustrate my general position, I will only mention the 
case of my friend the Rev. P. Lemcke (and I doubt not but 
there are more of the country clergy in a similar situation). 


Since last spring the said Mr. Lemcke with the view of 
forming a permanent church establishment, hath purchased 
some improved land, for which he paid the first installment; 
on the first of April he is obliged to pay two hundred dollars, 
as the former owner is going to remove to Illinois, and 
cannot possibly do without his money, unfortunately....! 
am not able to assist my friend Lemcke. 

. . . .Under such circumstances to be obliged to attend the 
Synod, would prove ruinous to him. 

2nd, With regard to the time appointed for the Synod, it 
happens to be the very busiest part of Paschal time. Al- 
though the time for Easter confessions begins on the first 
Sunday in Lent, by far the greater number of our congre- 
gation always put off that sacred duty until after Easter, in 
consequence of which we are from Easter until Trinity 
quite overwhelmed with confessions. This, at least as 
far as women and children are concerned, is, no, doubt, 
owing to the excessive badness of the roads in the early 
part of the spring, of which you can hardly form an idea. 

The objections above mentioned could be in a great mea- 
sure obviated if the Synod could be put off' until after the 
division of the diocese, which (if I am not misinformed) is to 
take place before very long. 

My dear friend, following your edifying example I have 
held my retreat, and made my general confession the last 
week in Advent. May the residue of our lives be a continual 
retreat from this wicked world, and a constant preparation 
for a better. 

Present my humble respects to our good and worthy bish- 
op, together with my sincere wishes for an abundance of 
the blessings of the season for both him and yourself. 

Later, when some reports of the doctor's failing health 
alarmed his friend, he wrote: 


Loretto, Aug. 21, 1889. 
My RIGHT Eev. and dear friend ! 

The account you had of my illness was not founded in 
fact. What may have given rise to it is that I was, (by 

484' _. 

pains in the lower joints), for one Sunday only, prevented 
from appearing at the holy altar, which, perhaps, alarmed 
some of those who being in the habit of seeing me there 
every Sunday, concluded that I must be very ill. In Cham- 
bersburg they had me dead and buried. 

* , * 


Give my respect c to [your venerable parents, my affection- 
ate compliments to Mr. and Mrs. Lyon, and accept for your- 
self (together with hopes of seeing a mitre on your head), 
my sincere wishes for your temporal and spiritual welfare. 
Your most hble servt and friend, 

Demetrius Aug. Gallitzin. 

In the winter following, a very severe one, it was noticed 
with forebodings instantly repressed as too painful for con- 
sideration, that he no longer carried himself as formerly, 
that the once ringing step all knew so well, was at times- 
slow and uncertain; his voice failed him in preaching, and in 
his exhortations tears would fall from the beautiful eyes 
which once flashed accompaniment to his thrilling words, 
tears and a look more touching than the most powerful ser-. 
nion of his youth." " Sometimes in the course of these ser- 
mons," one who heard them relates,* "-he became truly elo- 
quent. At such times he would lean forward a little, his face 
would light up, and his eyes shine with heavenly radiance; 
but this would last only a few minutes, being repressed as 
soon as he perceived it, as if it were against his calmer 
judgment, and after a few sentences he would resume his 
conversational tone; his sermons, if such they could be called, 
did not last quite thirty minutes." Those who observed him 
closely, or saw him but seldom could not doubt that he . 
who had never % cared for the world, was now more than ever 
detached from it, that he who had waited so long for heaven 
was looking wistfully to the promised rest, as an old gener- 
al who sees the ravages of war disappearing, the conquered 
country settling into loyalty and peace, young officers rising 

Eev. Mr. Lemcke, p. 356. 


to eminence, looks towards his native land, and his sover- 
eign's recall. The burden of debt had nearly disappeared, all 
that remained could be dissolved at any moment; the children 
whom he had adopted were for the most part married and 
settled, portioned by him as they would have been by a pros- 
perous father in their rank of life. He would have wished to 
have a larger church built for his people before he left them, 
and been glad to see the diocese divided, but this gave him 
no anxiety for he knew all that was needful would come, in 
God's own time. 

The severe mountain winter [1839 40] was still lingering 
in excessive cold, broken only by dreary -storms of mingled 
rain and snow, while the .roads were fast assuming their 
spring form of snow, mud and melting ice, when Lent with 
its multiplied duties, and the increasing sick calls of the un- 
healthy season, came to exhaust his failing strength. "He 
waa so evidently weak and suffering", says Mr. Lemcke,* 
"that I begged him to spare himself and leave the rest to me, 
but of this he would hear nothing. Indeed, with the best of 
intentions and even with his indomitable will, Mr Lemcke 
could not have assisted him much, for his own special charge 
claimed his fullest attention, as was the case with the other 
priests in their more distant stations. The trouble resulting 
from the fall from his horse one night, years before, when re- 
turning from a sick call; which had prevented his ever riding 
again, now assumed a very serious form always painful and 
at times excruciatingly so; Dr. Rodrigue, his physician, an 
excellent one, his friends, his brother priests urged him to 
rest, but as long as it .pleased his master to leave him at his 
post, he refused to consider himself incompetent to fulfill its 
duties let the result be what it would; all they could say was 
met by a smile that tenderly acknowledged their solicitude, 
but put aside all hope of compliance with their wishes. 

Towards_the end of Lent, happening to meet Dr. Rodrigue 
he asked his advice and was counselled to go at once to his 
room, keeping warm and qiiiet, avoiding all care and exer- 

* Page 360. 


tion; but this he regarded as impossible, for the duties of 
Holy Week were at hand, and so far from going to his room 
he would be obliged to spend the greater part of his time in 
the cold church, hearing confessions, after Easter he thought 
he might consider the doctor's advice. He went through all 
the services of Holy Week, heard confessions for half a day 
at a time, at what cost can never be told. Early Easter 
morning he was in the confessional again, but was so exhaus- 
ted by ten o'clock that he could only say a low Mass, and 
give a short exhortation on the Resurrection, which he ended 
with the words spoken on the crosri: It is consummated. They 
were his last to his congregation. 

Scarcely able to reach his room he made no further resis- 
tance, and the next day, Easter Monday, the news of his ill- 
ness passing from one to another, became known to Mr. 
Lemcke, the nearest priest, who was, unhappily, suffering 
from an accident and unable to leave home; he knewDr.'Gal- 
litzin would not have given up unless forced to it, and sent 
a trusty messenger to find exactly how he was. This per- 
son returning reported that he had found the doctor in bed, 
looking miserably and as if in great distress, but insisting 
that Mr. Lemcke should not risk coming to him at present, 
and that if there was danger notice would be given him; a 
friend present followed the messenger out of the room, told 
him it was a critical case, and that Mr. Lemcke would do 
well to lose no time. 

A messenger was soon sent for Mr. Bradley who came at 
once, and April 28th -wrote hastily to Mr. Heyden: "that our 
dear and much revered Dr. Gallitzin is fast approaching his 
last end; it is the opinion of all who see him that he cannot 
survive this day, in which opinion his attending physician, 
Dr. Eoderick [Rodrigue] full concurs. I therefore request 
you by that love and charity we all owe to each .other, and 
by that tender regard we all owe to our beloved Dr. Gallitz- 
in to come with all speed to assist me .... Mr. Lemcke is not 
able to attend on account of some unfortunate accident, and 
Mr. Rattigan is gone to Pittsburgh' 


The sled had been sent for Mr. Lemcke and now returned 
with him. Dr. Kodrigue thought 'an operation if successful 
would relieve the sufferer, and give him a few days more to 
live, and requested Mr. Lemcke to prepare him for it; he ex- 
pressed himself perfectly submissive to God's will, to go at 
this time or that as it pleased him best." "My will," he said, 
" is made. I trust as far as that is concerned I can depart 
in peace, that no one will lose anything through me, that 
there may even be something over. Now I wish- first of all 
to receive the Last Sacraments, and then do with me as you 
will." As soon as midnight had passed Mr. Lemcke said 
Mass in the sick room, all the household being present, and 
gave him Holy Communion. 

Soon afterwards Dr. Kodrigue performed the operation, to 
which the doctor submitted with heroic fortitude ; but for it 
the physician had no hope that he could survive the night. 
During the following- nights Dr. Eodrigue scarcely left his 
side; after riding all day to attend to his other patients he 
would hasten back over the wretched roads, to watch all 
night with the dying priest. On the 4th of May Mr. Heyden 
arrived, but the doctor was only able to welcome him with a 
faint smile and a few whispered, broken words. The people 
from far and near pressed about the doors, and when they 
were admitted to his presence, for the dear sufferer would 
let none be refused, they were so unwilling to leave they 
had often to be forced from the room. About the time of 
Mr. Heyden's arrival the pains seemed less, and Dr. Gallitzin 
lay as one peacefully sleeping, an expression of serenest re- 
pose oii his countenance; nature was exhausted, the life 
spent in toil and sacrifice was slipping away, and the real 
life, the great, boundless life of perfect joy, was already on 
the other side to receive him. 

We who have no such saintly cheerfulness as his shrink 
in the bitterness of our hearts from a few years more, but 
when patient virtue thus passes into holy rest, how beauti- 
ful and to be envied the longest and saddest life appears! 
How little now his three score and ten beside the eternal 

* 438 

So he lay there resting until the evening of the 6th of 
May, bet\ven six and seven o'clock. When the hour came 
for the laborers to go home from their work, they saw that 
he was going, too. Mr. Heyden read the prayers for the 
dying, the room doors were opened, the crowds in the house 
and chapel prayed with tears and sobs, and in a few min- 
utes, without any perceptible sign, all was over, the heav- 
ens were open, all their joybells were ringing a welcoming 
peal; he had gone home to his own country. 


The souls of the Just are in the Jiands of God. (Wis. iii. 2,4.) 

Grief of the people. The funeral procession. The Kequiem Mass. 
His last will and testament. His successor. Division of the diocese. 
The new church at Loretto. Dr. Gallitzin's monument. Influence 
of his memory. 

That damp, dreary night, in every home in Loretto, and 

far into the country around it, there was sorrow and desola- 
tion; save that here was no passionate, bitter grief, no wild 
despair, one might have been reminded of that awful night 
in Egypt, when the Angel passed by, and in every house he 
breathed upon there was death. But in the midst of the most 
heart-broken sorrow there was here a certain undertone of 
thought, ready to rise into exultation, as the souls of the 
mourncrsjjrecognized their own destiny delayed in his ful 
filled. "What a happiness for him that he listened to the 
voice .of God, and gathered up his strength and courage to 
leave all and run that race, which gained for him that bril- 
liant and unfading crown of a true and faithful priest of 
Jesus Christ, who had brought thousands of souls into the 
way of justice; and had practised himself that Christian per- 
fection which he preached to others?"* "Does he not look 
like an old warrior taking his rest," said one, looking at that 
which remained to show where once he had lived, that empty 
house from which the noble soul had moved away. There 
was no light to answer those who loved him, in that quiet 
face which for so many years had shed benedictions with 

Memoir of Eev. F. A. Baker by Eev. A. F. Hewit, page 204. |^u~ 


every glance, but the "great glory," which gleamed through 
the golden gates opened to admit him, "Shone still upon the 
watcher's face." 

But as the hours passed on and human weakness showed 
itself weary of looking upward, the grief of. the people ap- 
peared uncontrollable; that which had once been their idolized 
pastor was laid, clothed in the vestments his mother had 
made him, in the chapel attached to the house, and crowds 
filled the grounds awaiting their turn to enter the chapel and 
watch by his side. fr 

The funeral was set for Saturday, May 9th, by that time 
notwithstanding the bad roads, and that no .invitations or 
pxiblic anouucement was given, the entire population, for a 
hundred miles around had gathered in Lorctto. It was but 
a few steps from the chapel to the church, and the only direc- 
tion in regard to the funeral he himself had given was that 
he might be laid between the two, where he had passed a 
thousand times from his home to the altar, where his children 
gone before would be around him, but as so many contended 
for the honor of bearing him to the church, and then to his 
resting place, it was decided the procession should pass from 
the chapel to the village, past the honest homes, around the 
church he left in place of the howling wilderness he found, 
and there where the patient feet had made their toilsome 
journey, where the folded hands had given countless bles- 
sings, where the heavenly eyes had illumined the darkest 
hour, sacred and dear as the relics of a saint he was carried, 
slowly and solemnly, the cross he had borne faithfully 
through life, before him, his children, young and old, in' 
weeping procession behind him. Although the route exten_ 
ded over a half a mile, and the pall bearers were changed 
every few minutes, many had not been able to obtain place, 
- when they reached the church. Eev. Mr. Heyden sang the 
requiem Mass, assisted by Eev. Messrs. Bradley, McGirr, 
Lemcke, and Eattigan. Eev. Mr. Heyden preached a funeral 
sermon in English from the -text: The Just shall live in ever- 
asting remembrance, and Eev. Mr. Lemcke made some re- 
marks in German, taking his text from the eleventh chapter 


of Hebrews: Of whom the world was not worthy; wandering in 
deserts, in mountains, and in dens, and in caves of the earth. 
The people were forced from the coffin, and the lid closed. It 
was placed in one of zinc and amid heartrending prayers and 
wails loweredtinto the earth. 

In his will Dr. Gallitzin directed that his debts and funeral 
expenses should be paid as soon after his decease as possible; 
he left the farm upon which St. Michael's church was built, 
and the lands belonging to it, to the Bishop of Philadelphia, 
or to his successor who might be appointed for the Western 
diocese of Pennsylvania, and his successor^, in trust forever 
for the support and use of the Roman Catholic clergy duly 
appointed to officiate at St.Micheal's church; also to the same 
a square of six lots in the town of Loretto, upon which to erect 
a new church. The remainder of his estate was to be appro- 
priated for the relief of poor widows and orphans; for Masses 
for the faithful departed; to. aid in the erection of a Catholic 
church in Loretto upon the lots mentioned, and for legacies 
to several persons who had been brought up in his house. 

The little furniture his house contained was eagerly bought 
by his parishioners, who cherish with pride and affection and 
transmit as. a sacred inheritance to their children the least 
thing that had once been his. "I remember," writes Mr. 
Gibson,* "finding in one of the rooms a discipline and an 
iron chain with sharp points for attaching round the waist, 
both covered with his blood." 

The news of his death reached Bishop Kenrick while at- 
tending the Council in Baltimore, and was communicated to 
the bishops assembled there, who expressed the deepest 
grief at the loss of the venerated Apostle of the Alleghanies. 
Mr. Heyden was appointed to remain in charge of the 
Loretto congregation for the present, but not wishing to be 
separated from his own parish, he declined the appointment, 
a step he afterwards bitterly regretted, for by that means 
Dr. Gallitzin's letters and papers, which were of the great- 

* Who was ordained in 1814, and said Ms first Mass in Gallitzin' 
.:hurch in Loretto on the eighth of September in the same year. 

_ 442 

est literary and historical, as well as personal value, were 
suffered to become scattered and lost, to the very great em- 
barrassment of those who would wish to preserve the mem- 
ory of one of the greatest and saintliest men who ever came 
to sanctify the soil of our beloved country, 05 to write the 
story of the most fascinating period of our Church history. 
" It. was the doctor's custom," says Eev. Mr. Lemcke,* who 
remained in charge at Loretto, Mr. Heyden declining, "to 
preserve not merely all the letters he received, but copies of 
all he wrote, if of the least importance; more than this, he 
kept every paper in which there was any notice of events, 
even the most ordinary, which had any interest for him; in 
one large chest there were papers and letters of every des- 
cription from the memoirs of his mother to his last tailor's 
bill ; notes from the princess to his ^tutors, to her children, in 
a word the accummulation of half a century." Among these 
were said to be "letters from Eussia and all parts of Europe, 
from bishops, and even prominent statesmen of America, for 
lie was a well known and prominent character." Mr. Lemcke 
sometime after visited Europe taking with him such letters 
and manuscripts as he considered of interest for the purpose, 
and in 1861 published at Muenster his Leben und Wirken des 
Prinzen Demetrius Augustin Gatlitzin. 

The divison of the Philadelphia diocese did not take place 
until three years after the great missionary's death; in 1843 
the diocese of Pittsburg was formed from the western divi- 
sion of Pennsylvania, and in 1852 was itself divided, and the 
northwestern counties made to constitute the diocese of Erie. 
Loretto remains in the diocese of Pittsburg; the new. church 
G-allitzin so desired to see there was built a few years after 
the first division; the Sisters of Mercy have a large and hand- 
some building for a boarding school near it, and not far dis- 
tant the Franciscan brothers a college. Ten years after his 
death Dr. Gallizin's remains were disinterred and placed in 
a vault in front of the church, and a monumentf erected 

* Page 11. 

t Which the pastor aud people of Loretto are making efforts to re-, 
place with one more suitable to his cherished memory. ll 

443 ' 

over the spot; with an inscription composed by Archbishop 


Dem. A..E. Principibus Gallitzin, nat. xxii Decemb. A. 

Qui Schismate ejurato Ad. Sacerdotium. erectus. Saero. 
Ministerio. per. tot. hauc. reg. perfunctus, Fide, Zelo, Chari- 
tate, insignis. Heic. Obiit Dei VI Mail A. D. MDCCOXL. 


Of Dem. A. Prince of Gallitzin, born Dec 22 1110 who 
having renounced Schism was raised to the Priesthood, 

Exercised the sacred ministry through the whole of this 

And distinguished for faith, zeal, charity, 
Died May 6 1840. 

The sadness with which the people for the first time saw 
another standing in his place did not lessen as the days ad- 
vanced, however honored his sucessors, but almost every hour, 
and certainlyJ'eVeryi'i'.^ligious duty required of them, pressed 
home to them* son^ejpew phase of their immeasurable loss; 
their desolation, aftd soul-weariness, could be in a measure 
controlled even when they passed his little cabin where he 
no longer sat, silent and alone, under the great trees, or 
came with shining eyes to welcome them at his garden gate, 
but when the sorrows of life darkened their doors, and the 
hand of the Lord lay heavy upon them, a wail of misery 
forced itself from their inmost soul, aching for the ringing- 
step uearing their doorway, the low toned words of heavenly 
comfort, with which in clays of old he had taken the load 
from their hearts. In the confessional it was still harder, 
and for years many of his penitents found it almost impos- 
sible to confess at all, so overpowering were the recollec- 
tions of the lovely ways by which he had led their souls to 
God. But though the silence was never to be broken by 
that Comforting step, he was not absent. In the darkest 
'iour of their sin and sorrow the most forsaken of them all, 

-. 444 


had suddea glimpses of heavenly hope and faith, rousing 
them to incomprehensible courage; it is no irreverence to 
say death had lost half its terrors since he had passed so 
tranquilly through them, the promised reward seemed no 
longer vague and afar off since all things told them he had 
surely reached it. From far and wide others have come to 
learn of that holy life, and to bless the day they first heard 
his name. Looking upon his life and abroad to all the world 
can offer, it is seen that virtue and truth, the desire of hea- 
ven, and loving labor for other's souls, for Christ's sake, are 
the only clear cut and vivid things in this world, all else is 
cold and gray,, vague, shadowy and insecure. He being dead, 
yet speakefh. 


So fry 


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.G63B8 !l ustine Gallitzin. 


Life of Demetrius Aus- 


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