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Right Rev. John Lancaster Spalding, D. D. 






Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1888, by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, I). C. 


J. H. YEWDAI.E tt SONS Co., 





Archbishop of Chicago, 






MANY years have elapsed since the subject of the following Me- 
moirs, in conversation with the writer, said that : " A contemporary 
history of the Catholic Church in this Country ought to be collected 
and published, even in the shape of biographical sketches of eminent 
members of the Hierarchy." . The writer replied, that in one particu- 
lar instance, the suggestion would be carried out, and a contribution 
made to the history of the Church in the Diocese of Chicago. No 
attention was paid to the remark by either at the time, as the early 
demise of the first speaker did not have the least shadow of proba- 

When all that was mortal of Bishop McMullen was consigned to 
the tomb, his words came forcibly to mind and the writer realized 
that the promise became a duty. In undertaking it, he has found his 
own deficiencies in the way, and many difficulties to overcome ; the 
latter showing the soundness of Bishop McMullen's suggestion. There 
has certainly been an apparent indifference in collecting and publish, 
ing whatever is of historical interest to the Church in the Archdiocese 
of Chicago, and the reason may be in the comparatively rapid changes 
of diocesan administrations, which have taken place since the first 
Diocese was created in 1844. The writer found a great difficulty 
in searching for material which he knew had existed, but it was found 
that much perished in the Fire of 1871. If he has failed to obtain 
more that would be of historical value to the history of this portion 
of the Church in the West, he hopes that his labor will stimulate 
others to further the good work. The lives of the deceased Bishops 
of the Dioceses in the State of Illinois would be a means to the end, 


but to do so in these Memoirs would make them too voluminous and 
beyond the real object of the writer. 

The life of Bishop McMullen was that of a true servant of the 
Lord singularly striking among the pioneer priests of the young 
Church of the Great West. He was well understood and appreciated 
by all who knew him a rare instance among men and his 
memory, like that of the just man, " shall be in everlasting remem- 

The Writings of Bishop McMullen, Avhich appear in the Appendix, 
were published in the Monthly, and their merit deserves for them 
a chapter in the Catholic literature of this Country. 

The writer is under the deepest obligation to the Right Rev. John 
Lancaster Spalding, D.D., for the great interest he has taken in the 
publication of these Memoirs, and for his valuable Introduction. 




His Birth Birthplace Departure of His Family for America Arrival 
in Canada Removal to the United States New York Lockport, 
111. Chicago Incidents of Character He attends School His First 
Communion in Joliet, 111 5 


The Right Rev. William Quarter, D. D. The Diocese of Chicago The 
Bishop's Labors He Founds the University of St. Mary of the Lake 
His Pastoral Yoirng McMullen enters the University. 11 


Traits of Character Studious Habits An Accident He has Charge of 
the Altar Boys in St. Mary's His Kindness to Fellow Students St. 
Patrick's Bishop's Letter Hibernian Benevolent Society First 
Diocesan Synod Bishop Quarter's Death 18 


Absence of Father Quarter when His Brother Died His Grief Father 
Quarter takes Charge of the Diocese His Zeal His Great Works of 
Charity The Fever Stricken Immigrants The Cholera The Or- 
phans Notes from Father Quarter's Diary 28 


Bishop Van de Velde Appointed by the Holy See Successor to Bishop 
Quarter Sketch of His Life His Consecration His First Pastoral 
His Great Interest in the Diocese He Singles put Young McMullen 
for the Priesthood The Western Tablet Bishop Van de Velde 
Writes for it. John McMullen, Correspondent 35 


Historical Facts Relating to the Diocese of Chicago in the Years 1852-53 
John McMullen, Correspondent He Writes on Questions of the 
Day February 14, 1852 55 


Departure for Home Interest Displayed by Father Quarter in New 
York Arrival iu Dublin Archbishop Cullen Visit to Ballyuahiiich 
Incidents of Travel Arrival in Paris Correspondence They Sail 
from Marseilles Arrival in Civita Vecchia Rome First Interview 
with Cardinal Fransoni MeMullen's Case Presented to the Council 
of the Propaganda Case Rejected John -McMullen's Words Car- 
dinal Fransoni receives both Students into the Propaganda 93 



The Propaganda College Its Rules Incidents of Student Life Spiri- 
tual Retreat at San' Eusebio The Discovery of the Church and Cata- 
combs of St. Alexander Pope Pius IX. gives an Audience to the 
Propaganda Students in the Monastery of St. Agnes The Accident. 104 


Right! Rev. Anthony O'Regan, D. D., Bishop of Chicago Letters to 
his Students in the Propaganda Illness of John- McMullen His 
Letters Visit of Bishop O'Regan to Rome Trip to Genzano Ex- 
amination for Holy Orders Ordination His Remarks He Takes 
his Degrees in Theology His Departure from Rome An Incident. . 115 


Rev. Dr. McMulIen's Arrival in Chicago He meets Bishop Duggan 
His Letter Bishop Duggan His first Mass in Chicago His first 
Sermon in St. Mary's His Zeal He founds the House of the Good 
Shepherd He Encounters Opposition An Incident Removal of 
the Asylum to the North Side The first Frame Building is Burned 
His Correspondence Acknowledged Success of the House of the 
Good Shepherd 125 


Rev. Dr. McMullen, Rector of the Cathedral of the Holy Name He is 
appointed President of St. Mary of the Lake The Condition in 
which he found his Early Alma Mater His Staff of Professors- 
It is found Necessary to erect a New Building Its formal Opening 
A German Catholic High School. . . . . 143 


The War Confidence is placed in Dr. McMnllen by the people The 
death of Gen. Mulligan The Obsequies The Eulogy 148 


Progress of the University as a Seat of Learning It Receives no Finan- 
cial Support in Keeping with its Needs Dr. McMullen's Kindness 
to Students He Publishes the "Catholic Monthly" The University 
of St. Mary of the Lake closes its Doors The Cause 153 


Dr. McMullen establishes^St. Paul's Parish His Labors in its behalf 
He continues to teach in the Seminary of St. Mary of the Lake A 
Methodist Convention is held in Chicago Resolutions adopted in it 
for the Conversion of Catholics Dr. ;McMullen's Challenge It Jis 
taken up by a certain Rev. Mattison The latters Quibbling causes 
the Challenge to fall through Comments of the Public Press. Cor- 
respondence 160 


Dr. McMullen 'accompanies Bishop Duggan to the II. Council of Balti- 
more The' Cholera visits Chicago during his absence He takes a 
Census of his Parish Bishop Duggan's illness His Departure for 
Carlsbad, Austria He is called to Rome He returns to Chicago 
Complications arise on account of the Bishop's acts Dr. McMullen 
leaves Chicago for Rome A Letter from him Death of Very Rev. 
Dennis Dunne, D. D. Reconciliation Bishop Duggan's mind suc- 
cumbs at last Dr. McMullen's return to Chicago 175 



Very Rev. Thomas Halligan appointed Administrator of the Diocese of 
Chicago Dr. McMuflen is assigned to the Charge of the Mission 
of Wilmington His Labors in this Place He builds a Church in 
Braidwood His studious Life His Lectures in behalf of different 
CharitiesIncidents of his Life during this time Bishop Foley's ap- 
pointment to be Administrator of the Diocese of Chicago 179 


The Right Rev. Thomas Foley. D. D. Sketch of His Life Appointment 
to the Diocese of Chicago Sermon of Installation by Bishop Becker 
Remarks by Bishop Foley His Characteristics His Labors An 
Address to the Congregation of the Holy Name 185 


Dr. McMullen is appointed Rector of the Cathedral of the Holy Name 
He calls on Miss E. A. Starr The Congregation of the Holy Name 
Dr. McMullen's Labors The Great Fire, 1871 Desolation Dr. 
McMullen looses everything He goes East to collect Help for the 
Stricken People Death of his Father Bishop Foley sees to the Wel- 
fare of the Orphans Dr. McMullen's Temporary Church Hard- 
ships of the Winters, 1871-72-73 in the Temporary Frame Structure 
The New C athedral 194 


Retreat of the Clergy of the Diocese in 1877 Bishop Foley appoints 'Dr. 
McMullen Vicar-General A Diocesan Synod Bishop Foley's trip 
to Baltimore His Sickness there Aggravated by returning to Chi- 
cagoBishop Foley's death Obsequies Funeral Sermon by the pres- 
ent Archbishop of Philadelphia, Most Rev. P. J. Ryan Dr. McMul- 
len is appointed Administrator 202 


The Diocese of Chicago created an Archdiocese by the Holy See The 
Right Rev. P. A. Feehan, Bishop of Nashville, promoted to the new 
Archdiocese Dr. McMullen remains Vicar General He is appointed 
to the new Diocese of Davenport, Iowa A Sketch of the Diocese 
Dr. McMullen receives a Letter from the Cardinal Prefect of the Pro- 
paganda announcing the nomination The Bishop elect accepts it. . . 323 


The Ceremony of Consecration, in the Cathedral of the Holy Name A 
Large Assemblage of the Hierarchy The Holy Name Cathedral filled 
with the Friends of the Bishop Elect An Incident Presentations 
to the new Bishop by the Priests of the Diocese and the People of the 
Holy Name Addresses made on the occasion 230 


Bishop McMullen's Departure from Chicago Expression of Sorrow by 
the Bishop and the People of the Holy Name Parish The Bishop's 
Reception in Davenport Address by the Mayor of the City Bishop 
McMullen's Reply 237 


The Bishop takes Formal Possession of the New Diocese He finds 
among the Sisters of Mercy some old Friends The Bishop's first 
Sermon 248 



Presentation of an Episcopal Residence made by the Priests of the Dio- 
cese of Davenport to Bishop McMullen His Expressions of Delight 
with his beautiful Home and Surroundings. Correspondence 
His Episcopal Visitation Number of Confirmations 253 


Bishop McMullen visits Council Blufl's His Reception Addresses made 
on that occasion Month's Mind His Address to the Clergy The 
First Diocesan Retreat of the Clergy The Priests of the Diocese 
again show their Appreciation of Bishop McMullen by a Munificent 
Gift The Bishop's First Pastoral Letter ' 260 


Bishop McMullen intimates that he is seriously sick The Visitation of 
his Diocese increases the malady His Hardships He does not spare 
himself He is advised to rest Presentation of a Purse by the Priests 
Bishop McMullen takes a trip to New York and the Seashore Not 
much Benefitted He sends Two Thousand Dollars to the Holy Father 
He returns to Davenport His illness becomes so serious that he is 
ordered to California Dangerous Sickness while there He returns 
home He prepares for Death He rallies and goes to Chicago His 
return Bishops and Clergy visit him Incidents Bulletins announc- 
ing his Condition His Death Expressions of Universal Bereave- 
ment 260 


The Diocese of Davenport in Mourning The Obsequies St. Margue- 
rite's Cathedral filled with sorrowing people A large Concourse of 
the Clergy and Laity from different Parts of the United States in At- 
tendance Archbishop Feehan officiates Bishop Spalding delivers 
the Funeral Sermon The deceased Prelate's Remains are Interred 
under the High Altar in the Cathedral "(Month's Mind" A Me- 
morial Tablet erected in St. Marguerite's Cathedral by the Priests 
of the Diocese 278 

Writings of Bishop McMullen i clxi 


The charm of biography lies in man's social nature, in his 
need of life other than his own, in his dependence not merely 
upon his material environment, but upon the moral world also, 
which is as indispensable to his growth and well being as warmth 
and nourishment. Hence all life, if we can rightly get at it 
is interesting. Philosophers have found food for thought in the 
habits of an insect, and men of science have been filled with wonder 
in studying a microbe. 

Conversation turns forever on what men and women say 
and do, or have said and done. The lovers of truth are .few, but 
all take delight in a story. Teach wisdom, and you bore; gossip, 
and you find listeners. Literature begins with myths an4 ends 
in novels ; and the myth and the novel are biographical. 'Is riot 
the blessed Gospel a life? And what is history but an epitome 
of innumerable biographies ? The life of a priest or bishop 'does 
not usually abound in incidents, and here in the United States', at 
least, it tends to grow hopelessly prosaic. But is not all American 
life monotonous, as there is a sameness in American scenery, and 
a levelling down in American society ? We are a matter, of ,fact, 
unimaginative people, full of schemes and projects, which/ are 
sometimes impracticable, but never romantic. Our life of toil, 
of feverish activity, with its common sense aims, is not however 
devoid of interest. It is on the contrary, as stimulating to the 
thinker as to the practical man. 

The questions it suggests, the problems it raises fill us at once 
with hope and fear; their scope is worldwide and they portend 
good or ill to the generations yet to be. Our religion, like our 
life in general, turns to practical ends. The old faith wears here 
a modern garb ; casts off the robe of ceremony and goes to work 
in plain attire. We have had no men of genius to throw around 
it the splendor of immortal minds ; no conflicts to create the 
heroic mood ; no persecutions fragrant with memories of martyrs 
and saints. Priests and Bishops have had to take their place in 
the army of workers, and to accompany the ever increasing multi- 
tudes in their peaceful march across the vast continent. Where the 


forest was felled or the prairie broken, they had to build the church 
and the school ; where pestilence raged, they had to gather the 
orphans into asylums ; where cities rose as in a dream, they had 
to push their way into the bustling crowds, lest amid the noise and 
the struggle the voice of conscience should become inaudible; when 
the teachings and the history of the Church were attacked, they 
had to be ready to defend. Of the men upon whom such tasks 
were imposed, he whose life is here recorded, was a type. As a 
child he was borne on the tide of immigration which like another 
gulfstream set from Ireland towards the shores of America. After 
a brief delay in Canada and the East, his parents started westward 
and settled near Chicago and there amid the marshes on which 
the great city was to rise, the stronghearted boy grew to manhood. 
In the floating population of sailors, adventurers and traders who 
formed the small town that had sprung up at the southern end 
of Lake Michigan there was nothing, one may well suppose, to 
awaken thoughts of a religious vocation in the mind of a healthy 
and ardent youth. Little else, in truth was to be found there than 
the world, the flesh and the devil. For the sensual there was the 
invitation to gross indulgence ; for the aspiring, the hope of sudden 
wealth : and for all there was the excitement of a new and un- 
tramelled life, the quickening of energies, the stirring spectacle 
of the intermingling of various races and types of every character, 
gathered here where but yesterday the Indian drowsed in his tent. 
What stories of adventure, of deadly encounter, of miraculous 
escape, what accounts of the billowy expanse of unbroken prairie 
stretching north and south and west beyond the Mississippi, be- 
yond the Missouri, to the foot of the Rocky Mountains, asleep on 
their treasures of silver and gold, must not the youth have heard. 
He had a boy's love of the chase, and were not the prairie-chickens 
drumming amid the wild grass from Lake Michigan to the Ohio ; 
were not the rivers and lakes alive with fish and fowl? Still one could 
almost hear the tread of the buffalo, darkening the earth for miles 
on miles as they fled from man and death towards the great desert. 
How should he walking among the rabble of a frontiertown, with 
the visions which rise in young hearts in the presence of un- 
known worlds teeming with life, thronging upon him, how should 
he turn away from it all to think of God and souls? Ask why 
when we look on the starlit sky, on the woods in autumn, on the 
grave of one we love, we are drawn away from ourselves to the 
unseen infinite ? Why does joy make us afraid ? Why does 
beauty make us think of death? Why does possession make us 
poor? Why is yearning our best happiness ? In many ways the 
eternal reveals Himself and the paths along which He leads the 
soul are mysterious. Little truly was there in the Catholic Church of 


this western town to attract any one. There was uo beauty within 
or without. 

The poets line Coeluin non-ani mum mutant, qui trans mare 
currant, is hardly a half truth. In leaving behind country, 
friends, customs, habits, and the sanctities of home, a man often 
leaves the best of himself. For the multitude, as for the young, 
morality is what is customary, and when different races are thrown 
together in a society which is still rudimentary, disorder and con- 
fusion result. Faith is weakened: character deteriorates: the good 
are discouraged, and the violent and the unscrupulous rule. Bar- 
barism threatens to return, the power of religion is undermined, 
reverence dies, respect for authority is lost and the very means by 
which society seeks to protect itself are often lawless. Bishop de 
St. Palais, who was one of the first priests who ministered to the 
Catholics of Chicago, was fond of telling of his early experiences 
there. A missionary in Timbuctoo could hardly have a less promis- 
ing field. And to add to the difficulty every now and then, some 
unworthy or contentious priest, drawn to the place by a kind of 
affinity, gave scandal by his disorderly life, or excited the people 
to rebellion. There were various factions in the congregation, as 
there were various nationalities, and it was not unusual for the 
pastor, to be cited to court, as witness or defendant, and on such 
occasions no effort was spared to make his position humiliating. 

This surely was not a state of things to inspire a longing for 
the priestly life : but it is a privilege of the young that they create 
their own world, and the sight of evil, when the heart is fresh 
and pure, but serves to make good the more attractive. 

At all events from the midst of this strife and confusion, 
young McMullen's thoughts turned to God. At his mothers knee 
possibly he learned to look above and to cherish the desire for bet- 
ter things ; possibly the voice of some holy priest sank into his 
heart and kept ringing there like an echo from heavenly spheres : 
or may be like many another one, drawn by the mysterious appeal 
of divine grace, he instinctively felt the vanity of whatever passes 
away, and heedless of hopes and promises which the grave swal- 
lows, threw all his life on the eternal. We little know the depths 
of a boy's heart how capable he is of scorning our wisdom, our 
money, our honors ; led on by some godlike passion to pursue 
ideal aims. How insignificant to him in such a mood, the world's 
most ambitious achievements appear. The sacred enthusiasm, 
which caused St. Paul, in the face of Plato's philosophy and the 
marvellous art of Athens, to glory only in the cross of Christ, 
which in other centuries has led kings and emperors to lay aside 
their crowns, to put off their regal splendor, that in obedience and 
poverty they might follow after the Crucified, still glows in many 


a young soul, fanned by the spirit which breathes where it listeth. 
And whom this ardor seizes is borne on over obstacles and scan- 
dals, heedless of protest and scorn, to consecrate his life to the 
service of Christ and the souls for whom He died. 

When Bishop Quarter arrived in Chicago in. 1844, John Mc- 
Mullen was already at heart a priest. It was his happiness to 
serve at the altar, to listen to religious instructions and to pursue 
the studies which were to fit him for the work to which he be- 
lieved God had called him. In the zealous and enlightened 
bishop he found a friend able and willing to guide and encourage 
him, and when a college was opened, he was among the first to 
enter. And in a short time his fine character and excellent en- 
dowments were recognized alike by teachers and students. He 
may even then have lacked something of the lightheartedness, 
the buoyancy, the overflowing life which are the charm of youth. 
His serious countenance, his swarthy complexion, his dark eye, 
his silent ways and habitual self-control, certainly gave him a place 
apart amid the crowd of his fellows. He was however neither 
morose nor haughty. 

If he was earnest, he was loving : if he was taciturn, he was 
helpful, and if he was without frivolousness, he was none the less 
capable of entering with keen relish into all youthful sports. But he 
loved study more than play, and it is pleasant to behold him dur- 
ing the hours of recreation, sitting in the bower he had con- 
structed beneath a spreading tree on the college grounds, reading 
or helping the weak or the slow among his schoolmates. Not less 
pleasant is it to know, that though a lover of peace, he was al- 
ways ready to stand between the bullying cowards, who are never 
absent from a crowd of boys, and their victims. It Avas at this 
time, it seems, that he became acquainted with the Imitation, a 
book which speaks to the heart of the young and the old, of the 
happy and the wretched, and his deeply religious nature eagerly 
responded to the appeal of tt Kempis, who far from the world and 
all thought of the praise of men, wrote the immortal treatise, 
which shall find sympathetic readers so long as devout minds and 
gentle hearts shall exist on earth. 

He was now prepared to take up the study of theology, and when 
'his Bishop, who was in Rome, wrote that he hoped on his return, 
to be able to send him thither, his heart thrilled with glad 
expectancy. He had indeed come from Europe, but lie had come 
as the soul comes from God, bearing but vague intimations, dim 
visions of its origin. His conscious life has been passed on the 
frontiers of civilization ; he has lived face to face with nature un- 
impressed by man. He has seen the interminable plains that roll 
westward, but they have no history ; he has watched the play of 


the billows on the great inland sea, but they tell no tales. And 
now Europe which moans with memories rises before his imagina- 

He shall see again the land where he was born ; he shall visit 
the great cities of the world, he shall stand amid scenes consecrated 
by genius and heroism ; he shall look on the ruins of extinct 
civilizations ; he shall kneel where martyrs have died and shall 
kiss the earth sanctified by their blood. ';.. 

visions that rise when young hearts dream of the lands-Avhere 
poets have sung, where heroes have conquered, where saints have 
struggled ! O the yearning to flee from rude nature's senseless 
sway to worlds where the soul has risen supreme and shed its 
benign influence over all things ! 0, the sweet delusion when still 
we can believe that the hard material envelope is local merely or 
temporal, that in other days or other climes, men have been or 
now are divine ! And so he sets forth, but not until he has given 
proof of the tender, deep-throbbing heart which makes him live. 

When he has said good-bye to all the others, he can not trust 
himself to part from his mother, and with a cry of anguish he 
rushes forth and is gone. Thus shadows ever fall on the face o f 
joy; thus in the midst of glad thoughts, of richer, wider life, sad 
thoughts come to remind us that to go forward is to leave some 
one or something we love. Alas ! It is ourselves we are forever 
quitting only to find ourselves again. 

But the fair forms which gleam before the eyes of youth waft 
healing and forgetfulness from their wings. We now catch a 
glimpse of him in the bustling streets of New York, making pre- 
parations for the voyage. He had money enough, but he took 
passage in the steerage, because he cared nothing for appearance 
arid personal comfort was one of the last things he ever thought 
of buying. He had, besides, all through life, a natural sympathy 
with common people and unpretentious ways, and a prejudice 
against the rich, which one is almost tempted to think, could only 
spring from a lack of the breadth and fairness of view which ought 
to be habitual in a cultivated mind. 

Or is there in the true Christian temper an instinctive repug- 
nance to the display, the luxury, the moral weakness and religious 
pliancy which are the accompaniments or the results of wealth ? 
In the steerage, in any case, the young Levite felt himself at home 
and in giving counsel and instruction to his simple companions 
he found at once a noble pleasure, and the means of doing good. 
Thus he journeyed, scattering blessings and growing acquainted 
with the human heart. Afloat on the ocean where the infinite is 
mirrored, he dreams not, but works. For a moment he delayed 


in Ireland at the place of his birth, then making his way through 
England and France, with the fellow-student who had accom- 
panied him from Chicago and to whom we are indebted for these 
records, he entered the Eternal City. Happy the youth, who 
when life is still fresh, stands on this spot which again and again 
has been pregnant with the destiny of civilized man. The rush 
of memories is overpowering, and at the first view, he walks as in 
a dream. That what he sees is real and not visionary, seems to 
him almost incredible. Can this in very deed be the Rome whose 
awful image rose before him with the first Latin phrase he learned 
to construe? Is this the nursing mother of heroes, patriots, con- 
querors, poets and orators? Is this Latiurn, to which Fate and gods 
led ^Eneas from Troy's burning walls? Is this the earth which 
drank the blood of the Great Apostles and of countless martyrs ? 
There Cesar stood ; yonder Cicero declaimed, and further on Horace 
walked along the Sacred Road, polishing some line which shall 
survive a civilization's wreck and be fresh and beautiful when 
columns and palaces have crumbled to ruin. His foot is on an 
Empire's dust; beneath him lie the silent chambers where the 
Christian religion first struck root, deep into the inner parts of the 
earth and of the human soul, and round about him stand the 
temples of gods who have faded into nothingness. It is as though 
the disembodied spirit had been caught up into other worlds. 
Like Dante he moves among the shades of the innumerable 
dead. In ghostly tones they whisper to him their hopes, their 
joys, their sorrows. The present vanishes, and the past returns 
with such irresistible power that those who have been, seem alone 
still to be. Why do the monuments of generations which have 
passed away make us feel inferior? Were they really greater 
than we, or is it because arnid these ruins we realize the illusive 
and shadowy nature of human hopes and aims and more plainly 
foresee the approaching day when not a trace of ourselves or out- 
works shall be visitedby the all-illumining sun? But in Rome the 
Catholic easily turns from the purifying memories of the past, to 
drink inspiration at the fountain head of the living church. There 
is the Vicar of Christ, the world's great high priest: there is the 
center of government : there are the monuments of the faifch : 
there are the shrines of the saints : there the arts cluster to crown 
the heavenly bride with glory and with beauty : there apostolic 
men gather from every part of the earth, bearing as at the 
council of Nice, the wounds and scars of the battles they have 
waged, dumb witnesses to the power of the love of Jesus, which 
after the lapse of centuries still burns in myriads of hearts and in 
every quarter of the globe lights the torch of heavenly life. 

Ah surely the effort to create in A merica centers where the best 


education shall be given is worthy of generous natures, but here 
how supremely difficult is the teacher's task. 

Easily indeed can he make appeal to the understanding, to the 
logical and arithmetical faculty : but the germ of God-like life is 
planted in the soul; the imagination must be addressed, the 
creative instinct aroused and the whole young being plunged into 
the etherial element of the ideal. How shall this be done where 
the social atmosphere, where public opinion, where successful men 
in every sphere of action, compel the young to aim at wealth and 
position as almost the only earthly ends of which the practical 
reason can approve ? 

It is well to be grateful for the blessings we have ; it is well 
even to believe that our destiny shall finally carry us to higher 
plains than the race hitherto has reached ; but it may be doubted 
whether the time is near when we shall even approach the centers 
of European culture in power to stimulate youthful minds in a 
noble way. There is so far at least little in our life or surround- 
ings to exalt the imagination, to inspire reverence, to kindle ad- 
miration or to awaken hope even of anything higher than money 
or office. At all events the youth whose bosom glows with en- 
thusiasm for the divinely good and fair, to whom vulgar success 
could bring no real joy, is fortunate if he be permitted to cross 
the ocean and dwell for a time in the cradlelands of religion, of 
-art, of civilization. 

John McMullen's first experience in Rome was unpleasant and 
promised in fact to be of quite a serious nature. There was but 
a single vacancy in the Urban College, and the question arose 
whether he or his companion should be received. It was soon 
decided that the younger of the two should be admitted to the 
Propaganda and McMullen sent elsewhere. When he was informed 
of this by the Cardinal Prefect, he hesitated not a moment to 
declare that the arrangement was unsatisfactory. His Bishop had 
sent him to the Propaganda, his youthful companion had been 
entrusted to his care and he had promised to watch over him. 
Both must be admitted into the college or both must without de- 
lay return to America, and the Cardinal yielded and he gained 
his point. Here certainly we get a glimpse of a character worth 
knowing. A little thing, indeed, but altogether interesting, is 
this incident. Here is your genuine American youth, sure of 
himself and not to be overawed. Though thousands of miles 
from home, he will follow the instructions received there : though 
lie has yearned with a pilgrim's heart for the Holy City, he will 
quit it at once rather than be untrue to his promises ; though a 
Cardinal to him was as a mailed knight of Cortez to the wonder- 
ing eyes of the Aztec, yet will he stand firm. It was easy to see 


that principle, and not pride, prompted him, and formality gave 
way before a determined will. 

The life of a seminarian is necessarily uneventful. Little can 
happen to break the monotony of the daily round of exercises or 
to awaken more than passing interest eveix in the mind of the 
student himself. From his rising in the early dawn to his going 
to rest at night every thing is fixed by rule. He prays, he med- 
itates, assists at mass, studies, goes to class, takes recreation, at the 
same hours, day by day, year in and year out. The books which 
are placed in his hands, the subjects to which his attention is 
directed, the method of teaching, the manner of the professors, 
are formal and uninspiring. In manuals of metaphysics, theology, 
rubrics and ecclesiastical history, there is little to rouse the slum- 
bering soul of youth or to nourish the visionary hopes which are 
the food of the young. And the teacher generally confines him- 
self to dry exposition of dogma or to the solution of moral cases. 

Stress is laid upon the matter at issue, and manner is almost 
wholly lost sight of. In this way, doubtless, certain mental quali- 
ties are cultivated, but others, which possibly are indispensable to 
the teacher of religion, remain unimproved. And there is be- 
sides the danger that such a course of instruction may destroy 
the passion for intellectual excellence, without which the youth, 
set free from the drudgery of school, will almost fatally sink into 
a state of mental somnolence : or if he exercise himself, he will 
do so professionally and only in a mechanical way. In Home 
however, and especially in the Rome in which young McMullen 
found himself, the means of education are not merely scholastic. 
Besides the historic associations of the place, there are the master- 
works of men of genius, there are scholars famous for learning in 
every department of knowledge ; there is opportunity to hear the 
most renowned orators of the church, who hold the one faith, but 
whose thoughts and words have caught the tinge, accent and char- 
acter of the climate, the race and the social and political life in which 
they have been thrown ; there is the enlargement of mind and 
heart which conies of personal contact with men of other modes 
of thought and speech than our own. And then, at the time, of 
which I write, the Pope was also king, Rome was still the city of 
the soul, and religion there was clothed in power, in majesty, in 
splendor and beauty, such as elsewhere it has never worn. 

To see the illumination of St. Peter's is to have ever after the 
memory of a heavenly vision : to listen to the Miserere chanted in 
the Sistine Chapel on Good Friday is to realize the infinite agony 
which human souls may know, the depths of a sorrow which only 
God can console : to hear the silver trumpets in the dome amid 
the skies break forth on Easter morning in notes of divine joy. 


while the great basilica grows tremulous with the rapt devotion 
of the adoring multitude, is to have some faint foretaste of the 
bliss angelic natures know. No more, alas ! the heavenly scene 
appears, and the celestial harmony is hushed. To live in such 
environment, to kneel at the tombs of saints, to dwell amid the 
ruins of the mightiest works of man, to look on the face of pure 
religion illumined by whatever of most divine human genius has 
wrought, is to have all that is noblest in one's being, stirred and 
thrilled ; and they who return from this fountainhead of what on 
earth is greatest and most holy, unregenerate and unraised, must 
surely be hoplessly common or altogether frivolous. It was 
during McMullen's stay in Rome that Pius IX. narrowly escaped 
death at St. Agnes,' outside the walls. He had gone, with a re- 
tinue of dignitaries, noblemen and students, to visit a newly 
discovered catacomb, and had stopped at the Convent to take 
luncheon and give audience. Under the weight of the crowd the 
rotten timbers gave way, and Pope, Cardinals, noblemen and all 
were precipitated into the cellar. McMullen soon extricated him- 
self, and he at once set heroically to work to rescue the young 
man who had been entrusted to his care, and from whom, on his 
arrival in Rome, he had refused to part. In order to reach him 
he had to drag forth, among others, a Roman nobleman, whose 
gratitude moved him to send the young propagandist, on the 
following day, a purse of gold, which, however, was promptly 
refused, with the remark that no thanks were due him by the 
gentleman whom he had simply found in his way and had pulled 
out that he might get at his friend. 

Another incident from his Roman life may be given here. He 
noticed that one of his companions was fond of falling out of rank, 
during their walks, that he might pluck a bunch of grapes or a 
fig. This was a violation of rule, and McMullen, having once or 
twice called his attention to the impropriety of his behaviour, 
finally spoke more sternly. " You had better report me," said the 
offender. " No ; " replied McMullen, " but if you do not desist, I 
will thrash you." This was an abrupt turn to give to the situa- 
tion, and one which can hardly be justified, but it affords insight 
into the character of the man. If there must be wrong let it be 
done openly, and under no circumstances are the ways of the 
coward to be tolerated 

In 1858, he was ordained a priest and received the degree of 
doctor of theology in Rome, and then returned without delay to 
America, eager to begin his life-work. Pleasant task would it be 
still to keep him company and to look on while he waged war 
on sin, on vice, on ignorance on all the foes of human welfare-; 
to watch him while he throws himself into every good cause with 


a hopeful ardor which only the inexperienced know ; to stand at 
his side in the early years of his priestly life when no obstacle 
seemed too great, no task impossible ; to accompany him still 
when the noonday brightness begins to fade and the heavens 
lower and the clouds burst over him, until at length after patient 
waiting, much enduring and manly living, the downright honesty 
and true worth of the man are apparent to all, and honors come 
and grave responsibilities ; and then in the midst of his career, 
death rises and beckons him away. But I have lingered too long 
over his early years and must leave the story of his mature life 
and work to his sympathetic biographer. Of the man himself, 
however, I may be permitted to say a word. He was of average 
height ; his temparanient was a mixture of the sanguine and the 
bilious ; his constitution was excellent, and his sinewy frame easily 
bore fatigue and exposure. A firm, chin, closely-fitting lips, 
slightly aquiline nose, high cheek bones, dark eyes and skin, a 
forehead rising outward from the bsow, and crowned with abund- 
dant hair, jet black in youth, but irongray before he was forty, 
were among the noticeable features of the physical man. There, 
was a certain seriousness and reserve about him, even in his hap- 
piest moments and in the company of intimate friends. He was 
not lacking in the sense for humor and he loved a good story, but 
the way in which he laughed and manifested approval revealed 
the deeper side of his nature. He played like one who would 
rather work. He was an earnest man, but not austere, ascetic or 
stern. On the contrary, he was loving and sympathetic, and he 
had, as much as anyone I have ever known, a heart for the poor 
and the fallen. With a mother's tenderness he watched over the 
House of the Good Shepherd which he had founded ; and the sor- 
rows he consoled, the homes into which he carried hope and cheer 
are known only to God. From vanity he seemed to be wholly 
free ; too real a man, indeed, for aught that is childish or ridicu- 
lous. He spoke not of himself, nor of his works. No applause, no 
success, no elation of spirit could, I think, have made him boast- 
ful. That he preserved this moderation of temper, this sanity, 
this reasonableness and good taste, in the very heart of western 
life and growth, where everything is abnormally pushed, and 
multitudes rush to take possession of the earth with the feveri?..i 
excitement of a battle, with the hurrah of a campaign, is evidence 
of more than ordinary strength. A lover of liberty and of his 
country, he had no love for our loud way of talking of ourselves. 
While he took interest in material progress, and was thankful for 
the blessings which our increasing knowledge of physical pheno- 
mena brings, he plainly recognized that man's proper good is 
within, and that growth in wisdom and in righteousness is the 


only real advance. He was an unwordly man and cared little for 
wealth or position or popularity. He certainly belonged not to 
the race of ecclesiastics of whom Napoleon said" that he could buy 
their good will and loyalty with purple stockings. Notoriety, 
which seems to be the only kind of fame possible here in 
America, he never sought ; and he seldom even read what was 
published concerning himself. In him there was no affectation, 
no pretense, no remotest flavor of cant. He was what he seemed 
to be, your friend, or your foe, or indifferent. He was most 
faithful to his friends when they were most in need ; and, like 
all great souls, it seemed to be impossible for him to believe that 
those he loved could do wrong. 

Above all tilings he was truthful, honest and courageous; and 
a scorner of liars, hypocrites and cowards. When I came to know 
him, in the last few years of his life, he was not a student or a 
reader even, and lie was then interesting as a character rather 
than as a mind. He had been however an enthusiatic lover and 
promoter of knowledge and of culture of intellect. But time is 
here a chief element time alone gives the best vintage its fine 
flavor and ere the fruit was ripe there came a frost. 

Who can superintend the building of churches and schools, 
collect moneys, pay debts, erect asylums, sit in the confessional, 
receive callers, visit the sick, evangelize the poor, recite the daily 
office, and still find time for literary studies ? And if in the midst 
of such occupations and cares, the task of self-culture is not 
abandoned, surely the bravest must lose heart when to these dif- 
ficulties there is added the loss of mental composure which mis- 
understandings, conflicts and contentions involve. If all con- 
troversy is hurtful to the healthful play of mind, that which rouses 
angry and rancorous thoughts, poisons the pure air of intellectual 
life. When Dr. McMullen saw the doors of his university closed, 
and when a little later he became entangled in the diocesan dif- 
ficulties which culminated in the removal of Bishop Duggan, he 
was approaching middle age, an epoch when there comes to many 
men a period of discouragement. " Ego dixi in dimidio dierum 
meorum, vadnni ad portas inferi." 

In looking back we see that after much toil we have accom- 
plished little. What we hoped to do, we have not done ; or hav- 
ing done, have ceased to care for ; and along the way which lies 
before us the shadows lengthen and the light grows pale. If at 
such a time troubles come and years pass by before all is well, 
how shall the broken threads be tied again ? How shall we in 
the midst of new surroundings, with other men to help or thwart 
us, ourselves grown older, take up the old tasks with the old ardor? 
When no one we love has as yet died, we walk, defiant and scorn 


death's power, but when the fatal shaft has fallen here or there in 
the charmed circle, we know resistance is vain, and are subdued : 
and so when the efforts of our vigorous manhood seem finally to 
issue in confusion and failure, a deeper sense of life's illusiveness 
comes to us and the keen relish with which the inexperienced 
take up their work, is lost. When the days of trouble and bitter- 
ness seemed to have passed, and Dr. McMullen had returned from 
exile to the Cathedral in Chicago, he had hardly got fairly to 
work, before the flames wrapped themselves around the great city 
and bore it away in smoke. Like tens of thousands, he found 
himself homeless and penniless in the blackened waste, and in a 
day or two he set forth with a beggar's wallet. Years passed be- 
fore the new Cathedral was completed and when he left Chicago to 
take possession of the bishopric of Davenport, he was still living 
in a hired house. 

Much had he endured which here can only be hinted at trials, 
disappointments, labors, suspicions, false imputations, ingratitude, 
heartaches ; and at last a shadow settled on his face and marked 
him as one who had known sorrows; some, such look, per- 
chance, as Dante wore when passing through the streets of a city 
not his own, the women would point to him and say : "See, there 
goes the man who has been to hell and come back again." 

His deeply religious nature however, sustained him, and if he 
worked less joyously he did not work less faithfully than in earlier 
and happier days. He was still the zealous priest, the watchful 
pastor, the truehearted strong man who found comfort in giving 
it to the poor and the wretched. Once, I remember, he undertook, 
in these later years, to preach every night, during Lent, and he 
desisted from his purpose only when a hemorrhage warned him 
of the folly of continuing the course. Here is the same spirit 
which marked him in his prime, when thrown from his sleigh 
and wandering on foot over the trackless prairie through a driv- 
ing snowstorm, he reached a farm house after midnight, benumbed 
and faint, but steadfastly refused to take even a drink of water, 
because it was Sunday and he had to say mass in a church near by. 
And the same indomitable will asserted itself, when Bishop of 
Davenport, with broken health and the grave opening beneath 
his feet, he yielded not to weakness, but worked like one who feels 
that the time is short. 

His religion was one of deeds rather than of words. Pie lived 
in God's presence ; he loved Jesus Christ and his fellowman, he 
was an obedient son of the church, a loyal citizen, a true friend 
and an upright man ; but his life and not his speech made all 
this manifest. Not a faultless man, indeed ; not one whom either 
the world or the church would canonize, not a great orator, nor a 


master of style, nor a profound thinker, nor an enthusiastic re- 
former, nor a skillful organizer of philanthropic schemes ;. but a 
plain, brave and genuine man, the best type of the kind of men 
the West rears ; men who saved the Union, and who yet may save 
our religion and Christian civilization. 

More brilliant men, more learned, more popular, more fortunate 
possibly, have given their lives to the service of the church in 
America, but among them all their was not a nobler character, a 
greater heart or a braver soul than John McMullen. Too soon, 
we are tempted to think, he passed away. But who knows whether 
it is better to be living or dead? That doubtless is best, which 
God sends. 




When James McMullen and his wife, Alice, left Bally nahinch, 
County Down, Ireland, on the 13th day of March, 1833, and sailed 
from Warren Point, Ireland, for America, a few days after, on the 
ship Princess Charlotte, they were accompanied by Mr. McMullen's 
father and mother, and by Mrs. McMullen's brother, James Fitz- 
simons, four daughters, two sons and a servant. The younger 
son, a little more than a year old, was John, the subject of these 
memoirs. He was born near Ballynahinch, on January 8th, 
1832, according to the date given among the baptismal records 
of the College of the Propaganda. The family arrived in 
Quebec on the 29th day of April, after a long and stormy pas- 
sage. Little do they experience who cross and re-cross the great 
Atlantic ocean, at this day, of the hardships of the emigrants of 
forty and fifty years ago. During the voyage another son was 
born, and since then three more children, one daughter and two 
sons. Having saiely landed and found a comfortable temporary 
abode, for his numerous charge, Mr. McMullen purchased a farm 
in the township of Halifax, Megantic County, Province of Quebec, 
whither he moved with his entire family. 

He lived there for three years working his farm ; but finding 
the climate too severe, he sold the place and located on another 
farm, near Prescott, in the Province of Ontario, Upper Canada. 
It was his intention to make this his permanent home, but God 


ordained otherwise. On a cold winter night, in the month of 
January, 1837, the house took fire, and so rapid were the flames, 
that the members of the family barely escaped with their lives, 
losing all their household goods, besides the necessary clothing 
to protect them from the intense cold. Willing neighborly hands 
opened the doors of hospitality, and gathered the sorely-tried 
sufferers into shelter, and they furnished them with needed cloth- 
ing and nourishment. 

In after years Bishop McMulIeu would refer to how he felt deeply 
humiliated by having to wear a little girl's dress on this occasion ; 
and the recollection of the trials of that night and succeeding day 
was so deeply impressed on his mind that, when the great scourge 
of fire swept over the fairest portion of his adopted city and rendered 
homeless thousands of his flock, his great heart was moved to 
deeds which are still told with love and truth, and which are not 
written among the chronicles of those disastrous days. Mr. Mc- 
Mullen once more gathered his family around him, and having 
sold his land he crossed from Canada to the United States and set- 
tled on a farm near Ogdensburgh, St. Lawrence county, New York. 
It was here, just old enough to enjoy the beauties of nature around 
him, that the charm of the woodlands and of early spring flowers 
left an impression upon the ardent imagination of the boy John, 
which no care or sorrow ever removed, even to the last moments 
of his life. It was always a delight to him to pick the first 
blossoms of spring-time, and his garden, or the flowers in his 
room in the winter-time, were always a comfort which he 
keenly enjoyed. 

While living near Ogdensburgh, now a Diocesan See, the 
scarcity of priests was deeply felt by Mr. McMallen and his many 
Catholic neighbors. Once in a while a priest would come to offer 
up the Holy Sacrifice and administer to the wants of those good 
people, but that was not deemed sufficient for the growing number 
of settlers who were coming over from Canada and taking up farms 
in the vicinity. At a meeting of the Catholic people of the neigh- 
borhood, necessary funds were collected to defray the expenses of 


a messenger to Bishop Hughes of New York, to clearly place be- 
fore him the pressing spiritual wants of the Catholic people of the 
district, and obtain, if possible, a resident priest. Mr. James Mc- 
Mullen was selected for this purpose, and a worthy priest 
was immediately sent to take charge of the new Mission. These 
circumstances made an. impression on the mind of the youthful 
John McMullen, and whenever he spoke of them in after life he 
would add that they profoundly influenced his future career. At 
this time occurred one of those incidents which revealed the true 
nature of his character, so well developed as he grew older, and 
gave the stamp of a courageous heart based on a deep confi- 
dence in God. 

One afternoon in the Fall of the year 1840 he then was 
eight years of age he was sent on an errand to a distant farm- 
house, to reach which he had to pass through a dense wood. With 
unerring exactness he delivered his message and started for home. 
By the time he had reached the midst of the forest the Autumn 
twilight had set in, and the darkening shadows of the waving 
branches overhead, with the whispering wind as it scurried among 
the dead leaves all around, would have appalled a much older 
heart than his. Still, without the least fear he sped on home- 
wards; when, all at once, he saw a tall, white object, with 
outstretched arms, standing motionless, as it seemed, directly 
in his path. 

He would not turn back, as he hated to be ridiculed, even as a 
boy, and home he must go. There was a fascination in the way 
the weird, ghostly figure held his eyes, and there he stood spell- 
bound, but only for a few minutes. The thought of home brought 
him to, and he said to himself, " well, if the ghost does not move, 
I must," and repeating a prayer which his mother had taught him 
to say in time of danger, he boldly started forward and came close 
up to the ghost, which proved to be the trunk of an old oak tree 
stripped of its bark, with two gnarled branches stretching out like 
arms, all of which had been unnoticed by him in the sunlight on 
his way to the farm-house. 


In telling this occurrence in after years, he said that it 
was the first' and last time that he was ever overcome by real 

During the residence of the McMulleii family on the farm near 
Ogdensburgh the aged parents of Mr. James McMullen died, and 
their remains were buried in the near graveyard ; an humble 
tombstone marks the place. Soon after this news of the bound- 
less prairies and rich soil of Illinois was spread abroad, and 
reached the ears of Mr. McMullen, who, ever anxious to give 
every advantage to his family, and desirous to ameliorate his con- 
dition, decided to move again, and to this Land of Promise. His 
neighbors tried to dissuade him from taking this step, but after 
carefully weighing the question in his own mind, and with 
the consent of his family, he set forth toward the setting sun. 
Taking a steamer at Buffalo and sailing around the lakes, he 
arrived in Chicago in June, 1843, and without delay went by 
canal packet-boat to Lockport, Will County, Illinois, where he 
rented a house and commenced looking up a site for a farm. 
The summer and fall seasons of that year are still remembered by 
old settlers as the " sickly season." Fever and ague, and other 
fevers were prevalent, even becoming epidemic, and the winter 
following was of such unusual severity that Mr, McMullen, com- 
pletely discouraged, his whole family being prostrated with fever 
and ague, returned to Chicago in March, 1844, and rented a house 
on West Randolph street, near the bridge, where he started a pro- 
vision and produce store. 

The facilities for getting a school education were very limited in 
Bishop McMullen's boyhood days. While living on the farm near 
Ogdensburgh, Mr. McMullen sent his children to a country dis- 
trict school. Young John made such rapid progress that his 
teacher frequently would call his bright little scholar his young 
wonder. Endowed with a fine memory, when the neighbors 
would drop in to make a friendly call with the family, the young 
scholar would be called on to speak some piece, and be rewarded 
with unbounded praise. He loved to recall those days when he 


would take his book, retire to some lonely spot and declaim a 
piece of poetry or prose. When his playmates would be occupied 
at their accustomed games in the time of play, he would be en- 
gaged with his books or his Catechism. That reserve afterwards 
so noticeable in his manhood, which appeared to many a cold 
indifference to his surroundings, was a distinguished trait of his 
character; yet a depth of humor existed under that exterior, 
which sparkled with a brilliancy all the more enjoyable as it 
was unexpected. At times he would join in boyish sports, but 
roughness of conduct or speech he would frown upon, and 
vigorously maintain his right in doing so. He avoided collission 
with the unruly element of the schools he attended, but if 
need was, he never hesitated when in the right, and in de- 
fense of an abused schoolfellow, to physically resist oppression, 
and he became in this manner an acknowledged leader among 
his classmates. In his features he bore a close resemblance 
to his father, from whom he inherited strong intellectual gifts, and 
from his mother he received the qualities of his heart, his indom- 
itable strength of will and almost Spartan austerity, his love of a 
simple, sober and regular life, and above all, his early impressions 
of faith in God. He was the favorite of his father and mother, 
who showed him open partiality, yet this created no jealousy 
among his brothers and sisters. His sweet innocence, under a 
manly bearing, in his boyhood won the warm affection and re- 
spect of every one, and his special qualities of temperament and 
character attracted the attention, of the Bishop of Chicago, the 
Right Rev. Willialn Quarter. Mr. McMullen, one year after his 
arrival in Chicago, moved over to the South Side on a lot on 
Quincy street, purchased from the canal company. At the time 
it was considered some distance from the heart of the city, but it 
suited the requirements of Mr. McMullen's family when he en- 
tered into business, and it gave ample opportunity for his chil- 
dren to go to one of the schools in Chicago. 

On the 25th day of December, 1843, John McMullen made his 
first communion in St. Patrick's church, Joliet. He had learned 


his Catechism so thoroughly, under the watchful eye of his good 
father, that when he presented himself for examination to Father 
Dupontavice, then in charge of the Joliet Missions, he was imme- 
diately admitted to the first communion class. He spoke fre- 
quently of that happy time, and he loved to recall the incidents 
of that occasion. After going to confession on the day previous, 
he walked back to his home in Lockport, and though that 
Christmas morning was a trying one on account of the in- 
tense cold, he started again on foot, accompanied by his 
brother James, for a good five miles' walk to church, fasting. 
His little heart was full of heavenly hope and joy, and he did 
not mind the severity of the cold winter morning. Two years 
after, he received the Sacrament of Confirmation, from the hands 
oi Bishop Quarter. Soon after the removal of the family to 
Chicago, John obtained the privilege of serving Mass, and he was 
appointed teacher of a Catechism class. The discriminating judg- 
ment of the Right Rev. Bishop Quarter, practically exercised at 
the time, enabled him to select the talented young minds in those 
Catechism classes, and the ranks were thin enough for him to note 
every lad in a class, to weigh and measure his ability and promise ; 
in this he was assisted by his faithful brother, the Very Rev. Walter 
Quarter. This personal encouragement invariably excited a strong 
emulation in the minds of the members of the different classes, 
and the semi-annual examinations were the occasions of laud- 
able emulation to obtain the prizes offered by the Bishop. At 
these examinations the clergy and lay friends assisted, and the 
large number always present proved the interest taken in them. 
The examination to which reference is made took place in the- 
basement of St. Mary's church. The class to be examined num- 
bered over forty boys. They were picked out of the entire Cate- 
chism classes to stand the test for the prizes. Father Quarter 
presided. There was the liveliest excitement as the examination 
went on, and it increased as it was noticed that the competition for 
the first prize had narrowed down to a lad of ten years and John 
McMullen. The latter, however, answered correctly every ques- 


tion and took the first prize. Father Quarter recalled to mind 
this examination many years after, and the circumstance is note- 
worthy, as it will be seen in these Memoirs, that the two aspirants 
for honors afterwards entered the Propaganda College together, 
and on their return to Chicago were fellow-workers, with the same 
interests in view, and with that friendship which does not end 
even in death. 



The Right Rev. William Quarter, D. D., the first Bishop of Chi- 
cago, arrived in that city Sunday morning, May 5, 1S44. 

Bishop Quarter wrote in a diary a short sketch of his trip and 
arrival in Chicago, which will be interesting to the readers of these 
memoirs. "We left New York on the evening of the 18th of 
April, 1844, accompanied by the Reverend Messrs. Mark Murphy 
and Lawrence Carrol. The latter was returning to his own Mis- 
sion in Rochester ; the former accompanied the Bishop through 
friendship and courtesy, being his associate in the Church of St. 
Mary, New York. On the Friday following, which was the 26th 
of April, the Rev. Walter J. Quarter reached Utica, New York, 
and we set out for Rochester. Sunday the 28th was spent in 
Rochester; on Monday afternoon we reached Buffalo, and on Wed- 
nesday eve, the 30th of April, we sailed in the Wisconsin for 
Detroit. We touched at Cleveland, and reached Detroit on the 
2nd of May. About 10 o'clock on Friday morning we started 
for Chicago, crossing Michigan, part of the way by railroad, and 
the rest of the journey by stage as far as St. Joseph, where we 


took the steamboat Champion on Saturday morning, and arrived 
on Sunday morning, the 5th of May. I said Mass in the old 
Church, and preached in the new one at 10:30 o'clock. The old 
Church is a low long frame building, having a small steeple and 
bell, surmounted by a cross. The new Church is of brick, it is a 
respectable building, its dimensions are 100 feet in length by 55 
feet in width. There is a lot of ground adjoining the new Church 
upon which may yet be erected a fine building; there is also a 
lot in the rear of the Church, where a free school for the poor 
children of the congregation may in course of time be erected. 
There are 10 acres of land a short distance out of the town, where 
is now the Catholic burial ground, and near it there may be 
built, at some future day, a Charity Hospital. The residence of 
the Bishop and of the clergy is at the present time a small one 
story frame building, fronting the lake. There are at present, 
only two priests doing duty in Chicago, Fathers St. Palais and 

The second sunday after his arrival, Bishop Quarter makes the 
following entry in his diary : " I called a meeting of the con- 
gregation to be held on Monday evening, at 7 P. M., to take 
into consideration the best mode of raising subscriptions to 
plaster the Cathedral. The meeting was held and good spirits 
prevailed: the city was divided into districts with a central 
committee, the returns to be made by the collectors in a fort- 

Again: "May 25th, 1844; I ordained to the priesthood to-day,. 
Reverends Patrick McMahon, of County Cavan, and Bernard 
McGorrisk, of County Armagh, Ireland, in St. Mary's Cathedral. 
They are the two first to receive Holy Orders in the Diocese of 

Ten years before this Visitation had been made by the 
Bishop of Vincennes, the Right Rev. S. W. G. Brute, D. D., 
who, as it appears in his Memoirs, found in Chicago a congre- 
gation of four hundred souls. When Bishop Quarter earn 

ST. MARY'S CATHED AL, 3844. '7 


to his new See, a large field of labor awaited him. There 
was the small frame church, St. Mary's, in practical use, and 
another to replace it in course of construction. Bishop Brute re- 
called the priests whom he had placed over missions in Illinois to 
his own Diocese. 

Thus it was that Bishop Quarter was in great need of priests to 
meet the wants of his people. Scarcely two months had elapsed 
after his arrival, before he had invited candidates for the priest- 
hood to come west. Six young theologians answered his call. 
These the Bishop took into his house, which he had enlarged by 
a one-story frame addition. He instructed and prepared them 
for Holy Orders, which he conferred as soon as he found them 
ready to enter the missionary field. There was no Catholic 
school or institution of any kind in the entire diocese, embrac- 
ing the whole of the State of Illinois. This condition of things 
did not suit Bishop Quarter's views, who, ever solicitous for 
the spiritual welfare of his flock, and with a confidence that he 
would find vocations to the priesthood among the children of 
Catholic parents, one month after his arrival, opened a Catho- 
lic free school for boys in the old frame church which had 
been abandoned for the new St. Mary's, and he and two of his 
seminarians were the teachers until he was able to provide 
others ; and he did not rest until he had brought the Sisters 
of Mercy from Pittsburgh to take charge of a school for girls. 
He also founded a college and seminary, well known as the 
University of St. Mary of the Lake. He erected a large 
frame building on the North Side, on the block where the 
present Cathedral of the Holy Name, the Convent and Aca- 
demy of the Sisters of the Sacred Heart, and the Holy Name 
parochial school now stand. That Bishop Quarter mani- 
fested the greatest solicitude for the success of St. Mary of the 
Lake the following pastoral to the clergy and faithful of his dio- 
cese is ample evidence : 

"Although," he wrote, "our holy religion advances daily 
and steadily under the protecting care of Divine Providence, 


and although the number of the clergy has been con- 
siderably increased within the last two years, still there are sev- 
eral congregations in the diocese deprived the whole year round 
of the consolations of their religion. There are many who have 
not the happiness to assist even once in the twelve months at the 
Adorable Sacrifice of the Mass, and numbers die annually without 
receiving the last rites of the Church, especially in those months 
when sickness is most prevalent in these western states, and all 
this because the clergymen are not sufficiently numerous in this 
diocese to have one stationed in each congregation. Another mel- 
ancholy evil, arising also from the scarcity of clergymen, is that 
the children of Catholic parents in various sections of the State 
are suffered to grow up without any religious instruction. If the 
present, in their regard, be painful to reflect upon, the future pre- 
sents a dismal and dreary aspect. Are these evils to remain, or 
shall an effort be made to remove them? Will no effort be made 
to send to our brethren that are far away from their Father's 
house, and toiling in bondage, an adviser, a consoler, yea a de- 
liverer? Will no effort be made to secure a pious, a disinterested, 
a zealous clergy, who may go to the exile in his lone hut, in his 
solitary and deserted home, with words of peace on their lips and 
blessings in their train, to offer the Adorable Mysteries, to admin- 
ister the Sacrament, and to instruct in the ways of salvation ? To 
enable the Bishop to send missionaries where they 'are most 
needed, will not the faithful generously co-operate and assist with 
their means ? Can any alms be better bestowed than those which 
are given to have the poor relieved, the sick visited, the afflicted 
and sorrowing soothed and consoled, the ignorant instructed, and 
the seeds of virtue planted in the youthful breast ? Can alms be 
more meritorious than those which tend to preserve the soul from 
eternal ruin ? Without the charitable co-operation of the faithful 
throughout the diocese, little, comparatively, can be done by the 
Bishop ; with it, much can be effected. Were every Catholic in 
the diocese, or even every head of a family to contribute but one 
dollar annually towards the support of the Diocesan Ecclesiastical 


Seminary, soon could missionaries be sent to every congregation 
in the diocese. As yet, however, the Catholics of the Diocese have 
contributed hut little towards the support of thisEcclesiasticalSem- 
inary. They are now requested to be more considerate. They 
are emphatically requested to turn their attention and to di- 
rect their charitable donations to an institution where the future 
priests of the Diocese are being, and are to be educated, and from, 
whence many have gone forth to labor in the vineyard of the 
Lord. TheEcclesiastical Seminary of the Diocese has to depend 
for support on the voluntary contributions of the faithful. To it 
in their turn are the faithful to look, both now and hereafter, for 
a supply of zealous missionaries. Will ihey refuse them their fos- 
tering care ; will they deny to it support, and still expect to have 
clergymen sent to them when they are in need?" 

The Bishop then addressed a private letter to each of his cler- 
gymen in behalf of his seminary : 

"To you, Rev. and Dear Sir, do I confidently and unhesitat- 
ingly entrust the task of explaining more fully to your people the 
vast importance to Religion of contributing towards the support of 
our ecclesiastical seminary. You know the wants of the people. 
You have discovered how fast irreligion is spreading where relig- 
ious instruction is not imparted. You have heard, with aching 
heart, the God of Heaven blasphemed. You have witnessed, with 
sorrow, the contempt shown for the sacred institutions of Christ. 
You have seen, with horror and dismay, the blood of Calvary that 
was shed for the redemption of the world, impiously trodden under 
foot. Your remonstrances might have been fruitless, and you 
could only pray, in the words of your Divine Master, ' 0, Heavenly 
Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.' You have 
seen Christians transgress all the commands of God and of His 
Holy Church, and indulge in crimes from the commission of 
which even pagans would recoil. You discovered that the sacre- 
ments, the channels through which the grace of God was to be 
communicated to the souls of Christians, were neglected, and that 
the sinner hardened in guilt would rather suffer His immortal 


soul to perish eternally than forsake the evil of his ways. At the 
sight of these evils your soul melted in anguish, and you desired 
and prayed that you might behold in the midst of this erring 
people an Apostolic Priesthood who, by their pious, assiduous and 
disinterested labors might reclaim them again to God and give 
them back sightly plants to the vineyard of His Holy church. 
You have experienced, moreover, how great are the toils, how 
many the privations and how few the consolations of our small 
but very zealous body of clergymen. You felt that an increase of 
numbers was much needed to aid and assist those already engaged 
in the toilsome labors of the missions, that their valuable lives 
may not be shortened by over-exertion, and that the vineyard of 
the Lord may be cultivated properly, and in every part, that for 
Heaven may be reaped hereafter a rich harvest of those souls for 
whose salvation Christ shed his precious blood. Because of these 
, motives you will concur and heartily aid in the success of this 
holy work." 

Again he writes: 

" We earnestly recommend the clergy to establish in their con- 
gregations, if they have not already done so, the ' Confraternity of 
the Eosary,' or of ' the Immaculate Heart of Mary ; ' and we as 
strongly recommend to the faithful to become members, and to 
endeavor to partake of the spiritual benefits and privileges granted 
to those societies. Let parents urge their children also to join 
those religious societies, and soon they will discover the happy re- 
sults in their obedience, gentleness, tractableness and faithful at- 
tention to their Christian duties. The exalted virtues of St. Joseph, 
and the dignified privileges he obtained, not only convince us how 
wonderful is God in his Saints, but demand from us a relative de- 
votion due to so faithful a servant. And if our Heavenly Father 
has elected him to watch over the tender years of His Divine Son 
and to be His protector ; and if He has placed under his patronage 
and guardianship the Blessed Virgin, mother of the same Divine Re- 
deemer, how pleased must be not this Heavenly Father to see His 


' little ones ' place themselves under his protection and patronage. 
The end then of this society is that the members cultivate the de- 
votion due to St. Joseph, invoke his intercession, and regulate 
their'lives in such a way that they maybe worthy to adopt him as 
their patron. In order the more fully to attain this end, the de- 
votion to the Blessed Virgin, styled ' full of grace,' is particularly 
recommended. Another end of this society is to collect together, 
at convenient times, the pupils of the 'Academy ' and such boys 
and adults as frequent the Sunday school kept there, that instruc- 
tion may be given them in the principles of the religion, they pro- 
fess and in the doctrines of morality they are bound to practice. 
" The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. 

" f WILLIAM, Bishop of Chicago. 

" Given at Chicago, Feast of St. Francis Xavier, December 4. 

Bishop Quarter had the satisfaction of seeing his desires ful- 
filled. The attendance at St. Mary's parochial free schools was 
"most gratifying," as he said when speaking of them, and 
students flocked from everywhere to the new " College " after its 
formal opening on the 4th of July, 1846. 

John McMullen served mass on the Sunday when the Bishop's 
pastoral was read in St. Mary's church, and from that time, 
he afterwards said, he felt a desire to become a priest. He 
joined the confraternity of the Holy Rosery, and was elected 
the first president of St. Joseph's society. His father sent him to 
the new parochial school, but previous to that he attended the dis- 
trict school on the corner of Kinzie and Cass streets. When the 
University of St. Mary of the Lake was opened, John McMullen's 
name was placed on the list of its first alumni. 




From this time dates the ecclesiastical career of the late Bishop 
of Davenport. His elevation to the priesthood and episcopate 
was only a question of time. The first step had been taken 
under the guiding hand of Bishop Quarter, whom Bishop Mc- 
Mullen loved with in inexpressible enthusiasm, and whose 
earnestness, devotion to duty and deep-rooted zeal for the 
glory of God, he always admired and imitated through his 
life. A knowledge of these two great characters, enables one 
to see the close resemblance between them, and that no ordin- 
ary power had singled them out, for their great deeds, so help- 
ful to the spread and support of the Church in the diocese 
of Chicago, and to the well-being of the poor, the orphan 
and the outcast. It is told in the " Memoirs of Bishop Quarter," 
that during his college life in Mt. St. Mary's, Maryland, "Among 
all the professors and students, he was highly esteemed for 
his clear mind, sound judgment, gentle disposition, firm friend- 
ship, and perfect devotion," and that "so thorough had he been 
in his course of Mathematics and classical studies, and so com- 
pletely was he master of these branches, that he was placed in 
charge of several classes, and was appointed Professor of the 
Greek and Latin languages in the second year of his resi- 
dence at Mt. St. Mary's." The same can be said of the 
subject of these Memoirs. The habits of study which John 
McMullen had acquired in his childhood, in the little school 
near Ogdensburg, and for which he had been noted, were of 
great advantage to him in the University of St. Mary of 
the Lake. He commenced the regular course of Latin 
and Greek, in which, by reason of his close application 
and natural ability, he made such rapid progress, that he 
was soon promoted to take charge of some of the classes in the 


absence of the professor. In his academic course he gave un- 
doubted proof of his future career. His triumphs of eloquence 
in debate, his caustic pen, his sound judgment and his mastery 
of the most intricate problems in mathematical science, caused 
him to come under the approving eyes of his professors. In a 
little college paper, issued by him and another class-mate, his in- 
intellectual weapons flashed with unwonted brilliancy, and the 
seeds of literature sowed in his powerful mind blossomed with 
a vigor which made itself remarkable in its fruits. The sprightly 
" St. Mary's Weekly Collegiate " appeared simply in manuscript 
but the literary production of original talent was largely perused, 
even by the officers of St. Mary's University. 

His upright, open, yet impetuous character, his sincere love of 
truth endeared him to his college classmates, and when any ex- 
amination took place, or when any public speaking had to be done 
in the college halls, or on the arrival of bishops, priests or distin- 
guished visitors, John McMullen was singled out as the pride- of 
the college and the orator of the occasion. He was never back- 
ward in joining in college sports, but owing to a weakness in his 
left arm, he was compelled, to unite with his companions only 
in such amusements as were not of an athletic order. 

The weakness of this arm was the result of an accident, which oc- 
curred, while hunting in the "Wells street woods south of Van Buren 
street along the creek, now the Chicago river. One Saturday 
afternoon in the fall of 1848, he and his brother George went duck 
shooting ; having arrived close to a slough on the edge of the 
creek, he fired at a flock of ducks, with an old rnusket, which he 
found in the garret of his father's house a rusty old weapon, 
which burst at the first discharge; the heavy load of shot, entered 
the arm at the wrist, tearing along its entire length, but 
fortunately passing out from the shoulder, without touching 
a vital part of his body. He was laid up with the wound 
for two months and he bore its deep scar to his death. 
He mentioned afterwards to his young companion on their 
way to Borne, that at the time, as he lay on the ground 


fainting from the loss of blood, while his brother had gone for 
water, he said again the prayer taught him by his mother, and 
he firmly believed, that the Blessed Virgin assisted him in a 
miraculous way. He referred to this incident always with the 
deepest religious feeling, but not to many, as he had an intense 
dislike, all through life, to make allusion to anything remarkable 
about himself. 

His catechism class was a constant occupation on every 
Sunday afternoon. He would always be first to assist, either 
in the small College Church or at the Cathedral. As he 
had been appointed to look especially after the altar boys 
in St. Mary's, it was his delight to be on hand at all the 
principal ceremonies of the Church, to direct the boys. He 
exacted a strict cleanliness of person, and neatness in dress, from 
those boys who served at the altar. He once said to a young 
applicant who asked to serve mass, " what ! . with such shoes ? 
when you learn to keep them polished, your face and hands clean 
and your hair in order, I will let you serve mass with the other 
boys." All through his life he insisted upon this, and when a 
priest, the altars, altar linen and vestments of the churches under 
his charge and his altar boys received his care. 

He exercised such control over his school fellows in the col- 
lege, that he was appointed " monitor " in the study hall or to 
teach elementary classes, which task he fulfilled with an alac- 
rity and punctuality which received the approbation of his 
superiors. If students were behind hand in their studies, 
or laboring under any difficulties, John McMullen would 
take them under his care and assist them. On the south- 
east corner of the college ground under a large poplar tree 
there was a little arbor, builfc by him and his classmates; 
during recreation, John might be found there, with two or 
more of his fellow students, helping them. The stu- 
dents of the University gave it the name of "McMullen's 
hedge school." 

The Diocese during those years rapidly increased, churches were 


erected, wherever a priest could be sent. la Chicago, on Easter 
Sunday, April 12, 1846, St. Patrick's Church, a frame structure 
which was built on West Randolph street, was opened for divine ser- 
vice by the Very Kev. W. J. Quarter. In March, 1845, Bishop Quar- 
ter had the diocese incoporated, having made the charter title " The 
Catholic Bishop of Chicago.-" The Bishop wrote in his diary, 
March 15, 1845, "objections were made, to the incorporation in 
the name of the Catholic Bishop of Chicago. Now the act is in favor 
of the Bishop, and his successors holding properties in trust, for 
the Catholics, and the advantages resulting from the passage of 
the Bill, authorizing the Bishop of Chicago and his successors 
in the episcopacy, to hold property in trust, may be enumerated 
under the following heads. I. The properties being held in 
trust are not as personal property, and must in every contingency, 
be more secure. II. The title of the Bishop of Chicago, and the 
successorship to said episcopate, are both recognized by law in the 
State, by virtue of that act, and hence, thirdly: properties willed or 
bequeathed to the Bishop of Chicago or his successors, for charit- 
able purposes, can by virtue of this act, be legally recovered, and 
applied to their destined use and purposes. Before this act they 
could not, unless left to the Bishop in his individual capacity, 
and not in his official capacity. It is presumed that the 
foregoing remarks are perfectly correct, although not framed 
by a lawyer." Bishop Quarter, wrote to all his priests sum- 
moning them to attend a Diocesan Synod, to be held in 
the month of April, 1846. This synod met in Chicago; 
thirty-two clergymen of the Diocese were present, coming from 
all parts of the state, and they, with the Bishop's approval, 
who presided at all the sessions, framed the Statutes of 
the Diocese. On the llth of November, 1846, Bishop 
Quarter established the Theological Conferences to be held twice 
a year. 

It was the first time that such Conferences were instituted in 
America, and they were acknowledged to be beneficial to the 
clergy who, scattered over the whole state, were thus enabled to 


meet, become acquainted, and exchange views. These Con- 
ferences were held in the cities of Chicago, Galena, and Alton. 
This activity for the good of religion, did not escape the observant 
eye of young McMullen. His father's house was always open to 
the clergy, on their arrival in Chicago. The accommodations for 
receiving them in the Bishop's small dwelling were too limited, 
hence they stopped with those Catholic families who offered them 

In this way John McMullen had opportunities offered him 
to learn what was the life of a zealous priest. He would 
eagerly listen to the narratives of their labors, their trials, their 
hardships and their success; he would frequently accompany 
them, on their departure, to the lake steamers, the canal packet 
boats, or to the stage-stands. This intercourse with those noble 
pioneer missionaries of the Diocese of Chicago, excited the high- 
est aspirations in his young heart, and made him resolve, if it 
were the will of God to enter the priesthood. 

Bishop Quarter issued a Pastoral to the clergy and laity of the 
Diocese, in 1848. After publishing the regulations for Lent, he 
added the following as to the condition of the Diocese, and his 
plans for future improvement. 

" The great increase in the number of the Catholic population 
of this city may be inferred from the following facts. : In the 
year 1844, when we took possession of this See, there was only 
one Catholic Church, in the city of Chicago. There are now four, 
together with the chapel of the " Holy Name of Jesus," attached 
to the " University of St. Mary of the Lake." This one Catholic 
Church, then under roof, but not finished, accommodated all the 
Catholics on Sundays. The German Catholics, the Irish and 
American Catholics, assembled within its walls to assist at the 
divine mysteries, and were not pressed for room. The German 
Catholic Churches of St. Peter and St. Joseph have since been 
built ; the Church of St. Patrick, also, on the southwest corner 
of Desplaines and Randolph streets, which has lately been en- 


larged by an addition capable of containing as many as the orig- 
inal edifice. The University of St. Mary of the Lake has been 
built within that time, to which is attached the chapel of the 
Holy Name of Jesus ; as also the Convent of " the Sisters of 
Mercy," which has its domestic chapel. Now, all those places, 
set apart for the worship of God, and for the celebration of the 
august sacrifice of the Mass are crowded every Sunday to over- 
flowing with Catholics. What stronger proof is needed of the 
great and rapid increase of Catholics in this city? But not only 
Chicago, but throughout the Diocese, is the increase of Catholics 
apparent. Within the last few years Catholics have purchased 
here Congress (Government) and other lands to a large amount, 
and in various parts of the State of Illinois are townships owned 
chiefly by Catholics. Immigration from Ireland, from Canada, 
and from. Catholic portions of Germany, has contributed much to 
this result; nor is there, to all appearance, any likelihood that the 
number of immigrants will be diminished this year, or for years 
to come. Indeed, the calculations are, that there will be a larger 
immigration of Catholics to this State the present year, than in 
any preceding one. 

" There is no privation so keenly felt by the Catholic emigrant 
as the want of a Catholic Church, and the absence of a Catholic 
priest from the place where they fix their abode, in a new and 
strange country. We shall use our best efforts, that they expe- 
rience no such privations. We shall endeavor that they have, every- 
where in the Diocese, the consolations of their holy religion." 

Bishop Quarter originated the Chicago Hibernian Benevolent 
Society. The object of the association, was to meet the large 
number of Irish immigrants, landed from passenger boats on the 
Chicago river docks, situated between Bush and Clark streets ou 
the south side, provide those people with temporary refuge, fur- 
nish them sound advice and encouragement to settle oa farms 
ready for cultivation in the great Prairie State, or obtain employ- 
ment for them in the city, and supply their immediate needs as 
{far as possible. John McMullen's father and James Fitzsirnmons, 


his uncle, were prominent members of this society. The tender 
interest shown by them, and by the prosperous Irish citizens of 
those days, in the poor exiles of Erin, produced a deep effect on 
young McMullen, which increased as he advanced in years, and 
realized more fully the hardships of the immigrant. When the 
time finally did come that he could extend active sympathy to 
the thousands who flocked to Chicago and the West from Ireland, 
he was ever ready with kind words of welcome and substantial 

On the 10th day of April, 1848, a great calamity overwhelmed 
the young and prosperous diocese of Chicago, in the death of 
Bishop Quarter. The bishop had delivered a course of lectures 
during the Lenten season and on Passion Sunday, after a lengthy 
discourse, full of fervor and eloquence, his whole frame vis- 
ibly trembled, his voice gave out, but not until he said, " On next 
Sunday I will conclude." Alas ! that voice was hushed in death 
on the following Sunday. 

About 2 o'clock on Passion Monday morning, a few hours 
after the Bishop had retired to his room, the Rev. P. T. Mc- 
Elhearne, who resided in the Bishop's house, was awakened, by 
hearing loud moans, coming from the Bishop's apartments, as if 
he were suffering with intense agony of pain. Father McElhearne 
hastened into the Bishop's bed chamber, where he found him 
walking to and fro, complaining of a "burning" headache. 
The young priest requested the Bishop to lie down, as a means of 
relief; he then aroused the household, and immediately sent a 
messenger for medical assistance. Father McElhearne, on his re- 
turn to the Bishop's bed room, found the sufferer's strength rapidly 
failing, and the symptoms of approaching dissolution becoming 
clearly visible; he therefore proceeded without any delay, to 
administer the last sacraments to his dying Bishop. Scarcely had 
he finished, when the saintly Bishop Quarter, uttering the words, 
"Lord have mercy on my poor soul," sank apparently into a deep 
slumber, it was the sleep of death. 

The writer of these memoirs remembers well the consternation 
and universal sorrow of the people of Chicago, when the news of 


the Bishop's death spread through the city. Father McElhearne, 
immediately after the Bishop's demise, sent messengers to 
the principal Catholic citizens, conveying to them the mournful 
intelligence. They could hardly credit the report ; " had they 
not heard him preach on Sunday a few hours previous? had 
they not seen him at Vespers, and at a meeting of the parishioners 
after Vespers?" To ascertain the truth, they with hundreds 
of people, as the news spread swiftly, hurried to the Bishop's 
residence. The flickering rays of the rising sun, were tinging 
Lake Michigan with ever-changing hues; they penetrated into 
the chamber of death, and the Bishop's shabby little cottage- 
home looked desolate on that bright April morning. The 
people crowded around it, and the inquiry, "is the Bishop dead?" 
was met with the reply : " our good Bishop is gone ! Alas ! he is 
dead ! " The Cathedral was soon filled with the weeping faithful, 
praying for their Bishop's happy repose, and assisting at the 
Divine Sacrifice, which was repeatedly offered up by the clergy 
of the city, who were the first to receive the melancholy tidings, 
and who had been summoned by Father McElhearne to the 

The citizens of Chicago mourned the death of Bishop 
Quarter as a common loss, for he was universally esteemed, and 
all classes, irrespective of creed, flocked to the Cathedral on the 
day of the obsequies, anxious to do honor to the memory 
of him, whom they appreciated for his learning, his virtue and 
his zeal in the cause of God and of humanity. 

The following eloquent tribute to Bishop Quarter's memory is 
from a non-Catholic friend, John Lisle King. It appeared in the 
Chicago Journal, April 12, 1848 : 

" On Monday morning, at 3 o'clock, William Quarter, Bishop of 
Chicago, yielded up his spirit to his Maker. On the preceding 
beautiful Sabbath morning this faithful servant of God stood in 
the house consecrated to the worship of the Most High, and there 
before his beloved people fervently proclaimed the oracles of life. 
Scarce had that Sabbath sun gilded with its rays the evening 


cloud, ere his ransomed spirit joined in the melody of the heavenly 

To-day the wise, the gifted, the beloved pastor is leading the 
flock beside the still waters of salvation ; to-morrow the eloquent 
voice is still the beaming eye is closed the generous heart no 
longer pulsates, and all that remains of him on earth is the cold 
and senseless corpse. 

Truly the ways of Providence are inscrutable, truly 

"God moves in a mysterious way 
His wonders to perform." 

In the midst of extensive usefulness in the midst of a con- 
gregation by whom he was beloved in the midst of a commu- 
nity by whom he was respected in the very prime of a mature 
and active manhood, a true, a sincere, a devoted Christian is, al- 
most without a moments warning, called away to his Father's 
house. Surely the dispensation of an all-wise Providence should 
not fall listlessly on our ears. 

It is not our purpose (for we cannot obtain the materials) to 
write an extended obituary of this truly good and eminently dis- 
tinguished man. Other and abler pens than ours will, doubtless, 
prepare an account of his useful life, and others will do ample 
justice to those virtues and graces which adorned his simple but 
lovely character. It was, however, our good fortune to have be- 
come acquainted with Bishop Quarter soon after his arrival in 
Chicago, and we esteem it now a most fortunate circumstance 
that we enjoyed frequent opportunities of improving that ac- 

By nature Bishop Quarter was endowed with talents of a high 
order; and laboriously had the natural powers of his mind been 
cultivated by unremitting industry. Strong and decided in the 
advocacy of his own religious opinions, he was always tolerant of 
the opinions of others. 

Charity seemed to be the ruling trait of his character. In all 
his tastes and habits, he was simple. Enterprising and persevering 
he was diligently employed in advancing the interests of the 
Church of which he was a bright ornament, and in beautifying 


and adorning our city, by the erection of schools, colleges and 
cathedrals. He was an enthusiastic friend of education and 
proved his devotion by contributing his own small private fortune 
to the advancement of that noble cause. 

As a divine, he was learned, logical and profound ; as a scholar, 
he was ripe and matured ; as a friend, he was true and unselfish ; 
as a Christian, he was faithful, humble and sincere. 

In the social circle he was beloved by all who knew him. In 
his public sphere of duty he was universally admired and re- 
spected. Enemies he had none ; for his kind and gentle spirit 
disarmed opposers and converted them into warm and devoted 

Such a man's departure to another sphere is a great calamity. 
Who can supply his place ? Who can in so short a sojourn in. a 
land of strangers, again make so many and true friends? But he 
is gone gone to his great reward. Peace to his ashes Honor 
to his memory! 

But who will break the tidings to that aged father whose heavy 
locks have long been ripening for the grave ? Who shall comfort 
that bereaved sister and that afflicted brother ? Alas ! our pen is 
arrested our hearts are full." 

" Many die as sudden not as safe." 

The remains of the saintly Bishop were interred beneath the 
sanctuary of St. Mary's Cathedral. They were removed and 
placed in the vault in Calvary Cemetery two days after the great 
fire of October 9, 1871, when St. Mary's was burned. 




Bishop Quarter visited Galena, Illinois, August 11, 1844, and 
administered the sacrament of confirmation to sixty-four persons. 
He then saw a promising future for this part of the Diocese, and 
made arrangements to meet every demand that would be for the 
good of religion. He made this visitation of the Diocese in relays 
of farmer's teams, stopping with those people, and wherever there 
was no church lie said Mass in their houses, preached kind words 
of heavenly truths, and taught the children their prayers. 

The Very Rev. Walter J. Quarter was in Galena, at the time 
of the Bishop's death. The Galena mission was then one of the 
most prosperous in the Diocese. The city was situated in the 
midst of the celebrated lead mining district, and it had become 
the most important business centre in the Northwest. A large 
frame church built by Rev. Mr. Petiot, was in use for several 
years. Father Quarter was engaged in securing property for the 
purpose of establishing a Convent and school, to be placed in 
charge of the Sisters of Mercy. The direful news of his brother's 
death was carried to him as soon as a messenger on horseback 
could reach Galena. He hastened to Chicago, arriving at mid- 
night Wednesday, April 13, and went directly to the Cathedral, 
whither the remains of the deceased Prelate, dressed in full Pon- 
tificals, lay in state. They were surrounded by faithful watchers 
who were constantly reciting the Rosary of the Blessed Virgin 
or the prayers for the dead. Father Quarter's grief, became un- 
controlable, and moved all present to tears ; it was a sad meet- 
ing of those two brothers, whose lives were so closely interwoven, 
and who loved each other so dearly. " Oh, so sadden ! " Father 
Quarter exclaimed ; " Oh, what a loss to the Diocese ! " He who 
enjoyed his brother's intimate confidence could truthfully utter 
such words. 


But Father Quarter, though his bereavement was overwhelming, 
was compelled to subdue it. 

When the vault containing his brother's remains was closed 
and the entrance sealed, he assumed the responsibilities of the 
Diocese, until an Administrator should be appointed by the Holy 
See. He at once entered upon this duty, with the same spirit of 
determination to accomplish that purpose, for which he and his 
brother had begun their labors in the Diocese. There is no end 
to the memory of the earnest enthusiasm, noble deeds and sacri- 
fices made by this grand old "mother priest", which the Catholics 
of his time in Chicago, loved to call him. Never was the shepherd 
of a flock more beloved by those under his care, nor by those 
outside his fold. 

Not only was his zeal for the welfare of souls uppermost in his 
great heart, but the sick, the indigent and the fatherless called into 
action his sympathies and incited him to memorable deeds of 
charity. His untiring solicitude for the poor and the orphans, 
his loud appeals for help in their behalf, echoed in the hearts of 
his hearers many years after he left the field of his first labors. 
The words, " charity ! my friends, charity ! charity ! remember the 
orphans ! " which were so often the beginning and ending of a 
sermon in St. Mary's and other Churches in the Diocese, where 
Father Quarter was collecting funds for his Orphan Asylum, are still 
brought to the attention of the Catholics of Chicago, and they will 
be, until there is no longer any need of such charity. 

In the summer of 1848, large numbers of immigrants came by 
boat to Chicago ; many were stricken with ship-fever contracted on 
their passage in ocean vessels. A long frame shed for an hospital 
was erected on "the sands", on the lake shore, north of the north 
pier of the Chicago river harbor, where these poor sick people were 
hastily landed and placed in quarantine. Their sufferings and 
destitution were appalling, especially when the fever was reported 
to be contagious. Father Quarter hearing this, hurried to their 
assistance ; he found matters much worse than represented, and he 
commenced without delay to improve the condition of the sufferers. 


He made daily visits to his "poor patients," nursed them, and 
administered the consolations of religion to the dying. He went 
among the citizens soliciting medicine, food and clothing, accom- 
panied by a well-known Irish Catholic. Father Quarter's tall 
figure, leading an old white horse hitched to a wagon, was a 
familiar sight in the business streets of the city. All looked for 
him and he always succeeded in getting his wagon well filled with 
clothing and provisions. He would then cross the river to the 
hospital where no sooner arrived than he would begin to unload, 
and say to his assistant, " Now, John, make a big fire in the stove 
and we will cook the food for our patients." 

Father Quarter wrote in his diary, May 2, 1849 : " The first case 
of cholera is reported in Chicago." The dreadful news was soon 
verified. In 1833, this malignant scourge broke out for the first 
time in Chicago, but with the exception of a few soldiers at 
Fort Dearborn and two or three settlers, the inhabitants of the 
village passed scathless from the pestilential ordeal. It came 
.again in the summer of 1849. The city was otherwise ripe for 
any contagion. Low, swampy, filled with infection spreading 
elements, it lay at the mercy of the cholera. Chicago had grown 
rapidly in population. The digging of the Illinois and Michigan 
canal had been an inducement to the laboring classes who came 
to America to move there, which they did in large numbers. 
The plague raged worst among these people. Entire house- 
holds succumbed to its fatal attacks; widows were left with 
helpless families, children without parents, and citizens who fled 
in dismay to the country districts, found the scourge ravaging 
in advance even with greater malignity among the inhabitants. 
Although the cholera continued but a short time, its victims were 
numerous and pity-inspiring. It broke out the third time in 1852? 
with greater virulence. 

The largeness of Father Quarter's heart appeared in all its 
charitable greatness, during those two periods of Chicago's afflic- 
tion. When the cholera appeared in New York in 1831, Bishop 
Quarter was assistant pastor at S. Peter's. It was said of the young 


priest, " that if you sought him, you would find him amid pesti- 
lence and death, holding the cup of refreshment to the parched 
lips of the sufferer; wiping away the clammy sweat from the 
sunken brow, and fortifying the departing soul with the last Sacra- 
ments." The same words were said of Father Quarter in Chicago, 
who during those days, "that tried men's souls," labored un- 
ceasingly in his heartrending duties. 

Bishop Quarter some months before his death, had projected the 
foundation of a Charity Hospital and an Orphan Asylum ; the lat- 
ter enterprise became now an absolute need. Father Quarter 
brought the first orphans to his own. house, or had them taken 
care of by some Catholic families ; the number had increased, how- 
ever, to such an extent that he was compelled to gather them into 
an asylum. He therefore rented a large frame house on Wabash 
Avenue, near Van Buren Street, some distance out from the thickly 
inhabited portion of the city. The Sisters of Mercy were placed in 
charge of the asylum. Then Father Quarter went through the city 
picking up " his orphans." He frequently was seen on Wabash 
Avenue, surrounded by homeless little ones, leading them, even 
carrying them in his arms to the home he had prepared for them. 
John McMullen proved a faithful assistant to Father Quarter at 
this time, and he, some years after, reminded his young friend 
of his great services in attending him at the bedside of the 
sick, or in hunting up orphan children in the city and surround- 
ing districts : " It was easy enough," he said, " at the time to 
gather up the children, but it was a difficult matter to clothe and 
feed them, and to continue the work of charity. I found even 
the most benevolent people, after the excitement of starting an 
orphan's home in Chicago, very much disposed to let the 
orphans take care of themselves; but I kept them alive to the 
exigencies of the asylum, and I must say that the people of Chi- 
cago, without regard to creed, answered generously my appeals 
for the orphans. " The experience you received," he added, " will 
be a practical lesson for you, when you are a priest." Under such 
a master and in that school, John McMullen received his first 


lessons in charity towards his fellow beings. That he was worthy 
of the 'master and an honor to the school, " the works thai 2ive. 
after him," are indubitable evidence. 

Father Quarter, amid all these perplexing cares, did not 
relax his admirable administration of the Diocese. The follow- 
ing interesting notes which he jotted down are of historical 
value : 

" May 28th, 1848. Six Sisters of Mercy left here this morning for 
Galena, in this Diocese, to take possession of the new house, which 
was purchased last winter by Very Rev. W. J. Quarter, by the 
advice of his dearly beloved brother, Bishop Quarter, who is now 
no more. Mother Agatha O'Brien accompanied them; Rev. Mr 
Me Elhearne had charge of the Sisters on the road." 

" June 1st. Received a letter to-day from the Archbishop of 
Baltimore, approving my acts and confirming my appointment as 
Administrator of the Diocese." 

" June 8th. Arrival of Rt. Rev. Dr. Hughes, Bishop of New York. 
The Right Rev. Bishop Hughes arrived in this city ; he remained 
until Sunday the 10th, Feast of Pentecost, and preached a most 
eloquent sermon in the Cathedral of St. Mary ; the Church was 
crowded with people of every denomination. He made allusion 
to the late Bishop Quarter at the conclusion of the sermon, which 
seemed to affect the whole congregation, and, as he afterwards ex- 
pressed it, " the feelings which he perceived in the countenances 
of all when he alluded to the poor Bishop that was gone, affected 
him more than he could express," for Bishop Hughes loved and 
respected Bishop Quarter. On Monday, June 12th, Bishop Hughes 
left here, accompanied by the Very Rev. W. J. Quarter, brother of 
the late Bishop, and Vicar-General of the Diocese, for Milwaukee, on 
his way to New York by steamer. Often during his stay amongst 
us, did he express his surprise at all that had been done since 
Bishop Quarter's arrival in Chicago. Often did he say, " Ah \ if 
all would labor like Bishop Quarter ! Look," said he, " at what he 
has done ; see that University ; see that Convent. What had he 
when he came here ? and still, see what he has left after him. 


Bishop Quarter is gone," said he, " but Bishop Quarter shall never 
be never can be forgotten, in Chicago." Yes, it is consoling, 
even in the hour of affliction, to hear such expressions of the high 
esteem in which Bishop Quarter was held by all, and how much 
his conduct was admired by all, and how much his labor, both 
as a priest and a Bishop, were admired and appreciated by all, and 
especially coming from the lips of one of the most eminent and 
the most distinguished Prelates in the country. The expression of 
the great Bishop Hughes was : " Oh that God in his mercy may 
grant, that this Diocese and the Church in America generally, 
may have such Bishops as the late much-respected, the much- 
beloved, the saintly Bishop Quarter. Oh ! " said this distinguished 
man, " may all the Bishops of Chicago be like the first," and we 
say, Amen." 

"June 18th. Feast Holy Trinity. The Rev. Mr. Pendergasfc re- 
turned from his mission east, collecting for the University of St. 
Mary of the Lake," 

"June 25th. The Archbishop of St. Louis arrived to-day, on his 
way to Detroit, by way of steamer." 

"June 28th. The Very Rev. T. J. Kinsella and Mr. Hoy, left on 
board the " Sam Ward " on their way to Detroit." 

"August 10th. Mother Agatha left for Galena to see Sister 
Gertrude. Died night of 14th July, at the Convent of the Sisters 
of Mercy, in the city of Galena, in this State, the saintly Sister, 
Gertrude McGirr, in the 22nd year of her age. Sister Gertrude 
was a native of Philadelphia, and was one of the small colony that 
came, about two years ago, from Pittsburg to the late much- 
lamented Bishop Quarter, and was professed by him September 
21, 1847. Never have we witnessed such a death as that of Sister 
Gertrude so much resignation, such piety, such confidence in the 
mercy of GOD. May she rest in peace." 

"August 30, 1848 Received a letter from Rev. Phil. Conlan, of 
Springfield, in this State, very satisfactory indeed, the debt of 


Springfield Church is paid off, and all things going on well. The 
poor Bishop used to call Fr. Oonlan "his faithful servant Phil." 

"September 2nd. Bought to-day eight lots, on which St. 
Patrick's Church now stands, on the west side of the river. 
Mr. J. Y. Scammon bought them for me from the canal trustees ; 
no opposition in bidding only on one lot, one-quarter of purchase 
money is to be paid down and one year interest on the whole of 
the sum, two years for the remaining, the lots will cost $4,000. 
I shall have to borrow the money." 

'' September 26th. Paid on this day for the block of land oppo- 
site the University of St. Mary's of the Lake, leaving $1,000 yet 
due, with interest of 6 per cent. This block was purchased 
by the Bishop for the University, shortly before his death, and 
paid at the time of purchase 1,000 ; the block cost $4,000." 

" September 27th. I received a letter from the Archbishop of 
Baltimore, stating that I have been appointed administrator of the 
Diocese by the Holy See, and quoting part of the Cardinal's letter, 
he says, I have all jurisdiction, except what belongs to a 

" October 4, 1848. Left Paris, Illinois, on the second to visit the 
lower part of the Diocese ; arrived in St. Louis on the evening of 
the 7th. Archbishop not at home ; visited several missions ; found 
all in good order." 

" Chicago, Oct. 6th. The clergymen from different parts of the 
diocese met to-day for conference, which was held in the house of 
the Bishop. The same tracts and questions to be taken up at 
the next conference." 

" December 3d. Sent on this day the Rev. Dennis Dunne, dea- 
con, and Rev. H. Coyle, sub-deacon, to Detroit, to Bishop Lefevre to 
have them ordained priests for this Diocese ; they went in the 
evening by stage from this place, as the boat was not running to 
St. Joseph. It was snowing and unpleasant outdoors. May God 
send them safe, and grant them His grace." 

" December 5th, 1848. I wrote to the Archbishop of St. Louis, 
who is kind enough to act as Vicar General. This is the most 


disagreeable weather this winter, so far is said to be the severest, 
that has been in many years." 

"December 14th. Received a letter this morning from the 
Archbishop of Baltimore, stating that the Very Rev. J. O. Van 
de Velde, of St. Louis, is appointed Bishop of Chicago, in the 
place of my brother ; Glory be to God." 



The following from Bishop Quarter's diary, June 13, 1846: 
" Arrived from the Council of Baltimore via Boston, Albany and 
Detroit, the Very Rev. James 0. Van de Velde, Provincial of the 
Society of Jesus in the West. He left on Tuesday, June 16, by 
stage for St. Louis." 

James Oliver Van de Velde was born April 3, 1795, near Ter- 
rnonde, Belgium. His parents enjoyed high social rank and were 
notably distinguished for their piety and services to the Church. 
Young Van de Velde received his early education from a worthy 
French clergyman, who had found a refuge, during the Revolution, 
in the Van de Velde home whither he had fled. The good priest 
noticed in his young pupil strong inclinations to the religious life 
which he prudently encouraged. In 1815, young Van de Velde 
entered the great Archiepiscopal Seminary at Mechlin, to study for 
the priesthood. The eminent missionary Father Charles Nerinckx 
visited Belgium on his return from Rome to the United States 


with the object of securing young men to accompany him to his 
Western Missions. He was so successful that, when on his de- 
parture for America, May 16, 1817, he brought with him several 
Belgian students, who were to enter the novitiate of the Society of 
Jesus, at Georgetown, young Van de Velde being among the num- 
ber. Entering the novitiate, he passed two years probation in a most 
satisfactory manner, and continued his collegiate and theological 
studies, comprising in all ten years of preparation for floly Orders. 
He was ordained priest, September 25, 1827, by Archbishop 
Marechal in the Cathedral at Baltimore. 

Father Van de Velde soon became distinguished as an 
instructor of youth and a zealous missionary. In 1831 he was 
sent to St. Louis, where he filled a professorship in the University 
of St. Louis for 'many years. In 1840 he was made president 
of the University, and selected to fill other important offices in 
the Society of Jesus. 

In December, 1848, the bulls appointing the Very Rev. James 
Oliver Van de Velde, S. J., Bishop, and successor of Bishop 
Quarter in the Diocese of Chicago, arrived from Rome. 

Father Quarter wrote in his diary, Chicago, December 14, 
1848: "I received a letter this morning from Archbishop 
Eccleston, Baltimore, stating that the Very Rev. Father Van de 
Velde, S. J., of St. Louis, is appointed Bishop of Chicago, in the 
place of my brother. Glory be to God! May his Episcopal 
reign be such as will give glory to God, and peace to the Church, 
is all I have to say. I rejoice that Father Van de Velde is the 
person appointed." 

He again writes, Chicago, Feb. 6, 1849 : " Received a letter 
from Right Rev. James Oliver Van de Velde, Bishop of Chicago. 
I will leave here to-morrow morning for St. Louis, to be present, 
if possible, at the consecration ; weather very cold. The new 
Bishop was consecrated by the Most Rev. Peter Richard Kenrick, 
Archbishop of St. Louis, on Sunday, February 11, 1849, in the 
Church of St. Francis Xavier, attached to the University of 
St. Louis." 


Father Quarter's diary states, Sunday, February 18, 1849: 
The Right Rev. Bishop, of Chicago, gave Confirmation in the 
Carthage Church, Ills. He preached twice on that day ; the Very 
Rev. W. J. Quarter and Rev. Michael Carroll, the pastor of the- 
Congregation of Alton, were present on the occasion. The Bish- 
op's sermons were both learned and practical." Monday, 19 : 
" The Bishop left Alton for St. Louis, accompanied by Father 
Carroll. Father Quarter left for Chicago." Feb. 22: " I have a. 
letter to-day from the venerable Father Badin, the first priest 
ordained in the United States." 

Bishop, Van de Velde, before he started for Chicago, made a. 
visitation through the lower portion of his diocese. 

Soon after he had settled in his new home and understood the 
vastness and necessities of his spiritual charge, he issued the fol- 
lowing Pastoral : 


By the Grace o/ God and appointment of the Apostolic See, Bishop of 
Chicago. To the Clergy and Laity of our Diocese, Grace, Peace 
from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ ; Venerable 
Brethren of the Church and Blessed Children of the Laity : 

Reluctant as we feel to take upon ourselves the awful responsi- 
bility of the Episcopal Office, we have been compelled to yield 
to the injunctions of His Holiness, our present persecuted Pontiff, 
and to accept the appointment, in compliance with what in our 
regard, we consider the express will of God, hoping that the Dis- 
penser of all good gifts, will grant us grace and strength, to dis- 
charge the arduous duties of the Sacred Station, to which, He has 
been pleased to call us, and placing all our trust in Him, who 
ever supports such as are willing to promote His greater glory, by 
co-operating with Him in the Salvation of souls. To you, be- 
loved Brethren of the Clergy, we look for aid and consolation. A 
vast field is opened to your zeal and exertions. You are to be 
" our joy and our crown." We therefore with the Apostle . . . 


beseech you that you walk worthy of the vocation in which you 
are called, with all humility and mildness ; for to everyone of us 
is given grace according to the measure of the gift of Christ; 
feeding the flock of Christ which is among you ; being strong in 
the grace which is in Christ Jesus ; preaching the word ; being 
instant in season and out of season. ; reproving, entreating, rebuk- 
ing, with all patience and doctrine ; that henceforth we be no 
more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every 
wind of doctrine by the wickedness of men. . . . But doing 
the truth in charity, we may in all things grow up in him who is 
the head, even Christ." 

But in order that you may derive ample spiritual fruit from 
your labors that your exhortations and toils may produce the 
wished-for effects, we exhort every one of you individually " in 
all things to show himself an example of good works, in doctrine, 
in integrity, in gravity, in the sound work that cannot be blamed ; 
that he, who is on the contrary part, may be afraid, having no 
evil to say of us , in all things exhibiting yourselves as the min- 
isters of God, in much patience, in tribulation, in the word of 
truth, in the power of God ; being made a pattern to the flock." 

And as for you, most beloved children of the Laity, you too 
are destined to gladden our heart by your faith and piety. Your 
docility and your filial affection towards the spiritual guides, whom 
God has placed over you, to conduct you in the paths of Salva- 
tion, are to ligliten the burden of responsibility, which for your 
sakes they have assumed. They are in your regard the Ministers 
of God and Ambassadors of Jesus Christ, and have been endured 
with power from on high to direct you in the ways of justice and 
of peace. Listen, therefore, to their exhortations, and strive to 
reduce them to practice. " Do not conform to the spirit of the 
world, but cast off the works of darkness and put on the armor of 
light; walk honestly as in the day, not in rioting and drunken- 
ness ; not in chambering and impurities ; not in contentions and 
envy ; but put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ. Let your conversations 
be worthy of the Gospel ; because the eyes of the Lord are upon 


the just, and His years unto their prayers; but the countenance 
of the Lord is against them that do evil things." Be united* 
among yourselves, and charitable towards all mankind. Love 
your enemies ; do good to them that hate you ; pray for them 
that persecute you. Firmly adhere to your holy religion, and 
faithfully practice its precepts. Forgive, and bless those who- 
revile you on account of the faith which you have inherited from 
the Saints, and " hold to the traditions which you have learned 
that you may not now be tossed to and fro, and carried, 
away on every wind of doctrine." "Avoid lying teachers, that bring 
in sects of perdition, speaking swelling words of vanity, promis- 
ing men liberty, when they themselves are slaves of corruption." 1 
Be assidious in the frequentation of the Sacraments, which are the 
channels through which Jesus Christ has ordained that grace and 
spiritual health and strength should flow into your souls ; for it is 
only by a punctual observance of the commandments of God and 
His Church, that you can hope to enjoy in this life that peace of 
mind and heart which the world cannot give, and secure for 
yourselves eternal peace and happiness in the world to come 
" And may the God of peace make you perfect in every good work, 
that you may do His will, working in you that which is well and 
pleasing in His sight." 

We avail ourselves of this opportunity to direct your attention 
to the pastoral letter published by the Prelates of United States, 
lately assembled at Baltimore. (1) A more complete organization 
of our Hierarchy has been submitted to the sanction of His Holi- 
ness ; (2) your sympathy is demanded for the persecuted Pontiff, 
whose independence of all civil rulers, though not essential is, how- 
ever, necessary for the interests of religion, and for the free exercise 
of his spiritual power, which is both essential and indefectible ; 
and you are requested to aid him by contributions of your worldly 
substance, for the purpose of enabling him to defray the expenses 
inseparable from the government of the Church. For this purpose 
the Fathers of the Provincial Council have unanimously decreed, 
that collections for his relief should be taken up in all the Churches 


of their respective Dioceses, on the first Sunday of July, and that 
the amount of said collection be sent on by the pastors to their 
respective Bishops, and by them transmitted to the Archbishop of 
Baltimore, to be forwarded to his Holiness. We hereby enjoin on 
the Priests of the Diocese to take up all said collections on the day 
appointed ; and in the congregations, not then visited, they will do 
so, on the first Sunday when Divine worship is performed in them, 
and they will continue daily to add in the Mass the Collect, " Pro 
Papa," till the Pontiff be restored to his See, and enjoy free exercise 
of his spiritual power. (3.) The Fathers of Council have, in com- 
pliance with the request of his Holiness, expressed in his last 
encyclical letter to all the Bishops in the Catholic world, encouraged 
him to give a doctrinal definition concerning the " Immaculate 
Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary ; " as the pious belief of the 
Faithful on this subject is supported by the Holy Scripture, and by 
the tradition of the ancient Fathers, and has constantly been en- 
couraged by the practice of the Church it being sacredly regarded 
as an outwork for protecting our belief in the Divinity of the 
Incarnate word of the Father. (4.) Finally, you are exhorted to 
pray for the cessation of all strife and division, and for the union 
of all Christian denominations "in unity of the spirit and bond of 

" We also desire to recall to your minds and to urge the execution 
of the different measures which have been so earnestly recom- 
mended to your consideration by our zealous predecessor. Among 
them we mention, in a particular manner, the duty incumbent 
upon you to support the Clergymen, who devote their time, their 
talent and energy to your spiritual welfare, and to aid them as 
liberally as your means permit, in promoting the decency and 
dignity of the worship of GOD, either when new Churches are to 
be erected, for the purpose of providing for the wants of the in- 
cessantly-increasing members of our holy religion, or when such 
Churches, as have already been erected, are to be completed or 
adorned, or to be freed from the debts, that have been incurred to 
erect them. In a visit which we lately made through a portion 


of our Diocese, we have been astonished and grieved at the miser- 
able condition of some Churches, which we have found destitute 
of the things that are essentially necessary for the celebration of 
the Divine mysteries. Next, we strongly recommend the support 
of our Episcopal Seminary, in which the young Levites, destined 
for the service of the altar, are to be trained in virtue and science. 
We look up to you, our beloved children of the laity, especially to 
such as have been favored by the Almighty with an ample share 
of temporal blessings, for a portion of the means that are indis- 
pensable to enable us to form learned, pious, and zealous Pastors, 
who may lead you into the wholesome pastures of the LORD, break 
to you the bread of life, and attend you at your dying hour. The 
expenses required for the maintenance of such an establishment 
are considerable ; and we feel the less averse to renew this call upon 
your liberality as the disturbed state of political affairs iu Europe 
has much contributed to dry up the sources, from which the Catholic 
Dioceses of the United States, as well as those of Asia and Africa, were 
wont to derive copious supplies. It is but just and reasonable, that 
you, our beloved children, who hitherto have enjoyed, and in the 
future will continue to enjoy, even in a greater degree, all the ad- 
vantages of a zealous and devoted priesthood, should yourselves 
in proportion to your means, exhibit as much liberality, as our 
brethren of foreign climes, who derive no other advantage from 
their generosity, but the conscious satisfaction of contributing, in 
the true spirit of Catholicity, to the propagation of the Faith of 
Christ. We, therefore, recommend that, besides such private con- 
tribution as your zeal and love for Religion may prompt you to send, 
there may annually be made two collections for this purpose, one 
on the Feast of Easter, and another on that of Christmas, and in 
Congregations that are not visited on those Festivals, on the ear- 
liest day after them, when they shall be visited by the Pastor to 
whose specified care they are entrusted. 

It is our heartfelt desire, dearly beloved children of the Laity, to 
make every sacrifice in our power and to spare no effort for the 
purpose of providing you with faithful pastors, and of affording 


you the sweet consolations of our Holy Religion. All we ask of 
you in return, is that you co-operate with us, in enabling us to 
procure you this signal blessing. " For the rest, Brethren, be 
perfect ; like exhortation, be of one mind ; have peace, and the 
God of Peace and Love be with you. The Grace of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and the charity of God, and the communication of the 
Holy Ghost be with you all. Amen. " 

Given at our Episcopal residence, Chicago, 111., the 9th day of 

Bishop of Chicago. " 

Bishop Van de Velde soon after wrote a letter on his 
predecessor's labors, only this extract could be found : 

" For the satisfaction of the Catholics scattered over the Prai- 
rie State, and for the information of such of our brethren 
abroad, who take an interest in the propagation and prosper- 
ity of our holy religion throughout the world, but chiefly within 
the borders of our Federal Union, we have taken a survey of 
the present condition of our extensive diocese, and with hum- 
ble and sincere thanks to the Father of Mercies, who has vouch- 
safed to bless the labors of those that have planted and watered 
this portion of his vineyard, for " neither he that planteth is any- 
thing nor he that watereth, but God that giveth the increase " (1 
Cor. iii, 2) ; and we hope with no other motive but to promote 
His own greater honor and glory, we do not hesitate to publish a 
portion of the result of our investigations. 

When the lamented Right Rev. W. Quarter, first bishop of 
Chicago, took charge of this diocese in 1844, he commenced his. 
apostolic labors with about a dozen priests and as many churches. 
He spared no pains to cultivate the fertile soil which had been 
entrusted to his charge in " God's husbandry." Before an un- 
timely death closed his career of usefulness he had the consolation 
to supplv with resident priests many places till then almost aban- 
doned, to have a college and seminary under his own direction, 
and to see two establishments of the Sisters of Mercy, whom he 
had called to his diocese, to attend to the education of female- 


youth. When in February, 1849, the present bishop was con- 
secrated to succeed Dr. Quarter the diocese numbered already forty 
priests and 56 churches." 

Bishop Van de Velde started with all energy into the con- 
tinuance and increase of the great works of his predecessor, 
so that the diocese commenced to advance in prosperity with 
marvellous rapidity. He carefully looked after the interests of the 
University and Seminary of St. Mary of the Lake, and on his regu- 
lar visits he took a special delight in examining the ecclessiastical 
students. The Bishop found John McMullen in charge of the 
Cathedral catechism classes, who though he was a student in the 
University, went to St. Mary's on Sunday. The good Bishop was 
attracted at once by the talented young seminarian, and he ex- 
pressed frequently his gratification in having such a valuable 
young aspirant to the priesthood. 

Bishop Van de Velde, two years after his arrival, established 
a weekly Catholic newspaper the Western Tablet. In its issue, 
March 27, 1852, the Bishop published the following statement : 
" At this date, including the Bishop, we have 63 Priests employed 
in the various duties of the sacred Ministry, and more than 90 
churches of all forms, sizes and materials, most of them completed, 
but some only in process of erection. Of these, 41 have been com- 
menced since February, 1849. Thirty-three of this number were 
built in places where there was no church at the time ; four spacious 
brick and three large frame churches have replaced five wretched 
log and two almost equally wretched frame buildings ; and a capa- 
cious and handsome brick church, which does credit to the popula- 
tion of Peoria, both Catholics and Protestants, having contributed 
with emulous liberality, has lately been erected in that city in lieu 
of a small church of the same materials which is destined for a 
school house. Of the 41 churches ' mentioned, nine are of brick, 
and six of stone ; twenty-one are frame buildings and five are 
built of logs. To the erection of nearly all these churches (log 
buildings excepted) the Bishop, considering his means, has lib- 
erally contributed or promised to contribute, and his encourage- 


ment by word and deed has generally been the cause, that these 
churches have been commenced, and that many have been com- 
pleted. He still owes about $2,000 subscribed for such as are 
now in progress, and hopes to be able to meet these and 
other engagements before he leaves for the National Council, 
whence he will probably visit Rome and endeavor to obtain an 
accession of Priests, some Sisters to attend to the German schools, 
and a few brothers of the Christian Doctrine. For even now 
many wants of the diocese are to be supplied. Not less than 
thirty more churches are needed, and at least twelve 
efficient Priests for various Missions that have nearly 
all petitioned for a resident clergyman, and promised to 
provide for his support. In nearly all these missions the 
Priest should be able to speak both languages, English and 
and German. It is probable that before his departure the Bishop 
will raise two or three of his seminarians to the holy order of the 
Priesthood, and thus supply some of the places where mission- 
aries are needed. He also expects shortly to receive from Europe, 
two or three more clergymen whom he has consented to admit to 
his Diocese. With respect to such as are now or have been lately 
employed in other Dioceses in the United States, the Bishop 
desires it to be well understood that no one need apply, unless he 
can obtain a regular Licentia exeundi or Exeat, and unquestion- 
able testimonials as regards unblemished character and conduct 
(having first made application by letter or otherwise), and unless 
he be zealous and willing to share with him the labors and 
fatigues to be endured in cultivating the Lord's vineyard. In 
consequence of the want of these preliminary requisites, several 
clergymen, including Priests and Seminarians, who during the 
last five or six months have applied to be affiliated to the Diocese, 
have not been admitted and have thus incurred much unneces- 
sary trouble and expense. It is the Bishops anxious desire that 
all his Priests should be true Pastors, patterns to the flock in- 
trusted to their spiritual charge, leading them by word and ex- 
ample through wholesome pastures to the fountains of eternal 


life. He has reason to be grateful to the " Prince of Pastors, "for 
the zeal and fidelity which almost all evince in the discharge of 
their arduous and responsible duties, for which they may expect 
to receive "an exceeding great reward." Of the Priests now 
doing duty in the Diocese (always including the Bishop), twenty- 
nine are natives of Ireland, and two of Scotland, twelve come 
from differrent parts of Germany, seven from Alsatia and Lorrain, 
and two from Switzerland, three hail from France, two from Bel- 
gium, and two from Canada ; besides these we have two Italians, 
one Spaniard, and one American. We hope that in the course of 
a few years we shall be supplied with a larger proportion 
of native Missionaries, many of whom are now such strenuous 
laborers in our eastern Dioceses. Still thirty clergymen remain 
of those who were in the Diocese at the Bishop's accession. Four 
have died, and two have been permitted to affiliate themselves to 
other Dioceses. Some have fallen under the "pruning knife," 
which, though used sparingly, has been instrumental in impart- 
ing more vigor to the vine and rendering its branches more fruit- 
ful. Since the commencement of 1849, twenty-five Priests have 
been admitted from American or European Dioceses, and thirteen 
have been ordained for the Diocese by the present Bishop." 

He also wrote the following in the same issue, about the Gen- 
eral Hospital of the Lake : " It may not prove uninteresting to 
the public to receive some information about this Institution; 
which, considering the means and circumstances, has already 
been productive of much good, by affording relief to the infirm. 
The Faculty of the Rush Medical College being desirous to have 
an Hospital for those afflicted with various complaints, and 
thus to give .their students an opportunity of combining the prac- 
tice with the theory of the medical art, rented the large hotel 
called the Lake House, situated on the north side of the river. 

The care of the sick was, with the permission of the Bishop, en- 
trusted to the Sisters of Mercy, who have proved themselves well 
qualified for the charitable but arduous duties which were thus 
imposed upon them. It is now just one year (26th February) that 


the Hospital was placed under their charge. Sister Mary Vincent 
was appointed Superior, and, with three other sisters, assumed the 
care of the patients. There are now seven sisters in the establish- 
ment, five of whom are exclusively employed in hospital duties. 
Patients, of all religious denominations, are admitted without dis- 
tinction, and every facility is afforded them to be visited and com- 
forted by the ministers of their respective persuasions. The ordinary 
number of patients that have been benefited by the institution, 
has averaged from sixteen to twenty, for, if sometimes they have 
been as low as twelve or fifteen, at other times they have ranged 
from twenty-four to thirty. The whole number admitted during 
the year (from 20th February, 1851, to 20th February, 1852) is 
220. Of this number 26 died; 178 have been discharged; and 
16 remain in the establishment. The number of private patients 
admitted into the general wards, besides a few who were furnished 
with private rooms, was 119, of whom 84 were males and 35 
females, and of them 12 died, and 99 were discharged. Country 
patients, admitted 62, of whom 42 were males and 20 females ; of 
these 11 died, and 43 were discharged. Marine patients, admitted 
39, of whom 3 died, and 36 were discharged. Of the last class of 
patients, none have been admitted since the 1st of September, 1851. 
The great majority were Irish, Scotch and Americans, several 
Germans, 6 English, 3 Swedes, 3 Norwegians, and 1 Spaniard. 
The attendant Physicians are Professors Blaney, Brainard, Davis, 
Evans and Herrick, all of Rush Medical College ; and Drs. Boone 
and J. E. McGirr. The term of the lease of the Lake House will, it 
appears, expire some time in April. Hitherto, no provision has 
been made for accommodating the sick after that period. It was 
the Bishop's intention to commence a building for that purpose, 
provided a lot of suitable dimensions and well situated for the 
purpose, were procured by the medical faculty. At present, how- 
ever, his means would not permit him to commence the building, 
even if he had the lot at his disposal ; but he hopes that before 
the expiration of the present year, Divine Providence will enable 
him to effect something towards the carrying on of the work of 


mercy and charity that has been commenced, and should not be 
discontinued. After Providence, he relies on the aid of our benev- 
olent citizens, of all denominations, who cannot but feel an 
interest in exercising their benevolence for so charitable and 
laudable an object." 


Bishop of Chicago. 

Bishop Van de Velde attended the First National Council of 
Bishops in the United States, held in Baltimore, May 9, 1852. At 
its close he was selected by the Bishops to be the bearer of its De- 
crees to the Holy See for approval. The bishop, before his 
departure for Rome, returned to Chicago and addressed a letter 
to the clergy and laity of his diocese, announcing the fact of his 
appointment as messenger to the Holy See. 

"JAMES OLIVER VAN DE VELDE By the Grace of God and the Ap- 
pointment of the Holy See, bishop of Chicago : To the Clergy 
and Laity of our Diocese : 

" Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father, and from Christ 
Jesus, the Son of the Father, in truth and charity." (n John, i, 3.) 

" Venerable Brethren of the Clergy and Beloved Children of the 
Laity : We deem it necessary to address you on a subject in 
which you are all deeply engaged. You have already been in- 
formed, in an indirect manner, that it is our intention after the close 
of the National Council to visit the Eternal City, for the purpose of 
offering our personal homage to the Common Father of the Faithful, 
and of placing before him the state of our diocese, and obtaining 
from him some particular favor in our behalf. After recommend- 
ing the success of our distant journey to your united prayers, we 
take pleasure in announcing to you that we have appointed and 
by these presents do appoint and confirm the Very Reverend 
Patrick Thomas McElhearne, to replace us during our absence as 
administrator and vicar-general of our diocese, with all the neces- 
sary powers and faculties to manage all its spiritual and tern- 


poral concerns. Having the fullest confidence in his devotion 
and fidelity to our person, in his piety and integrity, and in the 
interest he takes in the welfare of our diocese, we request you all, 
venerable brethren of the clergy and beloved children of the laity, 
to honor, respect and obey him, as you would ourselves, as hold ing 
the place of God in your regard, and by your cheerful submission 
and co-operation, to aid him in the discharge of the arduous 
duties of the highly responsible office, which, after mature delib- 
eration and earnest prayer to the Almighty, we have deemed it 
proper and necessary to impose upon him. All other extraordi- 
nary powers, which heretofore have been granted to any of the 
clergy of the diocese, and have hitherto been exercised by them, 
will remain suspended till the time of our return (which we hope 
will not be protracted beyond the course of a few months), per- 
mitting them in the meantime, as an honorary distinction, to use 
the titles annexed to the offices, which they have hitherto filled 
in the diocese. We feel the greatest anxiety for the dear orphan 
children we have taken under our care, and we most earnestly 
recommend them to the good and charitable people of our Epis- 
copal city, trusting that they continue to co-operate with Divine 
Providence in providing the means of their support, that it may 
not be said : " The little ones have asked for bread and there 
was none to break it unto them." (Jerem. Lam. iv, 4.) We en- 
treat you, venerable brethren of the clergy and the beloved 
children of the laity, to offer your fervent prayers for us to the 
Father of Mercies, that he may preserve us from all danger, and 
direct our steps in the way of peace and salvation, and for this 
purpose we ordain that from the Sunday within the Octave of the 
Ascension of our Lord, until the time of our return all the priests 
of our diocese shall daily add to the orations of the mass, the col- 
lect Adesto Domine, Secret and Post communion of the mass pro- 
peregrinantibus, found among the votive Masses of the Roman 
Missal, and that both they and the faithful entrusted to their 
spiritual care frequently recommend us to the intercession and 
protection of the Immaculate Virgin Mother of our Lord and 


Savior Jesus Christ, to whom be praise, honor and glory for ever 
and ever." 

" Given at Chicago, this 30th day of April, in the year of our 
Lord 1852. 


Bishop of Chicago. 

The bishop, having learned that John McMullen had been 
compelled to desist from his studies on account of ill-health and 
had not recovered entirely from the effects of the gunshot wound, 
sent for him before he left for Rome. John McMullen said afterwards 
to his Uncle James Fitzsimmons, who always held the interests of 
his nephew dear to his heart: " The bishop treated me with the 
greatest tenderness ; he said he deeply regretted that I had to lose 
over a year in my studies on account of my bad health; he advised 
me to keep up my courage ; that he thought it would be better if 
I went abroad to finish my theology, and that he would let me 
know about what he could do for me on his return from Rome." 
The bishop also, one morning, after mass, called aside the young 
lad, John McMullen's competitor in the catechism class, a 
day student at the university, and having received a reply in the 
affirmative that the boy was desirous of becoming a priest, invited 
the two to meet him at his residence, where he addressed them 
fatherly words of hope ; he told them to remain firm in their de- 
termination ; to be constant in the practice of piety, and that on 
his return, he would have some news for them. Little did they 
think what their saintly bishop had in store for them, nor did 
they realize the great import of his promise until after his return 
from Rome and they were on their way to the Eternal city. 

At the close of his academic course, July 1st, 1850, the degree of 
A. M. was conferred on John McMullen. He gave a brilliant dis- 
play of his oratorical powers on that Commencement day. There 
was a large audience assembled in the college hall to witness the 
lesult of the years' labor, and all present were carried away by 
the eloquence and intellectual superiority of two heroes of that 


day John McMullen and James A. Mulligan, the two most gifted 
graduates, as all acknowledged, and they were applauded until 
the plaudits echoed through the University halls. The young 
graduates bore their honors wi|h modest demeanor, and they were 
seen walking together in the College grounds on the same eve- 
ning, happy in a friendship that was never interrupted. 

An incident, perhaps not worth giving much notice to, but 
which shows the complete indifference of John McMullen to any 
self-aggrandizement, may here be told. It occurred after the 
commencement exercises were over. The graduates were invited 
to meet the professors and distinguished guests in the refectory at 
lunch, and when all were assembled, John McMullen was found 
missing. Without delay a messenger was sent for him, who 
searched the halls and college grounds, but could not find him; 
finally, looking out of a back window, he saw the object of his 
search by a big wood-pile sawing wood with the greatest energy. 
The messenger hailed him and asked why he was so engaged. 
"Well," replied the young graduate, " I was sitting so long during 
those exercises that I got stiffened out, and as sawing wood is a 
healthy and useful exercise, I am taking it." 

John McMullen, after he was received into the Seminary of St. 
Mary of the Lake, applied himself to the study of Logic, Meta- 
physics and Morals, with an earnestness and comprehensiveness, 
which showed his professors that the study of Philosophy was 
most congenial to his mind. He soon gained the title of the " Phil- 
osopher " among his college-mates. A universality and originality, 
the essential aims of Philosophy, were striking traits of his char- 
acter ; always a deep thinker, a close reasoner, studious, firm in 
honest and conscientious opinons, which he deliberately formed, 
he was more a leader than a follower in the higher realms of 
philosophical thought. In his spare hours he pursued, with in- 
defatigable industry, the study of the Latin and English classics ; 
and thus laid the foundation of a remarkable copiousness and 
elegance of style, when writing or speaking in these languages. 


The following item appeared in the Western Tablet, July 17, 

"The annual commencement of the University of St. Mary 
of the Lake, was held in one of the College Halls on the 
15th of July at 3 o'clock p. M. Premiums and distinctions were 
awarded to the successful competitors in all the departments. 
Immediately after the distribution of premiums the degree of A. 
B. was conferred upon the following young men, John Mc- 
Mullen, Michael Hurley, Charles Foey, James Fitzgibbons and 
Thomas Clowry." 

In September, 1852, John McMullen entered his first year of 
theology. Now the visions of his youth had ripened into reality, 
and every fair promise, made years before, was fast becoming 
verified. He joyfully gave himself up to God and his holy 
service; he made his first spiritual retreat with great fervor, 
and commenced his theological studies with the deepest religious 
sentiments. He made it a rule to read every day a chapter of the 
Imitation of Christ. One day he was seen in a great hurry 
going from the college grounds to the lake shore, where he 
frequently passed an hour by himself, and in answer to the query 
of a companion, what was the matter ? as John McMullen was 
never known to be in a hurry, he said : " I arn going for my 
Thomas a Kempis." 

Bishop Van de Velde wrote the following letter to a friend, 
giving an account of his trip to Rome, which will be of interest 
to the readers of these Memoirs : 

11 ROME, July 2, 1852. 

" I arrived here on the 22d of last month, a little more than 
three weeks after leaving New York. Our trip over the ocean 
was very pleasant. Mr. Cowles and his son John, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Carey, with another family of Baltimore, together with Mr. 
Higgins and lady of Dublin, and some acquaintances of New 
York, seemed to form but one family with myself, and .the time, 
sea-sickness excepted, passed off very agreeably. Even Mrs. 


Goldschmidt (Jenny Lind), and the two Protestant Bishops we had 
on board, cultivated our acquaintance, and I felt loath to part 
with them on leaving Liverpool. I visited Stonyhurst and Pres- 
ton, where I found some of my former friends. From Paris to 
Rome I had the company of several priests who traveled in the 
same direction, to be present at the feast of St. Peter. We have 
had four great celebrations here since my arrival. On the 24th 
ult. the feast of St. John Baptist at the Lateran Basilica; the 
three following days, the exaltation of B. Peter Claver of the 
Society of Jesus, at the Gesu, where on Sunday the music formed by 
four choirs, three organs, and several musical instruments, is said 
to have exceeded anything ever heard in that line, even in Rome. 
Eight Cardinals and a large number of Bishops, and Archbishops 
said Mass at the Gesu on the occasion. It is supposed that at 
least not less than two hundred extra Masses were said in the 
church that day, from 4 o'clock A. M., till after mid-day, all the 
altars (and there are many of them) were incessantly occupied. On 
Sunday night the whole church inside, and the front without, were 
splendidly illuminated. The church which is more spacious than 
any church in the United States, was crowded to suffocation, and 
many were compelled to remain outside. Next came the great 
celebration at St. Peter's (the Vatican), the Holy Father celebrating 
pontifically. All the Cardinals now at Rome all the Patriarchs, 
Bishops and Prelates, the diplomatic corps, princes, etc., assisted, all 
in their respective costumes I made but a poor figure on the oc- 
casion, not having been able to procure the whole of the full dress 
required for the ceremony. What a concourse of priests and re- 
ligious of all descriptions, of troops (French, Swiss and Roman), 
and people of all nations, were there ! On the eve, we had the illu- 
mination of the whole church and of the magnificent dome or 
cupola of St. Peter's and of the colonade in front of it, and the 
sudden change effecting what they call the great. illumination, 
which was produced in about twenty seconds, and seemed to put 
all in a blaze. Thousands upon thousands were congregated in 
the vast area before St. Peter's, and in all the streets that led to it. 


His Holiness sent for me on the night of the feast, and received 
and treated me with the greatest kindness. I remained with him 
till quarter past ten o'clock, when the signal was given from one 
of his apartments to let off the fireworks on Monte Pincio, just 
opposite the room in which we were. Not to speak of America, I 
have seen -magnificent fireworks in Brussels, in Ghent (in honor of 
Napoleon and Maria Louisa, when they arrived there from Vienna), 
and in Paris, but never anything to approach the fireworks of this 
night. To conceive an idea of them, they must be seen for their 
beauty, the art and skill displayed, exceed all belief. I had a 
very long and quite familiar conversation with his Holiness, who 
is, indeed, an amiable and affectionate father. For at least ten 
minutes he suffered me to press his hand in both of mine, and to 
kiss it repeatedly, while my heart was so full that I could hardly 
answer his questions. When the emotion had subsided, we con- 
versed as if we had been old acquaintances. What an interest he 
takes in all that regards the Catholic Church in the United States ! 
What joy he manifested at the description I gave him of our 
doings at the Council ! of our processions through the streets in 
full pontificals, etc. One favor I have asked of him for myself, 
and though at first he refused to grant it, yet he has given some 
hopes that it will not be altogether denied. Our conversation was 
commenced and carried on in Italian, which has again become 
familiar to me, but ended in French, which he speaks remarkably 
well. On the following day, I assisted at the High Mass at St. 
Paul's outside of the walls. The Mass was sung by the Arch- 
bishop of Munich, and his Holiness and several Cardinals, and 
prelates assisted at it. After the lunch several dignitaries and 
strangers were introduced to his Holiness, who had some kind 
words to say to all. After St. Peter's, there will be no Cath- 
olic Church in the world, equal in splendor and magnificence to 
St. Paul's, when it is finished. Believe me to be, my dear friend. 
Very affectionately yours, in Christ, 


Bishop of Chicago. 


When Bishop Van de Velde made his last visit to the Cardinal 
Prefect of the College of the Propaganda, before his departure for 
his diocese, he asked permission to send two students to that 
renowned institution. He received answer that there was room 
for one only, and that the younger the candidate the more 
acceptable would he be. Bishop Van de Velde said on his 
return, that he would interpret the cardinal's words in their 
most favorable sense ; that he would therefore send his two 
students to the Propaganda, and if the elder, John McMullen, 
were not accepted, he could enter the Roman seminary and 
finish his studies in that institution. Accordingly, preparations 
were made for the departure of the two students. The Bishop 
himself took great interest in this work. In due time he furnished 
them with all the letters necessary for their guidance and proper 
reception at Rome. On the morning of their departure, they 
served his Mass, received communion from his hands, and after- 
wards his blessing which he, with tearful eyes, imparted to them. 
The subject of these Memoirs always entertained the deepest 
sentiments of gratitute for Bishop Van de Velde. He felt an 
laudable pride in the honor of being sent to Rome to finish his- 
theological studies and receive Holy Orders. It had been the 
great desire of his life to see the Eternal city, of which he read so 
much when engaged in his classics, or in studying Church 
history. The trials, persecutions and triumphs of the great Pon- 
tiS, Pope Pius IX, had attracted the attention of the civilized 
world to Rome, during the first decade of his Pontificate. 
On account of these a greater interest was created in John 
McMullen's mind, and his ardent wish was to go to Rome. 
He said to his young companion on their way to the Eternal 
City that it still seemed to him a dream, and in the fullness of 
his heart, he would exclaim : " Rome ! Rome ! " and when his 
hopes were at last realized, he gave full credit to Bishop Van de 
Velde, who had most kindly assisted in their fulfillment. It was 
sad news to him. when the tidings arrived in Rome that the good 
Bishop had been transferred to the See of Natchez, but the keen- 


est sorrow was expressed by him when the unwelcome information 
reached the Propaganda, that Bishop Van de Velde had died in 
Natchez on the 13th day of November, 1855. It was always the 
resolve of the two students, when the opportunity would offer 
itself, to give a public expression of their gratitude to Bishop 
Van de Velde during his life or after his death, for his fatherly 
kindness to them. 



During the year 1852, John McMullen was ordered by his 
physician to give up the routine of his studies, and his superiors 
in St. Mary of the Lake offered him every opportunity to take 
a rest, but his active mind and facile pen could not remain idle. 
His contributions to the Church history of the Diocese of Chicago 
and to the Catholic literature of this period, are included in this 

He wrote to the New York Truth Teller: 

" CHICAGO, January 3, 1852. 

" On Saturday, the 27th ult., in the chapel of the convent of 
the Sisters of Mercy, Wabash Avenue, the Right Rev. Bishop 
Van de Velde, during High Mass, admitted to the Solemn Pro- 
fession the following novices: Hanora Kinsella, Louise Martin, 
Margaret Donahoe and Ellen Donovan, who in religion respec- 
tively bear the names Mary Josephine, Mary Angela, Mary Anne 
and Mary Martha. 

" The ceremony was of a highly interesting character, and was 
witnessed by many friends and acquaintances of the ladies to be 
professed. Very Rev. W. J. Quarter, V. G., Very Rev. J. A. Kin- 


sella, brother of the first-mentioned novice, and others of the clergy 
of the city, attended on the occasion. The music of the mass 
and some sacred pieces were finely executed (the young ladies who 
receive their education at the convent forming a most pleasing 
and highly efficient choir). After the Gospel, Bishop Van de Velde 
pronounced a beautiful and instructive discourse, on the nature 
and obligations of the conventual life, and was heard with profound 
attention, which his words invariably command. At the Com- 
munion, the ladies to be professed, bearing lighted candles, 
advanced singly to the foot of the altar (the excellent Mother 
Superior assisting), and there, before their GOD, concealed under 
the eucharistic veils and in the presence of the Bishop, pronounced 
the triple vow of the Order Poverty, Charity and Obedience, in- 
eluding the instruction of children and devotion to the sick poor. 
In the firm, cheerful tones in which they spoke their solemn ob- 
ligations in the alacrity wherewith they came to this renunciation 
of self, and of what uhe world miscalls liberty there was no 
betrayal of regret, no sorrow. They came to it in the spirit of that 
sentence : " If the Son shall make you free, you shall be free in- 
deed." Prayer and meditation had prepared them for the sacrifice, 
and they cast no longing look upon that world which they were 
abandoning. The day of their profession was a happy day indeed, 
for those good ladies, and for the excellent sisterhood so favorably 
known in our city, for their unostentatious piety and usefulness. 
It may, too, be styled a day of joy for the entire Catholic commu- 
nity of Chicago, for it gave to GOD and to the service of the poor, 
devoted hearts and generous untiring devotions. 

" The Sisters of Mercy have many claims upon the Catholics of 
Chicago. They have under their care the Orphan Asylums noble 
institutions, and erected chiefly by the zeal and exertions of our 
good Bishop, and where nearly a hundred destitute little ones find 
in the good Sisters all a mother's attention, a mother's care. The 
Sisters are likewise charged with the care of a Hospital, the only 
general one in Chicago ; and there, too, like good angels, the 
gentle ministrations smooth the pillow of sickness, and help to 


bind up the bruised heart. In their unbought service may be 
found the solution of the problem why, with all the appliances of 
wealth at their command, similar institutions amongst our " dis- 
senting friends" pine like exotics sapless, without vitality. GOD 
bless the founders of religious orders ! for contemplating them, 
even from a wordly point of view, are they not the true bene- 
factors of humanity ? Their names will* go down the stream of 
time with a fame, real, enduring, imperishable. I must not omit 
to mention what I deem the most striking feature of usefulness of 
the Order of Mercy and its members, amongst ourselves the tact 
and ability which they display in training the youth of their sex. 
In the Female Catholic Free Schools in this city, to which they 
give their services, some three hundred children receive an edu- 
cation solid and useful, based upon religion, and pervaded by its 
spirit. The fruits of this teaching are witnessed in the piety of 
the pupils the frequent reception of the sacraments, and in the 
silent and no less real influence in the cause of religion and mor- 
ality, which these children exercise in the bosom of their families. 
The Order of Mercy has, I believe, been introduced into the United 
States by the talented and amiable Bishop of Pittsburgh, Right 
Rev. M. O'Connor, D.D., and its growth has been rapid in the ex- 

"CHICAGO, Feb. 6, 1852. 

" A beautiful ceremony took place on the Feast of the Purifica- 
tion, February 2, 1852, in the chapel of the Sisters of Mercy of 
this city. 

" High Mass was sung by the Bishop, who, after the Gospel, deliv- 
ered an instruction on the necessity of regularity and exactness in 
the performance of all religious duties. Before Communion Mar- 
garet Ruth, Anne Theresa Hickey, and Anne Cummings, respect- 
ively, called in religion Sisters Mary Paula, Mary Veronica, and 
Mary Martin, were admitted to the solemn Profession of the Or- 
der, the first as a choir Sister, the two others as lay Sisters, and 
after Mass they received the black veil at the hands of the Bishop, 


assisted by the Very Rev. Walter J. Quarter. The ceremony was 
very interesting. All the boarders and nearly all the girls of the 
select school of St. Francis Xavier's Academy, besides several 
friends of the institution, were present on the occasion. 

" This is the third ceremony of the kind which has lately taken 
place among the Sisters of Mercy. The first, of which no men- 
tion has been made in a"ny Catholic periodical, took place on the 
13th of November, in the chapel of the Convent of the Sisters in 
Galena, where the Bishop admitted to the solemn Profession, Sis- 
ters Mary Genevieve, Mary Gertrude, Mary Soholastica, and Mary 
Magdalen de Pazzis, all Choir Sisters; formerly known in the 
world by the names of Sophie Granger, Sarah Gibbons, Anne 
Drum, and Ellen Eagan. 

" We understand that after a few days a colony of the Sisters is 
to leave the Mother House of Chicago, for the purpose of opening 
an Academy at Bourbonnais, Kankakee County. Boarders and day 
scholars will be admitted on moderate terms. The buildings to 
commence the Academy are ready for their reception. Bourbon- 
nais is a very thriving Catholic colony, composed exclusively of 
Canadian emigrants. It is but six or eight years ago that a few 
Canadians settled in that part of Kankakee County, where the 
lands are extremely fertile. They obtained them at Congress 
price. In the summer of 1846, the Very Kev. Mr. Badin took 
charge of the small congregation of Bourbonnais, and remained 
a considerable time among them. They had then a very small 
log church, which, however, was spacious enough to accommodate 
the new colony. The beauty and fertility of the country, watered 
by the Kankakee and Iroquois rivers, and the cheapness of the 
land, soon attracted new colonists from Canada, and it became 
necessary to make an addition to the log church, which was done 
by removing the logs of one of the sides and constructing a kind 
of shed, which gave the log building a very grotesque appearance. 
Soon after the arrival of Bishop Van de Velde, measures were 
taken to erect a more decent house of worship. Owing to the zeal of 
the pastor, Rev. R. T. Couijault, a large and solid frame church 


has since been erected, measuring 110 feet in length, and 50 in 
width. The interior has galleries all around, and can accommo- 
date nearly twice as many people as the present cathedral of Chi- 
cago. About 160 pews had been located last year, and more were 
to be added. The wainscoting and the pews, as far as they are 
finished, are of oak, or walnut and maple, and of neatly finished 
workmanship. A fine steeple is to be added to it, and when 
finished, the church will have a very fine appearance. The con- 
gregation has increased steadily by new accessions from Canada, 
and now numbers about 3,000 members. Three priests now re- 
side in Bourbonnais, and labor with great zeal and fruit among 
them. The people in general are very edifying and regular in 
the practice of their religious duties. The Arch-confraternity of 
the Immaculate Heart of Mary, and of our Lady of Mount 
Carmel are established among them, as also a temperance society 
of which nearly all are members." 

"CHICAGO, March 13, 1852. 

" We understand that operations have been commenced in Joliet 
to build a stone church for the Catholic population of that town, 
on a lot lately purchased for the purpose. The bishop has been in- 
vited to lay the corner stone of the new edifice on the first Sunday 
after Easter, and at the same time to administer the Sacrament of 
Confirmation in the Church of St. George. 

"At Galena a site has also been purchased for a German Catholic 
church. A few days ago a former Episcopal church, a substantial 
frame building, measuring 56 by 26, has been bought and which 
will forthwith be moved to the lot purchased on Franklin street, 
and after being repaired and blessed, will be devoted to Catholic 
service. It appears that the pews and a fine toned bell were in- 
cluded in the purchase. 

"At Beardstown a lot has been acquired and. preparations are 
being made for erecting a frame church on it, a part of the mate- 
rials being already on. the ground. 


"At Mt. Carmel, "Wabasb county, a brick church is forthwith 
to be commenced and to be placed under the protection of our 
Lady of Mt. Carmel. 

"At Rockford, Winnebago county, Henry, Marshall county, New- 
ton, Jasper county, Jacksonville, Morgan county, Wilmington, 
Will county, and Morris, Grundy county, Catholic churches will 
be commenced during the course of the ensuing spring. Several 
other churches are needed, and some, we have no doubt, will be 
up during the course of the present year. 

"At Freeport, Stephenson county, a frame church has been com- 
menced and is in progress of erection." 


The following appeared in the Western Tablet : 

" CHICAGO, March 18, 1852. 

" Wednesday last being St. Patrick's Day, was truly a festival 
among the sons and daughters of " the Green Isle of the Sea." 
The return of the anniversary of the favorite patron Saint of Ire- 
land was, for the first time in Aurora, celebrated in the new 
church with all the solemnity of our impressive religious worship. 

"Although the day was severely cold, and the roads were in a 
dreadful condition, a goodly number of people from the town and 
surrounding country assembled to participate in the ceremonies 
and pleasure of the festival. The church is not yet completed, 
but thanks to the zeal and energy of the pastor, the Rev. J. A. 
Lebel and the generosity of the people, it is already in a suitable 
condition for the proper worship of God, and though a fram. 
building, will prove a fine edifice when finished. High Mass was 
sung by the Rev. C. Zuncker, pastor of Naperville, assisted by 
Revs. Messrs. Fitzgerald and Lebel of Chicago. 

" An appropriate panegyric was delivered by the Rev. Mr. Fitz- 
gerald, in a style which was fervidly eloquent and distinguished 
by its purity and simplicity. The happy effect of his discourse 


upon the people so far from their own beloved fatherland was 
very perceptible at the time, nor will the remembrance of it soon 
fade from their hearts. 

"Among the many situations, which the present worthy Bishop 
of Chicago has purchased, as sites for churches within his im- 
mense diocese, there is perhaps not one which in point of beauty 
can equal the twenty acres the Catholic Church possesses in Au- 
rora, fronting on the Fox river. 

" We hear that our venerated Bishop intends to present this de- 
lightful spot to any religious congregation that will take the charge 
of the different missions in the Fox River Valley, which is fast 
filling with Catholics. The water power being very great, and the 
lands as fertile as any in our prairie State, offer a very advanta- 
geous prospect of this district becoming the most important in 
the West." 

" McIlENRY, March 20, 1852. 

" I had the pleasure of spending a few days among friends in 
this vicinity, . . . Not more than three or four miles from. 
McHenry town there are two settlements of German Catholics, 
one at each side of the Fox river. On the west side of the river 
a very handsome and sufficiently capacious frame church 75 by 32, 
was commenced in 1850, and plastered and completed this year. 
It was solemnly blessed by the Bishop of Chicago, and dedicated to 
God, in honor of St. John the Baptist, on the second Sunday of 
November last, when the sacrament of confirmation was also ad- 
ministered to sixty- three children and adults. The congregation 
has hitherto been attended by the Rev. Henry Fortmann, of New 
Trier, Cook county. Rev. T. B. Regal was afterward appointed to 
take charge of it, .but was sent to Joliet, where the German Catho- 
lics desired to have a priest of their language, and where they 
have since begun to lay the foundation of a church for their own 

"The Rev. T. B. U. lacomet has just arrived here to take charge 
of the congregation of St. John the Baptist, McHenry town. Besides 


this church in McHenry county, there is also in Lake county on 
Mill creek, the small frame church of St. Anne, 30 by 20, near 
the State line of Wisconsin, attended once a month by Rev. H. 
Coyle of Waukegan. The little church has just been finished, 
and the bishop has been invited to bless it immediately after 
Easter, but as the journey would interfere with his other duties, 
and as he will have to repair to the National Council, and thence 
probably take a short trip to Rome, the ceremony, it is supposed, 
will be performed by the worthy pastor himself. A log church 
has also lately been erected at Deerfield, in Lake county, towards 
the lake, and a frame church is to be built at the opening of 
spring at Buffalo Grove, near the same line, to the west. Five 
acres of land have just been purchased for that purpose. Both 
the places are attended from New Trier by Rev. H. Fortmann, 
who has two other frame churches ready to be built, one at 
Dutchman's Point, and the other at Ridgeville, just midway 
between New Trier and Chicago." 

John McMullen wrote the following report for the Western Tablet : 

" CHICAGO, March 27, 1852. 

" On Thursday, 26th inst., being the feast of the Annunciation 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary, our venerable Bishop gave the white 
veil to four Postulants in the chapel of the Convent of the Sisters 
of Mercy, in this city. Several friends of the institution were 
present at the ceremony. The choir was composed of the young 
ladies of the St. Xavier Academy, who did themselves credit 
on the occasion. The names of the Postulants were given as 
Mary Tobin, Catherine Martin, Catherine Gorman and Bridget 
Reily, which they respectively ezchanged for those of Sisters 
Mary Ursula, Mary Baptista, Mary Justina and Mary Anastasia. 

" We are glad to hear that the school lately established by the 
Sisters at Bourbonnais, Kankakee County, is in a nourishing con- 
dition. About ninety female children frequent the schools, and 
several from the neighborhood have applied to be received as 


boarders, but the Sisters, not having sufficient room to accom- 
modate them, have been obliged to refuse them admittance. It 
is hoped that during the course of the present year another 
building will be erected, which will enable them to receive boarders 
as well as payand free scholars." 

" DIOCESE OF CHICAGO, May 1, 1852. 

" Last Sunday, 25th inst., was the day appointed for the first 
Communion and Confirmation of the children of the parish of 
St. Mary's Cathedral. All assembled for the eight o'clock Mass, 
which was celebrated by the Right Rev. Bishop. It was a pleas-- 
ing and edifying scene to see so many young females dressed in 
white, the emblem of that virginal purity with which they were 
to assist at the banquet of the spotless Lamb. When the happy 
moment had arrived, the Prelate addressed a few words of exhor- 
tation to the children and adults, who for the first time were to 
receive their bounteous Savior. After Mass the Bishop gave an 
instruction on the Sacrament of Confirmation, which he adminis- 
tered to 122 children and adults, several of the latter being con- 
verts to our holy Religion. 

" At 10J o'clock, High Mass, at which the Bishop assisted, was 
sung by the Rev. Mr. Breen, of St. Mary's University. A very 
interesting sermon was delivered, by the Rev. W. Feely of Elgin, 
who had been permitted to take up a collection for paying off the 
debts of the Church which he has built at Elgin. His subject 
was the real presence of the good Shepherd in the Blessed 
Eucharist. Considering the circumstances of the times and the 
unfavorable state of the weather, his call was well responded to 
by the members of the congregation. The new Church of Elgin 
is built of cobble-stone, and is of respectable dimensions, the con- 
gregation being constantly on the increase. We understand that 
other Churches in this missionary district are to be erected, 
one of stone at the thriving town of St. Charles, and another, 
a frame building, at Kaneville on the high prairies. 


11 In the afternoon, the Right Rev. Bishop officiated at Vespers 
in the little frame Church of the Holy Name, on the North 
Side, and after that gave an exhortation and administered 
the Sacrament of Confirmation to 82 children and adults, most 
of whom had been previously admitted to their first Communion. 
The ceremony was closed by the Bishop with the solemn bene- 
diction of the Blessed Sacrament. The greatest praise is due to 
the Sisters of Mercy, for their kind exertions in instructing and 
preparing the female children of both parishes in which Con- 
firmation was administered, and for the order and regularity 
to which they have trained those under their care for the reception 
of both Sacraments." 

"May 10, 1852. 

" Yesterday, the new Church at Richville, was blessed and dedi- 
cated to the service of Almighty God, under the patronage of 
St. Henry. It is a substantial frame building, 40 feet long by 26 
feet wide, and so constructed as to admit of future additions, as 
the congregation increases. There are three acres of land 
attached to the Church, to be used as a burial ground for the 
Catholics of the parish. On the opposite side of the road, that 
passes by the lot, are sites for a parochial residence and school 
house, to be erected at a future day. 

" The location of the Church and burial ground has been judici- 
ously made, the place is located far above the neighboring country, 
which must always render it healthy and pleasant, and being 
sufficiently central, affords equal accommodations to each family 
in the parish. 

" The Church has been built, and as I have been informed, the 
lot purchased by the Rev. Mr. Fortmann, to whose exertions and 
zeal in this present undertaking, the Catholics of the district are 
much indebted." 



June 4, 1852. 

The Treasurer of the Chicago Orphan Asylum Association very 
gratefully acknowledges the receipt of the following sums : 

From Cathedral $41 53 

" St. Patrick's Church. , 20 85 

Church of the Holy Name, for April 896 

" St. Louis Church, French 5 00 

$Y6 36 
The following appeared in the Western Tablet : 

" CHICAGO, Oct. 29, 1852. 

" We understand that Bishop Van de Velde administered the 
Sacrament of Confirmation last Sunday to sixty persons in Mee- 
han's Settlement, Lake County, and that he afterwards laid the 
corner-stone of a new brick church to be erected to the honor of 
God, under the patronage of St. Ignatius, the founder of the So- 
ciety of Jesus. The sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr. Ives, of 
Milwaukee. The church is to be built of brick, and to be eighty 
feet long and fifty feet wide. Bishop Van de Velde returned to 
the city from Waukegan last Tuesday morning, and left on the 
same day for Joliet, having promised to admkiister Confirmation 
in Wilmington and at Twelve Mile Grove. It is expected that 
Bishop Van de Velde will be in the city next Sunday (to-morrow). 
He will leave us again on Monday for Ottawa, where he is to bless 
the new Church of St. Columba on the Feast of All Saints. 
This will probably be the last Episcopal function which he will 
perform in this Diocese, as we have been credibly informed that 
he will set out for his new Diocese before the end of next week. 

" We omitted to state in last week's paper that on Monday, 17th 
inst., Bishop Van de Velde repaired to Aurora for the purpose of 
making arrangements to build or procure a good brick church for 
the Catholics of that flourishing town on the Fox River. 


" Our readers will remember that the new frame church which 
had been built there in 1851, was last December blown down by a 
hurricane, and though it was raised again and repaired in the 
commencement of this year, yet it had been so much injured that 
it was considered that it could only be used for a short period. 
We know not what has been the result of the Bishop's visit. On 
Wednesday, 19th inst., Bishop Van de Velde administered the 
Sacrament of Confirmation to ninety-six persons, about one-third 
of them adults, at Saganash, commonly known by the name of the 
Sag, about twenty-two miles south of Chicago. Ninety persons 
approached the Holy Table during the Mass, which was said by 
the Rev. M. O'Donnell, who attends this station from Lockport. 

" Among them was a lady of a very respectable family, and 
the wife of one of the most influential citizens of the neighborhood, 
the mother of several children, who had previously made her 
abjuration and been conditionally baptized by the Bishop. She 
had been reared in the Scotch Presbyterian persuasion, to which 
for many years she had been a strict adherent. In the afternoon 
the Bishop laid the corner-stone of a new church, 40 by 60, which 
is to replace the old log building that has hitherto been used as a 
church. The new building is to be erected on an elevated spot, 
and will command a view of the whole surrounding country." 

Western Tablet, October 30, 1852 : 


"Before another issue of your paper, the Church spread through- 
out all lands will again have celebrated with high solemnity the 
glory and triumph of the servants and friends of God, " a great 
multitude which no man can number," who having finished their 
earthly banishment and toil, have entered into their heavenly rest. 
Besides the elevating and inspiring themes for reflection which 
the recurrence of this glorious festival everywhere suggests, there 
is a reminiscence which should specially endear it to Catholics 
throughout the region of Lake Michigan. It commemorates the 


erection of the first Catholic church in a district which was at the 
time more than a thousand miles west of the most Western settle- 
ment of the white man in America, and more than fifteen 
hundred from the abodes and institutions of ordered and civ- 
ilized life. It was on All Saints' Day, 1679, nearly two hundred 
years ago, that La Salle, with fourteen men, who had paddled up 
the bright and swift current of the river St. Joseph, which dis- 
charges itself into the Lake at a point nearly opposite our city, 
finished the erection of a fort and chapel on -the banks of that 
river sixty miles from its mouth, the site of which is still marked 
by a stately wooden cross. Hennepin was there, and three Recol- 
let religious beside. Amidst the grave and beautiful chaunts 
of the Church and the roar of arquebuses, amidst the unbroken 
solitude of primeval nature in the vast region of the lakes, the 
glory of God in his saints, and , the erection of a first temple to 
his honor, were celebrated with a mighty and exulting joy. No 
groined arches and solemn vistas of Gothic minster ; no awful 
dome symbolizing, in the sublime language of architecture, the 
position of man between time and eternity ; no golden lamps and 
sculptured marbles lent impressiveness and majesty to the celebra- 
tion of the feast; but the solitary bark chapel overlooking the 
virgin beauty of forest and prairie, and with the novel and excit- 
ing surroundings of wilderness life was that day, we imagine, 
more solemn to the few but earnest worshippers that offered 
therein the clean oblation of the new law, than ever had seemed 
to them, the glorious " stone-flowers " of rnedioeval architecture. 

" Iris all hues ; roses and jessamine 

Reared high their flourishing heads between, and wrought 
Mosaic ; under foot the violet. 
Crocus and hyacinth, with rich inlay, 
Broidered the ground, more colored than with stones 
Of costliest emblem." 

" Where were the Puritans then, who now talk as if Catholics 
were intruders into the West, instead of having been the earliest 
pioneers of civilization throughout the whole valley of the Missis- 
sippi? It ill becomes Protestants of any sect to disparage the zeal 


devotedness, heroism and virtue of the priesthood and religious of 
our Church ; at least to do so here, where every vestige of the 
early history of the country is a loud proclamation, that to that 
priesthood and these religious, the West owes its largest debt of 

Bishop Van de Velde made the following note of a brief trip 
from St. Louis. It was found among Bishop McMullen's memor- 
anda : 

"May 15, 1852. 

" I left St. Louis by steamer Cataract for La Salle ; time, 23 hours 
and 47 minutes, where I took the canal packet boat St. Louis for 
Chicago, arriving next day at noon. This was a quick trip. I 
made it in only 42 hours and 47 minutes." 

The following correspondence by John McMullen is taken from 
the Western Tablet : 

" LA SALLE, June 27, 1852. 

" At La Salle the canal joins the Illinois river, and here may be 
considered the terminating point of steam navigation from 
the south. This town and Peru are so clearly assimilated that 
they may be looked upon as one city and the interests of both 
identified in common. 

" La Salle takes its name from a Catholic, who, with a few others, 
were sent from France to explore this western country above 
a century ago. The town is situated on a commanding eleva- 
tion, above the river, and united with Peru, has a large Catholic 
population. A beautiful Church built of stone is nearly com- 
pleted and affords ample testimony to the zeal of the three 
resident priests, the Rev. Messrs. O'Reilly, Quigly and Steele, who 
minister to the wants of a very extended mission, reaching as far 
west as Dixon, on the Rock river. It is intended by and by to 
build another Church for the accommodation of the German 
Catholics, who form no inconsiderable item of the population of 
this portion of the State." 


"PEORIA, July 17, 1852. 

" The new Catholic Church in this place was opened on Sunday 
the 4th of July, and although capable of seating eight hundred 
persons, nearly an equal number had to remain standing. The 
Rev. A. Montuori, the much respected Pastor, preached a chaste 
and eloquent sermon on the occasion, and chose for his subject 
the claims of the Catholic Church to be the true Church of 
Christ. A large number of protestants were present, who seemed 
highly pleased and edified with the discourse, and with the proofs, 
advanced in support of the argument. 

"The dedication will not take place until the return of our good 
Bishop next fall. 

"On Monday, the 5th, the Catholics of Brimfield, Peoria County y 
celebrated the glorious anniversary of Independence, by having 
a public dinner, the proceeds to be applied to the completion of 
their new church. The Rev. J. C. Brady, the much-respected 
pastor, delivered an eloquent discourse on the occasion, which was 
listened to attentively and must have had a good effect upon his 
audience. Thus we see the work goes bravely on in Peoria 
County two new Churches in one year ; and the German 
Catholics are making arrangements to build another Church in 
this city. If Americans were true to their own interest, they would 
protect Catholics in their fidelity to the rock of Peter, rather than 
by proselytism, etc. try to swerve them from it. Oh ! if they could 
see the miserable wreck that daily presents itself in every city 
and town in the Union, in the shape of Rationalists and Philo- 
sophers, Kossuth Clubs, and Gymnasiums, all of which have a 
tendency to demoralize the human mind and destroy Christianit}'-. 
But all these things will only help to make Catholics and their 
Faith more fully appreciated. 

" The great Sclav who has set this country in an uproar for the 
last eight or ten months, by advocating intervention in European 
affairs, has at length dared to do publicly what he has been doing 
so long covertly, namely, interfere in our domestic concerns. I 


wonder how his dear friends will like the advice of the denouncer 
of the Society of Jesus ! or will the members of the Bible Society 
approve of the political manifesto of their vice-president ? Verily, 
we have hit on wonderful times, and every day produces a victory 
for Catholicism, from the pronoun ciamento of .Victoria to the 
demented manifesto of the Hungarian rebel, alias the Sclav, Kos- 
suth, alias the disturber of Hungary and aider of Italian Reds. 
However, in a short time we shall see what will develop itself; in 
any event, the Catholic Church of America has taken her posi- 
tion, and will firmly maintain it independent of pretended friends 
or open enemies. The great factionists will find that the Catho- 
lics are possessed of more sense and discernment than they here- 
tofore received credit for, and they will yet learn the good lesson : 
that there is a power behind the throne greater than the throne 

Western Tablet, August. 21, 1852: 


"On the Feast of the Assumption, two young ladies Miss 
Catherine Maria Hughes and Miss Catherine Kavanagh, (respec- 
tively called, in religion, Sister Mary Bernardine and Sister Mary 
Clare,) were involved with the white veil of the novitiate among 
the Sisters of the Order of Mercy, in the chapel of their Convent, 
in this city. 

" As the Right Rev. and venerable Bishop of the diocese is at 
present absent in Italy, the ceremony of reception was performed 
by the Very Rev. Administrator, P. T. McElhearne, who addressed 
them in a feeling and impressive manner, on the nature of the 
responsibilities they assumed, and the great duties they voluntarily 
charged themselves with. 

" Since the first establishment of a branch of the Order of Mercy 
in this city, some six years have now elapsed, and during this 
short period vast and incalculable is the amount of good that has 
been, and is daily being effected by the members. Like the de- 


voted daughters of St. Vincent, they shelter in their Asylums 
institutions for which we are indebted to the untiring exertion of 
our good and saintly Bishop and train up with a mother's ten- 
derness and vigilance, to virtue and usefulness, a large number of 
male and female orphans, who, else, would now be homeless little- 
wanderers in the crowded thoroughfares of our city, and deeply 
contaminated, perhaps, with its corruption and vices. In their 
Hospital, too, which, with the Asylums has been recently incor- 
porated by an Act of the Legislature, they are assiduous in their' 
ministrations by the bed-side of the sick and the dying ; soothing 
with kind and gentle words their afflictions, and binding-up, lik& 
compassionate Samaritans, their bruised and sorrow-crushed hearts.. 
Whilst in their Academies and Schools, there is imparted a. 
healthy, solid, and refined education. 

" The invaluable services, rendered daily by this devoted Sister- 
hood to the Catholics of Chicago, give them many and strong 
claims upon their gratitude and support ; and we are happy to 
witness a deep and grateful, yet due appreciation, on the part of 
the people, of these excellent ladies merits and usefulness." 

The Western Tablet, August 5, 1853 : 


" While we have often to record the cheering accounts of the 
advance of Christ's Faith which reach us from other quarters, we 
have too long omitted to chronicle its modest but steady increase 
in the neighboring diocese of Milwaukee. We have long desired 
that some one competent to do so would trace out for the edification 
of our pious readers the astonishing progress of Catholicity since 
Bishop Henni, ten years ago, entered upon his desolate episcopate, 
and we still hope such an account may one day be sent us. There 
were then three priests in the State of Wisconsin, and the mission- 
ary Prelate found scarcely a building which deserved the name of 
a Church within the limits of his jurisdiction. There is now not a 
diocese in the United States more flourishing, and it numbers over 


a hundred churches, not to speak of other religious institutions, 
seventy-five priests, and nearly a hundred thousand Catholics. Is 
it too much to say that " God has turned a wilderness into pools of 
water, and a dry land into water springs.? " 

" The Consecration of St. John's Cathedral, on the Feast of St. 
Ignatius last, was preceded by a spiritual Retreat, given to the 
entire clergy, by the Reverend Fathers of the Society of Jesus, 
Gleizal, Weninger, and Boudreaux, to the great satisfaction and con- 
solation of the untiring and holy Bishop, and from which renewed 
zeal and increased fruit may be augured, for the whole Milwaukee 
diocese. During the two weeks preceding the Consecration, a 
Mission was given by Father Gleizal and Boudreaux in the new 
Cathedral, which was attended, day and night, by an immense 
concourse of people, accompanied by the evident blessing of God 
and the most happy success. On the Feast of the Assumption of 
the Blessed Virgin, over one hundred and fifty received from the 
Bishop the Sacrament of Confirmation, among whom were twenty- 
two, who in the preceding year had been converted to the 
Catholic Faith. 

" Three new churches will soon be dedicated by Bishop Henni 
to the service of Almighty God. The, one which deserves the most 
prominent notice is the beautiful and capacious building, erected 
in honor of the " Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary," at Racine, by the Very Rev. Father Kundig; it will be 
blessed on the 21st August." 


" Sept. 25, 1852. 

" On the 8th of August the corner-stone of a Catholic Church was 
laid, with appropriate ceremonies, by the Rev. T. B. Chap, of Vin- 
cennes. An altar was erected near the place, towards which a 
procession was made, those who composed it singing the Litany of 
the Blessed Virgin. At 10 o'clock A. M., High Mass was sung by 
the Rev. T. F. Fisher, and at the conclusion of it the corner-stone 


was laid, Father Chap preaching an eloquent and appropriate dis- 
course. The Rev. Mr. Stoph, from Vincennes, also preached in 
the German language. The weather was most propitious, and the 
solemn and interesting services seemed to make a deep impression 
on all who listened to them. 

"The edifice of brick, 60 feet by 30, is being substantially 
built, and reflects great credit on the energy and enterprise of all 
concerned. In about three weeks from this date (Sept. 1 5) it will 
be roofed in." 

The following articles were published by John McMullen during 
the years 1852-3 in the Western Tablet : 


"Perhaps the question most frequently asked by Catholics is, 
whether there is a spirit of toleration in the breasts of a majority 
of this nation's population at this time, or whether it is the 
founders of our constitution to whom we ought ever to be thank- 
ful for the civil and religious privileges we enjoy, and not to the 
generation of the present day ? 

" That there is an intolerant spirit at work in this country, no 

Catholic or candid Protestant will deny ; the latter know it, the 

former feel its effect. It may be found in the family circle, the 

social hall, sectarian conventicle, the political club, aye, and the 

political, convention I A spirit that breathes a silent hate, a hidden 

bitterness for the Catholic; its intolerance is manifested in a 

thousand ways that none notice but the injured. The foolish cant, 

the coarse epithet, the false statement, the contemptible slander, 

the direct insult, the base calumnies that are every day to be found 

in any of the above named assemblages, and the same that daily 

teems from a bigot press, proves that there is stalking abroad over 

this land of religious freedom (?), an intolerant spirit of huge 

proportions only kept from crushing its victims by the " doughty 

deeds" of our revolutionary fathers. 


" The witnesses of this are Catholics of all grades and conditions, 
the sewing girl is daily insulted, the laborer hears the cant, and 
the children of the Church at large, the contemptible slander. 
When will Catholics cease to be reviled ? When will the father 
of lies have no longer a press at his command to vomit forth its 
stream of malignity ? 

" Where is perfect religious freedom, liberty of conscience, 
when none are fairly or charitably dealt with, except those who 
move with the majority ? True, in one point of law, we are equal, 
but in a hundred ways Catholics are placed in an inferior rank, 
and marked out as unworthy citizens. The people in this country 
are influenced by a certain religious bias, and they show their 
dislike for Catholics whenever they can do so without a palpable 
violation of the laws. This is abundantly proven by every day 

"Who of us is most aware of the fact that our Churches are rarely 
ever visited by Protestants, but for the purpose of ridicule? They 
go for sight-seeing, and not with a disposition to make an honest 
inquiry into the nature and meaning of the ceremonies there wit- 
nessed. Their unpardonable ignorance leads them to suppose 
that the Catholic worship is nothing but insipid ceremony 
without intention or meaning. But they might learn that 
the wisdom and sublimity of the holy offices in the worship 
of God are simply and faithfully conducted upon the express laws 
laid down for the observance of man by the Great Founder of 
Christianity and His apostles. 

" The Church, by her magnificent ceremonial, as well as her daily 
exhortation, impresses upon her children the nature and import- 
ance of religion, and makes the ignorant familiar with all the 
prominent facts in the life of our Lord. She does not drive them 
about "by every wind of doctrine;" but the faith her early 
founders taught, is the same now preached by their successors of 
the present day. Yesterday, to-day and to-morrow, the doctrines 
of the Catholic Church will be found to correspond. 

" It will be long, indeed, before a Catholic Church will become 


the theatre of such buffooneries as were practiced lately in one of 
the conventicles of this city, and where some persons indulged to 
their hearts' content in the " spiritual knocking " business. What 
makes the matter more glaring, the prominent leaders in the ex- 
citement were some of our bon ton who, were they members of the 
one Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, would, from a know- 
ledge of its precepts, never indulge in such nonsense." 


" Were other than direct evidence the authority of Divine rev- 
elation required to establish the greatness, the indestructibility, 
and essential truth of our holy religion, it can easily be procured 
from among the sayings and doings of the demagogues, infidels, 
schismatics and fanatics, who assail the Catholic Church with the 
fierceness of bigotry and unscrupulousness of zeal, and who 
assiduously misrepresent her on every occasion. This we desig- 
nate indirect testimony to her purity ; for light has no fellowship 
with darkness. From enlightened reason, guided by inspired 
truth, the Church never had, and never will have anything to 
fear ; knowing full well, that built on an immovable foundation, 
she is proof against all assaults, the men who now appear fore- 
most in the foolish attempt to revolutionize the world and anni- 
hilate the Church, are compelled to resort to baseless denunciation 
and incoherent fabrications. Their crude theories are simply a 
negation of all religious belief, a negation of Divine revelation, 
and a negation of the Deity by some, or a feeble doubt of the 
existence of a God by others. Their social theories are obnoxious 
and repulsive, and their moral sense dull or quite dead; the 
principles, therefore, on which they base their movements are 
intangible abstractions, leading to immorality and disorgani- 

"And yet, what these ignorant pretenders say against the Catho- 
lic Church, is listened to ; for they have sacreligiously assumed to 


be philosophers, philanthropists, and patriots burning with zeal 
to discover truth to relieve humanity, and to disenthral a world 
from bondage and slavery. Among others of their assertions, 
they unblushingly declare she is the deadly opponent of all social 
and moral progress, yea, they confidently catalogue their own 
vicious enormities and place them in array as the sins which 
naturally flow from, and are necessarily characteristic of 
Catholicism. The Catholic Church is charged with having ever 
been foremost to quench the flame of freedom, and establish des- 
potism, and it is added, to sum. up the charge, the tendencies of 
our religion are towards a theocratic centralization, which strikes 
at the foundation of human improvement ! All this is done with 
so much apparent candor and suavity of manner, that more or 
less importance is attached to the assertions ; and even in our own 
free America, the sentiments of these atheistic demogogues find 
response and countenance. 

" But supposing that the hierarchy of the Catholic Church con- 
tended for an absolute theocratic government which they do not 
is it possible that a theocracy is truly opposed to the interests of 
mankind ? Was the government of ancient Israel, under the great 
Jewish Lawgiver inconsistent with the welfare and happiness of 
the people ? On the contrary, did not they proportionally suffer 
as they deviated perversely from the counsels of their inspired 
leader. Are we to forget that He who established his Church on 
.a rock, against which hell should not prevail, did not know all 
things from the beginning and provide for what was afterwards to 
happen, by enshrining truth in the heart of his Vicegerent on 
earth ; or are we to presume that all this is a fallacy ? Atheists 
and infidels on the one hand and Protestant schismatics on the 
other, may attempt to reason that mankind have interests utterly 
independent of the Church ; but these attempts are too flimsy and 
transparant to pass for deliberative or authoritative deduction. To 
Protestants themselves, this would be a most fatal conclusion ; for 
if Protestantism is such a powerful conservator of Divine law and 
human rights, where were these preserved so faithfully and un 


corrupted until the apostate Luther and his compeers were convert- 
ed from the truth, and until Calvin, Knox, and others of their 
class began to ride on the fury and frenzy of their followers? To 
listen to Protestant orators of the present day, no person would 
suppose they were handed down to posterity through the Catholic 
Church that Church divinely instituted, which it has been their 
life-long occupation to revile and bring into disrepute by a fanatic- 
ism hidden under the name of " Reformation." 

"Among great names we are pointed to, is that of the 
notorious Henry VIII. as well as others who disgraced the 
British people ; and what transcendent virtues, it may be asked, 
are to be found in the life of that English monarch who is digni- 
fied with the title of " Defender of the Faith " in the advertise- 
ment or dedication of the English paraphrase of the Holy Scrip- 
tures ? If the Catholic Church had not been a more faithful con- 
servator of the trust committed to her by her Divine Master, than 
any or all of these men, the existence of the self-styled arrogant 
reformers could not have been ; for ever since their apostacy, the 
result is that their fall has been a continued illustration, that the 
depth of the degradation is " deeper still ! " But it is said that the 
Catholic Church countenances and supports the despotism which 
trod down Italy and Hungary and Sicily, and has ranged herself 
alongside the man who wields the destinies of France ! If she does 
not recognize Kossuth, Mazzini and others, it is because she 
deprecates their neology, and foresees the folly of their blind 
atheism ; and whatever her position may seem to be, those who 
only see through a jaundiced medium are not capable of 
appreciating her motives. Is that Church to be acknowledged 
against the people whose dignitaries and priests have ever been 
intimately associated and identified with the masses of the 
population ? 

" It cannot be that the organization which preserved history and 
tradition through long centuries is to be discarded at the bidding 
of men who are but of yesterday, and who are governed by other 


than pure, holy motives, although in their infidelity they some- 
times invoke the name of God. 

" The republican of this Western Hemisphere, the democracy of 
these United States know from past experience that the charge of 
despotism is false ; they know it, because they have witnessed the 
energetic zeal with which the great process of true amelioration 
was entered on and carried nobly forward by Catholics, and 
because they have observed, that when they were reviled they 
rendered not evil for evil, but persevered in the cause which had 
enlisted their sympathies, despite the malevolence and vituperation 
of those enemies of true liberty and religion, as illustrated in the 
actions of some of the popular demagogues of the day." 


" The favorite answer of the defenders of state education to all 
the arguments of the oppressed and injured minority, is the ques- 
tion why, if the evils and inconveniences of the so-called free 
schools' system are so great and grievous, if the education impart- 
ed is so irreligious and demoralizing, the great religious denom- 
inations of the country, Episcopalians, Baptists, Presbyterians, 
Methodists, el id genus omne, make no complaint of the schools on 
this score, and Catholics alone are awake to their dangers ? The 
sects of Protestantism, it is argued, be their doctrines ever so 
untenable or objectionable, and their religion so ever untrue, have 
at least, in common with all religious, true arid false, the instinct of 
self-preservation, are not demented to that degree that they are 
casting about for the means of suicide, desire to live longer in 
the world if only that they may give battle to Catholicity and con- 
tend for an " open Bible " and an unfettered intellect. Why then 
should they countenance, patronize and uphold a system which, if 
its certain and universal operation is to debauch and render infidel 
the rising generation, will issue as disastrously than to Catholics t 


Have Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians and the others, not even 
that insignificant modicum of common sense which would keep 
them from such fatuity as this ? 

" To all this we reply, that the mental acumen and moral instincts 
of the sects are not the criteria by which Catholics estimate the 
presence or absence of danger, in any given case to faith and 
morals, and is it not fair that we should be required to receive 
them as such ? God, sometimes in righteous judgment, for despite 
done to his grace, or blasphemy againt his truth, sends upon whole 
bodies of men a judicial blindness, so that having eyes they see 
not, and having ears they hear not. Long persistence in error 
causes a film to grow over the clear eye of conscience, induces the 
loss even of mental perspicacity, and the want of that ordinary 
sagacity, which so far from being the peculiar attribute of reason, 
man possesses only in common with the whole realm of ani- 
mated nature. 

" Hath not even a pagan said : Quern dii volunt perdere, prius de- 
mentant ? And who knows that it may not be a part of the punish- 
ment of the apostacy of the sixteenth century, that it shall, while 
venting its rage against the- Church of God, and devising a 
thousand cunning schemes for the destruction of the hated truth, 
find some of these very schemes prove the instrument of its own 
destruction ? Would it be the first time in the history of man- 
kind that the wicked have dug a pit and fallen into it themselves ? 

" But there is another answer to the question which the advocates 
of State education so triumphantly propound, which we think 
must be received as entirely satisfactory by every mind of com- 
mon candor. The sectarian world has no organ for the super- 
natural, and no faith, generally speaking, in objective truth, at 
least of the moral and metaphysical order. Whatever dogmatism 
existed among Protestants a century ago, we may be certain that 
not a particle of it remains at the present day. The Protestant 
world have long since ceased to believe or to teach the theological 
systems of the German, Swiss, French and Anglican reformers. 
So confessedly is this true, that a solitary voice is from time to 


time raised from a Presbyterian parsonage and heard through the- 
press or the platform, lamenting the utter decay of doctrinal 
teaching and catechetical instruction throughout the borders of a 
sect, which was originally perhaps the most positive in its teach- 
ings of all the spawn of the reformation. Such remonstrances 
meet, indeed, with responsive lamentations ; but all feel that the 
evil has gone too far to be remedied or arrested, and that nothing 
remains but to await the result, whatever that may be. Similar 
acknowledgments are made, as occasion requires, by the other 
sects; and even an honest Methodist, if pressed closely, would 
grant that the spirit of primitive Methodists is utterly gone, that 
the semblances of fervor and severity which Methodists of the pres- 
ent day assume are mere sham, and that modern Methodism 
itself is little better than a gauze veil thrown over the most com- 
plete worldliness and self-seeking. 

" Now, such being the condition of Protestantism it having no- 
truth to contend for, and no morality better than pagan to guard 
and preserve, it is not wonderful that it should be everywhere the 
prop and champion of goodless education. And this will show a yet 
more satisfactory account of the case, when we take into considera- 
tion the genius and spirit of modern infidelity. The altered 
aspect of the infidelity of the nineteenth century, compared with 
that of the seventeenth, are topics of discourse to our readers. No- 
longer does it sneer and flout and gibber in accents caught from 
the orgies of the infernal world. No longer does it aim directly 
to destroy the existing order of society. It does not propose to 
level churches to the ground, or convert them into temples of the 
goddess of reason. It never says in so many words, " Death is an 
eternal sleep." It would affect to shudder with cold horror at 
Voltaire's Ecrasez I' infame. It is studiously careful of propriety, 
it aims above all things to secure respectability. It would de- 
nounce as infamous and immoral any system, whose tendency 
should be to promote the physical and temporal damage of men 
or society. It guards jealously the rights of property, and, theo- 
retically at least, the social institutions which have been established 


by Christian civilization. Now, who does not see that the co- 
existence of such an infidelity as this so respectable, orderly, 
conducive to success in life, and to the material development 
which goes by the name of progress with the forms of an effete 
and exhausted Protestantism, involves necessarily no violent re- 
volution or even perceptible change in the existing order of 
Protestant society. . That such a revolution is going forward 
noiselessly, but rapidly and surely is evident to any dispassion- 
ate and unbiased observer. And here is the secret of the apathy 
with which the sects view the insidious attempts of infidelity to 
lay a broad foundation for subsequent scepticism in the minds of 
the school boys of the country. The sects have everywhere adopt- 
ed, as the criterion and touch-stone of Christian orthodoxy, does 
a man's faith make him thrifty, keen after the main chance, re- 
spectable and intelligent? If so, he has "been with Jesus." 
Otherwise he is yet far from the kingdom of heaven. No matter 
what he believes. No matter what he disbelieves. No matter 
about the world to come, about the joys of heaven, and the 
sorrows of hell. No matter whether, with the Rev. Jacob Abbot, 
he thinks Moses went into the wilderness to work himself up into 
a mood of sublime enthusiasm, and that in such a mood of mind 
he really thought he had communications with the Almighty ; 
or, with the Rev. Theodore Parker, he thinks it provable that our 
Divine Savior committed sins. These are mere matters of specu- 
lation. The question is : does a man's religion render him respect- 
able, wealthy, enterprising, and full of the spirit of progress ? 

" Catholics, on the other hand, have not yet got rid of the 
medieeval superstitions. To them heaven is yet high, and hell is 
deep. To them this world, with all its petty interests, its tinsel 
splendor, its passing pomp, is but the short prelude to a vast and 
boundless existence, whose character for weal or woe must be de- 
termined by the present. To them the devil is real, and sin the 
only evil in the universe. To them one particle of divine grace, 
one smile of God, is worth more than ten thousand worlds. To 
them the commission of one mortal sin is a worse evil than that 


every nerve and fibre of every son of Adam that walks the earth, 
should be racked and tortured with such abounding pain, that one 
universal groan should continually roll its unutterable import to 
heaven. What are a few days of suffering, inconvenience, dis- 
advantage to them, compared with a whole eternity of torture? 
Why should they not prefer that the intellects of their children 
should go uneducated, if need be, rather than that their whole 
body and soul should be cast into hell, where their worm dieth 
not and their fire is not quenched ? " 


" Professor Eppy is entitled to the everlasting thanks of mankind 
for his incomplete, but in many respects valuable and reliable 
theory of storms. Calling to his aid the co-operation of the most 
able observers throughout the Union, he has for years devoted all 
the energies of a truly scientific mind to the investigation and 
elucidation of the causes and principles of the various meteoric 
phenomena ; and with such triumphant success, that the tempests 
which lash into fury the merciless ocean, may now be foreseen and 
provided against, days beforehand, by the least intelligent mariner 
that braves the anger of Neptune. The point of departure and the 
utmost goal the terminus ad quo and the terminus ad quern of 
those vast waves of air that sweep periodically over land and water, 
and invest themselves with a majesty and fearfulness proportioned 
to the conscious impotence of human might to arrest or control 
them, have now, by means of the generalization, of a great multi- 
tude of careful observations, been determined and described with 
all the exactitude required by the most, rigorous demands of 

" We have often wished that some adept in the philosophy of 
mind would theorize so successfully with regard to those " winds 
of doctrine," those tempests of fanaticism, those wild and irresistible 
gusts and tornadoes of intellectual caprice and extravagance, which 


agitate the surface of society as- furiously and as fitfully as the 
physical world disturb the repose and serenity of nature. A 
scientific classification of facts here always would, we have no 
doubt, lead to the discovery of some general law which those 
melancholy manifestations of human passion and infirmity obey 
with scarcely a deviation ; and so far as our own country is con- 
cerned, beyond all question they would be found in most instances 
to have their origin in New England, the "land of notions;" pass- 
ing thence obliquely through the Middle, and terminating on the 
borders of the Southern States; or clearing for themselves a direct 
path to* the confines of civilization, expend their violence in the 
Ultima, Thule of the great, the scheming and restless West. With 
the sole exception, of Finneyism and Bloomerism, we cannot now 
call to mind a single one of the philosophical, philanthropic, 
political, and religious quackeries and fooleries that have succes- 
sively vexed the public mind for the last quarter of a century, 
which does pot owe its paternity, its inception, and " proof im- 
pression " to the neighborhood of Plymouth Rock. Hence, came 
the American dilution, or rather counterfeit and caricature of the 
transendentalism of Kant, Hegel, Fichte, and Schilling ; hence the 
introduction to the transatlantic world of the medical system of 
the great Hanneman, based upon that luminous and self-evident 
principle that " the infinitesrnal part of nothing is as much as 
something;" hence abolitionism, Parkerism, and mesmerism; 
hence innumerable theories for the moral regeneration of the race, 
and the deification of humanity, which were to set aside, explode, 
and annihilate Christian society and Christianity itself. Each had 
its day ; each satisfied the whims of the hour, and the childish 
avidity of the fickle multitude for moral absurdities and Quixotic 
extravagance, and having served its ephemeral purpose, has been 
cast aside as a broken and spurned toy. 

" The year of grace 1852 dawned upon the world ; and not more 
punctual was the advent of the biting frosts, and the salutations 
and festivities of the opening year, than the appearance of another 
theme and subject for the spume and froth and rant of fanatical 


eloquence and agitation. None of our readers, we presume, are so 
far behind the times as to be ignorant that the monomania of the 
present year is the Maine Liquor Law. As its title imports, this 
new pet of the reigning rampant fanaticism, first saw the light in 
the extreme limit of the realms of propriety and Puritanism ; 
thence traveled westward to Massachusetts; struggled ineffec- 
tually for recognition and adoption in New York ; and finally has 
found its way to the shores of the great lakes. It is not our pre- 
sent purpose to pass any judgment on its merits or demerits, the 
justice of the principle and of which it springs, of its policy, utility, 
or practicability, as a measure for the suppression of drunkenness. 
We have introduced the members of the controversy to which it 
has given rise, merely as furnishing an example of the mode in 
which, in this golden age of the unfettered intellect, public opinion 
is manufactured, and so to speak, generated, as the chemist gener- 
ates his gases for purposes of illustration and experiment, or the 
machinist the motive power, which is to achieve his conquests 
over blind and soulless matter. 

" Just at the present time, and in a neighboring State, the most 
prodigious efforts are making to produce an overwhelming ex- 
pression of public opinion, with a view to procure the passage of 
this law at the next session of the legislature. The original 
authors of the movement, a small and choice coterie of philan- 
thropists of the howling and foaming sort, have sufficient knowl- 
edge of logic to understand that a manifestation, however desir- 
able and essential to the success of a purpose in hand, cannot 
precede the existence, or the semblance of the existence of the 
thing which is to be manifested. Now, as not even the sham or 
shadow of a public opinion on the law in question exists in the 
state, nor is likely to be produced spontaneously and naturally, 
and as they are bent upon having an expression of public opinion, 
they are forced to adopt the expedient of generating this opinion 
by an artificial method, which we shall proceed to describe. 

" Nearly simultaneously, announcements of convoking mass or 
camp meetings in suitable localities all over the state, make their 


appearance in the public prints, and in enormous and exciting 
placards, which inform the reader what splendors and thunders 
of blinding and stunning eloquence mark the performance. It so 
happens that the time chosen (accidentally, of course) is that of 
the prelude to an exciting and hotly contested election. Agree- 
ably to appointment, the rush, the concourse, the struggle for 
seats, the feats of oratory and jugglery, take place. The dense 
crowd itself creates more or less excitement, as any one can know 
who has watched the gathering of some hundreds of persons on 
the sidewalk of a crowded city, occasioned by the loss of some 
one's watch key or pocket handkerchief. All eyes are therefore 
riveted upon the platform where sit a number of lanthern-jawed, 
cadaverous, and Cassius-looking gentlemen, with faces so sharp 
that one would think they would cut all their acquaintances. 
The "invocations to the throne of grace" and other preliminaries 
over, a speaker is announced. Having duly drawn down the 
corners of his mouth, and rolled up the whites of his eyes, he 
plunges into medias res. You listen in vain for appeals to the 
cool understanding and sober judgment. He lavishes incontin- 
ently into a tirade of sweeping denunciation and coarse abuse of 
all who dare think differently from himself and his benevolent 
and highminded confreres on the matter in hand. He stamps, 
he storms, he calls names, he impugns motives, he insinuates 
calumnies, he ridicules, and is satisfied with his powers of argu- 
ment, if he could excite a sardonic grin on the faces of his 
auditors, or raise a horse-laugh. Casting a glance around upon a 
sea of unintellectual faces, and calculating largely upon that 
moral cowardice which would cause many a conscientious dis- 
senter from his views to shrink from the epithet of "rum-sucker" 
or "whisky dealer," he concludes his discourse by loudly and con- 
fidently challenging any of his audience to controvert his posi- 
tions, or urge a single objection against the adoption of the law. 

"Among his listeners, there chances to be an individual of 
discriminating mind and gentlemanly aspect, but so beautifully 
verdant as to 'suppose that the invitation to the interposition of 


objection and contrary argument was given in good faith, and 
with a view to elicit a full and fair exposition of the general 
opinion and will. Our green friend, little suspecting with what 
a crew he has to deal, rises to express a modest and calm dissent 
from much of what he has heard. This gives occasion to a scene 
somewhat like the following : 

"Auditor Gentlemen, I am no apologist for intemperance, 
which I hold to be a loathsome, degrading, and deadly sin ; and 
I would cheerfully unite my voice, my influence, and efforts with 
yours in support of any enterprise for its prevention or suppres- 
sion, which I thought would prove of lasting utility and benefit 
which I did not believe to be in principle despotic and unjust. But 
it seemed to me that your Maine Liquor Law is a violation of in- 
alienable private right, contravening not merely the Common Law, 
which is the palladium of our liberties, but that higher and nobler 
unwritten law the law of Nature. 

" Orator. Hold, sir ! No man has a right to sell liquid dam- 
nation to his neighbor to render insecure life, property and 
order in the community to make universal suffrage a curse, and 
empting a Pandora's box of desolating evils upon society. 

"Auditor. My dear sir, are you not somewhat too free in 
assuming premises which themselves need to be proved ? Is it so 
absolutely certain that all evils spring from drunkenness ? Is not 
the most shocking and scandalous licentiousness often found to 
consist with the unblemished reputation of some of the most 
ardent and loud-mouthed advocates of temperance? Is it not 
found that, in the majority of cases, what reforms from drunken- 
ness are made among you, are made by appealing from one base 
passion to another, from beastial sottishness to sordid avarice? 
that intemperance is as often the effect, as the cause of vice ; as 
often an expedient to recruit a constitution exhausted by a greedy 
and excessive voluptuousness, as the incentive to debauchery? 
That murder is more frequently the effect of an all-grasping cu- 
pidity than the maddening cup ? That the black-leg, the trifier 
with domestic peace and virtue, the corrupter of youth, the 


usurious oppressor of the poor, the plotter of political sedition and 
treason, the sapper of the fountain of social fabric, the blasphemer 
and the atheist are usually patterns of sobriety and abstemious- 
ness? Besides, granting that drunkenness is the root of all evil 
do you not see that in attempting to supplant the law of conscience 
by the law of force, you abolish liberty, you make virtue impossi- 
ble, and establish a moral government just the opposite to the 
moral government of God over the universe? Are you wiser than 
the Almighty ? Does he not, along with his strict and inflexible 
law, and the grace to enable us to keep it, place before us both the 
evil and the good? Does he remove from us all occasions of 
temptation, of disobedience, of sin ? Did he not place the fatal 
tree in the very midst of the garden ? 

" Orator. My worthy friend ! I have listened to your specious 
reasoning, but not without the grave suspicion that it is the off- 
spring of something more than conscientious scruple and a dis- 
position to subject our glorious measure to the severe test of logic. 
I have never known a man defend the cause of the drunkard with 
such zeal and enthusiasm, who did not himself relish the flavor 
of "the ardent." Allow me to inquire, are you not somewhat 
addicted to the social glass ? 

" Auditor. By no means. I belong to a great and divinely 
founded society, which for eighteen centuries has waged success- 
ful war upon the empire of sin. It teaches me that drunkenness 
is a sin which kills the soul ; but instead of removing all temp- 
tation from my path, and thus making the successful conflict with 
sin, which is the highest ground of merit, impossible, it gives me 
the spiritual strength, the moral heroism to resist and triumph 
over the alluring enemy. It has a remedy, not for one vice alone 
it confines not its warnings, its solicitude and vigilance to the 
suppression of one sin, in such a way as by inducing a compliance 
with its demands in this one single respect, a wide door shall be 
opened for the ingress of every other offence against God and 
man. It strikes at the root of all evil and 

" Orator. Enough ! This explains it all ! Fellow citizens ! you 


have given ear longer than you ought, to the dangerous sophist- 
ries of an emissary of the Pope of Rome. This man, smooth and 
oily as is his speech, captivating and insinuating as is his address, 
is but the insidious propagator of principles which are inimical 
to the peace, the happiness, the virtue and liberty of mankind. 
Believe him not; for the religion he professes teaches him that 
the sacrifice of truth is a merit, when it is made on behalf of 
Popery. Behold him in his true character, as a Jesuit in disguise 
among us, and frown him down. 

" Our excellent friend rises to protest, but he is assailed by a 
storm of hisses and hootings that render his attempts at reply but 
a dumb show. 

" The meeting disperses ; and a committee of persons perform 
the circuit of the district, calling upon every voter, to obtain from 
him a solemn obligation not to vote for any candidate, for the 
approaching Legislature, of whichever party, who shall not dis- 
tinctly pledge himself to sustain the proposed measure. The 
voters are well-to-do farmers, industrious mechanics, thriving 
tradesmen, some of whom were present as unconcerned spectators 
at the grand demonstration of yesterday, and some who troubled 
their heads very little about it, or the cause it espoused. But a 
feeling has been excited ; the phariseism of the district, of little 
commercial importance indeed, but formidable for its wealth and 
social influence, has lifted up its crest, and protruded its forked 
tongue ; and now it is dangerous to hesitate or demur. No man 
who has custom to lose, or position to forfeit or gain no man 
who would be injured in his business or social standing by the 
cry of "mad dog," dares for his soul refuse his pledge and his 
signature. And after a few days' diligence, the committee return 
to their constituents, with the cheering news that nine out of ten 
in the district had declared unequivocally for 'the Maine Liquor 

" Such is the process of generating public opinion in our 
country ; and public opinion be it remembered is the Protestant 
Rule of Faith. It is the idol and divinity before which the Prot- 


estant world bow down in slavish and craven adoration, and to 
it they shout, " Great is the Diana of the Ephesians ! " If public 
opinion on any point of morals happens to be right, the Protest- 
ant world, on that special question, are right too ; but if the same 
opinion be brought to sanction the most abominable vices, the 
worst moral evils, up rise its multitudinous slaves, and "call 
darkness light and light darkness." Hence it comes that, with 
the Protestant world, opinions and practices which are right in 
one age, become wrong in another; and not the moving sands or 
the restless waves are more fickle and inconstant than the princ- 
iples of its moral code. Public opinion is the only lawgiver, the 
only arbiter and umpire, to which the gentile world defers. 

" The Catholics, too, have their public opinion ; but, unlike that 
overawing despotism of the few over the many which we have 
discribed, theirs is the public opinion of Heaven I and pure and holy 
judgments of saints and angels, and the mind of that Everlasting 
and inerrible Church, which derives its light and purity from the 
Eternal Splendor of the Father. No wonder, then, that Catholics, 
who listen to the voice of the Church, should not be swayed to and 
fro by the fluctuations of earthly opinion ; that they should rise 
superior to the miserable slavery which binds the Protestant many 
to the fleeting and shifting judgments of the tyrant few, who 
dictate the moral law to the masses ; that they should be ever 
robed in mail of proof against the innovations of the day, whether 
in politics, morals or religion ; and that even the humblest and 
most unlettered child of the Church possess an instinctive insight 
into the deceitfulness and wickedness of the plausible and fashion- 
able humbugs, which delude and enslave the most polished, acute, 
and intellectually supercilious, who sacrifice to the shrine of 
modern Heathenism." 



" While the thoughts and efforts of our fellow-citizens through- 
out the country and nowhere more zealously and effectually 
than in the neighboring diocese of Michigan are occupied with 
the momentous subject of Catholic education, and while they are 
protesting in the face of the brow-beating and menaces of thje 
mob, and the gross misrepresentations and obloquy of infidels 
and seducers, against the injustice of the State school taxation, it 
will not be deemed impertinent in us, we trust, to pen a short 
editorial homily on the subject of education, for the benefit of our 
readers and fellow-Catholics in the Prairie Diocese. It is a ques- 
tion which concerns us, and our children, and our children's 
children, no less immediately and vitally than it does our brethren 
in the same faith and hope elsewhere ; it is one which must be- 
fore long come up among us for discussion, and if need be peace- 
ful action in vindication of our rights ; and provided that action 
be calm, deliberate, intelligent, resolute and in the fear of God, it 
cannot, we are persuaded, take place too soon for the interests of 
religion, the welfare of the coming generation, and the promotion 
of clear and equal justice in the commonwealth. 

" But there is a question preliminary to, and to some extent in- 
dependent of that of the fair distribution of the proceeds of the 
school fund, or the abolition of that fund, which we fear is not 
yet practically settled among ourselves. Or rather there are two 
questions of parental responsibility and duty, the general settle- 
ment of which should in our opinion be antecedent to, as in fact 
it has in all cases that have as yet arisen, actually preceded any 
concerted movement against the State school system. Parents 
must first come to feel the danger of the godless schools so pro- 
foundly as to forego with alacrity all the apparent advantages 
they afford, and to dream no more of consigning their offspring 
to these nurseries of heathenism, vice, and crime, than they would 
of casting their children into some Ganges, or beneath some car 
of Juggernaut, or immolating them to some grim and bloody 


Moloch, or making them over soul and body, for time and etern- 
ity, to the devil. And next, and as the proper consequence of 
this right Catholic feeling, they must feel it a duty paramount to 
every other parental obligation, to provide a sound and adequate 
Catholic education for their offspring ; an education which shall 
principally respect faith and morals, but which at the same time 
shall fit its subjects for intellectual contact with their fellow-men 
in the sphere of life they may be called to occupy. They must 
feel that not more clamorously and imperiously does the voice of 
nature proclaim to parents the duty of providing for the physical 
sustenance of their children, than do all the higher spiritual in- 
stincts of Christianity, and all the laws and ordinances of God 
and the Church, demand that they be educated morally, religi- 
ously, for God their last end, and for a final inheritance among 
the holy in heaven. 

"We may return some future time to the discussion of this latter 
point of our subject ; but at present we have to do with the ques- 
tion whether a Catholic parent can permit his child to receive the 
State school instruction without becoming accessary to, if not the 
very principal in spiritual murder. It may be that there are 
Catholics we fear there are, here and elsewhere who have not 
settled this question satisfactorily to themselves ; or who, carried 
away by a miserable parental ambition that would sooner expose 
children to the most certain loss of faith, than sacrifice one iota of 
their earthly prospects, are balancing the chances of a respectable 
estate for their offspring in future life, against the probabilities of 
unending misery beyond the grave. If these remarks should ar- 
rest the attention of any such, we beg that those of the former 
class will take the proper steps to come to a decision in the 
premises by consulting their pastor or some other ecclesiastical 
authority, and that those of the latter class will cease to call 
themselves by so ridiculous a misnomer as that of Catholics and 
Christian parents, and will style themselves, what they really are, 
heathens, minus all the natural virtues and all the religious in- 
stincts which the heathens possess. 


" If any Catholic hitherto ignorant of duty in the matter, be 
desirous to know whether he can with a good conscience patronize 
infidel schools, he need only say one word to his pastor, and he 
will be informed that the voice of Peter has been heard again and 
again and in thunder 'tones, condemning, denouncing and an- 
athematising the whole scheme of mixed or godless education, 
and its fautors and abettors. There is no mistake about this. 
The trumpet of the Vatican gives no uncertain sound, and the 
Prince of the Apostles speaks with no double, stammering tongue. 
Peter has spoken ; and that voice of solicitude, vigilance, and 
authority has flown across the loud sounding waves of seas and 
oceans, and been echoed heartily by the assembled hierarchy of 
the United States, as well as by the Bishops individually speak- 
ing from the pulpit and through the press. Catholic Bishops, 
pastors, journalists writing with the general approbation of Bishops, 
have agitated the question from one end of the land to the other, 
until now there is hardly an excuse for ignorance on the subject. 
If your son or your daughter is attending a State school, you may 
be as certain that you are violating your duty as a Catholic 
parent, and conducing to the everlasting anguish and despair of 
your child, as if you could take your oath of it ! You ought not 
to be able to rest an instant, to bargain, labor, recreate, eat, drink, 
sleep with common comfort, until you have removed your child 
from that proximate occasion of spiritual ruin in which, perhaps 
ignorantly, perhaps thoughtlessly, you have placed him. Do you 
wish him to be a reputable, thriving member of society ; a com- 
fort and a prop to your old age ; an honor to your name ; but 
above all, a Catholic man, and an heir of heaven? Take him away 
from that school. Perhaps he has been too long there already. 
Perhaps he has already contracted habits of vice, or infidel princ- 
iples, which he will carry to his grave, and into the endless world 
beyond. Take him away. Let him rather never know how to 
write his name, or spell his way through the plainest paragraph 
of a newspaper, or perform the simplest calculation, than become 
the bound and chained slave of Satan, than rise up at the last 


dread day of account to curse you in all the unavailing repent- 
ance and bitterness of final despair. Take him away, if you do 
not wish your bed of death to be tormented with the. spectre of a 
soul which God has given you as a sacred trust, surrendered to 
the great enemy of mankind. Take him away, and let him be a 
boor, a hewer of wood and drawer of water ; let him incur the 
scorn of an enlightened age ; let him be accounted by lettered 
infidels and heathens only an ignorant Papist, rather than incur 
the anger of his God and the loss of his soul. Take him a,way,, 
let what will be the consequence." 



On the 18th day of August, 1853, John McMullen and James. 
McGovern started from Chicago on their long trip to Rome. The 
voyage in those days was considered a very important undertak- 
ing, and no pains were spared by the two pilgrims' friends to 
make their departure pleasant. In speaking of his farewell to his. 
home, John McMullen said to his young companion, " when the 
day of our departure arrived, I was afraid to meet my mother for 
the last farewell ; in the morning I had asked and received her 
blessing, so I called out good-bye mother and all, then I ran out. 
and jumped into the wagon. " This was characteristic of him for 
there was nothing he disliked more than to show feelings of emo- 
tion, yet he was always pleased to see them in others. Leav- 


ing home on the date stated, the young Chicagoans went by rail- 
road to Detroit, thence by steamer to Dunkirk, and from there to 
New York by railroad. Arriving in the latter city, they went to 
Father Quarter's residence on 84th street. The good priest had 
removed to New York soon after the appointment of Bishop Van 
de Velde to the See of Chicago. 

Father Quarter expressed great joy on the arrival of his " two 
boys " who were on their way to Rome, and his solicitude for their 
departure on their ocean trip caused him much anxiety. Every- 
thing was submitted to his advice. A long sea voyage had been 
recommended by the physicians to young McMullen, on account 
of a serious inflammation of his eyes, and although both had been 
supplied with abundant means by their parents to take first-class 
passage, Father Quarter decidedly recommended a steerage pass- 
age, " about as good as the first-class," and as one that would make 
them think of the hardships their parents had to put up with 
when they came to America, adding " it will be only twenty dol- 
lars apiece for a steerage ticket and both of you are young." 

This advice suited John McMullen's ideas of economy. Berths 
were engaged in the steerage of the ship Constellation, and, after 
bidding friends farewell, they sailed from New York, on the 3rd 
day of September, 1853. Father Quarter accompanied them 
aboard the ship, and when parting from them, with tears in his 
eyes said : " Come to me on your return and you will find a wel- 
come. I will pray that God may permit me to live to see you both 
priests." His prayers were heard. 

The voyage was devoid of any noteworthy incidents. No 
sooner, however, was it known among the Catholic passengers 
that there was a young theologian on board, than much pleasure 
was manifested, and the young ecclesiastic was regarded with 
special reverence by those who were returning to their homes in 
Ireland. Every morning he called the steerage passengers 
around him and read prayers. One Sunday he preached 


" a great sermon," they said, 'and when a fierce storm arose, as he 
never suffered from seasickness, he was constantly occupied in 
going from one berth to another with nourishing food and com- 
forting words. The passage occupied nineteen days, the ' Constel- 
lation ' arriving in Liverpool on the 22nd Jay of September, 1853. 
The Chicago passengers left by steamer on the evening of that 
day and arrived in Dublin the following morning, Sunday, the 
23rd day of September. They took with them from their su- 
periors of St. Mary of the Lake, letters of introduction to Arch- 
bishop Cullen, to the superiors of Maynooth College and many 
others. These letters were duly presented by John McMullen, 
and every attention was shown to the young travelers. 

Archbishop Cullen took special charge of them, giving them a 
strict outline of the methods of travel through England and 
France, to Rome. 

Before their departure from Ireland, as it was necessary that 
their Baptismal certificates should accompany them, a short trip 
was taken to Ballynahinch, the birth place of John McMullen, to 
obtain the record, which was found to be in the register of the 
Parish Church. No small excitement was aroused in that place 
when the news of the arrival of a son of James McMullen from 
America, on his way to Rome to become a priest, was spread 
among the people of the neighborhood. The letters brought over 
were distributed, questions about friends in America were 
answered as far as possible and the greatest wonder was ex- 
pressed at the progress of the Catholic Church in the far West, 
when it was seen that students were leaving the seats of learning 
there, for Rome, to study for the priesthood. The venerable parish 
priest Father Sharky at first looked with some suspicion on the 
two travelers and he catechised them closely ; but soon all doubt, 
was removed and he treated them in a most hospitable manner. 
The record of John McMullen's baptism was not found to be cor- 
rectly stated in the parish registry, but Father Sharky promised 
to lose no time in looking the matter up and making out a 
certificate. This was sent to Rome sometime afterwards and the 



letter accompanying it was always treasured with the greatest 
reverence by its recipient, and on this account it is here added : 

" BALLYNAHINCH, April 18, 1855. 

" Dear Mr. McMullen : I send you a certificate of your baptism 
on the other leaf of this note, having delayed in order to make 
suitable inquiries respecting your exact age from your friends 
here as there is no register of your baptism that I could find in 
Mr. Palin's hand-writing. I am glad to find you are engaged in 
successfully prosecuting your studies at the fountain-head of Catho- 
licity, where I trust you may drink in large draughts of the 
heaven-born waters of doctrine and holiness which so copiously 
stream from the fountain of our Savior in his earthly Capital. 
These are the waters mentioned by our Lord to the Samaritan 
woman of which " Whosoever drinks sufficiently will not thirst 
forever." Your friends are all well and send regards to you and 
are glad to hear of your welfare. They trust for a visit on your 
return home. 

Wishing you health and prosperity, I remain, 

Very Truly Yours, 

D. SHARKY, P. P." 

From Ballyaahinch the travelers returned to Dublin, where 
calling again on Archbishop Cullen they received letters to 
Cardinal Fransoni and Dr. Kirby, the rector of the Irish College 
in Rome, which were given with special reference to the possibility 
of John McMullen being refused admission to the Propaganda. 
Archbishop Cullen was deeply impressed with the fine traits of 
character he had noticed in the young ecclesiastic. On his first 
visit to Rome in the year 1854, at the time of the definition of the 
Immaculate Conception, when visiting the Propaganda College, 
which was the Archbishop's Alma Mater, he asked for John Mc- 
Mullen and was greatly pleased on seeing his young friend en- 
rolled among the students of the Urban College. 

The trip through England was brief and uneventful. Archbish- 


op Cullen had urged the young travelers to hasten without delay to 
their destination, so as to be in time for the opening of the schol- 
astic year, which takes place in Rome always about the first of 
November. They reached Paris, October 5, where they re- 
mained three days. The journey from Dover to Paris, however, 
was not without an amusing, but to the young travelers an ap- 
parently serious incident. Arriving at Calais their passports were 
submitted to the usual scrutiny, and more than ordinary caution 
was exercised in their regard. They were surrounded by guards 
and escorted to a private room where they were thoroughly 
searched. John McMullen had an old double barrelled pistol, 
given to him by his brother when he left Chicago, which had 
been loaded ready for any emergency. It had been placed in his 
trunk and was not disturbed until when leaving Dublin, he put 
it in his coat-pocket. 

It was found there by the French officials in Calais and there 
was no end to the excitement ; he was not only put under arrest, 
but his young companion was placed under the closest, surveil- 
lance. John McMullen was greatly alarmed at this, and his 
imperfect knowledge of the French language helped to increase 
his fears. At last he demanded, as well as he could, the presence 
of an interpreter, who soon appeared, in the person of a good 
French priest, a fellow passenger from Dover to Calais, who was able 
to explain matters to the authorities, so that the two suspects were 
released, but without the pistol. The cause of this commotion was 
a dispatch, received at Paris from the London police authorities, 
saying that an attempt was to be made by conspirators from Eng- 
land on the life of Napoleon III. and the French officials at every 
point were directed to watch for a young man and a boy who 
were implicated in the plot. 

The two travelers remained in Paris a few days for the pur- 
pose of distributing many letters and articles committed to 
them. They visited the Irish College, where they were hospit- 
ably entertained by the superiors and professors and they had 
the honor of receiving the blessing of the great Archbishop 


of Tuam, Dr. McHale. While in Paris, John McMullen had a 
severe attack of illness. The one trouble of his mind was, that 
it might prove so serious as to prevent his seasonable arrival in 
Rome. His recovery, however, was so rapid as to be almost a 
miracle, and he felt deeply grateful to the Blessed Virgin, on 
whom he again called in a most fervent manner for his imme- 
diate restoration to health. 

They left Paris by railway to Chalons on the Saone, thence by 
steam packet to Avignon, from which city they again traveled by 
railroad to Marseilles. John McMullen often related how his good 
luck smiled on him when in Chalons. They arrived in that city 
on a Sunday morning. While waiting for the boat to start he took a 
stroll to see what he could of that historic city. When he 
neared his hotel he stopped to have his boots blacked, which, 
when finished, he found that he had no change smaller than a 
gold piece. He tried to explain matters, but the bootblack 
stormed and fumed in choice Chalons French. A police officer 
was called, who, by signs, politely requested the young American 
to search more closely or to go with him to the prefecture; at this 
moment John McMullen thought of a United States dime, which 
he had carefully put away for a souvenir, which he handed over 
and though accepted reluctantly, relieved him from a very 
embarrassing situation. Another incident, deserving more than 
passing notice occurred this same Sunday morning . He and his 
young companion went to hear Mass in the nearest Church. 
Unaware of the custom of paying for the use of a chair and 
kneeling stool, each took possession of one and they had taken 
good places before the altar, when the collector approached and 
asked for the requisite dues, no heed was paid to this personage 
until, by many gesticulations, they were made to understand that 
they could not occupy the chairs without paying for their use, 
this was done by making exchange of a gold piece. The inci- 
dent left a lasting impression on young McMullen's mind, inso- 
much, that in the exercise of his priestly career he always showed 
a strong aversion to money changing within the precincts of the 


house of God, and he frequently referred to his Chalons exper- 
ience as the cause. 

In a letter to a friend in Chicago, John McMullen gives 
an amusing description of the trip from Chalons on the Saone to 
the river Rhone, and down that river to Avignon. " We took 
passage," he writes, "on a long, narrow, side-wheel, black 
painted steam-packet , all were deck passengers, and they 
crowded the one deck from stem to stern , we had to furnish our 
eatables. We had English and American tourists carefully read- 
ing Murray's guide-book, French officers and soldiers on their 
way to the Crimea, turbaned turks, traveling Jew merchants with 
their packs, and such a jabbering of languages was kept up, that 
I for the first time realized the confusion at the tower of Babel. 
When the boat would reach a stopping place, there was the wild- 
est tumult; passengers were coming and going, reckless of one 
another's safety of limbs, or a tumble from the gang plank into 
the river, and every landing place was lined with women in their 
quaint costumes holding long poles, at the end of which was at- 
tached a small basket containing fruit, each one begging us with a 
screaming voice to buy their kind of fruit, as the choicest the scene 
was indescribable. We passed Vienne, where there is a tower on 
the river bank, from which, tradition says, " Pontius Pilate hurled 
himself into the raging, whirling Rhone. We stopped at Lyons for 
a short time, and then swept on down by overhanging cliffs, vine- 
yards and olive groves, ruins of old castles and watch towers; 
we saw the snow-clad peaks of Mount Blanc to the left, and 
arrived finally by night at Avignon, where we took the train for 
Marseilles, both glad that this part of our trip was over, though it 
was very interesting." 

Travelers to Rome at this day have no such experiences to 
relate. At Marseilles passage was taken on a French steamer to 
Civita Vecchia, the seaport town of the Pontifical States, which 
was reached only at noon on the 14th day of October, as a furious 
storm oh the Mediteranean had compelled the officers of the 
steamer to seek shelter in the friendly port of the Island of Elba. 


From Civita Vecchia the two travelers started by diligence for 
the Eternal city. It was a bright moonlight night, as the con- 
veyance rolled along the road by the shores of the Adriatic Sea 
towards Rome. The soul of John McMullen was filled with joy, 
when towards the morning of the 15th of October, 1853, he saw 
the great dome of St. Peter's Church hovering like a vision in the 
air and seeming as he exclaimed " to touch the azure skies of 

"At last we are in Rome," were the first words he uttered as soon 
as they entered the city. After a short rest at the hotel of the 
Minerva, he started with his young companion to the Church of St. 
Mary of the Minerva to hear Mass in thanksgiving for their safe 
arrival in the Eternal city. The two Chicago students, without any 
further delay, went to the Propaganda College to present their 
letters to his Eminence Cardinal Fransoni, prefect of the Sacred 
Congregation of the Propaganda. On their way John McMullen 
would exclaim : " We are in the city of Saints ! we are walking 
the streets trod by saintly men and women for centuries ! we are 
in the city of martyrs ! " He felt an impulse to enter every Church 
they passed. Cardinal Fransoni received the young Americans 
with open hearted kindness, he perused their letters and then 
said, " I gave permission to Bishop Van de Velde to send only 
one student, and he sends two, I cannot receive you both ; you 
can remain, however, in the College until I present the case to 
the Council of the Propaganda, which will meet in a few days, 
and if one only is to be admitted, it will be the younger of 
you." On the following day, the 16th of October, 1853, they en- 
tered the Propaganda, to await the decision of the Council, and as 
events will show, to remain. John McMullen's first visit to the 
multitude of attractions in Rome was to St. Peter's. In a letter to his 
uncle, James Fitzsimmons, he stated what were his first impres- 
sions. "I was disappointed at first on arriving at St. Peter's 
Church," he writes. "Is this St. Peter's?" I said to my friend, 
Rev. Mr. Ryan, a student of the Propaganda, from Charleston, 
S. C., who accompanied me. I said this as we stood in the large 


vestibule at one end of which there was an equestrian statue, rep- 
representing Constantino the Great, pointing to a sign in the 
heavens, and at the other an entrance into the Vatican palace ; 
"we are not yet in the Church my friend," said Mr. Ryan, who- 
then lifted a heavy matted door cover and we entered ; I was 
bewildered, oppressed a feeling of awe crept over me. I gazed, 
speechless all around. There was an immense space before me, a 
misty light and flitting shadows, away ahead I saw glimmering 
bits of flame; I heard the deep-toned chant of the divine offices, 
coming from hidden recesses,, and I stood as if in a trance, when 
Mr. Ryan touched me on the shoulder and smilingly said, come,, 
let us go on ; it will take many visits to realize the grandeur of St.. 
Peter's. ' " We walked up the main nave of this gigantic.- 
work of religious enthusiasm on a floor of the richest variety 
of marbles, smooth as glass, passing Chapels, which are itu 
themselves as large as Cathedral Churches in other lands-,, 
until we came to the Confessional where the relics of the Prin- 
ces of the Apostles are kept in a sacred enclosure. My com- 
panion pointed above and the immense dome opened upward, 
wonderful in proportion and magnitude. I was lost in this im- 
mensity. After kneeling at the Confessional for a short time in 
prayer we took a rapid stroll through the majestic structure ; I 
would have stayed, but my guide hastened me on until we again 
reached the door. The next day we visited the Coliseum ; I was 
very anxious to see it after the visit to St. Peters, and Mr. Ryan 
very kindly brought me to this ruin of paganism; it lay silent, 
in decay and death. It is a great oval-formed structure 
and when in its complete state was one hundred and fifty feet 
high. The foundation of the Coliseum is yet undiscovered, what 
it must be, upholding such an immense pile of stone, is beyond 
comprehension. The words came to my mind as I stood within 
this great Amphitheater, those words so often quoted, " While 
stands the Coliseum, Rome shall stand, when falls the Coliseum, 
Rome falls, when Rome falls the world falls." Near the Coliseum 
are the stone triumphal arches of Vespasian and Titus, and all 


around are the ruins of Ancient Rome, broken columns, ragged 
walls, marble entablatures, crumbling away." In a letter to Father 
Quarter, written in those days of anxious expectancy, after con- 
veying the pleasant intelligence of the safe arrival of the two 
Chicagoans in Rome, John McMullen makes mention of a visit to 
the Basilicas of St. John Lateran, and St. Mary Major, " I am sur- 
prised at the grandeur of those churches," he says, " these evi- 
dences of great Catholic faith ; it will be a long time before we shall 
see their equals, in an architectural sense, in the United States." 

Little did he think that scarcely a quarter of a century would 
elapse before he would see magnificent temples erected in honor 
of the living God all over his adopted country, and in that city 
which was to be the scene of his future labors in the priesthood. 
He closed this letter to Father Quarter with a description of his 
first sight of the Pope, the saintly Pius the Ninth of blessed mem- 
ory. " I am restless, notwithstanding the words of hope held out 
to me by the Rev. Mr. Ryan, who enjoys the warm friendship of 
Cardinal Fransoni. Yesterday, at my request, we made another 
visit to St. Peter's. I was. anxious to see more of this wonderful 
Church. While walking along the Piazza to the great entrance, 
we observed quite a commotion all around, people were hastening 
to the opposite side, exclaiming : " il Papa, il Papa." " Come with 
me," said Mr. Ryan, " it is the Pope/' and we hurried over with 
the rest. Presently I noticed a carriage, drawn by four black 
horses and surrounded by an escort, coming around St. Peter's. 
All reverently knelt on its approach ; as it went by I looked up 
and for the first time beheld the memorable features of his Holi- 
ness Pope Pius IX. He turned towards us, and smilingly 
bestowed upon us his blessing. All this occurred in a few 
moments, the carriage sped onward and I continued kneeling, 
looking after it until Mr. Ryan said, " Well, get up, you have 
seen the Holy Father. I was overjoyed, and now felt that if 
I had to return home, one of my loftiest desires was fulfilled, 
and I had tasted the greatest happiness of a visit to Rome. " 

One afternoon John McMullen visited with his young com- 


panion the shrine of the Blessed Virgin in the Church of St. 
Andrea delle Fralte, where the celebrated apparition to Ratis- 
bonne, the Jewish convert, took place. 

He prayed long and fervently and on his way back to the 
College he quietly remarked, " I have asked the Blessed Virgin to 
obtain the favor of being admitted into the Propaganda and I 
feel confident that she will hear my prayer." The Council 
alluded to by Cardinal Fransoni was held during the week follow- 
ing the arrival of the Chicago students, and their case taken into* 
consideration. Serious objection was always made by the Propa- 
ganda to establish a precedent, which might open a series in the 
future, and which would violate the rules handed down and ob- 
served for ages. When, therefore, the case that both students 
from the Chicago Diocese be admitted was brought before the 
Council, it found no supporters, excepting the Cardinal, who not 
only held Bishop Van de Velde in the greatest esteem, but had taken 
a personal interest in the Americans, who had come such a long 
distance to Rome ; he, however, was overruled. It was decided 
that the younger Chicagoan be admitted and the elder enter some 
other College in Rome. A few hours afterwards the Cardinal 
sent for John McMullen, who came accompanied by his young 
companion, and explained the nature of the case that it had not 
been favorably considered. He advised him to remain in Rome 
and go to some Roman Seminary, while the boy would be received 
into the Propaganda. " No ! " said John McMullen, with deep 
emotion, " Bishop Van de Velde sent me to the Propaganda and 
if I cannot become a student I will go home ; moreover, as the 
Bishop and his parents put James McGovern under my care with 
the charge never to leave him, both of us will return to America. 
We ask your farewell blessing." " No ! no ! " exclaimed the Car- 
dinal, with great warmth, " This will never dp," and placing each 
hand on their heads, as they knelt before him, " My children," he 
said, " you shall not return in this way, you will not be separated. 
Go to the rector," then the saintly Philip Tancioni, " tell him that 
I receive you both in the Propaganda on my own responsibility, 


and I will answer for the consequences." The noble, honest ex- 
pression of feeling shown by John McMullen captivated the good 
Cardinal's heart, and he spoke of it as a trait of character rarely 
seen by him in one so young. The prayer of John McMullen had 
been heard and answered. 



The College of the Propaganda was founded by Pope Urban 
VIII., as an institution for the education of youths brought from 
countries where the Oriental liturgies of the Church were observed 
so that imbued with the spirit of Home, on their return to their 
respective countries, they would help to remove those prejudices 
which for centuries had existed among the schismatic Churches 
against the Latin rite. After a lapse of over two centuries, when 
missionaries were scattered over the world, the Propaganda 
concluded to spread the same spirit in all the dioceses of the 
Church under its immediate jurisdiction a spirit taken from 
the fountain head and thus keep up a close union with the 
Holy See and meet the developments of the age. Candidates 
for the priesthood, therefore, were admitted from other countries. 
Among the ranks of the students in the Propaganda College, 
were found enrolled, not alone the Syrian, the Greek, the Copt, 
the Abyssinian, the Armenian, the Ruthenian, the Sclavonian, 
the negro from the Soudan, and other parts of Africa, but there 
were students of every nationality in Europe, some studying for 
foreign missions, from North and South America, from China and 
the South Sea Islands, all living under the same rule, speaking 


Latin as the language of the school and Italian for common inter- 
course, attending the same classes, and dispersing year after, year 
to their missions to engage in the work of God's Church on earth. 

The entire expense of supporting the College and furnishing 
everything free to the students, was derived from revenues received 
through legacies left by Popes, Cardinals and the Catholic 
nobility of Italy, France, and other European nations. The Bishops 
of dioceses in missionary countries, whenever they visited Rome, 
made application for the admission of students from their respec- 
tive dioceses ; but as the revenue could give support only to a 
limited number, the greatest care was exercised by the superiors 
of the Propaganda in admitting more than one student from a 
diocese. The admission of John McMullen, who soon after his 
arrival in Rome learned these facts, was considered a great excep- 
tion, nor did he in the least treat the matter with indifference. 
He first went to St. Andrea delle Fratte, and, kneeling before the 
same altar of the Blessed Virgin, he fervently thanked her for the 
great favor granted him ; he then wrote to Bishop Van de Velde 
the joyful news of his success, and in a few days was dressed in the 
garb of a Propaganda student. 

Once in the ranks of the College of Propaganda, he was never 
for an instant other than a Propagandist at heart and in observ- 
ance of rule. He applied himself without delay to comprehend 
and carry out the rules of the College and the wishes of his 
superiors. Although, he had studied his first year of theology at 
St. Mary of the Lake, it was no sooner intimated to him, that it 
would be wise to review his logic, metaphysics and ethics, than he 
was eager to do so. A grand future spread itself before the eyes 
of his imagination, and his one idea was to fit himself thoroughly 
for his place in that New World, which he saw opening up such 
glorious prospects for the Church, while the innate resources of his 
vigorous mind and loyal heart were developed under influences so 
singularly congenial to his disposition and aspirations. Manly in 
his bearing, even as a boy, as a young man, all the chivalry of his 
nature was enlisted on the side of authority, exercised in a noble 


and generous spirit. This he found room for in the College of the 
Propaganda. He displayed perfect submission to his superiors, 
and though sometimes, the deep earnestness of his character and 
apparently careless indifference to minor details of ordinary 
routine, would draw the correcting attention of the prefect of his 
camerata or of an intimate companion, still there was in him such 
freshness of originality, and charm of personal intercourse, that 
they appreciated him at his full value, and treated him with, 
marked consideration and esteem. " The law of universal brother- 
hood," he often said, "is truly carried out in our college;" more- 
over, the manifestation of a just confidence in the young student, 
rather than a petty surveillence, was in force in the Propaganda 
and it tallied with his sense of honor. His respect for rules was. 
not only sincere, but founded on a basis both moral and intel- 
lectual. He would say to his young friend James who had 
started his course of studies from the beginning when they met 
to talk of home, or exchange letters received from friends in Chi- 
cago, " That the value of a rule is intrinsic, having been made to 
meet some necessity, it finds its cause in the law of God ; besides 
this, the mere observance of it is both salutary and ennobling." 

This sentiment of veneration for a rule in itself, and this ex- 
alted motive in its observance, imparted a dignity to kis deport- 
ment as a student, which was not overlooked by his superiors, 
who regarded him as fearless, outspoken and honest. They saw 
the great principle sending out rays on that sunny side of honor, 
called chivalry, which, as time went on, became one of the nota- 
ble features of his character, and it was united to that brilliancy 
of mind, which is a sure indication of indubitable worth to a 
College superior. An instance of his honest fidelity to the rules 
of the College occurred during his first summer vacation, at Mont- 
alto, the Villa of the Propaganda College. The students were pass- 
ing through a vineyard ; the vines were loaded with luscious fruit. 
It was a strict rule that no student should lay a finger on the 
grapes; the prefect who accompanied the students on this occasion, 
preceded them instead of following after; he put eaoh student on 


his honor to obey the rules. There was one who lagged behind 
and who would every now and then stretch for a bunch of grapes ; 
at last John McMullen could stand it no longer, and forthwith 
opened his rnind to the offender against honor, "Look you he 
said, have you no shame in breaking a rule? Still more when 
you see that we are treated as gentlemen there, is the prefect 
marching at our head instead of dogging our heels." The rebuke 
was not well received and when there was- an insinuation thrown 
out, that he could report if he choose, his indignant reply was : 
" I will not report you, but I will thrash you." Another case in 
which his fearless physical prowess was put forward to win his 
cause, was for a time that of a Swiss student, upon whom some of 
the class were venting their love for practical jokes. He noticed 
that among other pranks, the bed of the student from Friburg 
was for several nights giving way under him. John McMullen 
watched the poor Swiss, saw with what patience, with what resig- 
nation he bore the petty persecution of boyish spirits and one 
night his mind was fully made up to act in defense of his com- 
panion. The first movement on the part of the tormentors 
was met, not by the submissiveness of the meek Swiss, but by the 
iron hand of the young Irish American, who gave further assur- 
ance, that if they would not cease their frolics then and there 
they would receive the reward of their thoughtless cruelty. From, 
this time, he constituted himself the bodyguard of his Swiss class 
mate, whose pious subordination to rules and whose physical 
weakness had appealed so powerfully to the sympathies of his 

In a college like the Propaganda, such incidents are always 
known sooner or later and the threats of physical chastisement 
made by young McMullen were really against the rules, to such 
a degree, that he could have been expelled from the institution; 
but the occasions were so marked by heroic principle, by a chiv- 
alrous valor which put utterly out of mind all consequences to 
himself, that no notice was ever taken of them ; while a knowledge 
of the facts was quietly laid up in the retentive memories of those 


who measured men by something better than the simple letter of 
the law. 

After one year of review of his philosophical studies John Mc- 
Mullen returned to his theological course. As soon as he entered 
theology, he gave a part of his spare time to the reading of the 
Holy Scriptures. To his imaginative mind, it was the unravelling 
of the story of man, from the creation to the day of judgment, as 
one sees it sculptured on the pilasters of the Orvieto Cathedral, 
while the imagery of the Bible and the sublime expressions of 
the inspired writers were to him a veritable school of eloquence. 
In the third year of his theological course, he remarked one day 
to his young friend, whom he met in the corridors of the College, 
" Well, I have finished my second reading of the Bible and I am 
going to begin again, it is to me, he said, a manna, a dew from 
Heaven." When in after years a priest, deeply immersed in the 
many responsibilities which occupied his time, he frequently said, 
that he never regretted those hours spent in reading the Holy 
Scriptures in which he had learned the love of God towards 
mankind ; he found in them, he said, also a spring from whence 
he discovered how to draw the pure waters of eternal love to dis- 
tribute to thirsty souls. 

During the second year of his theological studies, he with the 
other students of his class, went through a course of spiritual 
exercises at Sant' Eusebio, the house of retreat under the charge of 
the Fathers of the Society of Jesus. During that holy time he 
felt a strong impulse to join the followers of St. Ignatius, and con- 
secrate his life to the service of God in a religious order. He was 
anxious to renounce all ties, which would have any future in- 
fluence in preventing him from giving his whole attention to the 
spirit of his vocation. As the opportunity now offered itself, he 
laid open his heart to his spiritual adviser among the Fathers of 
the retreat, who after hearing and carefully balancing the reasons 
advanced by John McMullen, said : " You have entered the 
Propaganda to become a missionary, you can and must undergo 
the same selfdenial and deprivations as we do when you are a 


priest of Holy Church, your motives are praiseworthy, but you are 
needed and will do good in your own home in Chicago, therefore 
continue and finish where you are." John McMullen often recalled 
those words and would say, that they settled all doubts in his mind 
and he was never troubled afterwards. 

To fulfil his duty, as peri'ectly as possible, was the earnest endeavor 
of his mind and heart. Sometimes he felt a genuine sympathy 
with himself in this, but he strove to cast aside all conceit and 
if humiliated in the performance of the work, he took it with 
satisfied resignation. Two instances of his college life in the 
Propaganda will go far to prove this. In addition to a prefect, 
who is placed in charge of a certain number of students, there is 
an assistant ; the honorable duty of this official is to carry drink- 
ing water during the summer to the students, distribute brooms to 
sweep the rooms, accompany students to the shoe or tailoring 
departments and exercise a general watchfulness over the conduct 
of his fellows. Though a mark of distinction for faithful observ- 
ance of rules and good judgment, the office was considered a great 
burden by students of John McMullen's stamp of character and it 
was shunned by them. On the return of the students in Nov., 
1855, from their summer vacation, when the changes and appoint- 
ments to office were made by the superiors, John McMullen, 
unexpectedly to himself, was appointed to be sub-prefect of his 
division. He felt a spirit of rebellion arising in his heart, he 
afterwards said, which he quickly repressed, realizing instantly 
the obligation he was under to his superiors in the Propaganda, 
and that he must fit himself for his future career in the priest- 
hood, by accepting all kinds of duty placed upon his shoulders. 
A few days after his appointment, as he was going to his study 
hall with a bucket of water in one hand and a broom in the 
other, he happened to meet his young Chicago companion, and 
good humored ly said : " Well, I have come all the way to Rome, 
to be a water carrier." 

The other time was, when he delivered his first sermon in the 
Italian language in the large refectory of the college, in the 


presence of the superiors and the students. He had not then, 
that perfect mastery of the language which he acquired later. In 
obedience to the rule that each student in theology shall preach 
one sermon yearly hefore the students in the college chapel or refec- 
tory, he complied, though he felt that he would make a laughable 
failure. When his turn came, he went carefully prepared into 
the pulpit and delivered his sermon with the greatest earnestness. 
When it was over, he found that the discourse had been listened to 
with strict attention, and it, as well as his courage and brilliant 
delivery made a deep impression on his superiors and fellow- 

In the observance of duty he gave a strict interpretation of 
his sense of it, in an incident which occurred at this time 
After the discovery of the Catacombs and ruins of the Church 
of Pope St. Alexander I, on an extensive tract of farmland, be- 
longing to the college of the Propaganda, a Chapel was erected in 
the vicinity, to be used also for the benefit of a large number of 
herdsmen in that part of the Roman Campagna. Three 
students, one a priest, were sent out every Sunday to hold divine 
service and instruct those poor peasants. 

This class of people were very indolent in attending Mass; they 
would assemble in groups, chattering and laughing or lounging 
around the Chapel, never even giving any heed to the explanation 
of the Gospel, which took place before Mass. This conduct was 
most annoying to the students, yet they were timid in making 
any remarks about such wilful indifference. John McMullen 
promptly settled matters on his second visit. When it was his 
Sunday to preach, he told his companions to go into the Chapel 
and make everything ready ; then he went out into the roadway 
and fields and ordered all, men, women and children, to go over 
to the Chapel to Mass, and where any of them showed reluctance 
he used physical arguments. They were all unaccustomed to 
that kind of persuasion, and outran each other to the Chapel, 
where they listened attentively to a sound instruction on the 


necessity of assisting devoutly at the Holy Sacrifice, which was of 
such good effect, that on every Sunday after at the sound of the 
little bell, calling them to instruction and Mass, they would hasten 
to the Chapel without delay. 

It was during his college course that the memorable accident 
occurred at the Church of St. Agnes without the walls, which is 
commemorated in a fresco on the main walls of the Chapel erected 
on the spot. In the spring of 1854, a most lively interest had 
been created among the Roman archaeologists and students of early 
Church history all over Europe by the discovery of the Catacombs 
and the ruins of the Church of Pope St. Alexander I, situated on 
the Via Nomentana, seven miles outside of the walls of Rome. 

Pope Alexander I, reigned as Sovereign Pontiffof the Universal 
Church, from the year of our Lord 109 to that of 119. Many 
traditions existed in Rome about the existence of a Church dedi- 
cated to St. Alexander, and of Catacombs adjoining it, yet no actual 
trace of them could be found. It may here be stated, as a matter 
of history, that the discovery was by mere accident. A herder, 
having missed a cow, went in search of her and finally came to a 
large pit, at the bottom of which he could see the cow ; he called 
other herders for help and when some of them descended into 
the pit they saw broken tablets, marble columns and other signs 
of a buried Church. They reported the matter to the overseer, who 
brought information to the Propaganda authorities; without delay 
excavations were made and a rich treasure was found. His Holi- 
ness, Pope Pius IX, as soon as he learned of the discovery, caused 
further excavations and researches to be made, and the parties hav- 
ing the work in charge, were amply rewarded by finding the 
foundation and floors and a part of the walls of the sanctuary and 
the main altar of a Basilica, covered with early Christian marble 
tablets, some in well preserved condition. 

The great Pontiff's heart was filled with delight on hearing 
this, and he resolved to go and see this new addition to the 
history of the early Church. On the 12th of April, 1855, His 
Holiness visited the new discovery, accompanied by a large 


suite of Cardinals and prelates of the Papal household, Arch- 
bishops and Bishops of foreign countries who were in Rome 
making their visits ad limina apostolorum, or attending to im- 
portant questions concerning their respective Dioceses, after 
the declaration of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception, 
Dec. 8, 1854. All were greatly impressed with the marvelous 
find and expressed their gratification at seeing this early monu- 
ment of Christian faith. On the return to the city, arrangements 
had been made, that His Holiness should dine in the monastery 
attached to the Church of St. Agnes. The above mentioned 
Church dignitaries some of the foreign representatives to the 
court of Rome, the general-in-chief of the French army of oc- 
cupancy in Rome, the general of the Austrian troops stationed in 
Ancona and many distinguished members of the Roman nobility 
were invited. as guests. At the close, a special audience was granted 
to the superiors and students of the Propaganda College, the Holy 
Father having signified a desire to meet all the students in a body. 
In a spacious hall of the Convent the reception took place. The 
Pope was seated in a heavy oak high-back chair resting 
on an elevated platform ; the students soon filled the open space 
left for them, in front of him; on either side were grouped the 
Cardinals and Church dignitaries, invited guests, members of the 
Papal household and the Pope's noble guard. Each student was 
presented to him, the name and nationality given, and His Holi- 
ness had a pleasant word for each one. A large basket filled 
with candies, was at his side. Noticing, finally, the eager eyes 
of a young student feeding in anticipation on the delicacies, the 
Holy Father beckoned to the youthful Propagandist to approach, 
and he was in the act of extending his left hand towards the 
'basket, when a quick, sharp crash was heard in the middle of the 
floor underneath ; it was the great center beam that broke under the 
heavy weight, a loud cry of over two hundred male voices, like the 
sudden roar of a whirlwind was heard, then occurred a promiscu- 
ous tossing of all into the middle of the room, an entangling of 
bodies followed by the floor sinking down into a large dark cellar 


some twenty feet deep. This was succeeded by a horrible still- 
ness, soon broken by that grand voice of Pius IX, once heard al- 
ways remembered, exclaiming: " Immaculate Virgin help us!" 

By a fortunate circumstance, the floor gave way farthest from 
His Holiness, so' that he fell on top of the struggling human mass. 
The shrieks and appalling cries of the victims were soon heard. 
Happily the terror of those moments was brief. In a few minutes 
the fearful news spread through the Convent, that a terrible ac- 
cident had occurred to the Holy Father. Throngs of excited 
people and soldiers rushed along the corridors leading to the 
place of the disaster, crying: "The Holy Father! the Holy 
Father ! save His Holiness." The situation was quickly under- 
stood and soon strong arms broke through the walls of the cellar, 
which were partly above ground and this was the only manner 
by which the crushed and bleeding bodies could be reached. The 
rescuers found the Holy Father unharmed, in a kneeling posture 
with hands folded in prayer, the large chair covering him and 
one of the students clasping his pectoral cross. Tenderly they 
lifted him and carried him through the opening; though they 
trampled on the bodies of men, who were noted in the Church 
and the world for sanctity, learning and -valorous deeds. The 
Holy Father was urged to hasten to the Vatican, fearing serious 
results on account of his age, but he would not move away from the 
opening in the wall, near which he stood and watched the rescuers, 
or he went among the wounded as they were brought out and laid 
on the ground in the Convent garden. As soon as he learned 
that no one was killed, though many were seriously injured, he 
descended into the Church of St. Agnes, with all who were able 
to follow and intoned the Te Deum in gratitude to God for the 
happy deliverance of everyone from a frightful death. 

Among the many students who went down, were John McMullen, 
T. J. Butler and James McGovern. The former was standing on 
the edge of the floor and he fell in such a manner, that he 
was on top of his companions, and thus he was able to extri- 
cate himself and hasten among the first through the opening 


made in the wall. As soon as he recovered a little he returned 
with the others who escaped, and quickly commenced to remove 
all within his reach. In the midst of the confusion of groans 
and cries, dust and darkness, he was heard by several calling, 
"James ! James ! " As soon as he located the object of his search, 
he applied every muscle of his vigorous body to reach him. In 
this way he saved several of the sufferers from what seemed im- 
mediate danger of smothering, as they were not able to remove 
the mass of bodies over them, or who, bruised, bleeding and 
choking with dust and plaster, could in no way help them- 
selves. At last the young student was drawn forth with a loud 
sob of relief by his deliverer. After he got his young friend out 
into the garden, he returned to the work of helping others, and 
his labors were only suspended when the call upon his sym- 
pathies ceased. 

A few days after this catastrophe, which was considered a 
miraculous escape of one and all from an instantaneous death, 
a distinguished nobleman called at the Propaganda College 
and requested to see the student who saved his life, who he 
learned was from Chicago. He recognized his deliverer at 
once, and thanked the student McMulleii most effusively for 
what he had done. He offered a good sized purse of gold, 
which would have been a fortune to the young theologian ; but 
in reply to the expressions of gratitude John McMullen said: 
"I do not deserve your thanks, much less a reward. I was look- 
ing for a young friend of mine, and as your Excellency with 
others was on top of him, I simply pulled you out to get at him." 
He then declined to talk any more on the subject. 

During his Pontificate, while he enjoyed the freedom of Rome, 
Pope Pius IX, on the 12th of April made an annual pilgrimage to 
St. Agnes Church. He celebrated a Mass of thanksgiving, at 
which the students of the Propaganda assisted, and received the 
Blessed Eucharist from his hands. On every recurring year until 
that of his death the Right Rev. Bishop McMullen made the 12th 
day of April a day of special memory and thanksgiving. 




In 1854 the Right Rev. Anthony O'Regan, D.D.. was conse- 
crated third Bishop of the Diocese of Chicago to succeed Bishop 
Van de Velde, who had been transferred to the Diocese of Natchez. 
As soon as the news arrived in Rome that Bishop O'Regan had 
taken possession of his See, John McMullen wrote him a letter of 
congratulation and submission. In this letter he made the state- 
ment that he was adopting every means to get subjects for the 
Diocese from the ranks of the Propaganda students, who were 
studying in that institution for missionary fields at large. The 
Bishop made the following reply : 

Feb. 23, 1855. 

" My Dear Child in Christ: I have just now received your letter 
and also one from Mr. Butler. Amidst the troubles that surround 
me here, it was consoling to receive such a letter. What a pleas- 
ure, is it not, to feel that there are devoted souls so mindful of the 
wants of religion in this diocese. I thank you dear child for your 
considerate and effectual zeal in favor of Chicago. Will you have 
the kindness to thank in my name, the excellent young men, who 
are willing to work here for God's glory ; and the excellent super- 
iors who have favored that holy zeal. If I could only impress on. 
those worthy men the great necessities of this Diocese, I am satis- 
fied that I would more than largely share in their benevolence. 
I wrote most fully on this subject to the Cardinal Prefect, I hope 


my letter reached him. I will, in a few days, have the honor of 
addressing him a similar letter. I beg of you, my dear child, to 
persevere and to work, that we may get as many priests as 
possible from Rome, I depend on their aid. In the whole Church 
there is not, I believe, a Diocese more in need of them, than 
Chicago, nor can more likely repay in every form their zeal and 
piety. I need not describe this to you, who know it, it is the 
fairest field in all America, yet unhappily, it has been the most 
neglected. Do then my dear child labor, labor without rest, to 
get us some holy young priests from Rome. This is the place to 
make them happy and also to make them worthy of being saints; 
all that is wanted is a supply of correct holy laborers. At this 
moment I am. in actual want of twenty priests : I want German, 
French and Irish priests. 

I am, my dear child in Christ, Faithfully Yours, 


Bishop of Chicago." 

Already John McMullen had secured Mr. Butler the Very 
Rev. T. J. Butler, D. D. for the Diocese of Chicago, who 
was studying for the East India Missions. Bishop O'Regan, 
in a letter, dated Feb. 25, 1856, writes: "My dear child in 
Christ, I hope you continue your exertions to get me good 
priests, oil this business you are never to relax your zeal." In 
the year 1857, the Bishop went to Rome, for the purpose of 
resigning the heavy responsibilities of his episcopate into the 
hands of the Holy See. On the 3rd day of March, 1858, after a 
long deliberation, the resignation was accepted by the Holy 
Father, and on the following day Bishop O'Regan informed John 
McMullen of the fact. While in Rome, the Bishop showed the 
highest regard for his young Theologian. He would have him 
with himself whenever the rules of the College permitted ; he 
placed every confidence in him. In their conversations, the 
Bishop frequently described the necessities of the Diocese of 
Chicago; bespread before the eyes of his enthusiastic listener, 
the great field open for zealous workers, all which redoubled the 


ardor of John McMullen to return home. In writing to a friend 
in Chicago, among other matters, he said : " I hope to soon be 
home and at work. The Bishop has gone into a long detail of 
matters and I am sorry to hear what has transpired, but let us 
hope for the best. I see no reason why the Church should not 
keep up with the growth of Chicago. The Bishop speaks in 
glowing terms of the Catholic people and how well they 
assisted him in building his palatial residence. My time for 
receiving Holy Orders is fast approaching, and soon after I will 
be on my way back to go to work." By the advice of Bishop 
O'Regan, he collected a theological library, which was for many 
years his great treasure, his only earthly possession, and which 
perished in the great Chicago fire of 1871. 

In the year 1857 John McMullen's health, on account of 
his severe studies and the old gunshot wound was again impaired 
to such an extent, that the college physician warned him to exer- 
cise the greatest care, or he would have to leave Rome. He was 
allowed to take a few weeks vacation at Montalto, the country seat 
of the Propaganda College to regain his health. During this time 
he visited every place of interest in the vicinity. He wrote full 
descriptions of these visits to certain Catholic newspapers pub- 
lished in the United States, but no trace of these letters can be 

One of his greatest pleasures was the daily walks taken by the 
students, which secured for them repeated visits to the venerated 
shrines of the Eternal city those august monuments of Church 
history that make the stations as performed in Rome not only 
highly indulgenced pilgrimages, but eloquent teachers of Christian 
story. Their influence upon the earnest student is not to be 
measured by any denned method, for it is as powerful as it is 
subtle, putting imagination on the side of facts and enlisting in- 
tellectual enthusiasm on that of devotion. None of this was lost 
upon the Propaganda student John McMullen, and scarcely a clay 
passed that he did not visit some object of religious interest or 
ruin of ancient Rome. 


In a letter to a friend he writes: "You complain that I am 
dilatory in writing, I can assure you that my time for letter-writ- 
ing is very limited. The routine of college life and my studies 
along with the short time given for recreation is such, that I have 
to take from my study hours a few moments to pen only important 
letters to dear ones at home. You ask for a description of the 
places of interest in the Eternal city, already I have sent a few 
letters to the " Celt " which you no doubt have read. The places of 
interest in this grand old city once Pagan, now Christian, are in- 
numerable. The ruins of Pagan Rome crumbling away for more 
than two thousand years are melancholy yet outspoken reminders 
of the past ; the old Roman Forum looks desolate, the few broken 
columns, only one or two standing, are silent witnesses of the 
former days of Rome's intellectual giants. I was deeply impressed 
on ray first visit to Tusculum at the remark of a companion 
" That if Cicero could come back and see his dear Tusculum as it 
now lies in ruins, he did not doubt but that the great orator 
would give expression to his feelings in language far more power- 
ful than was ever uttered by him in Tusculum's amphitheatre." 
I may truly say that I have seen comparatively very little of 
Rome. She stands at this day a study which would take a long 
life spent within her walls to feebly encompass, and you know my 
dear friend that I have no such luck in store." 

He wrote to his Uncle James Fitzsimmons: 

" VILLA MONTALTO, Sept. 15, 1855. 

" Dear Uncle : We are at the country seat of the Propaganda 
College enjoying two months of vacation. As I have an abund- 
ance of time on hand I can give you a little history of myself 
since my last letters. The Eternal city is a marvel of greatness 
in its antiquities, in its being the center of religious faith and the 
home of the Vicar of Christ. There is a constant stream of visitors 
all the year round, but at stated times the influx is enormous and 
I have often wondered where room could be found for all the 


strangers. At the time of the declaration of the dogma of the 
Immaculate Conception it was said that there were one hundred 
thousand foreigners in Rome not counting the large number of 
Bishops arid priests who had come at the call of His Holiness 
Pope Pius IX. There is an endless course of Holy days and 
Saints' days in Rome. The Churches are decorated on special 
occasions with rich tapestries, gorgeous hangings in silks and 
cloth of gold; in the vestibule and on the street in front of the 
Churches on feast-days yellow sand is scattered, covered with 
a profusion of boxwood clippings and laurel leaves. I wrote a 

long letter to describing the ceremonies attending the 

proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception ; I also 
wrote to Father Kinsella about the accident that occurred to us 
last April, where the life of our Holy Father and those of many 
Cardinals, Bishops, Priests and students including my own and 
James McGovern's were imperilled. I see from your letter that 
you read the description of it in Father Kinsella's letter which he 
sent to our parents. The summer season is intensely warm, but I 
am now thoroughly acclimated. Many Chicago people called on 
me during the year bringing letters of introduction from my kind 
friends at home. The superiors permitted me to accompany them 
a few times through Rome; we visited, of course, St. Peter's 
Church and the great Vatican Palace the residence of the Popes. 
The Museum and Library were of special interest to them, as were 
the great works of the prince of painters, Raphael ; we assisted at 
a service in the Sistine Chapel where our friends saw the great 
work of Michael Angelo The last Judgment and other works of 
the masters ; we visited the Catacombs ; they are the underground 
burial places of the Christians of the three first centuries of the 
Church, enriched with the relics of early martyrs; in them we 
saw Chapels with Altars where the priests offered the divine Sacri- 
fice; we saw emblematic pictures on the walls which caused the 
Chicago pilgrims who were not of the Faith to scan closely and 
then utter exclamations of surprise at such evident proofs of the 
truths of Holy Church. One afternoon we walked out on the 


Appian way, and I assure you, Chicago people make good ped- 
estrians ; we entered the tomb of the Scipios, it consists of recesses 
cut in the tufa stone. We -then went into the Columbaria or burial 
places for the slaves of the Emperors, out into the Campagna pass- 
ing on each side temples, and great thermae or baths, we came to 
the celebrated tomb of Cecilia Metella, which looms up over the 
Campagna a silent unintelligible mass of solid masonry covered 
with ivy, the growth of centuries. The quaint apparel of the 
Roman peasantry was very amusing to our Chicago visitors, in 
truth they compare closely in many ways with the Potto wattomies, 
who annually camped down on the lake shore at the foot of Har- 
rison Street, when the government agent paid the Indians their 
yearly stipend in goods and money. 

"The mountain air is very invigorating. We have no studies 
during the vacation period ; we are permitted to take long walks 
and I am fortunately in company with a fine lot of students who 
take the greatest pleasure in searching out everything of interest 
in the neighborhood so vividly described in Fabiola. We took a 
trip a few mornings ago to Mt. Cavi, a peak of the Alban Halls, 
to see the sun rise. The scene was superb; on the mountain 
top there is a Monastery of Holy Monks the Passionists, they 
treated us most hospitably. Twenty miles away lies the Eternal 
city in the Campagna, the Dome of St. Peters towers over all in 
the distance, rendering a colossal grandeur to it." 

In another letter to a classmate in St. Mary of the Lake, dated 
Oct. 21, 1855, he writes : " I have a very pleasant vacation. Un- 
usual privileges are granted to our Camerata or class ; we were 
allowed to attend the festivities held at Rocca Priore in honor of 
the Archangel St. Michael. The peasantry flocked into the village 
from the neighboring country and the quaint brilliant hues of 
the garments of the men as well as the women were beautiful to 
behold. We attended a country fair held at Grotta Ferratta, a 
small hamlet near the celebrated Monastery of that name, within 
a mile of our country place, the ludicrous incongruities of the 
customs of the peasantry were laughable to us Americans, but the 


people seemed to enjoy it hugely ; a number of American and 
English tourists took in the fair. The people, poor as they seem- 
ingly are, know how to derive the greatest pleasure from their 
fetes champetres, and there was not the least sign of disorder during 
the day. All the students have had the exquisite, I should say 
excruciating, treat of a donkey ride to the country seat of the 
Jesuit Fathers at Genzano. This is a time honored custom in the 
annals of the vacation days of the Propaganda College. There is 
no backing out, except the valid excuse of ill health, knowing or 
not knowing how to bestride the quadruped is a question never 
allowed to be mooted. On the morning of our trip thirty students 
in all were up with the lark and equipped for the ride. It was 
not long before we heard the band of donkeys coming up the 
driveway leading to the Montalto palace. Such music! if it was 
inharmonious, it was loud and the hills echoed with the braying 
refrain ; each student picked out the donkey that appeared to suit 
him, but not without a good deal of contention, so that he who 
was light of limb was sure to get a racer, while the slow goer 
would have no choice. I am sorry to write that I took the matter 
too philosophically, and my choice was a venerable old fellow, who 
took things, as coolly as I did. Once bestride the donkeys, the 
students started away helter skelter, the main object being, to 
reach Genzano twelve miles away. Of course I followed in the 
rear ; by the time some of the students were passing Marino, the 
first village on our way, I was leaving the vicinity of the Mon- 
astery of Grotta Ferratta. The prefect was provided with a horse, 
and he came back frequently to hurry up the laggards, but there 
was not much use, we slowly but surely walked, that is my donkey. 
I do not know whether I took much pleasure in it or not, it is 
enough for me to say, that I had plenty of time to enjoy the 
scenery along the route. Well we got to Genzano at last, the 
kind fathers had prepared a fine lunch for us in the refectory 
and we spent a few pleasant hours in this delightful retreat. 
Finally, we got orders to start on the return and every student was 
soon aboard and on the homeward trip. We got safely back to 


Montalto, but I have not got over the shaking up yet. In a few 
days the students will enter the annual retreat ; then we go back 
to Rome and study. The college course opens on Nov. 5th. I 
will send some beads and medals to you as soon as I find some- 
one going to Chicago, they will be blessed by his Holiness the 

It was during this time he wrote a summary of the rites and 
institutions of the Church, the manuscript perished in the great 
fire of 1871. He had been a close student of Christian antiqui- 
ties, finding as he would say, "A fund of theological lore in 
the original expressions of the early Christians." He studied 
in them the history of the doctrines and rites of the Church, 
with the same zeal and earnestness with which he read the Holy 
scriptures. " I believe," he wrote once to a friend on this matter, 
" that the voice of the Church is coordinate with that of the Bible, 
if not superior. The Church as founded by our Lord is the source 
of religious knowledge, and its doctrines and rites are revelations 
of the will of God." Bishop O'Regan was an enthusiastic student 
in these matters, and he in every way stimulated the young theolo- 
gian to delve deep into the knowledge of history the History of 
the Church. " My young friend, the Bishop one day said in the 
Monastery of St. Isidore, Rome, to his Chicago student, " this 
branch of your studies is an indispensable key to you in the many 
parts of ecclesiastical history; you cannot be a good Church 
historian unless you know well the antiquities of the Christian 
Church, the knowledge of Greek and Roman classics and antiqui- 
ties are useful to the classical student, Jewish antiquities are im- 
portant to the biblical student, Christian antiquities immeasurably 
contribute to give a broader and clearer light to the history of the 
Church and her doctrines." Such words had a deep meaning to 
the young student of Church History, and that he made good use 
of his opportunities his lectures in after years as a professor in the 
Seminary of St. Mary of the Lake and in the pulpit clearly 

In the month of May, 1858, John McMullen by order of his 


superiors in the Propaganda presented himself at the Vicariate, 
for the necessary examination, preparatory to the reception of 
the sacrament of Holy Orders. The celebrated theologian, 
Father Perrone, S. J., took part in this examination, and he after- 
wards made special mention of the profound knowledge displayed 
by theologian McMulIen in answering all questions. Such praise 
from such a source was considered a distinction, as it rarely took 
place on such occasions. He soon after passed ten days in spiritual 
exercises at Sant' Eusebio, and on the 18th and 19th of June he 
received Subdeacon and Deaconship, and on Sunday morning, 
the 20th of June, 1858, being in the 27th year of his age, he was 
ordained priest along with six others of his class, by the Most 
Rev. Archbishop Ligi-Bussi, in this Prelate's private Chapel. The 
singular fervor which he manifested all through his preparation 
for Holy Orders was a noticeable fact among his immediate fellow 
students. He studiously recited the divine office and he gave the 
closest attention to a clear, precise acquirement of the rubrics of 
the Mass. His young Chicago friend assisted him on the morn- 
ing of his ordination. As they walked back to the Propaganda 
College after the Mass of ordination was over, the now Eev. John 
McMulIen remarked in his simple, earnest, truthful way: "Well, 
thank God I am at last a priest, but I thought I would feel like 
quite another person after my ordination, yet I am still the same 
John McMulIen." He then repeated the words of the psalmist: 
"Thou hast made him a little less than the angels, thou hast 
crowned him with glory and honor, and hast set him over the 
work of thy hands." All this gives a glimpse into the interior of this 
man, so exalted of mind, so true of speech ; he looked forward to the 
grand change from the sphere of common manhood to that noble 
elevation where he gets the new character of the priest of God. 
In his ecstasy of anticipation he imagined that the heavenly 
powers conferred on him would so change his being that human- 
ity would cease, and the divine take full possession. In after 
years when his words were recalled to his mind, he acknowledged 
that his exaltation of spirit at the time carried him away from 


the realities of the things of life, but he had since then had ample 
opportunities to learn that his individuality had not changed by 
his elevation to the priesthood, though the spiritual significance 
of the honor and power granted, were far better realized. He 
celebrated his first Mass in the College Chapel, his second in the 
Chapel of the Blessed Virgin in the Basilica of St. Mary Major, 
his third on the altar before the miraculous picture in the little 
Chapel in the Church of St. Andrea delle Fratte, before which 
picture he offered up the prayer, so anxiously, that he might 
be received in the Propaganda College. " I wish," he said, " in 
this way to show my gratitude to God and his Blessed Mother 
for granting me the desire of my heart and hearing my prayers." 
According to a rule of the college that the students as soon as 
possible after their ordination shall leave for their respective mis- 
sions, the Rev. Mr. McMullen made his necessary preparations. 
He was, however, ordered by his superiors to postpone that event 
until he would undergo an examination and graduate in theol- 
ogy, which they said he well deserved. Bishop O'Regan requested 
him to take the degrees ; the Bishop wrote, when consulted on 
the matter sometime previous : " Let such an act be in accordance 
with the wishes of your immediate superiors. When you thus 
obtain your degrees, they will be more honorable and more satis- 
factory. Do not suppose that I undervalue those honors, I earn- 
estly wish to see you all return Doctors and worthy of your titles." 
His professors were unanimous in casting their votes for him and 
they spoke afterwards in admiration of his examination. The 
Very Rev. Dr. Smith said : " It is too bad that we could not 
have McMullen stand a public thesis, he is a great theologian." 
After receiving from Cardinal Barnabo' the insignia of Doctor of 
Divinity, Dr. McMullen made no delay in his departure for home. 
He was presented to the Holy Father by Monsignore Bedini, 
secretary of the Propaganda; he received the Apostolical Bene- 
diction and many blessings for friends at home, and on the 3rd 
of August, 1858, left Rome for Chicago. His departure from 
the Propaganda College was accompanied by an incident which 


gave room for much comment among the superiors and students 
of the college. Rev. Dr. McMullen had a most affectionate regard 
for his superiors. It is a time honored practice to bid each good- 
by when leaving the college ; such moments have been yearly the 
most affecting in the annals of that institution. When the time 
came for him to go to take the diligence for Civita Vecchia, the 
emotion of his heart was most noticeable, he .went first to the 
Chapel and offered up a short prayer ; he then grasped the hand 
of his young Chicago friend, and without a word to anybody he 
was leaving his second home started in great haste to the piazza 
of St. Lucca, the diligence station. The rector of the college who 
was expecting him to come to his room for the last farewell, on 
hearing of this sudden departure, and understanding the motive, 
immediately put on his hat and followed his student to the station, 
where an affectionate parting took place. Dr. McMullen would 
recall this instance, when he was in charge of students in St. 
Mary of the Lake, and say : " I wish I had the heart of our 
dear rector Tancioni." 




On the 27th day of November, 1858, a letter was received in 
Rome from the Rev. J. McMullen, D. D., announcing the writer's 
safe arrival in Chicago on the 20th of Oct. the same year. He 
gave in that letter a short description of his travels through 
France, England and Ireland; of his warm reception on his 
return to Ballynahinch, and of his Mass said in the old Parish 
Church in which he was baptised. " I have no important in- 


cidents to relate," he again wrote, " the ocean trip was pleasant 
and Father Quarter was moved to tears in the happiness of his 
big heart, when I walked unannounced into his residence at 
Yorkville. ' The old shanty Church,' as he called it, is replaced 
by a handsome brick structure. I had the pleasure of meeting 
our old superiors of St. Mary of. the Lake, who are stationed in 
New York. Home again ! I found all well, but what a change in 
a few years ! The city has made such rapid strides in growth since 
we left, that I felt like coming to a strange place. Immigration is 
fast peopling the whole Northwest ; our families have moved over 
to the West side. Rev. Dr. Butler gave me a brotherly welcome 
and the Right Rev. Bishop Duggan, who is doing great work in 
the cause of Religion in the city and Diocese, invited me to his 
house and appointed me one of the assistants at the Cathedral." 
Dr. McMullen received a hearty welcome from his numerous 
friends on his return to Chicago. He found that the family circle 
had not been disturbed by serious sickness or death since he left 
his father's roof. 

" You would not know Chicago," he writes in the same letter, 
" the woods on the North side have disappeared, the sloughs on 
the West side have been filled up, streets and blocks of residences 
cover the prairie beyond Bullshead and the city on the South 
side has reached Bridgeport, everything is business. A bewilder- 
ing rush marks progress on every side, and it appears that the 
small city of our youthful days will become the great metropolis 
of the West." 

The Right Rev. James Duggan, D. D., was Administrator 
of the Diocese. This Prelate was consecrated Bishop of Antigone 
in partibus infidelium, May 3, 1853, to be coadjutor of Archbishop 
Kenrick of St. Louis. When Bishop O'Regan's resignation was 
accepted by the Holy See, it was followed by the appointment of 
the Right Rev. Bishop Duggan to the Administratorship of the 
Diocese of Chicago. Personal virtues, unspotted purity of life and 
a remarkable gentleness of character were the leading traits of 
this truly noble Bishop. A devoted scholar, learned in the 


doctrines of Holy Church and an eloquent speaker he was a desir- 
able acquisition in the management of this great Western Diocese. 
He loved to have around him his priests ; he enjoyed their society 
and admired their varied talents. The administrative hand of 
such a man was felt as soon as he took charge of his exalted office. 
Priests and people gave every evidence of renewed confidence and 
the spirit of the new Bishop electrified the hearts of everyone, so 
that the visible fruits of Bishop Duggau's immediate action in the 
government of the Diocese was noticed everywhere. It was not 
until the insidious disease which so clouded his life, reached his 
bright intellect, that he was other than a protector of interests, 
which afterwards excited his opposition, and not only a protector, 
but a zealous co-laborer with those who advocated them. 

In a letter to his young friend in Rome, dated Dec. 10, 1858, 

the Eev. Dr. McMullen wrote : " The Bishop asked about you 

I was filled with spiritual joy, as I viewed the prospects and en- 
couraging influences presented to me everywhere. The Bishop 
assisted at my first Mass and he knelt with all to receive the 
Apostolical benediction; he told me to prepare to preach the 
Sunday following, so 1 spent a pretty busy week. I said my first 
Mass in Chicago in St. Patrick's Church, my second in dear old 
St. Mary's, on that altar where we learned first to serve Mass, and 
on the following Sunday, I preached in that pulpit from which 
Bishop Quarter delivered his last sermon." Dr. McMullen's 
hearers never forgot the tide of burning eloquence which poured 
from his lips on that occasion, as if not to be restrained ; nor did 
they fail to predict for him from the result a brilliant future. As 
a preacher, it may be here stated, that he possessed certain gifts 
which rendered him always most acceptable to any audience. 
He sought to accommodate his thoughts to his hearers in an easy 
flow of language ; always earnest, he took as much pains in un- 
folding the truths of God to a few people in a distant prairie 
settlement, as he would to the highly cultured audience in a large 

His activity in the advancement of the interests of every- 


thing which would promote the welfare of souls was at once most 
pronounced. He delivered a course of lectures on the attributes 
of the Church in St. Mary's Cathedral during the first Lenten 
season after his arrival ; and it was said of him, by his co-assist- 
ants in the Cathedral, that he was always first in the confessional 
and the last to leave it. While in Rome, he had a slight attack of 
smallpox, which he said was of great advantage to him. With 
this, as a shield, though no priest failed when called to go into 
the house of pestilence, he insisted that it was his right to attend 
all sick calls at the pesthouse, situated on the lake shore opposite 
the present Archiepiscopal residence. He would answer such 
calls with the greatest alacrity and remain for hours administer- 
ing, not alone to the spiritual, but temporal needs of the wretched 
helpless inmates 

Dr. McMullen with his bundle containing newspapers, period- 
icals and books, was a familiar and anxiously looked for friend 
among the prisoners in the jail under the old Courthouse, and his 
regular visits to the "bridewell, caused many unfortunates to 
recognize their evil ways and become good when they went out 
again, to battle with the world. But there is one work of chanty, 
second to none, in the great city of Chicago, of which he is the 
founder the institution of the Magdalen Asylum. The House 
of the Good Shepherd, as it is better known, has been of incalcu- 
lable benefit to a class of unfortunates, who otherwise would find 
no refuge, no hope of recall from their deplorable condition. 
Since its foundation, it has gone steadily on and will continue to 
while the cross on its high towers glitters with the rays of the 
morning sun. 

One day in 1858, he went to his brother James and said: 
"I need three hundred dollars, will you lend that amount to 
me? I have not the money on hand, answered his brother, but I 
can borrow it, what do you want it for and what security can you 
give ? Never mind, was the reply, what I want it for, as to secur- 
ity you can have rny word." The brothers understood each other 
and the amount was soon obtained. With this small beginning, 


Dr. McMulleii rented and furnished a house on Pierce street, now 
Boston avenue, on the West side. With the approval of Bishop 
Duggan, he had written to the Sisters of the Good Shepherd in 
St. Louis, and three sisters were sent to Chicago. On their arrival 
he brought them to this rented house, and the first seven women 
pardoned out of the Bridewell were placed under their charge. 
Such was the beginning of the large Convent of the Good Shepherd 
now of such acknowledged merit in Chicago. This great work, 
however, met with most determined opposition. The neighbors 
murmured at having such an establishment in their vicinity; 
they questioned its utility; they denounced the harboring of a 
depraved class in any institution, and made many other objections. 
Dr. McMullen paid no heed to such clamors, but made a daily 
visit to the Pierce street home, if not otherwise engaged. His ' 
regular question was : " Well, Sisters, have you and the inmates 
enough to eat to-day?" One morning he found the pantry empty 
and the Sisters and Magdalens suffering with hunger. Without de- 
lay he started out and went among his Catholic friends ; he begged 
from door to door for food, and on his return he stepped into a gro- 
cery and bought a basketful of provisions with money he collected 
and brought it to the Sisters. " Never mind, Sisters, he said to 
them encouragingly, your heavenly Father will not let you suffer." 
" This Institution," he wrote in answer to the opponents of the 
Magdalen Asylum, " is established as a place of refuge for unfor- 
tunate females, who may be disposed to abandon a life of degra- 
dation, and also afford protection and support to those, who 
through poverty or want of parental care, are exposed to the 
danger of entering upon such a career. There is not on earth 
an object which calls louder on true Christian benevolence, than 
the unfortunate female, when the flower of virtue is blighted and 
the nobility of woman's character is humbled in the dust. 
Many of these are found too willing to return to the path of 
rectitude ; but who is to offer them a cheering look, an assisting 
hand? The leper's misery is not to be compared to theirs ; the 
poor are pitied, but there seems to be no commiseration for them, 


even the truly good and charitable spurn them from their doors. 
They dare not tell their tale of sorrow, the city bridewell becomes 
their occasional lodging ; but they go forth with every way to 
amendment closed against them, to drink the very dregs of the 
cup of misery, till imprisoned, they die amidst the gloom of in- 
terminable woe. It is to prevent, as far as possible, the recurrence 
of such heartrending scenes, that this Institution is designed and 

Soon under his fostering care the number of Magdalens 
increased in the Asylum, so that in 1860, he was compelled 
to move the Sisters and their charge to the South Side on 
Franklin street, where he found room for thirty penitents. In 
the summer of 1859 he took a trip to St. Louis, and to other cities 
in the States of Illinois and Iowa, making collections whenever 
the opportunity offered itself. Dr. McMullen on his return to Chi- 
cago, well pleased at his success, with Bishop Duggan's approval, 
purchased the property on the North Side, the present site of the 
Home of the Good Shepherd, and he began the erection of a 
commodious frame building. Shortly after his arrival home, the 
Doctor went to his brother James and handed him a check for two 
hundred and seventy-two dollars ; when asked by his brother, 
why not two hundred and seventy-five and whose name was on it, 
he quietly said, " It is just as it was given to me. On a Mississippi 
steamer I met a young man, not a Catholic, from Massachusetts 
and in the course of our conversation I told him about the object 
of my trip and my difficulties, when he drew from his pocket 
that check, endorsed it and presented it to me ; here also is the 
balance in cash. 

The location of the Magdalen Asylum on the North Side was 
met with murmurs, which turned into threats and one night 
the hand of the incendiary put the torch to the incompleted frame 
building. Dr. McMullen was hot dismayed at this, he went im- 
mediately to work, and had a large brick building erected. In 
doing so he received the assistance of many citizens, who dis- 
countenanced persecution, saw the good to be accomplished, 


and admired his unflinching zeal. The building was burned in the 
great fire of 1871. " The Magdalen Asylum," he wrote eight years 
after, " was founded in 1858, and these eight years of probation have 
proved that it did not fall short of the views of its designers, 
and that it is quite indispensable among the charitable establish- 
ments of the city. The situation could be not more eligible. It is 
easily approached by the class of persons for whom it is intended to 
provide, while at the same time it is sufficiently retired to facili- 
tate the order and management of the Institution. Right Rev. 
Bishop Duggan purchased a block of ground worth $15,000 for 
the purpose of establishing the Asylum, and by the co-operation 
of the charitable friends of the project, the present building was 
erected at an expense of $10,000. Several improvements have 
since been made, as circumstances required and means would per- 
mit, so that the Institution is in possession of not less than 
$30,000 worth of property. There are at present eighty-nine in- 
mates of the Asylum. During the last eight years the average 
number of inmates has been seventy-three. Of those who were 
sent to the Asylum by parents, twenty-one on an average have 
been returned to their homes, and not one instance has occurred 
in which a member of this class is known to have relapsed into 
her former habits. Those who were without parents or friends, 
twelve per annum on an average have been provided with places in 
families. All who are thus sent out to service are under the 
direction, to a very great extent, of the Sisters who conduct the 
Institution. During the last eight years two hundred and sixty- 
four have been reformed and reclaimed from utter ruin. The 
number of deaths in the establishment have averaged four per 
annum. There are some of the applicants who choose to make 
the Asylum their home for life. 

They assist in the management of the establishment and 
at present number forty-three. The Institution has been self- 
supporting from the beginning, this is a phase which should 
be dwelt upon by all considerate persons. Charitable es- 
tablishments may be founded very readily which depend upon 


voluntary contributions from year to year for their sup- 
port; but this is perhaps the only instance of a benevolent in- 
stitution in our city providing for its own maintainance and 
securing its own perpetuity. The inmates are engaged at needle 
work principally. The more recently initiated are occupied in 
housework and knitting ; embroidery of all kinds and the most 
delicate handwork are sent out, not only in our own, but to 
other cities throughout the State. There are eighteen Sisters 
of the Good Shepherd in charge of the establishment, who, 
uniting their labors with those of their charge, not only pro- 
duce the most exquisite work of the kind, but also the cheapest 
that is to be found in the city. The establishment is at present 
sufficiently well-known to have secured a very extensive patronage, 
not from charitable Catholics alone, but also from the less liberal 
and prejudiced portion of the community. Heretofore the build- 
ings have been so contracted that a very important department of 
the Institution could not be properly provided for. 

In this and in every large city there are a considerable number of 
girls, who, from various causes, fall into wayward and sometimes 
vicious habits, and who, if provided for at an early age, could be 
saved for God and society. Perhaps nothing is more desirable, as a 
public charity than a girls' reformatory and protection house. 
This forms a necessary appendage to the Magdalen Asylum and 
has been provided for, as far as possible, in connection with this 
establishment; in this department the elementary branches 
are taught. A knowledge of housework, vocal and instru- 
mental music, plain sewing and embroidery are likewise im- 
parted. These girls of the Industrial school are separated into 
various classes, according to their requirements, and hold no com- 
munication with the inmates of the Magdalen department. Were 
a department properly established for the protection and reforma- 
tion of girls of fifteen years of age in connection with the Magda- 
len Asylum, a vast expenditure would be saved the city, which 
must be burdened with this class, if not thus provided for. The 
block on which the Magdalen Asylum is situated has been found 


to be too small for the proper management of all its depart- 
ments and does not afford that seclusion which is so indis- 
pensable in an Institution of this character ; hence it is proposed 
to purchase the ground to the west, which will cost about $9,000. 
and erect a building to cost, say, $25,000, for the Magdalen Asy- 
lum properly, and leave the present edifice for the girls' industrial 
and reform school. We see no reason why this should not be speed- 
ily effected ; it will not cost a tithe of what it would if attempted by 
taxation. It is a recognized fact that the management of these 
establishments is attended with such difficulty, that only those, 
who give to this work their whole attention, and even their 
lives, can obtain any considerable success. We look to the benev- 
olence and generosity of the citizens of Chicago to realize these 
projects and render the effects both great and lasting." The foun- 
dation of a boys' reform and industrial school enlisted his earnest 
attention at this time, but strong opposition was made to it by 
the guardians of the Chicago reform school. He therefore pub- 
lished a pamphlet in defense of the school. In it he proved the 
right and ability of the Catholic Church to look after, support 
and educate destitute, homeless boys. It is to be regretted that a 
copy of this pamphlet cannot be found. He at another time 
wrote on this great question, as follows: 

" How can we best provide for our precocious, keen, sturdy,, 
wayward boys, who are found in considerable numbers in our 
cities, entirely deprived of parental tutelage, or who, through the 
ignorance, negligence, crime, or dissipation of natural guardians^ 
are left without protection, and thus in danger of becoming con- 
taminated, or are, in fact, addicted to habits of indolence and 
vice, is a question which we hear frequently agitated, and which 
is receiving a satisfactory solution by the foundation of such 
establishments as these to which we have referred. We do not 
say that this is a vital, or most important matter, with Catholics. 
We can easily understand that the building of Churches and the 
establishment of congregations, so that the people may attend the 
divine Sacrifice of the Mass and receive the Sacraments and be- 


coming instruction, are, at present, the most requisite, and of 
themselves, the most meritorious works that can be performed 
for the benefit of religion in this country. After this, to instruct 
Catholic children in the Christian doctrine, and particularly to 
establish such a system of catechetical discipline as will be most 
complete and at the same time reach the greatest number, accord- 
ing to the circumstances of different localities, undoubtedly holds 
the next place in order of importance. 

" Building churches and teaching Catechism are certainly the 
greatest works of our day, and those who are in earnest in carry- 
ing them on, must be doing what is most pleasing to God. "We 
only refer, however, to these most important requirements of our 
times, in order to give our present subject its proper rank in the 
consideration of Catholics, leaving to some other occasion the 
pleasing duty of speaking of the labors of those great and noble 
apostolic men among the clergy and laity, who are really perpetu- 
ating religion in this country by building churches and establish- 
ing Sunday schools. 

" What is intended to benefit a class, can never hold the same 
rank of importance with what most intimately concerns the whole 
community, and hence our Colleges, Orphan Asylums, Reform 
Schools, and similar establishments, though highly beneficial, we 
most willingly mention, as secondary to the great works of our 
age, which, because they are so common and ordinary, do not 
receive from many the attention they deserve. But we have 
provided, and can provide still further, for these secondary re- 
quirements. A great number of children, and we hope a greater 
number now than there will ever be at any future period, are de- 
prived of proper domestic care and parental tutelage, regarding 
religious instruction and example. We should never lose sight of 
our actual condition. The vast majority of Catholics in this 
country have come here within the last twenty-five years (1865), 
and although civilly and politically identified with those who 
were here before us, we differ from them, many in language, and 
more in habits of life and religion. Though the emigrant may 


coine to improve his condition, and actually confers a benefit on 
his adopted country, by his talents, his learning, and his labor, he 
has his hardships, his disappointments, and sometimes must en- 
counter want of sympathy, and even the prejudices of those 
around him. In the midst of these disadvantages of the present, 
we look forward to a brighter prospect in the future. The rising 
generation of American Catholics are a hardy, stalwart, labor- 
loving race, with as much talent and ingenuity as were ever pos- 
sessed by the youth of any other country. The young Irish 
American is found everywhere except in the temples of Protes- 
tantism, so that we might say, with an apologist of the early ages, 
addressing the unconverted Romans, " Solam vobis reliquimus 
templa." They are found in every grade, in every station, putting 
forth an energy, and manifesting a spirit of enterprise, not easily 
rivaled, and certainly not surpassed. Their ability and learning 
are felt in the halls of legislation, adorn the forum, are displayed 
in the pulpit and the press, and shine brilliantly in the various 
posts of danger and responsibility in our armies. They are the 
proprietors of the soil in the West, and are met in the busy 
marts of commerce in the East. They are, in a word, numerous 
amongst those who deserve to be called the pride and hope of cur 
country, numerous among her best citizens and bravest defenders. 
We should not be astonished, when we consider that most Catholic 
parents are emigrants, and contemplate the restless, progressive 
spirit of their children, that not a few irregularities should neces- 
sarily result. The parent will sometimes depart from the virtu- 
ous habits in which he grew up in his father-land, and the active, 
enterprising youth will seek to free himself from parental control, 
and long to try his strength and wits amidst the struggles for wealth 
and fame. Many children are left orphans at an early age ; and. 
before their parents had acquired a sufficiency to support them in 
such an emergency. Some parents are incapable of holding the 
reins of domestic government with a steady hand ; some children, 
by evil associations, will not brook control. 
" Neither are such cases few, nor confined to certain localities. 


It is a common fallacy to judge that they are found only in large 
cities. They are met with in the village and rural district ; and if 
not observed in these places to any great extent, we should call to 
mind, that our country friends are ever willing to provide a fa- 
cility of transport to all such unfortunates, to the larger cities, 
when it is believed there are, or should be, institutions to provide 
for them. A danger to which our wayward boys are exposed, is 
capture by philanthropists. These are of two kinds. Those who 
profess philanthropy as a religion, acknowledge no other obliga- 
tions than merely social ones, whose highest and only 
standard of Christian perfection is that of a good citizen. Be 
honest in your dealings, live a sober, industrious life, and you will 
acquire honor, wealth and influence, and chance the rest. There 
are others who depend on philanthropy for a living. They are 
frequently preachers, who, for want of requisite information or 
other important reasons, are obliged to live from whatever turns 
up. They must live as best they can from their wits, " have no 
visible means of support," and expect to gain a livelihood by de- 
claring themselves benefactors of the human race. To this latter 
class we may add a number of officious and benevolent ladies, 
who are engaged in most of the popular charities of a commu- 
nity, have lived beyond the period of life when they could natur- 
ally expect the offer of a desirable partner in domestic care, and 
are eager to exhaust their maternal affection on all the little ones 
who may be so unfortunate as to come within its influence. We 
do not wish either to decry or deride philanthropists. They are as 
good as we could expect them to be without Christianity and our 
only regret is that the community will suffer them to carry on 
their practices in the name of Christianity, and that their natural 
virtuous qualities are not sanctified by supernatural influences. 
View them as we will, they are enemies to the welfare of your boys, 
who need the protection of the Asylum or the training of the 
Reform School. They would prefer that the little unfortunates 
were anything but Catholics. 
" They profess not to interfere with the religious convictions of 


the children, but will insist that they must be taught nothing 
more than what is deemed the " fundamental principles of 
Christianity," which means any kind of Christianity, or none at 
all, as you will. They are connected with Bible Societies, 
Christian Associations, Homes of the Friendless, and are earnest 
in their endeavors to obtain control of City Reform Schools, and 
similar institutions supported by the public revenues. Their 
latitudinarian professions make them pass as liberal minded 
persons to whose action no Christian need object. However 
it is found that the Catholic boy is given to any guardian but one 
of his own religion, and prejudices against Catholicity 
are indirectly, but industriously instilled into the youthful 
inind. They, in fact, never undertake to correct a youth. The 
"boy, if anywise controllable, is smuggled off to some distant 
place, where he is given away, or more frequently sold, for an 
amount corresponding to the expense attending transportation 
and the salary of the person in charge. If the boy be caught 
in the commission of crime, he is sent to a juvenile prison, a city 
or county Reformatory dosed with " fundamental principles " and 
liberated when he becomes thoroughly accomplished in all the 
evil practices which he could not learn elsewhere. The old Prot- 
estant predestinarians, who held that a child is created to be 
saved or lost, without any regard to good or evil actions, could 
not have better taught in practice that correction is impossible, 
than our latter-day saints, the philantropists do, in their mode of 
treatment of our unfortunate boys. 

" The best remedy against the hostilities waged by philanthro- 
pists, is, we think, to have our Reform Schools and Asylums 
incorporated, and empowered to take under their protection 
Catholic children whose natural guardians fail to discharge their 
office. Such rights have been guaranteed to the Chicago Asylum, 
and we believe, to that which is being established in New York; 
and, indeed, it is with difficulty that such institutions can succeed 
anywhere without a similar protection. 

" Unless our children are under a proper domestic discipline, 


they are necessarily exposed to many and great dangers, of not 
only losing their virtue, but their faith. The prevailing senti- 
ment of indifference to any fixed form of religious belief and 
practice, surrounds them, whether at school, at work, or at play ; 
and unless they be fortified with a proper religious education, 
example and training by their parents, they cannot be expected 
to possess the requisite qualifications to counteract the opposing 
influence. In nearly every instance the fit subject for the Asylum 
of correction is found to have wanted proper domestic care and 
parental government. We must, as a consequence, expect that 
in the Juvenile prison our Catholic boys will, in most cases, 
have their faith shaken, and hence be cut loose from whatever- 
sense of moral obligation may have attached them to the practice 
of virtue. We must, therefore, distrust all establishments which 
propose either to restrain, correct, or support Catholic boys, if 
they be not under Catholic control. The House of Correction 
maintained by the city or county government is a social blessing, 
inasmuch as it restrains, if it does not reform, the non-Catholic 
child, and protects the community from his misdemeanors; but 
we are mistaken, if we expect, that they are to be a scource of 
greater good than evil to Catholic children. It is cheering to see 
that really zealous, enterprising Catholics, throughout the country 
have awakened to one of the urgent requirements of our times, 
that of establishing Reform Schools and Asylums for our vigorous, 
talented, restless, wayward boys. They are generally possessed 
of better natural qualities than any class of children in the 
country, and, if properly provided for, can be made to compete 
with and even surpass those more sedate and docile youths whom 
we look upon as the great hope of the nation spes altera Romae. 
They are far from being incorrigible. A little kindness is not 
soon forgotten by them, as restraint and punishment are resisted 
to the last. 

" Much could be done to save our boys from the temptation of 
evil associations and dissolute habits, by establishing a proper 
boarding-house for them. Many an honest boy, who may start 


out with the best intentions to gain a livelihood, is drawn imper- 
ceptibly into evil habits by force of circumstances. He cannot 
support himself at a respectable boarding-house, and hence is fre- 
quently obliged to lead an irregular life, surrounded with the 
worst associations. This species of boarding-house could be con- 
ducted with comparatively little expense, by requiring a certain 
amount per week, which would not be above the means of the 
class in question. The pension required for board would be bene- 
ficial to the boys themselves, as they would thereby be trained in 
habits of industry and economy. Spiritual instruction and pray- 
ers, morning and evening, would attach them to religion ; and a 
night school, in which they could learn to read and write, would 
prepare them for higher occupations. 

"The question of support is one of primary importance. We 
find that there exists a great diversity of opinion on this head, 
and such a diversity, we believe, will result beneficially. No gen- 
eral rule can be laid down for the support of all such establish- 
ments. Circumstances are so different in various localities, that 
what would prove successful as a means of support in one 
place, in another might prove a failure. One of the principal 
sources of revenue in all institutions of this kind should be a 
fixed pension, which, as far as possible, should be exacted from 
parents, guardians, or friends of the children of the school. There 
is a certain delicacy of feeling by which most persons think it, in 
a measure, degrading to acknowledge in after life, that they have 
received their education and support in a charitable establish- 
ment. It is not desirable to destroy this sentiment of self-reliance 
and independence in the scholars, as much of their future success 
in life will depend on its proper cultivation. By the payment of 
a moderate charge, even less than what is necessary to support 
the boys, they will be induced to look upon their condition as 
honorable, will be saved from the imputation of pauperism, and 
the institution itself will thereby be enabled to preserve that 
dignity which is required to command the respect and attach- 
ment of the inmates. 


" It by no means follows," says the report referred to, "that be- 
cause a child is an orphan, or the victim of crime and bad ex- 
ample, that it has no means of support. On the contrary, it often 
happens that the near relations, or guardian, or surviving parent, 
are abundantly able to meet its expenses at a boarding school. If, 
unable to control the children committed to their care, or unwill- 
ing to make the necessary exertions, they choose to consign them 
to others, it is but right that they should pay the cost of their 

" Many, however, are children of the very poor and have no 
relatives able to defray their expenses at the Asylum. These can 
either claim a residence in some parochial district, or they cannot. 
If they cannot, then, as before remarked, our doors fly open for 
their reception, and they are clothed, fed and instructed, till a 
more permanent home can be provided for them. If they have 
a parochial residence, then we refer them to their parish priest, 
for his advice in the case. There are few parishes who have not 
some Young Catholic Friend Society, or other charitable parish 
association, whose object is to search for, protect and save the be- 
reaved and wandering lambs of the flock. When a case of 
distress is made known to them, they are prompt to relieve it. 
Neither one individual nor one parish could possibly maintain 
the burden of all. It is but just and reasonable that each parish 
should support the children they actually send. The tax in that 
case falls more equitably than if all the parishes were required to 
make annual collections, affecting only those directly interested." 
It must not be expected, however, under any system, that an in- 
stitution of this kind can be made entirely self-supporting. Boys 
do not earn their board and clothes anywhere, at the age at which 
they are generally admitted to the Asylum, and if they could do 
so by dint of labor, it is not advisable that so much should be 
exacted from them. They require the greater portion of their 
time for school exercises, and another considerable part of it for 
recreation, and if they give another portion for labor, it must be 
of such a nature as not to disgust them with their situation. 


" Some persons are strongly prepossessed with the notion that 
farming is not only the best, but the sole occupation in which the 
scholars should be engaged. Against this theory, which, as far 
as we know, has never been tried practically in this country, it is 
urged that farming is not the most profitable occupation ; that 
families settled on farms, do little more than earn a livelihood ; 
and that farm-work does not afford a sufficient variety, nor is it 
sufficiently in-doors to suit the capacities of most scholars. It is 
urged besides, that an Asylum, situated on a farm, does not afford 
sufficient facilities of approach to be eminently useful. It cannot 
be visited by priests or friends of the boys, as easily as if situated 
in a large city ; the expenses of transportation are considerable 
and the department for externs, or boarders, so necessary and al- 
most indispensable, could not be carried on. 

"We are in favor of a dependence on public charity, to some ex- 
tent, but not entirely. The Catholic people take greater interest 
in what they support by their own exertions, and an institution of 
this kind is so truly benevolent, and so intimately connected with 
the interests of the masses, that it would grow in popularity by 
being made, from time to time, the object of charitable contribu- 
tions. Neither would it be judicious to rely entirely on Christian 
benevolence for a support. This would be too precarious, and care 
should be taken that the exercise of charity does not become bur- 
densome. We are of opinion that every exertion should be made 
to endow schools and Asylums of this kind, and put them in re- 
ceipt of a steady income. The Asylum in Chicago has secured a 
considerable investment in such branches of business as can be 
carried on by the inmates of the place, under the direction of 
qualified tradesmen. This investment has proved thus far profit- 
able and so long as the direction of affairs are in competent hands, 
will no doubt, continue to pay well. We would like to see the 
Brothers of the Christian Schools give their attention to the man- 
agement of such institutions. They could most probably be 
more successful than any others who might assume such a re- 
sponsibility, and would be living more in accordance with the 


spirit of their community than by attempting to impart an edu- 
cation in the higher branches of learning. 

" This is the age of founding institutions, of building Churches, 
and providing for the religious wants of a Catholic people. The 
time which requires the greatest exertion is upon us, and if we 
have done much, we cannot cease from the great work before us. 
More remains to be done, and we can do it, and carry it to com- 
pletion, with greater ease than we have effected what is already 
performed. Let us push forward the great enterprise, not only 
for the sake of ourselves and our children, but for the innumer- 
able blessings that through our labors of the present, will be per- 
petuated to remote generations. 

Dr. McMullen's residence in the Bishop's house and his con- 
nection with St. Mary's was followed by the pastoral charge of St, 
Louis Church. Around this Church, which he renovated and re- 
seated, he gathered a large parish. The southern portion of it 
was soon cut off when St. John's was organized by the Rev. John 
Waldron, who remained in charge up to the time of his decease, 
May 8th, 1887. But this did not accord with the plan of labor 
that Dr. McMullen had marked out for himself. As was said of 
him by the Right Rev. Bishop Spalding, of Peoria : " His soul 
was aflame with zeal, and his closely-knit wiry frame was equal 
to any labor he imposed upon himself." He therefore found 
time and opportunities to organize new missions and to build new 
Churches. Sycamore, Lodi, DeKalb and Dunton, now Arlington. 
Heights, were the scenes of his apostolic zeal, and four church- 
buildings were going up at one time. He attended these missions 
as often as his other duties would permit, until priests were pro- 
vided for them. He retained, however, the Dunton Church, and 
had it so arranged that one Sunday of each month he devoted to 
the people of this mission. He drove frequently from the city on 
Saturday evening to this station, returning after Mass on Sunday, 
to preach or lecture in one or another of the city Churches, or to 
fill some other engagement. One Saturday in mid-winter, a 
cold blustering day, he had gone half way, when a heavy snow 


storm set in, and it was not long before he lost all signs of the road. 
While wandering over the prairie his sleigh struck a howlder 
hidden by the snow, upsetting it and pitching him into a drift, 
the frightened horse turned around and started on a run back 
to Chicago. Darkness had set in, but his courage did not fail. 
Again he recited the prayer of his youthful days, and, trusting to 
a heavenly guide, set out, he knew not whither. Three miles 
away lived a member of his congregation whose house he reached 
at two o'clock Sunday morning, nearly fainting from cold, hunger 
and fatigue. As he was to say Mass that day, he refused all 
nourishment, and retired to seek a much needed rest. He arose 
refreshed at the usual hour and went through his several duties 
of the Sunday as though nothing had occurred. 




In 1861 Dr. McMullen was appointed to take charge of the 
Church of the Holy Name by Bishop Duggan until a regular 
pastor should be selected. His assistant was the Rev. J. P. Roles, 
to whose administration he handed over the parish, when in 
February of the same year he was appointed president of the 
"University of St. Mary of the Lake. Once more he entered the 
old college, the home of his youth he stood for a moment look- 
ing around the deserted halls, and then said: "Here is the 
place of my work." Without reserve, he threw his wonderful 
energy into the task of giving St. Mary of the Lake new 
life ; he fully understood the difficulties he would have to 
encounter, and they might have.apalled the stoutest heart, but in 


such work Dr. McMullen had no fear, he simply asked the neces- 
sary assistance to place the University on a solid financial basis, 
and to reach this, he spared no time or labor. No one doubted 
that Chicago was the place in all the Northwest for a Catholic 
University. " Of all places, said Bishop Spalding later, the great 
city of Chicago was and is the place for such an institution. 
It is the heart of the West, the most enterprising, the most pro- 
gressive, the most American of all the geographical divisions of 
our grand Republic, and with its vast Catholic population it 
ought to have lifted up the torch for all of us." 

Bishop Quarter had foreseen this, and Dr. McMullen's desire 
was to carry out the original plan of the founder. It was the 
grasping of all the latent posibilities of his beloved St. Mary of the 
Lake, which urged him to his work, quickened every movement 
of his great heart, kindled every anticipation of his ardent soul, 
and set him like a sleepless sentinel on the tower of Zion. There 
was one wish of all others which had been his ruling one ; it was 
to succeed to the management of his Alma Mater, and in her 
preserve for the Church in the Northwest a centre of learning 
and piety. As soon as he became its president, there was a stamp 
of greatness upon all his actions, and he said : " If Saint Mary of 
the Lake is worth anything, she shall have all I can bestow upon 

The college, as it was familiarly known, was at this time more 
a select day-school for a few catholic young men of the Holy Name 
Parish than a University. The old college building erected by 
Bishop Quarter and a two story brick building on Chicago avenue 
were in use, but badly in need of repairs. He was compelled to 
make many improvements and furnish the building so as to give 
accomodation to students who would board in the university. His 
available funds were very meagre, and so he made frequent ap- 
peals to the charity of the old friends of St. Mary. 

The entire country at this time was agitated by the great 
internecine strife among the American people. The youthful 
blood of Columbia's sons had already been shed on the battle field, 


the people of the Northwest were aroused, halls of learning as 
well as workshops sent forth brave "soldier boys," and budding 
genius was carried away by the war-cry : "The Union forever!" 
All minds, young and old, on this account were too much un- 
settled for close attention to mental improvement. Dr. McMullen 
was not discouraged at this, but bent himself with greater de- 
termination to his work. He wrote to his friend in the Propa- 
ganda : 


CHICAGO, Jan. 25, 1862. 

" Dear James : I have not written to you so often as I could 
wish to have done, however, you will be able to take bene wile pro 
perficere. I have four lay professors associated with me in carry- 
ing on the university. We have about one hundred and sixty 
students, thirty-three are boarding in the place; the university is 
doing better than I expected at first and still I am not without 
many small difficulties, considering that I had to make great 
improvements in order to open it with decency becoming its 
name. I have some of the ablest lay professors in the West 
teaching for me. I wish eagerly that you were home to start 
some classes in Propaganda style. I am teaching a class of Meta- 
physics, numbering about ten students and a class of Universal 
History with about thirty in it, that is all the teaching I can at 
present do, as I have a great many other duties to engage my 
attention J. McMULLEN." 

At this time the university records give the following names of 
the members of the Faculty: President, Rev. J. McMullen, D. D., 
vice president, Rev. J. P. Roles; professors, E. B. Downing, L.L.D., 
Max Girac, G. Quackenboss, Edward Kelly, P. J. Conway. But 
few now remember the winding dingy stairs and the dark hallway 
leading to the president's appartment in the old frame building 
in which he had been a student many years before. The ready 
"come in" answered the timid knock of the caller, who was sure 
to find the Doctor immersed in business, yet ever willing to grant 


a spare moment to listen to the visitor, and all went away com- 
forted by good advice and substantial assistance, if they were in 
need and he had any money. His poverty of purse was extreme 
in those days this fact was only known to himself his raiment 
was scanty and threadbare, and he was often seen by an intimate 
friend doing his own mending. 

His presidency of St. Mary of the Lake was attended with 
such success, that the old University building was found inade- 
quate to meet the demands of the increase of boarders and day 
scholars. At a meeting of the trustees of the University in May, 
1863 it was decided to erect a new building in keeping with the 
growth of the institution and the city of Chicago. Soon after 
plans were submitted to the board and accepted. The President 
of the University was ordered to go on with the work to the best 
of his judgment, and Dr. McMullen needed no further prompting. 
On Sunday the 4th day of July, 1863, the corner-stone of the new 
University building was laid by Bishop Duggan. The sermon on 
the occasion was preached by the Right Rev. S. H. Rosecrans, Co- 
adjutor to the Archbishop of Cincinnati, and the South wing was 
finished and ready for occupancy in Jan., 1864 . It was completed 
.and furnished according to the latest improvements of the time, 
in desks, charts and scientific apparatus' and made ready for the 
opening of the second term of the scholastic year Feb. 1st, 1864: 
The Chicago " Tribune " Jan. 28th, 1864, has the following notice : 
" The semi-annual examination at the University of St. Marys of 
the Lake in this City is being held during the present week in the 
magnificent new building which has just been completed. There 
is no building intended for educational purposes in this State bet- 
ter arranged or more appropriately fitted out. The dormitories, 
study halls and recitation rooms are provided with all the latest 

On the return of Rev. J. J. McGovern, D. D., from Rome in 
August, 1863, Dr. McMullen definitely organized the University 
in all its parts. He published, in a circular for general informa- 
tion, that the extension of the University buildings has afforded 


an opportunity of adding the departments of Divinity, Law and 
Medicine for the course of studies. The Professors of Rush 
Medical College will superintend the Medical studies, and their 
lectures will be delivered in their buildings, some squares from the 
University. The Lecture Hall of the Law Department is situated 
near the Court-house, and at a distance not Inconvenient for 
students residing at the University. Touching the Theological 
Department : A large class will enter on their study of Divinity 
at the beginning of the ensuing term. Considering the very 
favorable conditions offered by the Bishop of Chicago to candidates 
for the Priesthood, there can be no doubt but that the Academic 
Department will supply from its graduates a sufficient number of 
students to meet the requirements of the Diocese. Deeply im- 
pressed with the necessity of a thorough education of the 
American youth, and encouraged by the kind co-operation of the 
Right Rev. Bishop Duggan, the German Catholics have resolved 
to establish within the spacious University, a High School, in which 
not only the modern languages, English and German, but also all 
the branches shall be taught which relate directly to business 
pursuits. Since a Seminary is connected with the University, it 
is hoped that many good, pious German boys entering the High 
School will find themselves called to the priesthood, and that thus 
the great want of German priests will, by degrees, be supplied. 
The High School- will be under the supervision of German 
" directors," On the 15th of February the new University building 
was formally opened. It was after his many friends had dispersed 
to their homes, and he was alone with his young companion, 
that he expressed his gratification at being so far successful in 
this undertaking, and he looked forward with buoyant hope to a 
career of usefulness in the University the pride of his heart. 




Dr. McMullen stated in a letter received in Rome in 1863 that: 
" Dr. Buttler is at present pastor of a church, the Immaculate con- 
ception in the city. Col. Mulligan, the hero of Lexington, is 
raising his regiment again and is in winter quarters in Chicago; 
over one million of men are underarms in the country and no one 
knows to what point things may come." He strongly deprecated 
the war going on at the time with its terrible accompaniments, but 
his patriotism never flinched, in the hour of danger to the Union 
cause. He frequently said " If it were not that I am a priest and 
a man of peace, I would be down South with my old companions, 
who are still alive, fighting, under the Stars and Stripes for the 
preservation of the Union." Often the news of the death of some 
brave soldier was sent, for him to break to the widow, the orphan, 
the afflicted father and mother, which duty he performed with 
such 'sympathy, that the grief at the loss of the loved one was 
soothed, and they were comforted by the words " that it was sweet 
to die for one's country, it was the death of the hero and the de- 
parted one had done his duty to his God and nis country." Large 
sums of money were transmitted to him by the soldiers after their 
pay-days, for friends at home, who one and all received the 
amounts " faithfully from Dr. McMullen," and it was well known 
at the time, that many families in great poverty were helped by 
him until remittances arrived from the army. In 1864 the sad 
news of Gen. Mulligan's death and the fate of those who fell on 
the battle-field with their General, flashed over the wires and 
brought tears of bereavement to many homes in the West. The 
remains of the lamented hero were recovered, and a sad 
cortege, his widow, and brother officers who had survived, 
conveyed them to a sorrow-stricken people in Chicago. 


The obsequies took place in St. Mary's Church. Rev. Dr. 
Butler, Chaplain of the Irish brigade, celebrated the Mass of 
Requiem, and' Dr. McMullen, the General's old classmate in St. 
Mary of the Lake, delivered the following eulogy : " It is an 
allwise Providence which disposes of man's intentions, his actions 
and his life. God who said " Let there be light and there was 
light" vindicates his unbounded dominion over creatures, not 
only when he bids them be, but when he conserves them, gives 
them force and shapes their destinies. Never does he remind us 
more of his ever present providence disposing of all finite things, 
than when he calls home one whom we look upon as a patent and 
seemingly necessary instrument in his hands to effect his vast de- 
signs, some stay of domestic felicity, some centre link in the 
vast chain of friendship in the midst of a community, or bids 
the faithful servant of a public good " to enter into his joy, 
that as he was faithful over a few things, he would place 
him over many," saying, as it were, that he alone is powerful, 
that the most perfect instrument in his hands is so, from choice, 
not from necessity, that it is not only he who begins, but he who 
brings about the consummation of all things ; he, the same Lord 
God omnipotent, who works in man and through man the in- 
dependent first and final cause. Little did I think, my Christian 
brethren, that it would be my lot to witness this truth, exempli- 
fied to me on this, the most solemn of occasions. Little did I 
think on that day, when in solemn, communion with our God in 
a spiritual retreat at St. Marys of the Lake in 1851, we begged his 
guiding light to show us what we should do to serve him in this 
life. When at his call we took our different positions to act our 
respective parts in the varied scenes of lively occupations ; when we 
joined so frequently in boyish sports, the very laugh, the welcome 
shake, the college task, the pleasant school boy reveries, little did 
I think it should be my fate to stand here, over his lifeless, but 
still noble form, and manifest to this multitude of tearful friends 
the dealings of an allwise Providence in an. honest man. Oh! 
my brethren, I knew him well, I knew the endowments with 


which God had gifted him, the virtues with which he had adorned 
him. I knew his lofty purposes and his firm resolve ; his fearless 
vindication of the truth, his love of justice, his unblemished honor, 
honor which was the very perfume of the flower of virtue, and in 
this holy place, I can say, I never expect to see his like again. I 
do not make this statement in the warmth of personal attachment 
or in the common phrase of admiration over the remains of the 
fallen hero, whom a nation mourns, I say in the calmness of 
collected thought, that, considering his natural endowments, his 
vast acquirements, his deep and holy sentiments, his deport- 
ment, his honor far above reproach, we may not see his 
like again. Reared amongst the growing prosperity of our late 
happy country he grew up her child, reflecting in miniature 
the perfections of the mother. His mind expanded with the 
developments of her vast resources, he looked across the plains, 
teeming with the gifts of the Heavenly Father whom he loved, 
and thought that God had made her the special object of his 
blessings, but he had not done in like manner to every 
people, nor to every nation, had he thus manifested the abund- 
ance of his mercy. The vastness of her territory far from render- 
ing him partial, or confining his affections to a portion, only 
heightened his admiration for her the more and made her more 
worthy of the unbounded virgin love of his most gifted soul. 
Often in the language of impassioned poetry he would give her 
form and personify her as a tender mother, who protects and 
nourishes her children with impartial care : her mountains, her 
rivers and her vales ; her plains and inland seas filled up one vast 
homestead for him and all that he had, and all that he hoped for 
in life, he seemed to acknowledge as an immediate donation of his 
country, and faithfully he redeemed his obligation to her by offer- 
ing to his country's God, this bloody sacrifice of propitiation. 
His was the character of the American patriot, and oh ! that we 
had as many as he, to divert the direst of evils now brooding over 
the land. He imitated the heroes of the revolution, the states- 
men who gave the government a form with devotion next to en- 


thusiasm, and never did human language enshrine more genuine 
strength and beauty than those words of fire, in which he re- 
counted the deeds of American chivalry. He was not of that 
class, who select principle from predilection, but adopted rules of 
action, because whatever truths, which called for a discharge of 
duty he made it a cause in which he centered every affection 
and to which he dedicated all his energies. There was no 
.stopping -place in his pursuit of principle; knowing once the 
right direction no temporal interest could arrest him in his 
onward progress; not wealth, for he was elevated above its sordid 
allurements ; not fear, for his noble soul could fear but God atone; 
not even that high and holy ambition which seemed to lead him 
on, surpassing all around him, without exciting, either the rancor 
of envy, or the discord of competition ; nor life, nor death, for life 
with its endearments he laid down to save the flag and met death, 
for him, devoid of terror. His love of friends was not founded 
on mere personal attachments, he loved them, with a feeling, 
that resembled a deep and holy reverence for children of a com- 
mon father, a love which being in eternal truth became inimit- 
.able and had its termination in God. His virtues I say, were not 
mere social or external habits ; they were formed on everlasting 
truth and aimed at all that is true and beautiful. A soul, thus 
.gifted by nature and by grace would naturally make religion at 
once its consolation and a center, from which great action issued, 
hallowed with a brilliancy which is not of life. The profession 
.and practice of religion were pleasures to him, rather than duty ; 
the Sunday School was never dishonored by his absence. Blessed 
with a precocity far beyond his years, he seemed to have already 
pondered and learned to enjoy the heavenly mysteries, while 
others of his age were only storing them in memory for after use. 
Never did his lips which once repeated "Thou shalt not take 
the name of God in vain," in obedience to his will, pronounce the 
Holy Name irreverently. Lately returning from the toils of war, 
he made a short sojourn among us and took the opportunity of 
attending in a special manner to the sanctification of his soul. 


Every morning St. Mary's, the mother of churches in our City, 
received him at the Sacrifice, this old sanctuary of his early piety, 
where rests, all that time has left us of that object of his venera- 
tion, Bishop Quarter And can I forget his parting words which 
brought to me, I thought to him, a presentiment of what has 
happened : " Pray for me," he said, when parting, " for I shall 
need your prayers soon, and so, farewell, until this cruel war is 
over." And if he needs my prayers he has them, and purer, 
holier prayers than mine; the prayers of you Christian Brethren 
and the prayers of millions who mourn him throughout the land, 
and we shall meet him again, dear soul, " when this cruel war is 
over " and the warfare of toil is terminated, for he is happy, as 
happy as you wish, in presence of our God where all bliss is 
complete, by looking down on generation and generations in- 
habiting this chosen land, enjoying the blessings of a lasting 
peace, a true prosperity passing through time in preparation for 
eternity. Oh ! my country, that we had more such heroes ! Oh! 
that protestations to you were not verbiage in the mouths of 
many. Oh that you could find more Christian men, whose patriot- 
ism is the spontaneous growth of virtuous hearts, with roots fixed 
deeply in eternal truth, then might thy beauteous plains be spread 
out to-day covered with the abundance of smiling peace, rather 
than to be made the grave yard of thy children ! 

The rivers seek the interminable ocean which girds thee round, 
white with a commerce, bearing blessings to the needy of other 
lands, rather than crimsoned with fratricidal gore. You want 
heroes whose devotion to you, cannot be purchased by the dross 
of earth, whom deadly envy and foul ambition cannot tempt to 
rise against their common mother; you want them, but, alas! 
you find them too few, but you shall have them yet, children of 
the Church of Christ, whom she shall have nurtured at her 
breast ; strengthened with that nourishment which the blood of 
her most holy spouse imparts ; they shall be the heroes whom 
you seek ; they shall be your devoted children in truth, heroes in 
war and heroes in peace, like him, who to-day lies sacrificed for 


thee. When all that remains to us of the bravest and truest, we 
consign to a sacred resting place, a hallowed shrine, a Christian 
hero's grave. We will lay them where the wild flowers bloom, 
fit emblems of the purity of that spirit which enlivens them ; we 
will lay them where the free winds play, the purest dewdrops full 
and where the first glances of the king of day, after having 
touched the bosom of Lake Michigan, shall rest and throw around 
them a little garb of glory, a faint resemblance of that in which 
the soul is blessed with God. Rest sacred dust, no ruthless hand 
shall more disturb thee, around thy shrine shall be heard the 
whisperings of a prayer, the sigh of friendship and the patriots 
blessing, until we shall all rise renewed, transformed and im- 



The increase of students in the University in all its departments 
was rapid, but the burden of debt contracted in erecting the new 
south wing did not diminish as the expense of keeping up such 
an institution in those years of high prices was very heavy. One 
thing was needed, a strong financial support, which would at once 
wipe out the indebtedness and move the undertaking forward on a 
sure footing. Dr. McMullen went to every church in the Diocese, and 
by this means collected a little over three thousand dollars. His 
eloquent appeals to the clergy and laity were earnest, and the pur- 
pose of a Catholic University in all its bearings with the great 
future of the Church in Chicago was forcibly presented and untir- 
ingly explained. Month after month went by, to see the cheerful 


halls and class rooms of the University and its adjacent Seminary 
full of enthusiastic students under the instructions of its zealous 
president and staff of professors, among whom, in the ecclesias- 
tical department in addition to those already mentioned, were the 
Very Rev. T. J. Butler, D. D. 3 professor of moral theology and 
Church liturgy, and the Rev. P. W. Riordan, now Archbishop of 
.San Francisco, professor of Dogma and Church history. 

Everything was urged forward with a zeal which seemed irre- 
sistible ; there was no turning back with those who had put their 
hands to the plough. Dr. McMulleu watched with fatherly inter- 
est over all those who were confided to his care, and if a student's 
pocket money was scarce or he lacked wherewith to decently 
clothe himself, the doctor would very quietly call the young man 
to his room, give him " some change," or an order for a suit of 
clothes and tell the student to say nothing about it. 

The most delicate attention, on all occasions, was paid by him 
to the feelings of those under his control, and he tried to avoid 
any undue harshness; but when correction was needed, the 
students would whisper to one another, " Look out, the Doctor is 
after us," and they knew that every reprimand bestowed was well 
-deserved. There was no student with physical ailments that the 
doctor was not his tender and most careful nurse, and there are 
many of those students who now are efficient workers in the vine- 
yard of the Lord, or men of the busy world, who remember his 
.acts of kindness to them, how he cared for them with a spirit of 
.adoption, as if they were his own sons in the house of their 

All this time he did not neglect missionary work. In the 
parish of the Holy Name his priestly ministry was eagerly claimed 
by the pastor and people. Visitations to the sick were regularly 
made; he sought the poor; he went, as usual, to the county 
jail and to the bridewell; every Sunday he was in some city 
church,if his services were not in demand elsewhere ; preaching, 
instructing children, as if it were a recreation ; he said, in fact, " it 
was his leisure time." His busy brain conceived long before its 


actual production, the project of a Catholic Monthly Maga- 
zine, to be published in Chicago, and to open a fertile field to 
the learned talent he had gathered around him, and furnish 
ample opportunities for sound literary contributions. He finally 
issued the first number in January, 1365, and it met with a. 
hearty reception from all who read its pages. The brightest 
thoughts of Catholic writers in prose or verse found ready accep- 
tance; but the graver pages of the monthly and its criticisms- 
embodying truths as genial in their expressions as they were 
fundamental in their teachings, was part of his work. The wide 
range of its founder's mind, the originality of his modes of 
thought, the brilliant flash of inspiration in rhythmic verse, the 
gracefully told historical fact, the Catholic tale, gave a raciness to 
the young Magazine which was more than its many friends ever- 
expected to see. 

At the time the Monthly was started, it was the only Catholic- 
Magazine published in the United States. Several had a begin- 
ning, had given proofs of excellence, but from one or another of 
those difficulties and dangers which beset Catholic literature in 
this country, they came to an untimely end. Even Dr. Brown- 
son's Review had gone under owing to an unjust outcry and lack of 

The introductory pages of the first number of the Monthly 
gives the Review's panegyric as follows : " At this moment of our 
appearance we have to notice the going down of a brilliant star 
beneath the literary horizon, let us hope it shall rise again and 
shine with that brightness peculiarly its own. During the last 
twenty years Dr. Brownson has held the front rank among dis- 
tinguished contemporary writers; his Quarterly has been con- 
ducted with an ability acknowledged at home and abroad, and 
since he may now be considered as absent, we say without wish- 
ing to flatter, that few of his generation have affected public- 
thought as deeply and as happily as he. He wrote for the thought- 
ful few rather than for the multitude and while those who could 
avail themselves of his deep and solid reasoning, his compre- 


hensive views and his powerful suggestions sent them forth in a 
popular and attractive form to the world, he has not yet received, 
if he ever shall receive, a fatting acknowledgment of his services 
from the people. His writings have given offense to many, but 
chiefly we think, to those who understood him least. 

In the advocacy of his principles, some things might indeed 
have been said differently, but if the impartial and judicious 
reader may have noticed anything in his pages, less prudent or 
less correct than could have been desired, we believe that such a 
one will say of Dr. Brownson what Benedict XIV. said of an 
eminent Catholic author of his day : " Those who become conspicu- 
ous as defenders of the truth, manifest defects which in ordinary 
writers would pass unnoticed." We cannot agree with those who 
have, for no good reason, persistently suspected his sincerity and 
endeavored to throw an odious light around his views whose 
rational refutation would have reflected more credit on them- 
selves. For our part, we believe that he has ever been actuated 
by one great motive, the promotion of Catholic interests, and we 
sincerely hope that the disagreeableness, which has been connected 
with his labors in the past, shall not deter him. from performing 
still more in the future. " 

Since the time when these words were written, there has been 
a large growth, development and support of the latent germs of 
Catholic talent, but it should be remembered that Dr. McMullen 
had the wisdom to fill up the gap at the needed moment and 
thus bridge over the void and encourage others in the same 

" We should, moreover," he writes in his Introduction, " bear in 
mind, that a time pregnant with important events is upon not 
only us in the New, but has likewise overtaken those in the Old 
World . The issue between the Church and her adversaries, is no 
less than the enfranchisement of religion from the dominion of 
the civil power, a contest for freedom of belief and practice ; while 
in a doctrinal point of view, it is Deism in its new forms of 
rationalism and socialism standing in opposition. As virtue is 


perfected in tribulation, so are energy and ability developed in a 
critical condition of affairs, and hence we are not surprised, when 
occasion requires it, to see so great an array of talent combined in 
defense of Catholic truth. It is a fact, and there are others of 
which we could be prouder, that this Magazine stands alone to-day 
in the field which it proposes to occupy, and which its predecessors 
have, either from choice, or, as has been more frequently the case,, 
from necessity, abandoned. 

" This hiatus in Catholic literature had to be filled, it is a demand 

' 6 

which had sooner or later to be satisfied, it is a want a real want 
which had to be supplied no matter who might undertake the 
task. We have not volunteered our services or our humble efforts,, 
because we supposed that "others better qualified could not be 
found to perform so great a duty, on the contrary, we knew our 
own deficiency ; but we repeat, some one had to do the work. We 
are in an age "when public misdeeds too strong for justice shows 
their bold front, the harbingers of ruin ; " when moralty is scoffed 
at as a thing whose practice is humiliating to a false civilization ; 
when the radical licentiousness of men impels them to seek, by 
irrational opposition to legitimate authority, the destruction of 
that great conservative principle which binds society and without 
which the human race must sink into the condition of the savage 
who roams the forest, and interprets the eternal laws of justice by 
the rule of physical force. If the press has been advantageous in 
the teachings of truth, it has given equal facility in sowing the 
seeds of vice. We see everywhere numerous books and publica- 
tions whose characters and tendencies are highly, injurious in a 
moral point of view, but whose hypocritical pretentious and well 
concealed designs secure them a ready admission among the ' 

" Without attempting to restrain a laudable desire for acquiring 
knowledge by reading productions which afford pleasure, we may 
thoroughly enough endeavor to supplant those which have no 
higher aim than the merely sensational, and put in their place 
works calculated, not only to entertain, but also to instruct. This, 


indeed, should ever be a primary consideration with the Catholic 
writer, for the rarest mental accomplishments are incomplete 
without the moral elements. By whatever means he undertakes 
io convey knowledge or instruction, this must be the governing 
motive : without it, we raise in no degree above the level, or the 
intellectual refinement of the pagan. 

" The Catholics of theRepublic have the most powerful motives 
for supporting their press, which by its position and consequent 
influence can be at all times their most successful and efficient 
-defender. It has ever been so, and if we have derived such ad- 
vantages from an institution, to which we have hitherto given a 
.limited support, we could certainly realize incomparably greater 
.benefits therefrom, if by a united and hearty co-operation we 
would give so mighty an element of our strength the means of 
increasing and extending its power over the whole of its legiti- 
mate sphere where all its constrained, but living energies might be 
brought into action ; thereby enabling it to demand respect, as a 
tribute to its manhood and not as an act of gallantry to its weak- 
ness ; where it can have a full opportunity of realizing the end of 
its institution instead of staggering through an asthmatic exist- 
ence to a premature grave. We cannot easily calculate how much 
we are indebted to the Catholic press; if our religious or civil 
rights be assailed, we nowhere find a more willing and cheerful 
^defender; and if institutions of learning are to be erected or 
sustained, we always find an able advocate in the press. 

" These are considerations which may reasonably claim a general 
.and active interest in its complete success. Let us not imagine 
that even the humblest one among us has been placed here for 
.any indifferent purpose. It is far otherwise ; each one of us has his 
or her particular sphere of action and in that we all have a 
Catholic work to perform and a Catholic mission to fulfil. The 
glory of being accounted worthy to labor in so grand a cause, 
shall more than compensate us for any little sacrifices we may be 
called upon to make in its behalf. The brilliant future of Cathol- 
icity and its cherished offspring education in the United States 


must not be retarded through no fault of ours. For such a noble 
end we should all unite to defend truth and by our unity give a 
fair chance and a generous assistance to those in our midst who 
are willing to contribute their efforts for our instruction and 
profitable entertainment. " 

Alas! this Magazine followed in the wake of its predecessors; 
not for pecuniary reasons, as it paid expenses during the 
year of its publication, but other and fast increasing troubles 
weighed down the noble spirit that gave it life and Dr. McMullen 
ended its publication at the close of 1865. That it left no unsatis- 
fied demands after it, a little incident will be enough to show the 
fact. A couple of years after the Monthly had ceased to give 
written expression to the mind of its founder, a contributor re- 
ceived forty dollars ($40) by check, for what, he could not re- 
member, only it had come from Dr. McMullen. No time was 
lost in ascertaining how this money had been earned and the 
reply was: "This was due you from the Monthly at the time of 
its demise and had been overlooked." " But sir, I never expected 
such remuneration." " Nevertheless, you deserved it," answered 
Dr. McMullen, " and the Monthly always paid its debts." 

With the opening of the year 1866 everything in the University 
seemed to be on the advance, when as suddenly as a ship goes 
down in open sea, this institution of learning sank under a 
pressure of barren encouragement. There was not an audible groan 
when this came to pass among those most interested among its 
success ; but a dispersion, as silent, as that of the conquered chief- 
tain and his vanquished warriors, who shared with him in his 
struggles for a noble cause. Each trained intellect turned to other 
duties at the command of the superior , leaving St. Mary of the 
Lake with its time honored halls and historic surroundings de- 
serted a memory of the Past. To the heart of Dr. McMullen 
perhaps of all others, however connected with the University, this 
was a blow from which, as it subsequently proved, he never re- 
covered. One evening in January, 1866, a few days previous to 
this event, a meeting of the Faculty was held. in the library room. 


of the University. The inability of the institution to meet an 
indebtedness, was made known and discussed it was a floating 
debt of six thousand dollars ($6000), a large part of which amount 
Dr. McMullen had been carrying from the time he took charge. 
When the necessity of closing the doors of St. Mary of the Lake 
-was decided on, its President gave away to uncontrolled grief. 
The strong hearted doctor for the first time in his life was dis- 
appointed in his hopes, and bitter tears coursed down his haggard 
cheeks. This did not arise from any personal disappointment, 
but it was to him the blighting of a country-wide harvest, a cold 
wave, which swept away from his and perhaps from coming 
generations the realization of a holy expectation. 







St. Francis's German Catholic Congregation had abandoned 
the old frame structure on the corner of Maxwell and Clinton 
streets and moved to the new Church on West 12th street. Dr. 
McMullen obtained leave from Bishop Duggan to purchase the 
old Church and start another congregation among the people of 
that district, who attended St. Patricks or the Church of the Holy 
Family. While engaged in this work he resided with the Very 
Rev. Dr. Dunne, who in every way furthered the praiseworthy 
undertaking. The task was no easy one, as the new parish was 
to be commenced in one of the poorest quarters of the city of 
'Chicago. Dr. McMullen, however- soon gathered around him a 


large congregation the Church was dedicated in honor of the 
Apostle St. Paul, and known among the people as St. Paul's 
Church. The Seminary of St. Mary of the Lake was continued 
after the closing of the University. Dr. McMullen's heart was 
now set on its prosperity. The students on every week day would 
see him coming without fail, to lecture in his classes of Meta- 
physics or dogma. There was a charm in the precincts of St. 
Mary's to him, and yet when he was offered the rectorship of the 
Seminary, he refused it, saying: " Let us keep things as they are." 
He was, however, its master spirit and silent ruling power. 

Public curiosity was aroused in the -city of Chicago and 
throughout the country by charges made in a Methodist Conven" 
tion held in Chicago in May, 1865. The charges were of such a 
nature that it was deemed necessary to answer them, and this 
duty was willingly accepted by Dr. McMullen. A full and 
authentic statement of the facts are presented here, and it will be 
seen that Dr. McMullen settled effectually one question which was 
constantly agitated in Methodist Conventions, in reference to the 
soul-saving power of the Catholic Church. The Methodist Epis- 
copal general conference, as stated, was held in the city of Chicago 
during the month of May, 1865. The attendance was punctual 
and full. It comprised in one way or another, the reputed tal- 
ent of the entire sect, as the business proposed was apparently 
of vital importance, not only to the institution itself, but also to 
the general public. It must have been especially important in 
this, that the Church was considered to be in danger from the 
audacious spirit with which the thing they called Romanism had 
opposed the Christianity of John Wesley. The principal point 
did not, however, develop itself until toward the close of the con- 
ference; when it is to be supposed that the transactions of the 
several sessions had been summed up, adopted and indorsed by 
the acknowledged ecclesiastical authority. Accordingly, on the 
26th of the month, the following questions with the accompany- 
ing remarks of some of the reverend speakers, appeared in all the 
daily papers of the city . 



" Union meeting convened for the discussion of the Catholic 
Religion. " Is Roman Catholicism a saving Christianity? " 

"A union meeting was held in the Clark street Methodist 
Church May 26, to consider what was called the "American 
Roman question." The meeting was called to discuss the follow- 
ing topics : 

" 1. Is Roman Catholicism a saving Christianity? or, are 
Romanists here and elsewhere, proper subjects of missionary 
labor as any other votaries of error and false religion ? 

" 2. If Romanism is a spurious religion, and Avithout saving 
efficiency, how should we treat it? Should we labor to expose its 
errors, resist its progress and teach its votaries the true faith of 
Christ, or withdraw our protest and remain silent respecting it ? 

"3. Do the peculiarities of Romanism, and its aggression in 
this country, call for special treatment and cornhined efforts, on 
the part of all Protestant denominations, to resist its progress ? 

"4. Are we in any danger politically from the growth and 
possible ascendancy of Romanism in these United States? And if 
'so, in what direction lie our chief perils? and how may we most 
effectually avoid them? 

" 5. Is there in existence an organization adapted to this 
special work; and in which all Protestant denominations can 
labor in harmony, and with good prospect of success ? 

" Bishop Scott was called to the chair. The first speaker of the 
evening was Rev. Dr. Butler, of New England, formerly Superin- 
tendent of missions in India." 

He spoke at some length of the similarity between the method 
of propagating Roman Catholicism and that of the heathen na- 
tions in India, for extending their false religions. He also spoke 
of the contrast between the Roman Catholic and Protestant por- 
tions of Ireland, drawing inferences favorable to Protestantism 
in the comparison. He said there were 4,500,000 Catholics in 
the United States, and they were putting forth great efforts to 


spread their faith ; but if Protestants were equally energetic, 
there will be no need to apprehend that the former will ever 
dominate the latter. Catholics should be approached kindly in 
all endeavors to win them away from their old belief. Dr. Butler 
alluded to the late articles of James Parton on Roman Catholicism, 
in the Atlantic Monthly, and concluded by expressing the belief 
that had Father Hecker been properly approached by some warm- 
hearted Protestant when he was about changing his religious 
-views, he might have become a good Christian. Rev. B. I. Ives, 
of Auburn, New York, was the next speaker. He addressed 
himself to the answer of the first of the queries propounded 
above. He believed that Roman Catholicism is not a saving 
Christianity. The object of the leaders of this religion was not 
so much the conversion of souls as it was to gain political ascend- 
ancy. It was not a saving Christianity, because it discarded en- 
lightenment and encouraged its votaries to remain in ignorance. 
Pie concluded by giving it as his opinion that Romanists were 
the proper subjects of missionary solicitude and labor. A mem- 
ber from New York was next introduced to the audience. He 
spoke of the work of the American Christian Union, and its efforts 
for the conversion of Roman Catholics in this country, and also 
of its doings in Europe. He recited the history of the erection 
and workings of the Protestant Chapel in Florence and of the 
one in Milan, and spoke at some length of the great work being 
accomplished by the Protestants in Paris. In his opinion, Meth- 
odism was the true power to grapple with Catholicism and over- 
come it. He spoke of the efficiency of the Methodist teachings in 
the South in the conversion of the blacks, and compared the 
thousands so converted with the paucity of the results of Roman 
Catholic Missionaries. Rev. Mattison, of New Jersey, spoke briefly 
upon the question, and after the benediction the meeting ad- 

It will be observed that these questions, together with the obser- 
vations made upon them, were given to the press with the obvious 
intent, that they were understood to be the representative 


acts of the Conference itself; although in a subsequent reply of 
Rev. Mattison to Dr. McMullen, the former seeks to shift the 
responsibility from the Methodist preachers in their organized 
capacity, and ascribe it to the account of a private individual. 
He says : " But no such resolutions were even passed or offered ; 
the meeting was an unofficial one, gotten up by an individual." 
In another part of this same reply, however, Rev. Mattison plainly 
contradicts the assertion with which he commences thus : " Not 
wishing to shift the question discussed in the public meeting, and 
which you yourself proposed as the first of the series in your chal- 
lenge, I put the whole in the form proposed by you, simply sub- 
stituting the word Romanism for Methodism, so as to give you 
the apparent advantage of being in the defensive, which you so 
generously concede to myself." 

Such like proceedings, without any apparent benefit to the 
cause of their authors, had so often before reached both the ear 
and the eye of the public, that the common sentiment had settled 
down to the belief that the Catholic Church with a prescriptive 
power of more than eighteen centuries to support her claim, 
could not be assailed in future with any prospect of probable suc- 
cess. The Catholic portion of the community had also begun to 
enjoy a season of rest from periodical disturbance. The peripate- 
tic Theologasters armed with King James' Bible, Watts' Hymns, 
and cheap additions of the books of the execrable Hogan, Leahy 
and the shameless outcast, Maria Monk, had almost concluded 
that their occupation, like Othello's, was gone; but they were 
agreeably disappointed, for 

" Satan finds some mischief still 
For idle hands to do." 

Accordingly, resuscitated from, his long collapse, the enemy ap- 
peared again in the form of this Methodist General Conference, 
andthough the attempt was expected to be a deed of silence and 
done in the dark, the voice of the shepherd could, all the better, 
be heard across the plain, warning the unwary that the " wolf was 
upon the walk." After having consulted and obtained the per- 


mission of the Very Rev. Dr. Dunne, Administrator of the Dio- 
cese during the absence of Bishop Duggan, Dr. McMullen at once 
determined to test the sincerity of the authors of this busi- 
ness and their power to support and defend the position they 
had assumed. In the issue of the Chicago Times of the 28th of 
May, there appeared, therefore, the following challenge : 


" To theRt. Rev. Bishop Scott, Chairman of the Union Meeting for the 
Discussion of the Catholic Religion RIGHT REV. SIR : From the 
report in yesterday's Times of the meeting over which you pre- 
side, I noticed that the following questions were proposed for dis- 
cussion, and received answers as indicated below : 

" 1. Is Roman Catholicism (Catholicity) a saving Christianity ? 

" Ans. Negative. 

" 2. Should we labor ... to thwart its progress, etc. ? 

" Ans. Affirmative. 

" 3. Do the peculiarities of Romanism (Roman Catholic 
Church) and its aggressions in this country call for . . , com- 
bined efforts on the part of all Protestant denominations to resist 
its progress ? 

"Ans. Affirmative. 

" 4. Are we in any danger, politically, from the growth and 
possible ascendancy of Romanism in these United States? 

" Ans. Affirmative. 

"5. In substance Is Methodism the best organization in 
which all Protestant denominations can work to oppose Cath- 
olicity ? 

" Ans. Affirmative. 

" I have contracted the questions for the sake of brevity, but 
I believe I have given their substance. The answers I gathered 
from the addresses of the reverend gentlemen, as reported in the 
Times. Now, Right Rev. Sir, I contend that the answers to the 


first four questions are wrong. I maintain that, where an affirma- 
tive was given, it should have been negative; and where a nega- 
tive, it should have been an affirmative answer. Regarding the 
fifth question, the ability of Methodism to oppose Catholicism 
(Catholicity), I would say, that I am not sufficiently concerned 
about it to give it consideration." 

" Since these questions, Rt. Rev. Sir, are considered as highly 
important by the persons who composed that meeting, and I 
believe, by the members of your entire Conference, a proposal to 
give them a calm and candid discussion will be gratefully re- 
ceived. I therefore propose to meet any gentleman, lay or cleric, 
at some convenient time, and in proper place, to discuss orally 
th'e four questions mentioned above. If a written discussion would 
be preferred by the person accepting my proposal, I shall readily 
join in it, when a suitable organ can be found. Lest any apparent 
advantage would be given me by being on the defensive, I throw 
the defense on the other side and maintain the two following pro- 

" 1. That Methodism is a spurious form of Christianity, in 
other words, no Christianity ; and that the Catholic Church is the 
only true form of Christianity. 

" 2. That the teachings of Methodism, inasmuch as they affect 
secular society, are anti-social arid anti-republican. 

"That the acquisition of truth may be the sole object of the 
discussion, I must require that the person accepting my proposal 
be one who has passed through a complete curriculum of studies 
in some respectable college of this or some other country ; and 
that he be of gentlemanly bearing and speech. I propose, finally, 
that I select two persons, and my opponent two, and let them 
select another ; and that these five gentlemen take charge of the 
preparatory arrangements for the discussion, and make such regu- 
lations as may be necessary for the observance of decorum. 

'' I remain, Right Rev: Sir, Respectfully Yours, 

"Rev. J. McMULLEN, D. D." 


It is here evident that Dr. McMullen did not intend to enter 
the polemical arena with any second rate Methodist preacher; in- 
deed their highest dignitary was called to account; and in the 
event of his refusal, the opportunity to represent him was freely 
offered to any other man, " lay or clerical," provided he had the 
reputation of a gentleman and a scholar. In the Times of the 
following morning, there appeared the subjoined acceptance of 
Dr. McMullen's challenge, and it speaks for itself: 

" METHODISM vs. CATHOLICITY Reply to Dr. McMullen's 


" Sir : My attention has been called to your letter in the Chicago 
Times of this morning, addressed to Bishop Scott, and proposing 
to discuss certain questions which you are pleased to propose ; 
and, as Bishop Scott's daily duties and his future engagements 
utterly forbid his giving any attention to the subject, and as I am 
one of the parties who took part in the "Union Meeting referred to, 
and in the discussion therein had, it may not be out of place for 
me to respond to your letter. Allow me then respectfully to state 
that, under a proper statement of the religious issues between 
Romanists and Protestants, and under circumstances that will 
admit of a fair and full discussion, it will give me great pleasure 
to canvass such issues, and to respond to whatever you may ad- 
vance in justification of your peculiarities. This much, therefore, 
may be considered as definitely settled. Under a fair and honor- 
able arrangement, I will discuss the general issues with you at 
the earliest practicable moment. And as, in all such cases, the 
challenged party is entitled to suggest the preliminaries, I will 
respectfully submit, that inasmuch as all four of your first series 
of questions are virtually included in the first of the second series, 
the question for discussion shall be: "Is Romanism a corrupt 
form of Christianity ; in other words, no Christianity ? " Of this 
question I will maintain the affirmative and you shall maintain 
the negative. As to the " convenient time " and " proper place," and 


also the order of the debate, we can doubtless come to a satis- 
factory arrangement. You would not, of course, expect me a 
stranger in the city to enter upon the discussion immediately, 
and without library or means of preparation ; especially as I 
reside nearly a thousand miles from Chicago, and am under the 
necessity of returning home within a few days. If you desire a 
calm and thorough discussion, as you intimate, you must be will- 
ing to allow me, whether as the challenged party or otherwise 
equal advantages with yourself, in all respects. In order to do 
this, the lime must at present be left an open question, as I can- 
not indicate upon that point till I have consulted other parties to 
' whom I am under many obligations. As to the place, since I live 
in Jersey City, and you in Chicago, surrounded by your library 
and fellow-priests, I will suggest that we meet in some city be- 
tween these two points, where we can stand upon equal ground 
in all respects, as far as possible. The above questions and sug- 
gestions being accepted, through the columns of the Times, I will 
suggest preliminaries at the earliest possible moment. 
" Very Respectfully Yours, 

"<Rev. H. MATTISON." 

In the following words, Dr. McMullen replied to Rev, Mattison's 
determination to argue the question : 



" I wish to give a brief statement of what has occurred in refer- 
ence to my proposal to discuss certain questions regarding Method- 
ism and Catholicity. According to a resolution of the Methodist 
Conference, now in session in this city, a meeting was held, in 
which a Methodist Bishop presided, to discuss the Catholic religion. 
The views .of that meeting were that Catholicity is not a saving 
Christianity (?) : that it is aiming at a political ascendency in the 
United States; and that all protestant denominations should unite 
in the Methodist organization to oppose its advancement. 

"My Proposal : I denied these assumptions, and offered to refute 


them in a friendly discussion with any person of thorough educa- 
tion, and known to be a gentleman in speech and manners. I 
offered lo prove that Methodism is no Christianity ; that its teach- 
ings, inasmuch as they affect secular society, are anti-social and 
anti-republican. I suggested that the circumstances of the discus- 
sion, time, place, observance of order, etc., be arranged by five 
gentlemen, of whom I would select two, my opponent two, and 
these four would select the fifth." Dr. McMullen had requested the 
Hon. J. Y. Scammon and the Hon E. C. Lamed, two non-Catholic 
citizens to act for him. 

" I see an answer to my proposal in Friday morning's Times, . 
signed by Rev. H. Mattison, who tells us he is of Jersey City. He 
says : " Under fair and honorable arrangement, I will discuss the 
general issues (?) with you at the earliest practicable moment." 
. " Wliat are the genwal issues ? 

" l The question for discussion,' he says, ' shall be : Is Roman- 
ism a corrupt form of Christianity ; in other words, no Christian- 
ity ? ' Then he will not defend Methodism against the charges of 
being a spurious form of Christianity, or show that its teachings 
are not anti-social and anti-republican. Then he relinquishes 
his attack on Catholicity as aiming at political supremacy in the 
United States and his invitation to all Protestant denominations 
to make war on the Catholic religion under the banner of 

" The first practicable moment of the discussion. Rev. Mr. Mat- 
tison is 'under the necessity of returning home within a few 
days.' He resides nearly a thousand miles from Chicago.' 
He has no ' means of preparation' here, and is ' without a library.' 
I assure the Rev. Mr. Mattison that I did not intend to place him 
in such distressing circumstances, especially since he is 'a stran- 
ger in the city.' Could he not have gained access to the study of 
a brother of our city ? I would have bid him welcome to the use 
of my library or directed him to the Methodist repository. But 
has not the reverend gentleman the accumulated wisdom of the 
General Conference, with its host of Bishops, elders, etc., to draw 


upon, in order to substantiate bis gross assumptions against the 
Catbolic Church ? When will Rev. Mr. Mattisori have revised 
his library, and when will he be prepared for discussion ? 

" My parting remarks to the Methodists : 

" GENTLEMEN : I am done with you for a season, perhaps forever. 
I am in the habit of overlooking rant and vituperation against 
the Catholic Church; but I did think that, among all your repre- 
sentative men assembled, there might be a gentleman and a 
scholar who was not afraid to stand by his assertions. I have 
been mistaken ; and whatever you may do or say hereafter will 
never engage my thought or move my pen. You come to Chi- 
cago and give vent to your low, ignorant prejudices. You throw 
out your disgusting filth in the midst of this community, through 
the public press, and when you are called upon to gather it up 
and take it back, you acknowledge that it is intangible, and bid 
us wait until libraries are consulted and preparations made, and 
the whole matter will be settled in some country town between 
Jersey City and Chicago. If you wish to oppose the progress of 
the Catholic Church in the United States, you will never succeed 
by throwing dirt ; it will not stick. You must bring sterling, 
heavy thought. If you have not got it, then leave the way. 

J. McMULLEN, D. D." 

Dr. McMullen, in sending his challenge, addressed the presiding 
officer of the convention, but he signified his willingness to dis- 
cuss the questions " with any gentleman, lay or cleric, who had 
passed through a curriculum of studies in some respectable college." 
He hinted strongly that no body of sane men would meet, make 
statements and offer suggestions, of such a character as appeared in 
the public press, unless the}^ were able there and then to substanti- 
ate their assertions. Now, he offered them an opportunity to make 
good to the public their charges against the Catholic Church, he 
sought no evasion in having the discussion, he wanted no quib- 
bling, he saw assembled the entire wisdom of the Methodist Church 
in the United States, and they ought certainly have brought 
forward a more able man than the obscure Jersey preacher. 


A facetious writer for the Tribune, thus expressed himself on 
" the situation : " 

" Which reminds me of the gauntlet Father McMullen has 
thrown into the Methodist camp, which Brother Mattison picked 
up with a clerical pair of tongs. But as Father McMullen refuses 
to meet Brother M. half-way between New Jersey and Chicago, 
and Brother M. is disinclined to meet Father McMullen until he 
can get behind the ramparts of his library, which, unfortunately, 
is in New Jersey, or some other place in foreign parts, there is 
little prospect of a friendly meeting to settle this little dispute 
between the two M's. In the meantime the father's glove still lies 
on the floor of the conference room. Are the good brethren 
going to leave it there to be swept out by the janitor ? As I 
understand it, the contest is reduced to general principles, the 
brethren claiming that Roman Catholicism is not Christianity at 
all, and the priest claiming that Methodism is not Christianity. 
The question is a simple one. My brethren over on Clark 
street threw the first brick. I hope they are not all going to get 
behind their bookcases. Where is the champion who will take 
his Bible for his buckler and come out and pick up Father Mc- 
Mullens glove ? I have before spoken of a threatened Methodist 
degeneracy in the matter of tan-bark. Is it possible that this 
degeneracy is not a myth? There was a time when such a 
challenge would have found a quick answer from every tent in 
the Methodist camp. If they were so unfortunate as to have 
libraries they would have sent them to the rear with the other 
impedimenta, and, slinging their Bibles over their shoulders,a 
thousand knights would haved spurred out into the plain, 
demanding the pleasure of doing battle for the good cause." 

Mr. Mattison sent in reply to Dr. McMullen's last letter a note 
which purposely did not reach its destination. It was addressed 
to the care of the Hon. J. Y. Scammon who, without delay, pub- 
lished the subjoined communication : 


"CHICAGO, June 2, 1868. 

" Rev. H. Mattison, D. D. Dear Sir : I regret that your letter, 
addressed to Dr. McMullen, and which is published in an evening 
paper, did not come to my notice until it was too late for Dr. 
McMullen to send you the written assurance you desired by four 
o'clock this afternoon. 

" Dr. McMullen is ready and willing to discuss the question with 
you, and has authorized me, on his behalf, to fix the form, time, 
and place of the discussion, in such fair manner as shall be agree- 
able to you, and conform to my judgment as to fairness. I regret 
that I do not know your address, that I might call on you in per- 
son ; but, as I do not, I am compelled to send you this letter 
through the press. If it fail to reach you in season, I beg to assure 
you it is through no fault of Dr. McMullen, and to add that my 
attention was not called to your letter until I had returned to my 
residence this afternoon, though the letter was laid on the table in 
my office before I reached the bank this morning. I will add 
that my only reason for acting in this matter at all has been to 
help to carry out the desire expressed for a free and fair discussion. 
Neither Mr. Lamed nor myself is of the religious persuasion or 
church of either Dr. McMullen or yourself. 

" I am, etc., very respectfully, 

" Your obedient servant, 


It will be seen by the above, that Rev. Mattison's last acceptance 
of Dr. McMullen's challenge was sent to J. Young Scammon, and 
either by accident or design, at a time when it would have been 
impossible for Dr. McMullen to reply. The Mattison letter was 
of such a nature that it brought forth these comments from the 
Chicago Times : 

" The Reverend Mattison, who has been seeking a theological 
controversy with Rev. Dr. McMullen, of this city, turns out to be 
a braggart, as witness his letter addressed to Dr. McMullen, the 


language of which would not be permitted in the prize ring. He 
is, too, an ignoramus, as the grammar, orthography, and punctua- 
tion of his manuscript lamentably show. He is not at all the sort 
of person whom Dr. McMullen challenged, the other day, to the 
discussion of certain questions of religious disputation. The chal- 
lenge was to a gentleman and scholar, whereas it is answered by 
a vulgar brawler and illiterate pretender. It is to be hoped that 
Dr. McMullen, as a matter of self-respect, will not proceed further 
in the affair." 

Among the many communications which appeared at this 
time, the following is inserted : 

" I deeply regret occasions which call forth any such expres- 
sions of opinion ; but, when we see prominent divines mounting 
the rostrum for the purpose of insulting millions of their fellow- 
citizens, in their holy rage for the salvation of souls, forbearance 
on our part must cease ; and, if we have the charity not to re- 
turn the insults, as we might do with more show of reason, we 
have at least sufficient spirit to show to the world that they do not 
pass on unnoticed or disregarded. 

" In this enlightened age, to be told such things as were enun- 
ciated from the rostrum of the Clark Street Church is an insult to 
the community at large, as well as to those to whom they were 
chiefly directed. I do not mean to say that they held a meeting 
for the express purpose of casting insults, but, in their ' exhilara- 
tion,' they forgot prudence and delivered themselves in the man- 
ner reported. 

" The object of this letter is to take an unqualified objection to 
an assertion how they do deal in assertions ! of the Rev. Mr. 
Ives. He is reported to have said that, 'If the Romanists had 
the power, they would prevent freedom of speech,' and by impli- 
cation, freedom in its broadest sense. Now, I know that this 
opinion was not original with the speaker. It first emanated, if I 
am not mistaken, from the rabid pen of Joseph Hume, and was 
afterwards picked up by English divines in their arguments 


against Catholicity ; and notwithstanding, the whole thing was 
torn into shreds by Dr. Milner, they still persisted that the thing 
was true, on account of the favor with which it was received by 
the ignorant mass of English protestants. Mr. Ives, in his reach 
after pulpit eloquence, happened on it ; and, because it pleased 
his imagination, he took it as gospel, not taking the trouble to 
see if history impartial history would verify the fact. He took 
it as he found it for better for worse ; and, in his exhilaration, 
he set it forth as his own candid, original opinion. Is it neces- 
sary to inform the reverend speaker that the Venetian republic 
flourished in its splendor in the palmy days of Romanism ; that 
Swiss Catholics under Tell, fought for and gained a Eepublic ; 
that the Scots, with Bruce and the 'taper god' in the van, 
trampled down the hosts of England at Bannockburn ; that, at 
the time when all Protestant European countries persecuted their 
subjects for religious opinions, Catholic France tolerated the 
Huguenots; that in our own loved land, the first State to hoist the 
banner of religious freedom was the Catholic State of Maryland ; 
that the Catholics of America rushed to the banner of Washing- 
ton when the Puritans of New England did all their might to 
help the invading and enslaving armies of England ; and that 
Catholic names are on the document called the Declaration of 
Independence ? 

" In his study of history if he did study it did the ' promi- 
nent ' divine notice these remarkable facts ; and, if so, why did he 
ignore them, and take for his authority the prejudiced and un- 
founded assertions of the upholders of a State church ? Ah ! it 
would be well for us all, if we took more trouble to discover with 
an ingenuous mind the real difference between our opposing be- 
liefs, to state them plainly and fairly, and not to make such igno- 
rant assertions and uncharitable falsehoods. 

" I am pleased to see in to-day's Times the challenge of Dr. 
McMullen to a friendly discussion of the relative merits of 
Catholicity and Methodism. Of course the conference will not 
adjourn without appointing one of its champions to gird up his 


loins for the contest. If so, an excellent opportunity will offer of 
hearing and seeing a gentleman brought up in the bosom of the 
Catholic Church, who has the requisite knowledge and moral 
courage to cope with one of those shining lights. Let them be as- 
sured that it is most necessary to appoint a person who is ' promi- 
nent ;' and be he ever so ' prominent,' it will do him no injury 
to go in training for a short time." 

The members of the Methodist Convention folded their tents 
and quietly stole away. There was not one except Mattison who 
would publicly maintain the position they had accepted, and their 
conduct excited the greatest disgust in the minds of many who 
were spoiling for a controversy, and brought upon them the ridi- 
cule of all classes of religionists. 



In October, 1866, Dr. McMullen attended the II. Plenary 
Council of Baltimore, as one of Bishop Duggan's Theologians, 
where his profound learning and readiness to invest every 
subject entrusted to him was undertaken with such earnest 
ability that he won the respect of the Fathers of the Coun- 
cil. On his return to the Diocese he continued in charge of 
St. Paul's parish. During the year 1867, he devoted him- 
self zealously to advance the interests of his parish. In mak- 


ing a census of the parish, which he did by visiting every house 
and frequently several apartments in one house, he discovered 
that he had over one thousand families confided to his care. He 
enlarged and remodeled the Church ; adding to this improve- 
ment a large school and parsonage, so that before the close of the 
year 1867 he had one of the most compact and best regulated 
parishes in the city of Chicago. 

It was at this period that the final giving away of a vigorous 
and brilliant intellect led to various complications in the Dio- 
cese. It is a matter of grave doubt, whether any good end 
would be served, by giving a full statement of occurences, which 
caused so many deep wounds. What can be truthfully said here, 
is, that to none so much as to those who were the interested 
parties, are they so well known and the causes so apparent. The 
incipient insanity of Bishop Duggan could not escape the eyes 
of those who were familiar with him, and who attributed to 
this true cause, that variableness of purpose and action, which 
were attended with consequences so heartrending to all lovers 
of peace and unity. The Bishop's many advisers had for some 
time urged him to leave the cares of office and go abroad, 
where he could get relief from his ailments. Before his de- 
parture for Europe, the Bishop said to one of his priests, that if 
his health did not improve, he would go to Rome and resign the 
Bishopric of Chicago. 

At different times reports of the Bishop's condition he was 
sojourning at Carlsbad arrived in Chicago, in fact, that there 
were not only no signs of improvement, but every indication of 
spinal trouble, which was inevitably reaching the brain. 

It was, therefore, after serious deliberation that four priests of 
the Diocese united in sending a letter to the Cardinal Prefect of 
the Propaganda, giving several reasons, why, that when Bishop 
Duggan should hand in his resignation, it should be accepted. 
The Bishop's friends, at the time in Rome, to whom the letter was 
submitted, notified him, and advised him to come and see to it. He 
did so without delay, and when the statements in the letter were 


laid before him, and the names of the priests made known, to 
disprove the allegations, he said he would return to the Diocese. 
On his arrival in Chicago the Bishop closed the Seminary of St. 
Mary of the Lake, dismissed the four priests from their positions, 
and ordered them to leave the Diocese. Such irregularity of action, 
caused the priests to appeal to the Holy See, and Dr. McMulleu 
was selected to go to Rome and represent the facts in the case. 
Soon after he reached the Eternal city, he sent the following letter 
to one of his friends : 

"AMERICAN COLLEGE, EOME, Nov. 19th, 1868. 

" Dear Friend : I learned from a letter from Father Roles, I 
received two from him, and one from Father P. W. Riordan, that 
you were in good health and cheerful. Bear your troubles like a 
heroic priest, who puts his trust in God and does what he believes 
is right. I am quite confident that good to religion throughout 
the country will result from our action ; although we may have to 
suffer a little trouble at present. I was received in Rome as if I 
were returning home again. The Cardinal has treated me with 
the kindness and confidence of a father; he frequently inquired 
for you and how you were situated. The Cardinal sent me to 
the American College in company with Dr. Corcoran, so that with 
Dr. Chatard and others of the College I have excellent company. 
I have my papers from the Vicariate and go out to say Mass in 
the various churches. 

" I met several friends from Chicago, in Germany ; they are 
now in Rome and I act as their guide, in which capacity 1 am 
quite an adept. So you see that there are some bright features, 
which serve to cheer me on in my work. The Cardinal told me 
this morning that he had laid our affairs before the members of 
the Council of the Propaganda, and they concluded to arrange 
our matters. He said also that he had consulted with the Holy 
Father, and read to him a letter of mine explaining the diffi- 
culty, and then read a translation of the Bishop's letter. The 


Cardinal seems to understand matters very well, and will insist 
on our rights time will tell. In the meantime let us pray and be 
good, and no doubt matters will pull themselves through, for the 
advantage of religion and our own good. 

" Yours, as ever, 


It can easily be seen from the above letter that Cardinal Bar- 
nabo, Prefect of the sacred congregation of the Propaganda, 
received Dr. McMullen as one whose motives were above question, 
and who was entitled to a hearing from the Holy See. In the 
same letter he wrote, " Thank God I have never been deprived 
of my ecclesiastical faculties." 

When the Holy See counseled him and his fellow priests finally, 
to come to an understanding with their Bishop, that it would 
be for the good of religion and that they would remain in the 
Diocese as before, they hastened with promptitude to do so, and 
the magnanimous words of Bishop Duggan, " Why, we were always 
friends," made an impression on their hearts which more than 
recompensed them for the trials they had undergone. On Dr. Mc- 
Mullen's return to Chicago in the Spring of 1868, he found vacan- 
cies which filled his soul with anguish. The dreaded hour had 
come to Bishop Duggan. That beautiful mind had succumbed 
to the enemy at last, and he had been removed to the Asylum of 
the Sisters of Charity in St. Louis. 

The earthly remains of the noble, great-hearted Dr. Dunne 
were at rest in Calvary Cemetery. The heart so large, so uncal- 
culating in its charities, so regardless of self, had broken as only 
such hearts can break; but without a word, it may be said, with- 
out one thought of bitterness towards the one who had irresponsi- 
bly inflicted the blow. Well did he say, while the death-sweat was 
on his brow and the very dew of death on the long, pathetic eye- 
lashes, " I have never spoken any but kind words of my Bishop." 
He knew who that Bishop was when in his right mind and he 
loved him to the last. Bishop Duggan visited his Vicar-General 
and gave him the last benediction on his death-bed with a tender- 


ness which recalled all the loveliness of soul in the Bishop's most 
beautiful years. 

Whatever opinions may have been entertained concerning the 
action of the V. R. Dennis Dunne, D. D., V. G. Revs. John Mc- 
Mullen, D. D., J. P. Roles and James J. McGovern, D. D., either 
as to its motives or immediate results, subsequent events have 
proved, not only their sincerity, but their confidence that in. due 
time the truth would be known and be of benefit to the Church 
in this country. 

The honesty of Dr. McMullen's purposes in life were never 
doubted by any one who knew his sterling mind. Not long after 
this time there was one, not swift to praise, his Metropolitan, 
Archbishop Kenrick of St. Louis, who said in admiration of this 
fine trait of character : "One thing is certain, John McMullen 
is an honest man." From first to last of those memorable days, 
Dr. McMullen's great soul was put to a severe test, yet he awaited 
with patience and accepted with submissive spirit the advice and 
decisions of his superiors. For such a man there were no humilia- 
tions, because he outstripped them by his sublime self-abnegation. 



After the removal of Bishop Duggan to St. Louis, the Very Rev. 
Thomas Halligan was appointed Administrator of the Diocese of 

The work assigned to Dr. McMullen on his return from Rome, 
was the pastoral charge of the Church of St. Rose of Lima in Wil- 
mington, 111. In the midst of his exciting labors of previous 


years he had often dwelt upon the happiness of a quiet life, and 
more than once manifested a desire for a parish in the country. 
He often spoke of the heavy responsibility of attending to the 
spiritual welfare of the many thousands of souls to be found in 
large city parishes, and of his readiness to escape such duty. 
These expressions had seemed to those who heard them, as 
the . passing fancy of a wearied mind ; but when they saw 
him in Wilmington, he could not ' but feel that he 
had that power of adapting himself to any people, place 
or circumstances. Once in an instruction to the semi- 
narians of St. Mary of the Lake, he said : " They should 
have priestly minds that gladly bow to the will of super- 
iors and accept the humblest mission in the diocese as if it were 
the greatest." 

" The country parish," he once said, " exists only in name. 
The great improvements of this age by which distance and 
time are lost to view, cause every place in this State to be- 
come as one, with this only difference that the number of 
souls are greater in large cities and the duties of a priest propor- 
tionately heavier." 

His parish, the ceremonies in the little Church, his sermons 
and visits among the people, all evidenced his zeal for God's 
service. The generous simplicity of his house was noteworthy. 
The liberal frugality of his table and his large hearted hospitality 
gave a zest of welcome to his many visitors. He frequently would be 
seen strolling along the banks of the Kankakee River, or through 
woods and fields. He loved to spend his morning hours among 
his flowerbeds, filled with the choicest plants, and the decorations 
on the walls of his sitting-room or study, bespoke his love of color, 
in plumage and leaf. 

On his arrival in Wilmington, Dr. McMullen found a larger 
field of church labor than he expected. He therefore, with his 
wonted energy, set himself to the work of meeting every demand 
in the spiritual as well as the temporal reconstruction of the 
parish. An addition was made to the Church ; he purchased and 
hung in a belfry adjoining -the Church, a bell weighing two 


thousand pounds; he erected a pastoral residence, and having 
the near town of Braidwood as an out mission, he built a small 
church suited to the wants of the people in that place. All this 
in the short space of fifteen months. 

When recalled from. Wilmington to Chicago, he left all these 
improvements paid for, and one thousand dollars in the bank. 
All outward appearances indicated that Dr. McMullen seerned to 
enjoy his quiet little country home. "Now," he said one day, "I 
can devote myself to a thorough acquisition of an ecclesiastical 
and sacerdotal spirit; I have never had such a chance to 
give my attention to the priestly life. A full .opportun- 
ity was now given him to exercise that spirit, and they who 
knew him well and associated with him, could see how admirably 
he was imbued with it. He loved the society of a few chosen 
friends with whom he would mingle in unfeigned frankness 
and enjoy the caustic remarks and brilliant repartees of minds he 
acknowledged superior to his own. He however, lived mostly 
within himself as St. Gregory said of St. Benedict, "habitavit 
secum." A writer in the Dublin Review of January, 1864, says 
of the saintly Father Faber the extract was found among Dr. 
McMullen's papers : " He had a thorough mistrust and dislike of 
all low views and compromises in serving God. He aspired both 
for himself and for others to the highest, not out of any rigor or 
moroseness, nor out of any vain glorious, affectation of sanctity, 
but from a deep and consistent desire, after the nearest union 
with God. No one was more large in permitting all that is in- 
nocent and lawful ; none more highminded in encouraging in- 
viting, urging men up the narrow path. He had a kindly good- 
humored raillery for the vanities and singularities of silly pietism 
which reminds one of St. Phillip of Neri's counsels of ruffs and 
high-heels. Certainly no one could hear him speak of the love 
and service of God without being attracted by it. It has been well 
said, that to make men love their country, the rulers must make 
it lovely, and it may be said of religion, that to make men love it, 
spiritual guides must make it lovely." 


Dr. McMullen's character during this period of his life, in fact, 
through all his priestly career, is most beautifully portrayed in. 
the above foregoing words. His pastorial solicitude for the good of his 
people in Wilmington, caused him to be accessible in all their 
matters, spiritual and temporal. Many incidents occurred in 
which a full requisition was made on his unbounded patience, and 
they partook of the nature of those perplexing duties, which are 
pretty much the lot of every priest in this country. 

He always showed a deferential respect to his elder brethren in 
the priesthood. " I cordially dislike," he would say, " to see our 
seniors treated with a familiarity bordering on contempt. Those 
men, who, perhaps, are not bright of intellect in the eyes of 
the world, have kept true to their trusts, fought the good fight, 
acted their parts well and grown gray in the service of the Lord, 
I therefore honor them ; we shall be old some day." 

He gave much of his time to study, and began to write a 
number of theological essays, several having been outlined and 
submitted, as was his wont, to the advice of a friend. He once 
said, " There is a great deal of intellectual ability lying torpid 
which ought to be brought out, not that which is soon engulfed 
in newspaper writing, but what should leave after it strong 
proof of earnest faith and work. See the writings of the fathers, 
yes, all along the history of the Church up to the discovery of 
printing. It is too true that the majority of priests, are nec- 
essarily much engrossed in the temporal progress of the mis- 
sions they have to care for, but the time will soon come when a 
more settled condition of affairs will allow their successors to do 
work, which will be expected of them and it is well that they 
should prepare for it." His devotion to the Blessed Virgin appeared 
at this time greater than ever. " Do not I," he would say, " have 
to thank my Blessed Mother for all the favors I have obtained 
from God? Ah ! she is my life, my sweetness and my hope." He 
daily recited his beads. Once when he went on a pleasure 
trip, it was noticed that he was very much troubled in spirit; his 
companions could not understand the cause, as his affairs were 


left after him in good order and why should he be worried ? "I 
have forgotten my beads," he said, " and I feel like a soldier with- 
out weapons on the battle-field." 

During this time, he delivered several lectures for the benefit 
of churches and charitable institutions in the city of Chicago, in 
many places in the State of Illinois and in other States, for which 
he politely, but firmly refused any recompense. He gave several 
missions, assisted by the neighboring clergy, in Rock Island, La- 
rnont, Dixon, Lockport and Chicago. " Yes, my time is pretty 
well taken up," he said one day, " I have not much otium cum 
dignitate, and I can assure you, that I live a very contented life." 
He had contracted some small debts before his last trip to Europe, 
and to clear them away, he used all his incidental funds, inso- 
much that he was often without one cent on hand. One day 
through the kindness of the conductor, who knew him, he ob- 
tained a free ride on a certain railroad, as it happened, that in his 
haste to make the train, and believing that he had sufficient 
change in his pocket for his fare, he boarded the cars and when 
he was approached by that official for his ticket, to his utter 
chagrin he found himself without a ticket and moneyless. He 
always carried his own funds with him, so tliat from this incident 
it is easily understood how he cared for himself. " Well," he said 
one day to a friend, " I have paid all my personal debts and I feel 
like a free man." He was highly respected and loved by the 
coalminers who formed the bulk of the congregation in Braid- 
wood, The lives of those people were a source of continual anxiety 
to him. He was often seen going from house to house looking 
after the well-being of this portion of his flock. " Little is known," 
he said once, "of the hardships those people have to encounter; 
danger is constantly staring them in the face, down in the bowels 
of the earth they dig and delve. They are shut out from the broad 
day sun, men of sinewy frames, rapidly growing old on account of 
their arduous labors ; strong-hearted, honest and true. I do like 
to help such people, as it seems that they are looked down on, 
owing to the character of their work, but they are among the fair- 


est and noblest of God's children and I love them." Such people 
enlisted his deep interest, thus it was that he allowed no time to 
elapse before he had a fine frame church built for their use, and 
Mass was celebrated in it every Sunday. He was sure to go 
to Braidwood every other Sunday, on his turn, as he had to get 
an assistant priest, and it was his great delight to address plain 
earnest words to the congregation at Mass, or sound instructions 
in the afternoon. He would gather together all the Catholic 
children of the place and spend one and two hours in teaching- 
them the truths of Holy Church as simply as he possibly could, 
so that when the children were presented for Confirmation, their 
excellence in promptly answering all questions put to them in 
the Christian doctrine was commended by the Bishop and as- 
sembled clergy. 

The spiritual foundation laid by Dr. McMullen in Braidwood 
was lasting ; succeeding years proved this fact and those people 
treasure up with fond recollection " their good father doctor." 
There was an impression spread abroad at one time, which had 
caused many to believe, that Dr. McMullen was a religious 
enthusiast, or he was so wrapt up in the depths of his philos- 
ophical meditations, that he could not bring himself to the de- 
tailed minuteness of every day life. He had heard that remarks 
were made about his inaccessibility and indifference to the weal 
or woe of others ; and therefore, thinking that he had such a weak- 
ness, as he termed it, he did what he could to show the contrary on 
all occasions. There was not a pious old woman in the Wilming- 
ton parish who did not find the doctor ready to have a friendly 
chat with her, and he made this a rule for the balance of his life. 
He studied to retain the names of all the children of Catholic 
parents, and when they came to see him, or met him on the way 
side, he was sure to give them a most friendly greeting. He 
said to a friend, when they were taking a drive through the 
Grand Prairie, " Is it not really a pleasure to meet the smile of 
innocence in the little ones, and the look of loving veneration in 
the aged? That house we passed, is blessed, the whole family is 


practically Catholic and the welcome given us, as we stopped at 
the gate, is but little to the respect that would be shown us, did 
we have time to enter." 

In Nov., 1869, the news of the appointment of the Very Rev. 
Thomas Foley, D. D., to the Administration of the Diocese of Chi- 
cago reached Dr. McMullen in his Wilmington home. He mani- 
fested the greatest pleasure on receiving a confirmation of the fact. 
Having met Dr. Foley in Baltimore during the Council in 1866 a 
mutual attachment had sprung up between the two, which be- 
came closer when they were united in the management of the 
great Diocese of Chicago. 



On the 10th day of March, 1870, the Right Rev. Thomas Foley, 
D. D., was installed in the Episcopal See of Chicago. Dr. Mc- 
Mullen said on his return from Baltimore, after the obsequies of 
this much lamented prelate, "The memory of Bishop Foley ought 
to be kept always fresh in the minds of the people of Chicago." 
With that sentiment in view a sketch of Bishop Foley's life finds 
room among the pages of the life of him, whom the Bishop, loved 
as a friend, selected as a prudent adviser, honored with his con- 
fidence, and placed next to himself in the management of the 
interests of his Diocese. 


The Right Rev. Thomas Foley was born March 6, 1822, in 
.Baltimore, Md. He was the son of Mathew Foley, of the County 
of Wexford, Ireland, his mother being a native of the same 
locality, the two emigrating to the United States early-'in 1821. 
When ten years of age young Thomas entered the preparatory 
school of St.Mary's College, and, after pursuing the prescribed course 
of study, matriculated at the college itself. He enjoyed there the best 
educational advantages the institution afforded, graduating in 
1840, at the age of eighteen, with the degree of A. B. Having 
determined to devote his life to the service of the Church, he 
entered the Theological Seminary attached to St. Mary's, where 
he studied philosophy and theology, and thus passed six years 
in preparing himself for Holy Orders. He was elevated to the 
priesthood August 16, 1846, at the Cathedral, in Baltimore, by the 
Most Rev. Archbishop Eccleston, by whom lie was subsequently 
.appointed to take charge of the Catholic missions in Montgomery 
county. In this charge he had four churches to attend, the con- 
gregations were scattered, making this his first care of souls, a 
most difficult one. 

After officiating for eight months, he was called upon to act as 
assistant pastor of St. Patrick's Church in Washington. He 
passed two years in this parish, and was then called, in 1849, to 
the Baltimore Cathedral by Archbishop Eccleston. Here he labored 
with assiduity for twenty-one years, during that time filling sev- 
eral important positions. When Archbishop Kenrick was trans- 
lated to the Baltimore See in 1851, Father Foley became his 
secretary and he held the office of notary in the II. Plenary Coun- 
cil of Baltimore. The following year he was made Vicar-General, 
a position which his commanding ability eminently qualified 
him to fill, until the illness of Bishop Duggan prepared the 
path for his translation to the Diocese of Chicago. 

In November, 1869, he was appointed Bishop of Pergamus in 
partibus infidelium^ Coadjutor-Bishop and Administrator of the 
Diocese of Chicago, cum jure successionis, and was consecrated 
.February 21, 1870, in Baltimore, by Bishop McCloskey of Louis- 


ville, Ky., who was assisted by Bishop Rosecranz of Columbus, 0., 
and Bishop Becker of Wilmington, Del. On March 10th, as above 
stated, he was duly installed in his Diocese in the Church of the^ 
Holy Name, on the corner of North State and Superior Streets,. 
Chicago. The ceremonies of installation excited the greatest in- 
terest at the time, and as the new Bishop was entering, as it was 
supposed, on a work fraught with many difficulties, great' curiosity 
was aroused to see and hear him on this occasion. After Bishop- 
Foley had been saluted by all the clergy present, Solemn High 
Mass was celebrated, and a sermon was delivered by the Right- 
Rev. Bishop Becker, who had accompanied his old friend to the 
new Diocese. 

The Bishop took as his subject the Gospel of the day, which re- 
ferred to the miracle of the loaves and fishes. Closing an admirable 
discourse, he said, " On this occasion I do congratulate you, my 
brethren of Chicago, on the arrival of your Bishop. It is not suit- 
able that I should say much, and I can only remark to those by 
whom he is best known and most dear, that his knowledge and 
goodness will shine forth over you, and guide and direct you in 
the paths of virtue and goodness, which is my sincere prayer. 
What we have lost you have gained. This is not the suitable time- 
for feelings and emotions in a Catholic pulpit, but were I permitted 
to allow my passions to break forth, you would see how deeply 
affected 1 am. He has come among you, and the more you know 
him, the more you will love and respect him. As your pastor he- 
deserves your highest regards, and according to the manner in 
which you treat him, you will be rewarded hereafter by Him, the- 
Great Shepherd of souls, who sent him here by Apostolic author- 
ity." Before the services ended, Bishop Foley advanced to the 
railing and spoke as follows : " Peace be to you. I find no 
better remark to address you on this occasion and no better salu- 
tation to make, than that which our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ 
addressed to his disciples at his first meeting with them after his- 
suffering and resurrection, without any reference whatever to the 
sorrows that he had passed through, and to those terrible scenes. 


which the Evangelists have depicted. Pie says to them, ' Peace be 
to you ; ' no words can express more fully my feelings toward 
you and the object of my mission here than the words 'Peace be 
to you." I am here, as I believe all of you know, not by my 
own choice, but by appointment of a higher power, and in con- 
sideration of which it was my duty in obedience to yield.' 

" I am here for no other purpose than that which Jesus Christ 
announced to his Apostles, when he said to them : " Peace be to 
you." My mission here is to honor his peace. I come here to 
teach you, a Christian people, that our whole religion consists in 
this, that we keep peace with God, peace with our neighbors and 
peace in our own hearts. From the day when this was pro- 
claimed, down to the present, there has been a conflict between 
the world and the children of God ; it is the object of our Holy 
Church, it is her mission upon earth to teach us to understand 
what peace is, upon what it rests and how we may procure and 
preserve it. It is not by idleness, by neglect of duty, not by com- 
posing ourselves to a peaceful sleep, that we can obtain Christian 
peace. The life of a Christian is a life of constant conflict, and we 
must wage a perpetual warfare if we wish to secure to ourselves 
the true peace which alone brings happiness. The church tells 
us in the language of the beloved disciple that we have strong 
enemies to contend with. These enemies are classed under three 
heads by the holy writer, when he says : in this world we have 
to contend with the flesh, the eye and pride : The flesh is luxury 
and the love of pleasure and self-indulgence ; the eye is avarice 
and the love of riches, and the pride is ambition and inordinate 
self-esteem. We must meet the first by the mortification of the 
flesh and our senses ; we must overcome the second by a life of 
poverty and by the practice of giving of the goods of this world, 
and by fixing our hearts upon our chief treasure which is in 
heaven ; we must master the third by acknowledging our com- 
plete dependence on God, " who giveth and taketh away," the 
Supreme Author of all. We must learn to overcome them through 
the example of our Divine Lord and Savior, who, when he was 


tempted with the proffer of all the kingdoms of the earth, bade 
Satan get behind him and told him that they were not his to 

" In this world, my Brethren, there are few amongst you who 
have not the common experience that life is a season of conflict. 
We have enemies everywhere, and we carry in us our worst 
enemies; we therefore must be constantly vigilant, and exer- 
cise ourselves daily in the practice of virtue, of prayer, of charity, 
of humility, of mortification, of patience in order that we may 
entirely overcome these enemies which we carry in ourselves. 
We have to keep peace with our neighbor, and as the peace which 
we feel towards God is founded upon obedience to law and sub- 
mission to the divine will, so also peace with our neighbor must 
be procured by strict obedience to God. Hence it is that our Lord 
Jesus says in the Gospel, that he gives them a second command- 
ment to love their neighbors. This was the second commandment 
added to the first and it requires of us that we should be prepared 
on all occasions to render every service in our power to our neigh- 
bor. The divine commandment also is to treat our neighbor 
with condescension, if he should fall into a fault, and if circum- 
stances seem to make him guilty, we are in charity bound not to 
judge him, but to leave that to the justice of Almighty God. 

" And you, my Rev. Brethren, who are to preach this mission, 
this doctrine of peace with me in this large and important Diocese, 
we must remember that we are not to preach the word alone, but 
we are to speak by our lives and by our actions; we are to teach 
the people what true charity is, and what the peace of God is, and 
they will learn more by our example, by our affection and untir- 
ing respect toward each other, by our veneration for the work of 
the ministry and by our spirit of self-sacrifice, and of devotion in 
the high vocation to which we are called, than they will learn even 
by the Scriptures, for we priests are placed here successors to 
Melchisedeck, priests according to his honor, who was the prince 
of peace, we are to give an example of peace to our people that 
they may love and practice it. We now ask that we may have 


in our own hearts that peace which results from obedience to the 
law. There is no peace for the wicked and the way of the trans- 
gressor is hard, we must therefore cultivate peace in our own 
hearts, love of retirement and humility, such as Jesus Christ ex- 
hibited in his career, this must be the lesson by which we are to 
be constantly governed. The peace which God gives to the heart 
is given to the Christian who keeps the law and loves his neigh- 
bor, this is the peace that the Apostle tells us ' surpasseth all 

" As the man who spent all his money to endeavor to secure a 
pearl of great price, so my dear brethren I tell you to endeavor to 
possess this peace in your hearts. Then this tempestuous life will be 
a serene and happy one, it will make the labors which you are to 
perform and to which you are subjected, labors of love and merit; 
it will assuage those pains, it will smooth down those asperities 
which so often make life intolerable, in a word, you will find if 
you possess this peace infinite joy and foretaste of the delight and of 
the happiness of Heaven, yes we will love, as love the elect and 
enjoy the vision of God. I appeal to you to heed this lesson in 
order that from the beginning of our connection, you may under- 
. stand that I have come to you for no other purpose than for peace, 
and if peace ever be broken again in this Diocese of Chicago, it 
.shall not be broken by me. To accomplish the charge which has 
been laid upon me, will require not only my energies and all the 
powers which I may be able to employ, but it will require the 
prayers of all of you ; as for you, Rev. Gentlemen, I shall expect 
from you the most cordial and warm co-operation. I come here 
.as one of yourselves, I am a priest and you are priests ; it is true 
that in my office and in my pastorate I possess a jurisdiction which 
is not given to you, but I am to exercise this for your benefit and 
I am to account for it to God himself. Upon this occasion, then I 
entreat you to accept the assurances which I now make to you in 
the presence of this altar and before God himself and in your 
presence and in the presence of the people, that whatsoever I am 
-and whatsoever I may be, I have come to devote myself to the 


welfare and benefit of this Diocese, and for my success and for the' 
help that 1 wish to receive, I rely chiefly, I may say exclusively, 
upon my clergy. 

" Can I not trust you ? I am sure that I can, and if I know the 
spirit of the Catholic priesthood, it is a spirit that is not of earth ; 
it is not a spirit that can be bought or sold. It is not from earth, 
but given by the Holy Ghost, it is something which we cannot 
barter away, it is given to me and it is given to you, it is given 
for this one single purpose that you may carry out the mission 
for which I told you I had come on, a mission of peace and there- 
fore both clergy and people, I solemnly and from my heart say : 
' Peace be to you.' For wise and proper reasons, I shall not- 
appoint anyone immediately to the office of Vicar-general, but I 
shall call to my assistance in the administration of the affairs of 
this diocese, the old and experienced priests. I am a stranger to 
you and therefore it is proper that I should take prudent and 
cautious action, so that I may be so instructed as to do all in 
order for the prosperity of the diocese. I am convinced that both 
people and clergy will fully understand the motives, which prompt 
me to this abstinence of proceeding to the appointment of the 
officials of the diocese at once. Now I wish again to repeat the 
words of our Lord and Savior, may his grace abide with you. I 
hope that in the power of God this Diocese which already 
holds so high a place, which has so vast a population and is 
destined if not to be the first at least to be the second in the 
country ; this Diocese which has such vast material wealth and 
such a number of souls within its limits, shall grow in grace and 
in power. This shall claim my careful attention, and while I live 
and am with you, whatever I can do shall be freely, entirely 
and cheerfully given to Chicago." 

A great sigh of joy went up from the large audience of priests' 
and laity, when the Bishop finished his address. His greatness 
of soul, his purity of heart, his love of justice, and his zeal for the 
glory of God, were mirrored in his eloquent words. His eminent 
personal characteristics made a once at deep impression on every- 


one, which was increased, as further and closer opportunities were 
offered to enjoy the beautiful harmony of intellectual and moral 
qualities, which most distinguished him. 

It was now manifest that Bishop Foley had been admirably 
chosen to administer the Diocese of Chicago, by those who had 
a true knowledge of his personal character and executive abilities. 
His experience as secretary and chancellor of the Archdiocese 
of Baltimore had fitted him out as one well calculated to govern 
a Diocese, that had for many years been subjected to a series of 
perplexing entanglements. At the close of the services the 
Bishop held a reception in the Church for the people, when all 
availed themselves of the opportunity to get individually his 

Most successfully did Bishop Foley fulfill the expectations of his 
friends in coming to the Diocese. Everything moved steadily on un- 
der his watchful eye, and with wonderful tact he devoted himself to 
his duties; new parishes were organized, new churches were built, 
new schools sprang up, institutions of charity and benevolence 
were multiplied, a kindly temper grew in the Diocese until it per- 
vaded every part of it, and the bonds which bring together so 
closely clergy and people, and clergy and Bishop, never held more 
firmly and never weighed more lightly. 

Bishop Foley was a worker; the' "ambition of appearing in 
print," he would say jokingly, never caused him to enter the field 
of literature, hence there is nothing but his temporal and spiritual 
works of religion which live after him. His keen perception of 
the one thing necessary in a Christian life, was what animated 
him to " let his light shine before men," and to the fulfilment of 
this object he devoted all his time and energies. In filling his 
regular turn in the pulpit of the Cathedral of the Holy Name, 
he one Sunday gave a full expression of his mind on this subject, 
<c We have to meet adversity with patience and charity. We 
shall have nothing to stand like the wrongs and injustice and hard- 
ships, which our fathers stood, and certainly for the sake of the 
enjoyment we have had, for the rights we enjoy, the prosperity 


which we have, the glory and blessings which heaven has bestowed 
upon us, we ought to be willing to endure and suffer a great deal. 
We have something more to do. The Church of the present 
day is in our hands. It matters not what office we fill. Each 
and everyone of us has a duty devolving upon him, upon which 
depends the continuity and the perpetuation of the Church in 
this country. Nothing can harm it but indifference and indo- 
lence. Whatever in or out of the law may be inflicted upon 
us will do us no injury. Let us then be true to these prin- 
ciples of our faith, open in their expression and in their mainten- 
ance, and, above all, let our lives be an exhibition and ah exem- 
plification of the true spirit of those men who where the pioneers 
of religion in this country and who achieved more by their works, 
example and prayers than they did by their sermons and other 
extraordinary efforts. And so with our prayers, with our good 
example, with our holy Christian lives, great and wonderful will 
be the growth and prosperity of religion in this country. And 
as you and your children die, there will be seen millions multi- 
plied by other millions, and the churches and the schools of our 
Holy Church filling every city, guarding every roadway in the 
country and bringing down the dews of heaven upon every 
Christian heart." 








The appointment of Dr. McMullen to the rectorship of the 
Cathedral of the Holy Name was made by Bishop Foley, October 
29, 1870. On the Saturday following, the Feast of All Saints' 
he called upon his old friend Miss Eliza Allen Starr, and as he 
was taking his leave, in his usual tranquil manner, said : " I shall 
very likely remain in this vicinity ; I thought you would like to 
know it." He felt it a duty, he said afterwards, to break the news 
first, to one who had retained an unfaltering attachment to her 
spiritual director, amid all his trials. During the High Mass on 
the following Sunday morning, Dr. McMullen appeared once more 
in that pulpit, which he had occupied some years previous, and 
there was an unfeigned expression of joy in the faces of the 
congregation, as in a few words, he announced his appointment to 
the Holy Name Parish. . When he finished his short instruction 
on the Gospel of the day, a prayer of thanks to God went forth 
from every heart in the vast congregation. The fact of his 
restoration, the realization of their hopes brought back to the 
minds of that people, his prophetic words to them, when agitated 
by exciting questions, he said, "Leave everything in the hands 
of our dear Lord, and time will tell." It was not necessary to tell 
the people that they must make no demonstration, as at once, an 
unspeakable calmness fell upon them, from the mere coming 
in and going out of a grand self-contained presence. 


Dr. McMullen, in the parish of the Holy Name, found a large 
field for his usefulness. Since the departure of the Kev. Joseph P 
Koles, little or nothing had been done in any way except, as a 
worthy priest said, " to keep matters moving." The Church of 
the Holy Name was badly in want of repair and there was an im- 
mediate demand for a boys' school. To satisfy these wants, he first 
fitted up the building, situated on the corner of Chicago Avenue 
and Cass Street, which had been in disuse since the close of the 
Seminary of St. Mary of the Lake. He then applied for the 
Christian brothers, and in a short time he had a large school 
attendance of boys from the parish. He commenced also an 
entire renovation of the Church of the Holy Name. With his 
assistants, he made a house visitation of his congregation, in order 
to get an exact number as far as possible of the number of families 
under his charge. When this most laborious part of a priest's 
work, especially in a large city, was completed, he found that he 
had twenty-three hundred families in the Parish. The inter- 
ior of the church was decorated and improvements to the amount 
of nineteen thousand dollars ($19,000) were made, with a quiet 
celerity that characterized all his doings, when the richest and 
fairest portion of the Garden City of the West was laid in ashes by 
the memorable fire of October 9, 1871. 

The great calamity which overtook the busy Metropolis of the 
West in the Autumn of 1871 is now a matter of history, and able 
pens have given its truthful story to future generations. In 
these pages only what relates to the subject of these Memoirs, 
and his heroic work, during this period, in his immediate sphere 
of action need be recorded. 

Public buildings, private dwellings, commercial houses, churches, 
convents, asylums and schools the labor of years were swept 
away in a few hours. On the West side, St. Paul's Church, par- 
sonage and school were the first church property burned ; then on 
the South side, St. Louis' Church and priests' residence on Sher- 
man Street, the Christian Brothers' Academy on Van Buren Street ; 
the convent and schools of the Sisters of Mercy on Wabash Avenue. 


and St. Mary's adjoining, with the old frame structure in the rear 
of it, which had so far withstood the hand of time. The flames 
soon reached the Bishop's house, which was quickly burned with 
its precious contents. Bishop Foley was absent, engaged in ad- 
ministering the Sacrament of Confirmation in Champaign, Illinois. 

Early on the morning of the 10th the Holy Name caught fire, 
the House of Providence, the Academy of the Sisters of Charity, 
St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum, formerly the University of St. Mary 
of the Lake, the Christian Brothers' Parochial school, the Convent 
and schools of St. Benedict on the northwest corner of Chicago 
Avenue and Cass Street, St. Joseph's magnificent Church and the 
Benedictine Fathers Monastery. Thence northward the relentless 
flames advanced, hunting before them the stricken thousands of 
homeless people, sparing nothing or nobody, for to stand still was 
to die a horrible death. Then the Magdalen Asylum, the Church 
of the Immaculate Conception, St. Michael's Church, with the 
convents and schools attached to these churches, and by six o'clock 
on Monday evening there was a bleak blackened waste, where not 
many hours before a God worshipping people were in peace and 
at rest. 

On the eventful Sunday evening Dr. McMullen. had called at 
the residence of Mr. Philip Conley on the South side, an old and 
trusted friend, to consult on business referring to assessments of 
the Holy Name church property. He said afterward, " We heard 
a great noise on the street, and on looking out of the window for 
the cause, I was startled at witnessing an illumination as if the 
whole city were on fire. I heard the roaring of the flames, and saw 
a multitude of people carrying household goods and rushing to- 
wards State Street bridge ; I started on a run with the others and 
by the time we reached the bridge it was burning." He realized 
now the coming disaster. In an intensely vivid way he described 
in after days, how the flames would rise several hundred feet 
high and roll in billows for blocks ahead. By the time he ar- 
rived at the Cathedral the unfinished spire was in flames; he 
rushed in, took the Blessed Sacrament with him and thence 


hastened into his residence ; looking around his apartments to see 
if there was anything he valued sufficiently at the moment to 
save, he espied a picture on the. mantel piece, "take that," he 
cried to some one near him; it was his brother James, who had 
hastened to the North side at the beginning of the fire, " keep it 
for me." It was a copy on ivory of a picture of the Virgin and 
child, which is in a niche on the wall in the reception room of 
the Propaganda College, Rome, the original is greatly prized 
by all the students of the college. The little picture was pre- 
served and stood again on his mantel piece after the fire, to 
be shown as the only thing he saved. Already his residence 
was on fire and he had barely time to reach the street before 
the walls crashed in, he had no time to lose, the whirlwind 
of flame swept onward. The orphans guided by the Sisters of St. 
Joseph, the smallest carried in their arms or of devoted, though 
afflicted people, the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, the Magdalens, 
all were fleeing over Nortli avenue bridge to the western prairie 
as the only place of refuge. Dr. McMullen made sure of this, as 
he went directly from his house to the Orphan Asylum and then 
to the House of the Good Shepherd. 

By 7 o'clock on Monday evening, the 10th of October, the 
great conflagration was over, nothing was left to burn. A pall of 
darkness overspread the sad scene, to now and then be dispelled 
by an unexpected burst of unquenched embers, while one hun- 
dred thousand people sought rest on the prairie or in the woods 
under the broad expanse of the starlit sky, on that cold frosty 
night in October. Messengers were sent out on every side by the 
priests of the churches that escaped the fire, so that the Sisters, 
Orphans and Magdalens were gathered after a few hours in places 
of shelter, and everything was done to alleviate their sufferings. 
The clergy of the Holy Name and the Immaculate Conception 
churches found a hospitable refuge at St. Columbkille's on West 
Indiana street, where the generous-hearted Father Thomas Burke 
did all in his power to give them every relief, it was not the first 
time that the whole-souled priest threw open his doors and in- 


vited them to come and be at home. Frequently on Monday and 
during the night the question would be asked, " Where is Dr. 
McMullen?" but no one knew; that he was safe, it was certain, 
as he was seen in the afternoon going round in a buggy over 
the prairies with his brother looking after his people. It was 
about 2:30 o'clock Tuesday morning when he walked into the 
room, in Father Burke's house, where the worn-out priests were 
snatching moments of sleep. He was scarcely recognizable, 
his face was black with smoke and dust, his clothes stained and 
torn, a hat which he picked up somewhere covered his head, 
and only for the sad situation, his appearance would have caused 
much amusement. An exclamation of welcome greeted him 
and many anxious inquiries were made as to where he 
had been and how were matters, to which he quietly an- 
swered, " Thank God, nearly all are safe ; I went back to the 
Holy Name, its walls are standing ; the Church looks like . a 
spectre in that dreary waste all is gone." He then sought a very 
needful rest. Every Church, Institution and Asylum in Chicago 
that Dr. McMullen had spent so many busy years in building up 
since his first return from Rome, had disappeared in the fire. He 
said afterwards that as he stood amid the smoking ruins that 
Monday night and looked over the great destruction of his 
many works, the nothingness of man's ambition and power came 
forcibly to his mind. No vestige of his energetic industry was 
to be seen ; he could no longer point to those monuments which 
were once his pride, as he would jokingly say, "vide opera manu- 
um mearum" " look at the proofs of my labor." He started forth 
on Tuesday morning, the llth of October, to gather up his scattered 
flock. He searched everywhere and as he knew the members of 
his congregation well, he went to see them, wherever he heard 
they had found temporary abodes and relieved them by bringing 
with him food and clothing. The priests' houses became the cen- 
ters from which the charities of those days radiated and by this 
means the actual suffering and wants of the fire victims were 
greatly lessened. Dr. McMullen wrote to Miss E. A. Starr: 


"ST. PATKICK'S, October 14, 1871. 

" Dear Friend I need not tell you that you were often in my 
thoughts. I have met most of my people and have been able to 
do something to relieve them. I have been very busy in procur- 
ing and distributing supplies, busy as ever in my life. This eve- 
ning I leave with Father P. W. Riorden for New York, we will 
collect through New York and New England : Dr. Butler with 
another, takes Maryland and Pennsylvania; Father Roles goes to 
the Pacific coast ; others to Cincinnati, and others to St. Louis." 

He did not tarry long in his collecting. The civilized world 
had nobly responded to the afflicted city's call for help. Con- 
tributions of provisions, clothing and money arrived without 
delay and every Diocese in the "United States and the Canadas 
sent donations of money to Bishop Foley. Thus the Bishop was 
soon able to give help to his stricken flock, and seeing the im- 
portance of having church room for the accommodation of 
those, who were re-building on the old sites they owned before 
the fire, he recalled Dr. McMullen, and gave him sufficient funds, 
besides what the doctor had collected, to erect a tempo- 
rary building, in which Mass could be said. While in 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Dr. McMullen received tidings of the 
death of his venerable father, James McMullen. His mother 
had died several years before. Soon after his return to Chicago, a 
large frame structure was put up, in the rear of which, he par- 
titioned off sufficient room for himself and for household purposes. 
" Well," he said to a friend, who called on him as soon as he 
was able to get the roof on the building, and a bed and stove in 
one of the apartments, "history repeats itself; you remember 
how the first church of the Holy Name was a small frame build- 
ing, this is not much better." No one who did not see him living 
in this part of his " shanty church," as he called it, during the 
bitter winter succeeding the fire, with only loose boards between 
and the ground, until some friends actually laid a carpet 


under his feet, can realize to what an extent he made himself one 
with his people in their afflictions, and in a sense so literal, that 
no time can obliterate from their hearts the memory of those 
months. The story of that winter has been written on an un- 
sullied page by angel hands, to be made known on the day, when 
the hidden deeds of the good shall be published to all men. In 
the Spring of 1872, owing to the rapid building of residences after 
the fire, Dr. McMullen rented a more comfortable residence, as he 
had to provide accommodations for his assistant clergymen. 

The five years subsequent to the Great Fire were employed in 
reconstructing the Church, Convents and Schools of the Holy Name 

Bishop Foley, as soon as he had procured an asylum for the 
orphans, had the House of the Good Shepherd in a way to receive 
the Sisters and their penitents, and purchased a property on 
Wabash avenue for St. Mary's, to be continued as the pioneer 
church, turned his energies to the erection of a Temple, which 
would be enduring, and make for himself and his successors a 
Cathedral in the midst of the future great metropolitan city of 
Chicago. The Bishop in a short time had the work under way, 
and in 1875, the new Cathedral of the Holy Name was completed. 
It stands on the very spot where the first little frame church 
dedicated to the Holy Name of Jesus was erected in 1851. 

Miss E. A. Starr, who had left Chicago in the Fall of 1875, for 
a trip to Europe, and especially for the purpose of satisfying a 
long cherished desire, that, of a visit to Rome, received, while in 
the Eternal city, the following letter from Dr. McMullen: 


" Feb. 15, 1876. 

" Dear Friend : Your last Roman letter afforded much interest 
to Revs. Dr. Lightner, Father Roles and Dr. Butler, who were all 
with me when it came to hand. Dr. Butler read it, criticising 
and emphasising the various points with the authority of an ex- 
perienced traveler. The Dr. is very intolerant of views differing 



from his own on matters of travel. My experience is quite out of 
his reckoning, while that of Father Roles and Dr. Lightner, late 
from Europe, stands but a few degrees above zero in his estima- 
tion. I always had my misgivings regarding your comfort in 
Rome during winter. The weather is so damp and the means of 
heating rooms so difficult that I have sometimes imagined I saw 
a stack of clothes in the corner of a room of which Miss S. was 
but an inconsiderable part. There are, however, many bright 
days bright with the brightness of Italy which you should 
endeavor to enjoy in some of the many villas on the high grounds, 
or on my favorite Monte Pincio of happy memories. I see you 
have not got your mind full of the Pope yet, I mean that your 
audience did not give you the means of seeing him " through and 
through, and on every side," as our Bishop expressed the idea to 
me, which he said was gathered from your letter to him. You 
must go again, and more than once again. The Cathedral is com- 
plete in everything inside and out. It is the most beautiful and 
the largest church in the United States, after the Boston and New 
York Cathedrals. . . . Mr. Allen's choir has triumphed in its 
Cecilian Church music. It gives us better singing than was ever 
heard before in any church in Chicago. . . . Mr. Healy has 
gone to Washington to do some more of his celebrated portrait 
work. . . . This is the longest letter I have written in ten 
years. . . . 





At a meeting of the priests, after the Diocesan retreat at Bour- 
bournnais Grove in 1877, Bishop Foley after making a well remem- 
bered, soul-stirring address to his clergy, gave out the announcement 
of his future regulations in the management of the Diocese, prefac- 
ing it by saying that he appointed the Rev. Dr. McMullen as his 
Vicar-General. It was understood and accepted, that the Bishop 
on his coming to Chicago had no intention of committing himself 
to any positive course of action. Soon after he assumed control 
of his Administratorship there was an. utter extinction of any other 
but his own voice in the management of diocesan affairs and he 
prudently showed he had no haste in making any change. As 
months and years went on there was a quiet confidence in the 
public mind. When the Bishop's words therefore were heard, 
announcing the fact of Dr. McMullen's selection as Vicar- 
General, they were welcomed by priests and people with un- 
disguised satisfaction. There was no cry of victory over a conquered 
foe, but the honest acknowledgment of an individual priest's 
and man's worth. Dr. McMullen assumed his new dignity with 
unfeigned calmness, giving as answer to the congratulations of 
his friends, " I hope I will prove worthy of it." Bishop Foley also 
announced to his clergy that a Diocesan Synod would be held 
very soon and that he contemplated a pilgrimage to Rome, 
his first, as Bishop, to the Holy See. The Synod was held, former 
statutes were confirmed, rural deaneries created, the judges in 
ecclesiastical cases appointed, conferences proposed and the good 
ship set sailing on placid waters, with its experienced navigator 


at the helm. Alas ! the plans and hopes of Bishop, priests and 
laity for a prosperous career in years to come were completely 

In the latter end of January, 1879, Bishop Foley was called 
to Baltimore by important family interests. During the winter 
days of December, 1878, he had contracted a severe cold. Since 
his residence was burned in the great fire, he lived in rented 
houses, letting his own comfort pass by, until all others were pro- 
vided for. While in his native city he had felt so unwell that 
he did not go outside his mother's residence but once, and then 
it was to attend a funeral at the old cemetery where his relatives 
had a family lot, and his father and others of his family were 
buried. That visit was fatal, his cold was increased by it, and 
symptoms of an approaching dangerous sickness became quite 
apparent. He was warned by his physician to guard against any 
exertion or unnecessary exposure as serious consequences would 
ensue, and he was urged to seek instant remedies. The Bishop 
had promised, before his departure to Baltimore, that he would 
return in time to assist at the dedication of St. Anthony's Church, 
Chicago. He arrived back, therefore, on Saturday, February 8th, 
and not having suffered seriously during the journey, stated to 
his chancellor, Rev. Daniel J. Riordan, that he would be ready 
to go to St. Anthony's on the following morning. On attempting 
to arise Sunday morning, he found himself so completely prostrated 
that he said to his attendant, " I cannot go out to-day, or it will be 
my death." A physician was summoned without delay, who, after 
a careful examination, decided that the Bishop was suffering from a 
severe cold which was greatly increased by his journey home. On 
a subsequent visit, the physician discovered symptoms of pneu- 
monic inflamation, which in a person of the Bishop's age and 
temperament, was necessarily a grave and serious complication. Ad- 
ditional medical counsel was called in, when it was found that 
typhoid fever, which in the first days of the Bishop's sickness 
had been held in check by the pneumonic inflamation had de- 
clared itself, and the Bishop's condition become most alarming. 


The Eev. Dr. Foley and Mr. D'aniel Foley, of Baltimore, were 
then sent for, who remained at their brother's bedside almost 

On Monday, Feb. 17th, the Bishop realized his danger, and 
knowing the importance of making a good preparation in time,, 
sent for his Vicar-General, Dr. McMullen, whom he requested to 
administer the last rites of the Church. He received the Viaticum 
with a holy calmness, then the sacrament of Extreme Unction,, 
and said, " The Lord's will be done." The only expressioa 
of regret he was heard to utter, was in reference to his aged mother, 
to whom he felt his death would be a severe affliction. At three 
o'clock, on the morning of the 19th day of February, 1879, the 
Right Rev. Thomas Foley, D. D., peacefully slept in death, in the 
fifty-seventh year of his age and the ninth of his Episcopate.. 
Around his bed side at the time were the Bishop's two brothers, 
Bishop Spalding, Very Rev. Dr. McMullen and Rev. D. J. Riordan. 
During the night, when his last moments were fast approaching,, 
the Bishop turned to Dr. McMullen and said, "Father, I appoint 
you Administrator of the Diocese." This was the last official act 
of Bishop Foley ; in it he showed his confidence in his Vicar- 
General, and a friendship which was to continue to the hour of his 
death. Priests and people were fairly stunned at the unexpected 
news of Bishop Foley's demise. Like Bishop Quarter, he sud- 
denly was stricken down in the prime of life, in the midst of use- 
fulness, in a time when it did seem that he could not be spared. 
The Diocese of Chicago sustained again a serious blow in the death 
of such a Prelate of exalted virtue, of pure and noble character. 

On Friday morning, February 21st, the solemn obsequies took 
place in the Cathedral of the Holy Name, thirteen Bishops and over 
two hundred members of the clergy from home and abroad filled 
the sanctuary, while thousands of the faithful crowded nave, tran- 
sept and gallery of the great Cathedral. Bishop Ryan, now Arch- 
bishop of Philadelphia, who two years previous occupied the same 
pulpit and congratulated Bishop Foley at the completion of his mag- 
nificent Cathedral, spoke eulogistic words over the remains of his 


deceased brother in the Hierarchy and dear friend. The tribute 
finds place in these pages, almost by request of the subject of these 
Memoirs. The vast audience was deeply moved during the de- 
livery of the funeral sermon. At times when the eloquent orator 
alluded to the deceased Prelate's lovable character, charitable 
deeds, to his mother and to their loss loud sobs filled the church so 
that it was with much difficulty that he could proceed. 


" Simon, the high priest, the son of Onias, who in his life propped up the 
house, and in his time fortified the teiiiple. By him also the height of the 
temple was founded, the double building and the high walls of the temple. 
. . . And as the sun when it shineth, so did he shine in the temple of God." 
Ecclesiasticus 1., 1, 2 and 7. 

" So sad and so solemn is this occasion, my dear brethren, that 
one almost fears to speak lest his words should but lessen the deep 
impressiveness of the scene. That Christian priest (pointing to 
the catafalque) he who not only built the splendid temple in 
which you are assembled, he who in the day of peril brought up 
the house and fortified the moral temple of this diocese he is 
fallen. He who as the chief minister of the word and the sacra- 
ments was, after God, the source of the light and heat, the truth 
a,nd the sacramental graces, to you he, who shone as the sun in 
the temple of God to whom God gave light and heat for its 
diffusion among you that sun has gone down below the horizon, 
and you are left in darkness and in sorrow. And the priests 
whom he loved and who loved him for who knew, really knew 
him, and did not love him ? They are met in the sanctuary of 
God to-day, and we, his brothers of the episcopacy, come to mourn 
with you and with his beloved priests the sad loss. We come to 
mourn all of you in this temple of God ; but, at the same time, 
we come to be consoled by the memories of his career, of the 
virtues which adorned him; and we come, also, brethren, not 
merely to praise him, but to pray for him he who, some nine 
years ago, in the text to his first sermon in this city, said to the 
people and to the diocese " Pax vobis." It was a benediction then 


it has proved a prophecy. He has brought peace with him. He, 
who united all the discordant elements in this Diocese came with 
the peace of Christ. You (in gratitude !) come to-day, now that he 
rests from his labors you come to ask God that eternal rest may be 
given to his soul that he may rest in peace in the bosom of his God. 
Death, always sad, no matter when it comes, no matter how it 
comes, is particularly sad in a case like this one. He, though he 
had passed the prime of his days as regards the number of years, 
was yet in the prime of his usefulness, and age and experience 
naturally gave him additional powers ; and that he should be 
stricken down at this moment is to us sad and mysterious. We 
expect the sun to go down in the West in the evening ; we expect 
the flowers to wither in the fall; we expect the streams to be 
frozen in the winter; but that the sun should grow dark at noon; 
that the flowers should wither in the summer ; tbat the stream of 
life should be frozen before the chill of old age has come upon it 
this is sad. And yet we have to mourn such losses. The world 
is full of mourning for youth, for early manhood, for usefulness 
lost, and we have only to bow to God's decree. And yet, sad as it 
is, sad as death is on such occasions, the Apostle dares to say : 
" Grave, where is thy victory ? Death, where is thy sting ? " Death 
might answer: "Where is it not? I strike the strong in their 
strength and the beautiful in their beauty. I strike the great and 
the powerful in the hour of their usefulness. Where is my victory ? 
The whole world is a vast cemetery and bears the evidences of my 
power, and its cemeteries bear the trophies of my dominion over 
man. Where is my victory ? When I entered the world, and 
when I continued my career of destruction, men well might ask : 
'Is this the world for which the morning stars sing together and 
all the sons of God did shout for joy?' By my powers I have 
made it desolate. If I am a child of sin, if by one man sin entered 
into this world, so by sin I entered and desolation followed in my 
track. Yet the Apostle says : " Where is thy victory ? " That 
victory is short-lived. The flowers have fallen, but they will rise 
in eternal spring. The river is frozen, but the new light and sun 


of resurrection shall liberate it from its frozen fetters and it shall 
flow for all eternity. The sun shall rise in eternal day, and there- 
fore the triumph of death is but short-lived. What is it in reality 
to him that is prepared like your deceased friend ? What but a 
liberation what but an illumination what but a union with God 
a liberation from earthly sufferings and an illumination of 
divine light which comes to the soul when freed from the body 
a union with the Most High and his life was such a life as to 
warrant our hoping that to him it was such a liberation and such 
an illumination and union with the Most High. 

Born in the city of Baltimore, nearly fifty-seven years ago 
fifty-seven the sixth of next March educated by devoted Irish 
parents, he drank in, as it were, with his mother's milk he 
drank in from her very heart that faith and that love of God 
which ages of terror has never expelled from the hearts of Irish 
Catholic mothers. Prepared by a devoted father and mother, 
prepared by their word and examples, after a term he entered the 
seminary conducted by those unrivaled educators of youth for the 
ministry, the Sulpiciau priests. Here he lived and imbibed the 
spirit of the priesthood. From the example of those men of God 
he understood fully what it was to be a priest ; he realized the 
sublime dignity and the great responsibility. Then, having been 
prepared for the seminary by his devoted parents arid prepared 
for the priesthood by the devoted Sulpicians, God, too, had his 
designs upon the young man and sent him soon after his ordina- 
tion to be prepared for the episcopacy under men like Archbishop 
Eccleston, Archbishop Kenrick and Archbishop Spalding. For 
twenty-one years he lived in the Archbishop's house in Baltimore. 
He had now the example of those men of God before him. 
Archbishop Kenrick, who so loved him, gave as evidence of that 
love and that esteem the unquestioned criterion of leaving his 
name on the list of three priests from whom a successor might be 
selected. This shows what that great and holy man an observ- 
ant man also thought of his priest. For twelve years he lived 
under his roof, and there he learned that wisdom which character- 


ized his own episcopal career. Equally loved and respected by 
the distinguished successor of Archbishop Kenrick, Archbishop 
Spalding, his life as a priest was a life of great devotedness, a life 
of great activity, a life of popularity well deserved and sustained* 
He was in calm waters, in a safe ship, in that old conservative 
Diocese in Baltimore there happy, there safe, there near the 
parents that he so loved, that he had loved so long sailing 
towards the shores of eternity in peace. But out upon the 
troubled waters a bark tossed pilotless the lightning flashed and 
the thunder roared around it, and it was dashed by diverse winds 
from wave to wave on those troubled waters. It was said to him : 
"Leave your quiet retreat and go and take the helm of that bark. 
Leave the mother that you love, leave the associations of half a 
century, and'go to a distant part of the country. Go in the midst 
of danger. Go in the name of God, and direct this ship direct 
it in the midst of this storm." He was not unwilling to make the 
sacrifice of leaving all he loved, but like every man who under- 
stands the responsibilities of the episcopacy, he trembled to 
receive that dignity and that burden. 

" The Archbishop of St. Louis was the first who thought of him 
for this diocese, and fearing that if he refused the dignity and 
the responsibility, the refusal would lead to delay and trouble, 
he asked him before his name was sent to Rome if he would ac- 
cept this See. He declined, but the Archbishop requested him 
to think the matter over, and afterward, not for the sacrifice of 
home, but because that dignity and that responsibility have made 
men tremble that would go into the Roman amphitheatre and 
face the lions that would not grow pale before persecution 
they have grown pale before the responsibility of immortal souls 
and because he realized this he positively refused. Notwith- 
standing this the Archbishop of St. Louis, convinced that he was 
the man of Providence for the See, sent his name hoping that he 
would yield. Feeling then notwithstanding his refusal, and I 
might say almost his protests, feeling that it was the will of God, 
he came among you. 


" He came trusting in God. His motto I remember it his 
motto was : " I know in whom I have believed and trusted Scio 
cui credidi." Trusting in that God he left all and came to do God's 
work in this place. It is not necessary for me to tell you, breth- 
ren, how well he has done it. Nine years have passed away and 
order and peace and confidence are all restored this splendid 
Diocese is a unity, I might say. God blessed his work. 

Such was his career. In looking afc his character this is not 
the time for us coldly to estimate it, but I shall only speak words 
that I trust shall stand the test of examination at any time. The 
natural character of the man was admirably adapted for this 
position. Of great good sense, of solid judgment, that judgment 
and that sense undimmed by selfish motives, he made his mis- 
sion a success. There are men of the world of good sense, of 
sound judgment, of administrative ability, but their passions blind 
their judgments. The eye of the intention is not pure and the 
whole body is not lightsome. But he I speak now of the natural 
order he had a sense. of duty which supported Mm. "I have 
tried to do my duty," were among the earnest words that he 
spoke in his last sickness. " I have tried to do rny duty." He 
was a man of great executive ability as no one can question. This 
Diocese was the most important position for any Bishop in this 
country, and I might almost say in any country, when he was 
appointed its Bishop. His executive ability, his great good sense, 
his impartiality, his disinterestedness, have effected the wonderful 
change which is visible to you all. He was a man, too, of great 
frankness, great openness of character. You saw his character in 
his face. You can see it in his face in death that openness, that 
genuineness, no intrigue, no diplomacy, no secret working, but 
frank and open and honest, he won the confidence of those who 
were under him. Prank, cheerful, even joyous in his disposition, 
that natural joy sustained him amidst trials; sustained him in 
the solitude of the Bishop's life for this life is one of solitude- 
sustained. him through all difficulties, even unto the end. 

But, brethren, no matter how admirably adapted in the basis of 


his human character he might have been for this great work, the 
work is the work of God. The natural character alone cannot 
effect it. Something must be superadded. " Without me," said 
Christ, "you can do nothing. No matter what your natural 
endowments may be, your executive ability, your good sense, 
your frankness, without me, without the supernatural, you can do 
nothing." The supernatural supposes a natural basis from its 
very name something above the natural. The natural basis 
placed, we have to build upon it the supernatural edifice, and 
though the natural edifice be more stable than the supernatural in 
the sense that the existence of the supernatural depends upon our 
free will and men may at any time destroy the superstructure, 
whereas the natural basis of character rarely changes, to a great 
extent at least the natural character of man will remain substan- 
tially the same. We must build upon it the supernatural edifice, 
and we must keep it so erect, because, should it fall, the fall of 
that supernatural edifice will shake the natural basis, and a man 
will be no longer even as good a man as he was in the natural order 
when that terrible destruction has taken place. I would depend 
more upon the honor, the honesty and the purity of a natural 
man who never trod the heights of sesthetic virtue, than upon him 
who, having trod them, descends. His natural honor, his natural 
order will be affected and the basis will be affected by the destruc- 
tion of this supernatural edifice. 

But on that supernatural basis must be built this edifice of 
piety. The life of a Catholic priest or a Catholic Bishop is a phe- 
nomenon to the world. They think it unnatural if he be good 
and carry out the objects of his avocation. They think it an un- 
natural life. If it be not, they think it wicked, because without 
he acts against his conscience they think such a life is not natural. 
And the truth, brethren, is that such a life is not natural. It 
must be supernatural to be happy. Such was the life of your 
departed Bishop, and the life is of personal love to Jesus Christ 
that love of our Lord not only as God but as man that intense 
personal love stronger than human love. When that love dwells in 


the heart of a man not alone his natural characteristics, his tender- 
ness, his power, are intensified they are supernaturalized, and he 
becomes the modern Christian in that personal love for our Lord, 
in that " putting on of the Lord Jesus Cnrist," in the words of the 
Apostle. Putting Him on the natural basis taking His humanity 
for it was for this He became man imitating His humanity, the 
natural virtues become intensified, become permanent, if man be 
only loyal to God. 

Now, as I have said, our brother had this natural basis. He 
had that independence and that tenderness of character which 
with grace becomes that love for God, that love for His poor, for 
Jesus Christ's sake, became a passion for it is a passion in the 
human soul. It nerves the Sisters of Charity it nerves those 
who give everything up for God. When the human love is not 
allowed to dwell in the soul there must be this divine personal 
love or there must be desolation. He was a character inde- 
pendent and tender. We hear sometimes of the philosophy of 
history, but there is a philosophy of biography also; and as 
some one has remarked, that frequently in little things you 
may judge of the character of a man more perfectly than in 
great achievements. I will relate one incident in his life, which 
many persons may think little, which cold-hearted persons might 
look down upon as a mere passing weakness of human affection, 
but which to me is a key to the man's independence for what 
anyone thought and of his great tenderness. 

On the day of his consecration in Baltimore, after that 
solemn ceremony, he went around the church, as the custom 
is, bearing for the first time the mitre on his brow and the 
pastoral staff he went around to give his blessing to the as- 
sembled crowd of people who exulted and were proud of his 
elevation who knew him in his youth, who saw his labors in 
the priesthood and now saw them crowned by his elevation to 
the episcopate. As he went down the nave of the church an 
aged lady bowed her head to receive his blessing, and then 
looked up to him with her eyes filled with tears of gratitude 


to God for his elevation. She looked up, that tender mother 
that loved him so much, and, bowing his mitred head, he 
kissed his mother's brow, showing a deep filial tenderness. 
His heart was touched, and he showed it in that hour. There 
are those who speak of the weaning of the affections, of the in- 
dependence necessary for that divine love; but no matter what 
weaning there may be, the love of the mother ever remains, 
and ever should remain. That mother that is with the child in 
affliction or in joy ; that mother that will be beside him whether 
he sits upon the throne or trembles upon the scaffold; that 
mother whose love disgrace cannot lessen that mother should 
ever be loved. And Jesus Christ loved His mother, and one 
of the grounds of our devotion to the Blessed Virgin is the 
belief that in that Son's heart that love ever remained, only 
supernaturalized ; no, no, that love of the mother never inter- 
feres with the union of the soul with God. 

Now this love for our Lord when it takes possession of the heart 
gives it tenderness increases its natural tenderness. There are 
those who believe that those who have given themselves to God in 
His church become cold that they care not about their friends of 
the world, that their hearts are steeled. Read the letters of St. 
Bernard. Look at all the tenderness displayed therein. Read 
the writings of the saints of God and see that the presence of 
divine love in the heart makes it more tender, more compassion- 
ate, more like the heart of Jesus. The heart of our Lord was so 
tender that He could not see Mary and Martha without weeping 
Himself, though he was about to raise Lazarus from the dead 
so tender that it melted at the affliction of the widow of Nairn. It 
was so tender that when the sinner of the city came and wept at 
His feet, and when her heart like her alabaster box was shattered 
there, and sent up the oders of true sorrow to Him, He did not 
repel her, much as the immaculate Son of the immaculate mother 
must have hated impurity, especially in women, whom he made 
purer than man. Full of tenderness to the sinner, full of tender- 
r.ess to those who loved Him, He was a model of that great quality 


which true Christians endeavor to imitate, and at the same time 
we see in the character of our Lord, and we see in the charac- 
ter of him whose love and model our Lord was, united to this 
tenderness great power. It was not weakness; it was the presence 
of strength with that tenderness and power when the hour of trial 
came. Our Lord rebuked the Pharisees, defied the powers that 
cou]d put Him to death, scourged the buyers and sellers from 
the temple and showed a strength and power united with His 
wonderful affection. 

" And so with your departed Bishop. When it was necessary 
to be firm, when it was necessary to show character and resolution, 
he had it, united with this tenderness ; and as our Lord also did 
the will of His Father it was His food to do the will of His 
Father so .did he whom we loved. He submitted, he bowed, as 
he said, to the will of Almighty God, because his will was united 
to the will of Christ, and though, as in the case of the will of 
Christ, there was sometimes suffering in submitting "My soul is 
sorrowful unto death ; " " Not my will, but Thine, be done" yet 
there was still that submission, though it might be sometimes of 
a painful nature. But, brethren, we are also . here, as I said to 
pray for the repose of his soul. "I have tried," he said, "to do 
my duty. I bow to the will of Almighty God." Our Lord Jesus 
Christ said on the cross " Consumatum est It is consummated " 
and bowing His head He gave up His spirit. But only Christ 
could say " It is consummated I have done what Thou hast 
given me to do." No man can say it. He can only say : " I have 
tried to do it. Whether I have accomplished it whether I am 
worthy of love or hatred, whether I have done this work as faith- 
fully as God would have me to do it of this I am not certain." 
And no man is certain. "Judgment most severe on him who 
rules." Well he knew it and trembled to receive the responsibil- 
ity. Therefore in this doubt if in anything, there might be a 
shortcoming in his action. We ask you to pray for him. He 
might say to Almighty God in his dying hour : " Lord, remember 
that in the morning of my life I .gave iny heart to You. Lord, 


remember that many times I offered that pure host, that holy 
host, that immaculate host, the bread of eternal life and the 
chalice of everlasting salvation. Lord, remember that I desire to 
do Thy will, and now, as the shadows of death are upon me, have 
pity upon me. Receive my soul. And you, my friends, for whom 
I labored, have pity on me at least you, my friends, pray for 
me." Pray for the repose of his immortal soul. 

<l Subject to greater danger, subject to greater temptation and 
trial is the man who holds the helm. The demon loves those 
shining marks. The cedars of Lebanon will be struck by the 
lightning when the under shrubs are spared. The cedars protect 
the shrubs, but who protects the cedars? Therefore should you 
pray. Remember the terrible and sublime responsibilities. 
Therefore should you pray, brethren, and promise now now 
around his coffin not in general to pray for him, but to say : " I 
will offer for him communion, or have a Mass offered, or some work 
of charity, or say some indulgence or prayer." Make the particu- 
lar resolution at this moment. Do it now or as soon as it is pos- 
sible, for the eternal repose of his soul. Oh, that God who found 
iniquity even in His Angels ; that God who requires great sanctity 
in His ministers ; that God who requires the man to be himself 
the example of sanctity to those ministers ; that God who places 
him in so sublime a position and requires virtue from him that 
is sublime also may find nothing to condemn ! We read of the 
words of the saints when speaking of this position. We know 
they hid themselves in caverns and mountain fastnesses before they 
received its awful responsibility. We thought that perhaps their 
piety exaggerated it. They were not only men of piety but men 
of learning, men of sublime learning, and it is a question whether 
they in the days of sorrow and truth formed a more just estimate 
of the position than we in the relaxed days of the nineteenth 

" Therefore, pray for his repose. Ask God to forgive him of 
the lighter offenses of which he may have been guilty. Lift up 
your hearts to that God to-day. 


"And finally, brethren, because if he could speak, it is what he 
would tell you to do. He would say : " Tell my people to weep 
not for me, but weep for themselves and for their sins." With 
that disinterestedness which ever characterized him, he would 
rather you forget to pray for the repose of his soul than that you 
should remain separated from your Father. He will speak to 
you no more from this pulpit. He shall not address you. You 
shall not see him in that chair again, nor at that altar of God 
again. The temple itself mourns because he shall be in it no 
more. But being dead he yet speaketh. He shall not speak from 
this pulpit, but he speaks from that pulpit [pointing to the cata- 
falque], and in the language of scripture he says to you : " Vanity 
of vanities, all is vanity. Prepare for your last hour. I have 
passed before the judgment seat of God. I know the scrutiny. I 
know the all-seeing eye. Oh, be you prepared. Oh, flock, if you 
love the shepherd be with him in the everlasting pasture lands of 
the Great Shepherd of our Bishop and of our souls. Return to 
God if you need that return." Oh, could he speak to you it is 
thus he would speak, brethren thus he would be solicitous for 
your welfare. And when thinking of him. think of your immortal 
souls, for whose souls he has had to give an account to Jesus 
Christ ; and let your words be, let them be ever in your mouth, 
" My God, my sins, my eternity." 

The following notices which appeared in the Chicago papers 
will suffice to show the esteem in which Bishop Foley was 
held by all classes of people. "The mournful tolling of the 
bells of the Roman Catholic Churches of this city announced 
this morning the fact of the decease of the Right Rev. 
Thomas Foley, D. D., Bishop-Administrator of the Diocese of 
Chicago. The anxiety which had existed for some days past 
relative to the state of the Bishop's health had, in a slight degree, 
prepared the public for this announcement, but the meagre prepa- 
ration for the reception of news of an event so sad could in no 
way stay the feelings of profound sorrow expressed at his demise. 
Throughout the city to-day, among Protestants as well as Catho- 


lies, among Jew and Gentile, an expression of regret is heard at 
the passing away of so worthy a man, so devout a Christian and 
so enterprising a citizen, as that of Bishop Foley." Daily News. 


" Had it been decreed that Bishop Foley should live another ten 
years in Chicago, the general puhlic would probable have learned 
the finer shades in his character, and would have come to honor 
him with that warmth of esteem which he inspired in the circle 
which enjoyed his personal acquaintance. To bring about this 
intimate friendship less time would scarcely have been sufficient; 
for, of all the Bishop's mental traits not one was more fixed than 
his abhorrence of personal publicity. Of no man was ever more 
truly said : 

" ' Humilis mens, studium quoerendi, vita quieta? 

In his entire Episcopal administration he never permitted a jour- 
nalist to interview him. He had a keen sense of the fitness of 
things ; it did not seem decorous to him that what he conceived 
to be his official business should be, as he once said, " transacted 
in the public prints," and it was the same instinct which kept 
him strictly within the confines of his official functions. He 
never crossed their lines into laymen's affairs. He never partici- 
pated in popular demonstrations, never lent his name to catch the 
public eye; he abhorred politics, never voted, and never attempted 
to influence any man's vote. His absolute seclusion within his 
own dominion has deprived the people of Chicago, who did not 
come in contact with him frequently, of a just appreciation of the 
Bishop's character. Nor was it enough to meet him once or 
twice. Indeed, a certain austere dignity in his manner was liable 
to be misconstrued into hauteur. To strangers whom he met 
casually, and to persons about whose sincerity or ultimate pur- 
pose he had misgivings, he talked with reserve, and some have 
left his presence for the first time chilled and embarrassed. 

"Those who knew him well, .his clergy, and that class of the 
laity who came frequently in contact with him, have felt toward 


the Bishop a depth, a fervor, a tenderness of affection which ordin- 
ary minds do not arouse and ordinary virtues do not maintain. 
To understand this affection it is judicious to look at the circum- 
stances which existed when he came to Chicago, and to contem- 
plate the condition in which he leaves a Diocese for his successor. 
Bishop Duggan's unfortunate cerebral malady was not suspected 
until long after it had wrought serious and widespread trouble. 
The Diocese was, in. fact, disorganized. Bishop Foley, born, edu- 
cated, and universally honored in Baltimore, where his family 
has long been one of distinction, was chosen to administer a See 
not even in the ecclesiastical Province to which he belonged. It- 
is not too much to say that he accepted his assigned duty with 
the sentiments of a martyr, and that, on the part of Chicago, there 
was no great welcome for him. He came a self-sacrificing stranger 
to strangers who offered him no affectionate greeting. With won- 
derful tact, he silently devoted himself to his duties ; difficulties 
disappeared, wounds were healed, order was every where 'restored, 
church debts were paid off, new parishes were organized, churches 
were built, schools sprang up, institutions of charity and benevol- 
ence multiplied, a kindly temper grew in the Diocese until it 
pervaded every part of it, and the bonds which, in the Roman 
Catholic organization, bind so closely clergy and people, and 
clergy and Bishop, never held more firmly, and never weighed 
more lightly. He literally made grapes grow on old brambles,, 
and on thorns he nurtured roses. 

" An achievement at once so comprehensive, so substantial, so 
enduring, and so beneficent, was not the result of a series of acci- 
dents ; it was not a natural growth. It was clearly an effect of an 
intelligent, wisely-operating course, a mild, unselfish, sagacious,, 
amiable mind, whose dominating qualities had fused themselves 
into the minds of his clergy and people. His tact was unerring. 
How uniform was its success, may be judged from a statement 
made by himself within a month. He was asked if he had 
appointed the Advisory Council provided for in the recent instruc- 
tions from Rome, by which a priest about to be removed under 


censure may appeal to a Court of Inquiry. He said : " No ; 
during my episcopate no priest has used the right of appeal which 
previously existed. I arn afraid I should have nothing for such a 
Council to do." When the obstacles which, in the beginning of 
his Administration, he must have encountered are remembered, 
this must be acknowledged a remarkable record. In the discharge 
of serious business he was quick in perception, slow in determina- 
tion, like a rock when determined. He dispatched a large amount 
of business every day with a nicety of method, and in this availed 
himself of the talents of a young ecclesiastic, the Rev. D. J. Riordan, 
whom, with his correct estimate of peculiar abilities, he chose for 
his Secretary and Chancellor, and between whom and himself a 
confidence and attachment existed uncommon among men. 

" If in grave matters the Bishop was grave, none could be wit- 
tier when business was off the board. His temperament was of 
that highly sensitive type in which healthy joy succeeds and re- 
lieves care and exhaustion. This humor had no drop of bitter- 
ness in it. Full of repartee, he was incapable of satire. His wit 
was ready, acute and infectious. He was a capital story-teller, 
and had the happy gift of always having plenty of good stories 
apropos of everything. No sad' heart ever went to him for sym- 
pathy without getting that and much more, for his faculty of put- 
ting everything into sunlight was irresistible. Many a genuine 
joke he perpetrated for the instantaneous cure of a hypochondriac, 
or to raise the spirits of some discouraged clergyman, or to ' do 
good by stealth.' 

" A philosophical essayist has affirmed that 'Enthusiasm is a 
fault in a matured character.' The Bishop, then, had a fault in 
excess. He was enthusiastic in charity. The tears that have 
been shed in Chicago since the announcement of his death have 
been tears of gratitude. He never went into fashionable society 
he never permitted any ostentation in his household, and he even 
forbade it in his obsequies; but the poor of Chicago, the sick, the 
fatherless, the obscure and unfortunate, have known him well, 
and it is they who will weep tears enough to hasten violets out of 


the turf, that will rest upon him in the quiet cemetery of Balti- 
more, where he is to be laid away with his kindred. The enthu- 
siasm of his charity never vented itself in the sight of others. 
He kept his own. counsel rigorously. He must have known much 
of that secret pleasure of generous acts which, as Dryden says, is- 
a good heart's great bribe. Sister Walburga, Superior of St. 
Joseph's Hospital, was suspected to be one of his confidential 
almoners, and, broken down with grief, she was asked one day to 
give some idea of the extent of the Bishop's benevolence. Said 
she, ' Only God knows it. The Bishop never told any one. In 
the hospital he took care of every one who needed help. Cloth- 
ing for this one, crutches for that, delicacies for another, so it was 
the year round. He paid the funeral expenses of a large number 
of persons. One cannot imagine how much good he did in such 
perfect silence. That was his way perfect silence. Or, if he 
could not do his charities in silence, he did it with a kind of 
merriment, as if to pretend it was no charity at all. He would 

slip a roll of O money into a Sisters hand, saying, ' That's for / 

some poor woman or homeless old man, and instantly jest at 
the Sister about something wholly irrelevant.' It would be im- 
possible to tell the instances of his silent charity which have 
come under observation, they are too numerous. 

" Mother Joseph, Superior of the Orphan Asylum, was utterly 
prostrated by the Bishop's death. No mother weeping by the coffin 
of her son, no child bemoaning a mother's loss, can feel more 
keenly than this admirable woman does the calamity she and 
her household of 200 little ones have met. They are not alone 
in their grief; every charitable institution in the Diocese con- 
stantly derived assistance from the personal fund of the Bishop. 
Some of them will be sorely crippled by its withdrawal. The 
Bishop's family being wealthy, and holding him in very close 
affection, he has had little occasion to use his official or personal 
income for himself. It is said that since he came to Chicago he- 
has never had to spend a dollar for his own wearing apparel; it 
was supplied by his relatives in Baltimore. He has not a vest- 


merit which was not a gift ; and the laces and ornaments of the 
altar of his chapel were all the offerings of personal affection. 
His own wants thus supplied, he was able to do so much the more 
good. He died worth, of course, nothing, except in the personal 
property thus acquired. 

" He was intensely, profoundly religious. His piety would have 
adorned another age, would have seemed harmonious with some 
other people than curs. The scene at the moment of his death 
was awful in solemnity. He approached eternity in the clear 
consciousness of a soul going into the presence of Almighty God 
for irrevocable judgment. With the courage of one who had tried 
to do his duty, he passed away. Even in this hour of sorrow, it 
is just to say that his life, in its deeps of silent charity, in its sunny 
uplands of genial humor, in all its thoughts, in all its deeds, was 
replete with that calm happiness which consistent religion gives. 
Of him may Montesquieu's words be aptly said: "Wonderful! 
that the Christian religion, which seems to have no other object 
than the felicity of another life, should also be the happiness of 
this!" The Chicago Tribune. 

" The death of Bishop Foley, early on Wednesday morning, was 
as unexpected as it was regretted by the people of this city, of all 
classes and of all religious denominations. No prelate of any 
Church was more esteemed than he was, and no one exercised a 
more gentle, but at the same time widely extended, influence than 
he did in the interest of public order, the elevation of public and 
private morality, and the temporal and spiritual advancement of 
society. A ripe scholar, a man of varied personal accomplish- 
ments, and a gentleman of agreeable presence and speech, he was 
eminently calculated to adorn the high office he held, and in 
which he was recognized by both clergy and laity with such con- 
fidence and respect. Outside of the members of his own Church 
he was as universally esteemed as by those of his own commu- 
nion. It was, however, in his own Church that his many quali- 
ties, personal and official, were best known and understood, and 
best appreciated. In the various charitable orders, to whom he 


was both father and friend, and with which he had adorned his 
Diocese, the innate benevolence of the man was most widely felt, 
and there his death will be deeply lamented. He was a man of 
great dignity, one who maintained the elevated character of his 
office, and, while a most earnest and zealous priest, he was at the 
same time a most tolerant and liberal Christian. Never yielding 
in his own convictions and teachings, he never wantonly or inten- 
tionally wounded the feelings of those who did not agree with 
him. He was unostentatious to a fault ; he avoided all parade 
and publicity, and never, we believe, sought a newspaper to make 
publication of any kind on any subject. In Baltimore, where 
he was born and educated, and where he spent twenty-five 
years of his ministry, his death will be learned by all classes with 
as much grief as here in his own Diocese. A venerable mother, 
whose life-long affections were . bound up in him, waits with 
stricken and inconsolable heart the return to his old home of all 
that remains of her beloved son, while kindred and friends share' 
in that grief which knows no limit." Chicago Times, 1879. 

" As Bishop of this diocese, deceased was a success in every sense 
of the word. His enterprise was proverbial. Since he became 
Administrator he has erected not less than twenty-five churches, 
schools, etc., besides seeing various other institutions of the kind 
come into existence and nourish under his benign rule. The great 
work of his life was the rebuilding of the Cathedral of the Holy 
Name. This edifice, which cost almost $300,000 to raise from, its 
ashes, is one of the finest churches in the country, and is the 
largest and most costly edifice of the kind in Chicago. Its inter- 
ior, flooring, altars, etc., are of the purest marble. Everything is 
finished in the most massive style, so that, taken all in all, it is 
a credit to the Bishop under whose direction it was built, and an 
ornament to the city in which it is located. Among the other 
churches that have been erected under Bishop Foley's adminis- 
tration, are St. Columbkille's, a magnificent stone edifice, erected 
by the Rev. Thomas Burke, on the corner of West Indiana and 
Paulina Streets. The corner stone of this building was laid by 


Bishop Foley in 1870. It has been completed two years. There 
,are also St. Michael's or the Church of the Redemptorist Fathers, 
the great German Church on the North Side ; St. Joseph's, a grand 
-edifice, built by the Benedictines, also German, on the North Side ; 
the Church of the Immaculate Conception, erected by Rev. P. J. 
Butler, on North Franklin Street ; St. Vincent de Paul's, or the 
Church of the Lazarist Fathers, on Webster Avenue ; St. Stanislaus' 
Church, for the Polish people, on Noble and Bradley Streets ; St. 
Philip's Church, Central Park ; St. John's Church, erected by 
Father John Waldron, Clark and Eighteenth Streets ; St. James' 
Church, by Rev. P. W. Riordan, on Wabash Avenue and Twenty- 
ninth Streets ; St. Stephen's Church, by Rev. Stephen A. M. Bar- 
rett, Ohio and Sangarnon Streets ; St. Pins' Church, by Rev. Hugh 
Me Guire, South Paulina Street ; Church of the Sacred Heart, 
by the Jesuit Fathers ; All Saints' Church, by Rev. Edward J. 
Dunne ; Our Lady of Sorrows' Church, by the Servite Fathers, and 
many large Churches throughout this great Diocese. All these 
edifices are complete in architectural design and finish. Several 
of the above mentioned replaced, in the City, ones burned in the 
Great Fire. Among the other works of the Bishop was the purchase 
of the Soldier's Home at the foot of Thirty-fifth Street, for an Asylum 
for the Homeless Orphans, the purchase of St. Mary's Church, 
on Wabash Avenue and Eldridge Court, from the Congregational- 
ists, the completion of St. Patrick's Church, the erection of the fine 
Academy of the Sacred Heart, on the corner of Chicago Avenue 
and State Street, the purchase of a building for the Little Sisters of 
the Poor, and the construction of several fine hospitals, public 
halls, etc., throughout the City. He leaves the Diocese in splendid 
condition financially, containing upwards of 300 churches and 
240,000 communicants." The Chicago Evening Journal. 

In accordance with his expressed wish, made a year previous, 
the remains of Bishop Foley were conveyed to Baltimore for inter- ' 
ment; Dr. McMullen with a delegation of the clergymen and laity 
of the Diocese accompanied them to their last resting place. As 
the wants of the Diocese needed his immediate presence, he re- 


turned without delay to Chicago, and having been confirmed by 
his Metropolitan Archbishop Kenrick, afterwards sanctioned by 
the Holy See, he entered upon the Administratorship of the Dio- 
cese of Chicago, as it was. remarked at the time, "one of the most 
competent men in the Church to assume the duties that devolved 
upon him in the important position which he occupied." 



September 10, 1880, the Holy See made the appointment of a 
successor to the lamented Bishop Foley, in the person of the Rt. 
Rev. P. A. Feehan, Bishop of Nashville, Tenn. The growth of 
the city of Chicago had been so unparalleled in the history of the 
world, and the consequent advance of the Church, caused the 
Sacred Congregation of the Propaganda to erect the Diocese into 
au Archiepiscopal See, Bishop Feehan to be the first Archbishop. 
The news of this was gratifying to the clergy and people of the 
new Archdiocese and they all welcomed his Grace Archbishop 
Feehan with high honors on his arrival in the Garden City. Dr. 
McMullen had watched closely after the varied interests of the 
Diocese during his Administratorship. He made no important 
changes in the status of the clergy, saying, that his duty 
was to keep matters as they were left by Bishop Foley. Short- 
ly after the death of Bishop Foley a meeting of the clergy in 
charge of churches in the Diocese, was called by order of Arch- 


Bishop Kenrick of St. Louis, for the purpose of choosing the 
names of three candidates to be sent to the Propaganda, one of 
whom should be selected successor to Bishop Foley. In obedience 
to this command, by invitation of the Administrator, the rectors 
of all the missions in the Diocese assembled at the Cathedral. 
An election by ballot took place ; Dr. McMullen received 96 votes, 
Eev. P. W. Riordan 33, Rev. P. J. Conway 26, and a few scatter- 
ing. The almost unanimous vote for Dr. McMullen showed the 
esteem in which he was held by the priests of the Diocese. 

When Dr. McMullen made a statement to the Archbishop of 
his management of the Diocese while Administrator, he was re- 
quested to continue in the position of Vicar General, which office 
he so worthily held during Bishop Foley 's time, and also re- 
main the Archbishop's adviser. He returned to his ordinary 
duties as rector of the Cathedral, and continued to give himself 
more than ever to the service of God and the welfare of his people 
<of the Holy name parish. The executive ability displayed 
by Dr. McMullen during his Administration of the Diocese, 
and his eminent character, singled him out for recogni- 
tion by the Holy See. At various times rumors were cir- 
culated of his appointment to a vacant Bishopric. 

Long before the Diocese of Chicago was created by 
the Sovereign Pontiff, Dubuque had been erected into 
.an Episcopal See, embracing the Territories of Iowa and 
Minnesota. On December 10, 1837, the Right Rev. Mathias 
Loras, D. D., a native of Lyons, France, was consecrated 
at Mobile, Alabama, the first Bishop of this Diocese. At 
the time there was but one church in the whole Territory 
of Iowa, and .Rev. Samuel Mazzuchelli was the only resi- 
dent priest. Bishop Loras after his consecration returned to 
France for the purpose of securing missionaries for his new 
Diocese. Leaving France in Oct., 1838, he arrived in New York 
after a long and tempestuous passage, bringing with him Rev. 
Joseph Cretin, afterwards Bishop of St. Paul, Rev. A. Pelamorgues 
and four Seminarians. Bishop Loras took possession of his new 


Diocese, and was installed in the church of St. Raphael April 29, 
1829, commencing his Episcopal duties with the three priests, 
Fathers Mazzuchelli, Cretin and Pelamorgues, and four theological 
students. Father Pelamorgues was assigned to the extensive mis- 
sion of Davenport, which comprised all the southern part of the 
territory. The Diocese of Davenport will always owe a debt of 
gratitude to this venerable pioneer priest. 

Father Pelamorgues did so well in Laying the corner stone of the 
Church, in this vast field of his labor, that neither time nor 
human events have changed his foresight, and he had the conso- 
lation of seeing large and prosperous Catholic communities grow 
up around him. He also foresaw that his beloved Davenport 
would become an Episcopal See, and, though he could have been 
the first Bishop, he preferred to retire at a venerable age to his 
home in France, where he spent the rest of his days in communion 
with God, until called to receive his reward in Heaven. When 
Bishop Loras, who worthily earned the title of " the Apostle of 
Iowa," laid down his earthly burden, Feb. 19, 1858, Iowa had been 
already admitted into the United States, and in 1850, the Episcopal 
See of St. Paul created for the State of Minnesota. The Diocese of 
Dubuque at the time of the Bishop's death possessed one hundred 
and seven priests, one hundred and two churches and stations, 
three male and six female religious institutions, and three male 
and six female literary establishments. Bishop Loras, on account 
of his age, his increasing infirmities, and the rapid growth of his 
Diocese, had obtained from the Holy See a Coadjutor in the person 
of the Rt. Rev. Clement Smyth, D. D., the saintly founder of the 
Monastery of New Melleray, who was consecrated May 3, 1857, 
Bishop-Coadjutor, with right of succession. On Bishop Smyth 
devolved the title of the Bishop of Dubuque, with its duties and 
responsibilities, by the death of Bishop Loras. During the seven 
years of his episcopate Bishop Smyth put forth every energy to 
meet the demands of the large flock throughout his spiritual ter- 
ritory. In this length of time he added twenty-nine more to the 
number of churches and ordained twenty-six priests. 


When Bishop Smyth made a visit to Rome in 1862, he sub- 
mitted a thorough statement of the vastness of his Diocese, its 
rapid increase by immigration, its growing necessities and also 
his physical inability to meet the requirements of his im- 
portant office. He therefore requested the Sacred Congregation 
of the Propaganda to make a. division of his Diocese, as the most 
suitable manner in which the many interests of the Church in the 
State of Iowa could be properly looked after. But he did not live 
to see the fulfilment of his much looked for request. The death 
of this holy Prelate took place Sept. 23, 1865. On the 30th day of 
Sept., 1866, the Rt. Rev. John Hennessey, D. D., was consecrated 
Bishop of Dubuque. Under the efficient administration of this 
eminent and zealous Prelate, the Diocese of Dubuque made extra- 
ordinary progress. The decade after the close of the war saw the 
state of Iowa become one of the most populous in the Union. 
Small towns became centers of commerce and wealth. Striking as 
was its increase, proportional accession was made to the members 
of the Church. The tide of Catholic people, thrifty farmers from 
Eastern states, flowed into the Northwestern counties, where rich 
coalfields were discovered and opened up, and the entire state was 
soon webbed by great railroads, giving outlets to agricultural 
industries, creating a vigorous, healthy growth, which was to bo 
lasting, as it had been substantially laid. Bishop Hennessey 
watched the advance of his Diocese with unremitting attention and 
he kept up with it, in the building of new churches and furnish- 
ing them with priests. At last, finding that he was compelled to 
do more than human energy could attain, he also urged the Holy 
See to make a division of his Diocese and thus relieve him of a 
responsibility, which he felt no longer able to carry. 

After carefully inquiring into the important matter of creating 
a new See, the most suitable place for the present and future, 
the Sacred Congregation, of the Propaganda announced that the 
city of Davenport had been decided on as the See city of the new 
Diocese, which would take in "all that part of the State of Iowa 
bounded on the east by the Mississippi river, on the west by the 


Missouri, on the south by the State of Missouri, and on the north 
by the northern boundaries of the counties of Harrison, Shelby, 
Audubon, Guthrie, Dallas, Polk, Jasper, Poweshiek, Iowa, John- 
son, Cedar and Scott." The following special cable to the New 
York Freeman's Journal, dated Rome, May 9, conveyed the in- 
telligence of Bishop McMullen's appointment to the newly created 
See of Davenport, Iowa. " On Sunday, May 8, 1881, the feast of 
the Patronage of St. Joseph, it pleased our Holy Father, Pope Leo 
XIII, first to ratify the creation of the Diocese of Davenport, Iowa, 
cut from the Diocese of Dubuque, which comprised the whole state 
of Iowa.; second to name the Very Rev. John McMullen, D. D., 
V. G., of Chicago, to be the first Bishop of Davenport. This See 
will be a suffragan of the Metropolitan See of St. Louis." 

The intelligence of Dr. McMullen's nomination to the new See 
was welcomed everywhere with great satisfaction it was the reali- 
sation of a long cherished hope, a confirmation by the Holy See 
of Dr. McMullen's zeal and noble sacrifices in the past. 

With his accustomed calmness the Bishop-elect received the im- 
portant news, nor did he show the least emotion when con- 
gratulations poured in on him. from his hosts of friends in all 
parts of the United States. He saw again, a great field of useful- 
ness open up before him, to do great work in the Church, which 
pleased him, yet he did not exult at all this. "I have not 
as yet had any official news from Rome," he said to a priest, 
" but as soon as I do, I shall look into the matter, and if there is no 
alternative, I shall accept the high honor, not for my own glory> 
but in submission to my superiors in Rome and for the good of 
souls, which will be confided to my care." 

He fully realised the significance of the high dignity to which 
he would be elevated, he fully understood the weighty responsibil- 
ities accompanying it, and would therefore have preferred to remain 
in the ranks of the priesthood than ascend to the higher order of 
the Hierarchy. " I have had an insight," he wrote to a friend, 
"into the life of a Bishop in this country during my terra of 
diocesan Administration. The life of a Bishop is one of many 


sacrifices, exactions and contradictions, he must be poor in the 
midst of riches, a hermit in the midst of the world and a model 
of mortification amidst pomp and luxury." At another time 
when he was congratulated by an intimate friend, he said : " Well, 
I know you wish me joy, but I do not see what there is to rejoice 
over. In my case it may be all right as far as apostolic poverty, 
but I feel my deficiency in maintaining the dignity of a Bishop 
and meeting all the requirements of its exalted position in 
the Church." "You know," he said to this friend, "that to 
propaganda students the will of the Sacred Congregation is a 
command, and though I would gladly escape such a promotion, 
still a refusal will not be in keeping with my pledge of obedience, 
so let God's will be done." 

He soon received the following letter from his Eminence Car- 
dinal Simeoni, Prefect of the Propaganda : 

"ROME, May 27, 1881. 

" Very Rev. Sir : The Most Eminent Fathers of the Sacred 
Congregation of the Propaganda in their general session held on 
the 2d day of this month of May, desirous of giving you a proof 
of their high esteem and to honor you, have decided that you be 
raised to the dignity of the Episcopacy and appointed first Bishop 
of the new See of Davenport. I rejoice that you have been so 
honored, and I hope that in this responsible office you will show 
such prudence, vigilance and charity as will redound to the 
credit of the Urban College of the Propaganda. I take great 
pleasure in sending you this announcement, in. advance of the 
Apostolic Briefs, which you will soon receive. 


This letter settled all doubts in Dr. McMullen's mind as to his 
appointment. When the Papal letter arrived soon after, the 
Bishop-elect, with the consent of the Most Rev. Archbishop Fee- 
han, arranged that the ceremony of his consecration should take 


place in the Cathedral of the Holy Name on July 25th, the feast 
of the Apostle, St. James the Great. As he had his household in 
order when the summons came for him to leave for another post 
of duty, he could easily retire to pass several days in spiritual ex- 
ercises and thus prepare himself for a worthy reception of the 
Episcopal dignity. His well-known life of self-abnegation and 
want of personal wealth induced the Bishop-elect's numerous 
friends to provide that he should have everything required, in 
order that he might not suffer the humiliation of not having all 
that was in keeping with the rank of a Bishop of the Church. 
Archbishop Feehan asked him a few daj r s previous to his conse- 
cration if he was personally able to meet the expenses, which 
would be necessarily incurred in the coming ceremonies : " Well, 
your Grace," Dr. McMullen replied, "I have no funds on hand, 
but I will borrow enough to get along." With that the Arch- 
bishop told him to call on him for a thousand dollars. Other 
generous offers of assistance came to him from many friends, to 
whom he replied, " I can get along." " But," said one to him, 
" how about your Episcopal robes and the insignia of your office?" 
" Well," he said, " there are several articles which belonged to 
Bishop Foley. I will have some of them fixed over, and they will 
answer my purposes." His candor of soul and the noble senti- 
ments of self-denial whicli he manifested in these words, moved 
deeply all who heard them, and they were filled with the highest 
admiration at such a complete avowal of his poverty. 





On Sunday, the day previous to his consecration, a great con- 
gregation filled the Cathedral of the Holy Name, expecting to 
hear a farewell sermon from the Rt. Rev. John McMullen, D. D., 
Bishop-elect of the Diocese of Davenport, but were disappointed; 
he was not present. The reason why the Bishop had absented 
himself on this occasion, not only from the Cathedral where he 
had ministered so long, but from his home, was soon understood. 
He was obliged to do it, because of the great number of people 
who wished to personally bid him farewell as their priest and 
friend. There was an expression of deep regret among the Cath- 
olics of Chicago, over the loss of Doctor McMullen. Another 
reason was that he might prepare himself by a spiritual retreat 
so as to worthily receive the great dignity of a Bishop of the 

Monday, July 25, the feast of the Apostle St. James the 
Great, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, was the time appointed for 
the consecration services to take place. Long before that hour 
the Cathedral in every part was crowded as never before. It 
was fitting that this ceremony should take place in the Cathedral 
of the Holy Name, on that ground hallowed by sacred memories 
to Bishop McMullen. The grand structure of stone, massive and 
majestic in outside appearance, presented a beautiful and impos- 
ing interior on that day, with its lofty columns and overspreading 
arches, its fine windows of stained glass and its great sanctuary, 
its white marble altar and large frescoes in arched panels, repre- 
senting the great mysteries in the life of our Lord, and above them 


the chancel windows, with life size representations of St. John the 
Baptist, the Blessed Virgin and other Saints, all placed there by 
Bishop McMullen's choice. 

Here in this church which Doctor McMullen built under Bishop 
Foley's guidance, he was consecrated Bishop of Davenport before a 
vast assemblage of the Catholic Hierarchy and laity, convened to do 
him honor. The ceremonies were inspiring as they were impos- 
ing. The echoes of the great soft toned bell in the Cathedral tower 
had hardly ceased, when the grand procession of Archbishop, 
Bishops and Priests inarched from the sacristy into the sanctuary, 
the whole congregation rising as they did so. The Bishops present 
beside Archbishop Feehan were : 

Eight Eev. Bishop P. J. Ryan, St. Louis, Mo., 

" " " J. Lancaster Spalding, Peoria, Ills., 

" " " Chatard, Vincennes, Ind., 

" Dewenger, Ft. Wayne, Ind., 

" " " Hogan, Kansas City, Mo., 

" " " Moore, St. Augustine, Fla., 

" " " Fink, 0. S. B., Leavenworth, Kansas, 

" " Seidenbush, O. S. B., St. Cloud, Minn., 

" " " O'Hara, Soranton, Pa., 

" " Flasch, La Crosse, Wis., 

" " " Vertin, Marquette, Mich., 

" " " Hennessey, Dubuque, Iowa, 

" " " Fitzgerald, Little Rock, Ark. 

Nearly every priest in the Diocese of Chicago was present, while 
the Dioceses of Davenport and Dubuque were largely represented. 
The participants in the ceremonies were as follows : Celebrant 
and Consecrator, Most Rev. Archbishop Feehan, assisted by the 
Rt. Rev. John Hennessey, Bishop of Dubuque, and Rt. Rev. J. 
Lancaster Spalding, Bishop of Peoria; Assistant Priest, Rev. 
Joseph P. Roles, St. Mary's ; Deacons of Honor, Rev. Thomas 
Burke, St. Columbkille's, and the Rev. John Waldron, of St. 
John's; Deacons of the Mass, Rev. J. J. McGovern, D. D., St. 
Dennis', Lockport, 111., with Rev. S. M. A. Barrett, St. Stephens, 


Chicago, as subdeacon, who both had served Bishop McMullen's first 
Mass. The master of ceremonies was Rev. Daniel J. Riordau with 
Rev. D. M. Bowling, Rev. John Delaney and Rev. John Carroll, 
all of the Cathedral, as second, third and fourth assistants respect- 
ively. Chanters, Very Rev. T. J. Butler, D. D., Rockford, and 
Rev. Patrick Butler, of the Church of the Immaculate Conception, 
Chicago. Notary, Very Rev. Dean Butler ; Chaplains to Bishop 
McMullen, Revs. P. J. Conway, St. Patrick's, Chicago, and P. W. 
Riordan, St. James', Chicago. Chaplains to assistant Consecra- 
tors, Rev. E. J. Dunne, All Saints', Chicago, and Rev. Maurice 
Burke, Joliet, 111. 

The services prescribed in the Ceremonial of Bishops was 
strictly adhered to. The notary, the Very Rev. T. J. Butler, D. 
D., read the Apostolic letter of His Holiness Pope Leo XIII, creat- 
ing the Diocese of Davenport, and appointing the Very Rev. 
John McMullen, D. D., Bishop of the new See. Then the Arch- 
bishop proceeded with the consecration while the humble, earnest 
demeanor of Bishop McMullen was remarked, and when, 
the solemn chanting of the Litany of the Saints took place, a 
breathless silence spread over the vast assemblage, only broken by 
the voices of the clergy, answering to the Litany's invocations. At 
the close of the ceremonies, during the sublime chanting of the 
Ambrosian hymn, Te Deum, the consecrated Bishop, arrayed in 
rich vestments with mitre and crozier, descended from the Sanc- 
tuary into the main aisle of the Cathedral, accompanied by the 
assistant consecrating Bishops, giving, for the first time, his Epis- 
copal blessing. Tears filled the eyes of his beloved parishioners, 
as they saw him pass by clothed in his Episcopal robes a 
Bishop. A poor old woman, one of " the doctor's pensioners," 
had struggled through the dense mass of people from the door of 
the Cathedral up to the front, and on bended knees, with tears of 
joy coursing down her cheeks, she awaited the coming of her 
kind friend. As he was passing by her he looked down, and, 
seeing her, gave her a special blessing, when she clasped the 
hem of his chasuble and kissing it, exclaimed : " Thank God I 


have lived to see this day ; God bless you ! you make a fine looking 
Bishop." Her words, though not audible to all in the Cathedral, 
were the echo of the same thoughts in the minds of every one 
present, Bishop, priest or layman. After the first Gospel, Rev. Ed- 
ward McGlynn, D. D.,of New York, preached an eloquent sermon, 
taking for his text the words from, the xxvm. chapter of St. Matthew, 
verses 18 and 19 : " All power is given to me in Heaven and on 
earth, going, therefore, teach ye all nations .... teaching 
them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: 
and behold, I am with you all days even to the consummation of 
the world." The ceremonies which commenced at 10 o'clock 
A. M. did not end until 2 o'clock p. M. Then the Archbishop, the 
Bishops and clergy assembled in the spacious basement hall of 
the parochial school, near the Cathedral, at a banquet given by the 
priests of the Archdiocese. Before the end, each of the Bishops 
from abroad made an address of congratulation, to which 
Bishop McMullen responded in a most happy manner. Then 
occurred a presentation of four thousand dollars to the new 
Bishop from the priests of the Archdiocese. The Bishop, 
who was visibly affected by the testimonial of regard on 
the part of the priests, arose, and in a few words made 
acknowledgment of his deepest gratitude. All the priests 
of the Archdiocese, many of whom had known him 
for years and experienced his true friendship, were only 
too glad to find at last this opportunity of making a 
substantial return, though, indeed, inadequate ; moreover, they 
were determined that he should not leave 'the Diocese, as he had 
lived in it with such self-sacrifice, a poor man. 

In the evening of this eventful day in the history of the 
Catholic Church of Chicago, the same hall was again filled 
by the people of the Holy Name parish. An eager interest 
was displayed, and when Bishop McMullen, accompanied by 
Archbishop Feehan, and surrounded by a large number of the 
clergy and distinguished laymen, appeared on the platform, he was 
greeted with loud cheers and acclamations of joy which, when 


they subsided, were followed by a presentation to the new Bishop 
by the ladies of the Parish, of a costly Bishop's chapelle, valued at 
$500. Mrs. Michael Shields in handing this elegant proof of their 
esteem, made the following address: 


" Rt. Rev. Bishop McMullen : In behalf of the ladies of the 
Holy Name parish, I present to you this chapelle as a token 
of the esteem and love in which you are held by us. With 
this presentation we extend warm congratulations upon your ele- 
vation to the episcopacy, mingled with profound sorrow upon 
your departure from us. For each and every one I bid you a sad 
farewell, with a request, dear Bishop, that when these vessels are 
used by you we may be remembered by you in your prayers." 

Mr. Redmond Prindiville, representing all the parishioners of 
the Holy Name Parish, came forward and said : 

" Rt. Rev. Bishop : I have the honor of being chosen by your 
friends and parishioners to express to you on this occasion, not 
only our own feelings, but the feelings universal among all who 
know you, caused by your departure from this Diocese, which you 
have so long adorned by your learning, your eloquence, and your 
noble example in your priestly office. It is eminently proper 
that this feeling should find expression here in the building 
where we are now assembled, devoted to the education of the 
youth of the parish, preparing them for the duties of life, instruct- 
ing them in the pure and holy faith of the church of God. Built 
under the greatest discouragement, it will stand an enduring 
monument to your untiring energy, unyielding perseverance, and 
determined Christian spirit. It is unnecessary at this time and 
before those here present to make any reference to the many other 
educational, charitable, and religious institutions built and estab- 
lished under your fostering care. We cannot permit you to leave 
us without saying that while we have so long revered you as a 
pastor, counselor, friend, and director, we now rejoice that it has 
pleased the Holy Father to select you for the high office to which 


you have been consecrated. You will take with you our fervent 
hopes and expectations that the Faithful of the new Diocese over 
which you have been appointed may long be blessed, as we have 
been under your pastoral care, and that they will recognize in you 
all the great qualities which have made you honored and beloved 
in every household in Chicago. 

" Sir, you will not be forgotten in Chicago. The priest who has 
devoted his life to the poor will live forever in the memory of 
those to whom he has been a friend and father. We are not un- 
mindful that your office carries with it responsibilities and duties 
greater than those which have rested upon you in this Archdiocese, 
but we have an abiding conviction that the wisdom of your selec- 
tion will be illustrated in the ability and dignity with which you 
will preside over the Diocese of Davenport, and we believe that 
the fortunate people there will appreciate the great virtues of their 
Bishop as universally as we, your late parishioners and friends, 
who have known you, admired you, and revered you since the day 
of your Administration. We are also not unmindful that after a 
life of labor and self-denial you leave us like the Apostles of old, 
without a purse or scrip, and, believing that in your new field you 
will have ample opportunity to exercise the same Christian charity 
which has hitherto enobled and purified your life, we, therefore, 
with the most heartfelt pleasure, present you with this slight token 
of our esteem and love. 

" And now, dear and Reverend Bishop, in bidding you farewell, 
we renew our congratulations upon your elevation to the Episco- 
pate, and also our congratulations to the people over whom you 
have been appointed, and from the depths of our hearts we wish 
you all the blessings which heaven has in store for the pure and 
faithful and for the learned, able, and eloquent Prelate of the 
Church, the Bishop of Davenport." Mr. Prindiville then presented 
to Bishop McMullen $3000, inclosed in a beautifully worked purse. 

Cheers and applause greeted the Bishop when he arose to reply 
to both addresses, he said : 

" My Dear Brethren and Faithful Friends : I can but feebly give 


expression to the varied emotions, that fill my heart to-night. I 
dare not trust myself to put my feelings into words. I have been 
associated with this congregation for thirty years, not as pastor 
for all that time, but connected with the congregation and identi- 
fied with it more or less intimately, and in positions that brought 
me into close relation with the people, and concerned with regard 
to their spiritual welfare. For the greater part of the past genera- 
tion,! have had charge of the church as pastor. I have tried to 
conduct myself at all times as a representative of the dear Master 
to whose service, I am consecrated. Whatever I have done, has 
been for the best as I esteemed it, and it is my hope that I have 
not proved derelict in my duty. I have always a great concern 
for the people. In the first place, I have to give an account of my 
stewardship to my great Master. Now to see my people come to 
me with rich gifts and expressions of sincere goodwill, fills my 
heart with the deepest gratitude. The gift is one that delights 
my heart, such testimonials have pleased me exceedingly. What 
more could a pastor wish than the thing you have done to- 
night? What more could he ask than a fervent expression of the 
friendship from the Christian hearts of his friends? My friends 
have done for me all that I could desire, I could not expect more. 
When I see the gifts that you have bestowed upon me, and when 
I use them, I cannot be unmindful of you and your exceeding 
great kindness. In my prayers I will ask the Father of all great 
gifts,to reward you for your extreme great kindness to me." 

Archbishop Feehan then arose to say, as he expressed it, " a 
word on this occasion." 

" It is with great pleasure that I see you, the representatives of 
the people, here to do honor and offer gifts to one who is worthy 
of both. He has testified his love for you in many ways during a 
great number of years. I have known what it is to separate a 
pastor from his people. It is a difficult and trying ordeal. This 
presentation of gifts is one of the most beautiful features of Catho- 
lic life. In this mutual love of the people and their pastor, one 
for the other, you do honor to yourselves and the Church. Such 


acts of devotion are a blessing to the Church and to the people. 
We part with the Bishop of Davenport with regret, yet we cannot 
but wish him a great and a glorious future. The wisdom of our 
great Father, the Pope, has been most strikingly illustrated in the 
selection of Bishop McMullen for the high position to which he 
has been called, and we must repress the personal regret we feel 
at his leaving us, for the reason that we know it is for his own 
advancement and for the general good." 



July 30, the day of Bishop McMullen's departure from Chicago 
to his See was an occasion of mingled sorrow and joy. This was 
noticeable when the committees of clergy and laity of the new Di- 
ocese of Davenport arrived for the purpose of furnishing an escort to 
their Bishop, and all the people of the Holy Name Parish as- 
sembled to bid farewell to their kind father and friend ; their be- 
loved priest who had known themso long, had been so true to them, 
watched over them, and had administered to their spiritual and 
temporal needs. People came from all parts of the city, old and 
young, his pensioners, invalids, to get his blessing. There was, how- 
ever, one ray of comfort in the thought, as a member of the con- 
gregation expressed herself on bidding him farewell, "Bishop, 
you are not going far away, so with God's blessing we will see you 
occasionally." Two committees had been appointed to escort 
Bishop McMullen from Chicago to Davenport ; the first committee 


represented the Catholic clergy and citizens of the Diocese and 
city of Davenport. They were 


Rev. H. Cosgrove, St. Marguerite's, 
P. Burke, St. Anthony's, 
" A. Niermann, St. Kunigunda's, 
M. Flavin, St. Mary's, 
" P. Laurent, St. Mathias', Muscatine. 


John Lillis, H. Bradley, Thomas Herbert, S. N. Mitchell, J. H. 
Nevins, of St. Marguerite's ; 

M. V, Ganon, A. P. McGuirk, C. D. Martin, P. J. Hagarty, J. 
McSteen, George Kerker, of St. Anthony's ; 

A. "Weber, L. Ruhl, J. Pohlman, John Otten, of St. Kunigunda's ; 

A. Miles, T. O'Brien, Henry Joher, P. L. O'Meara, of St. Mary's. 


Alderman Marvin, Cantwell, Schmidt and Slaussen. 
Board of Trade, Fred. Melchert, Vice President. 
The Press, Ed. Russell, Davenport Gazette ; H. Lischer, Democrat ; 
D. N. Richardson, Evening Democrat. 

The second was the Chicago committee : 


Rev. D. J. Riordan, Chancellor of the Archdiocese, 

" P. M. Flannigan of St. Anne's, Chicago, 

" M. J. Dorney of St. Gabriels, " 

" S. M. A. Barrett of St. Stephen's, " 

" Maurice Burke of Joliet, 111., 

" J. M. Garten, Church of the Nativity, Chicago, 

" P. W. Riordan of St. James, " 

" J. P. Roles of St. Mary's, 

" P. Butler of the Immaculate Conception, Chicago, 

" E. J. Dunne of All Saints, " 

" John Waldron of St. John's, " 

" James J. McGovern, D. D., Lockport, 111. 



William Weadley, 
Edward McQuaid, 
Charles Dennehy, 
Ex-Aid. M. Schweistal, 
Martin O'Brien, 
Thomas Hutchinson, 
Thomas Brennan, 
P. McGuire, 
James McMullen, 
P. MoElherne, 


P. Conley, 
Peter Conlan, 
T. C. Darcy, 
A. McKay, 
P. M. Hennessey, 
P. J. Towle, 
M. J. Sullivan, 
A. Burckhardt, 
W. J. English, 
James G. Sharkey. 

M. W. Kerwin, 

William Devine, 

M. J. Keane, 

P. H. Harkins, 

W. Fogarty, 

J. J. W. O'Donahue, 

J. Swenie, 

J. Conlon, Jr., 

E. J. Roche, 

The Davenport committee, after calling on their new Bishop, 
visited his Grace Archbishop Feehan, who received them with 
quiet dignity and in addressing them, concluded by saying: 
" I thank you sincerely for your call and I will say that your 
errand, indeed, cannot be a pleasant one to me, as I lose one of 
the ablest and best assistants in this Archdiocese, but it is for the 
good of our Divine Master's cause and what is mine and Chicago's 
loss is Davenport's gain." When the hour had finally come, the 
clergy and parishioners of the Holy Name crowded around the 
Bishop and kneeling asked his blessing. The good Bishop was 
visibly moved when he looked around and saw those familiar 
faces clouded with grief; his strong heart gave way, he tried to 
smile and speak words of cheer, but it was a failure ; when the 
carriage started for the railroad station, there was no heavier 
heart, no greater unconcealed sorrow shown, than that of Bishop 
McMullen. The special car which had been kindly furnished by 
General Superintendent Kimball of the C. R. I. & P. was in readi- 
ness on the Bishop's arrival, and without delay the train sped 
southward, thence towards the West on to the Mississippi with the 
Bishop and his escort. Along the route at the stations within the 
city limits and in all the cities through which the train passed, 
until it arrived at Davenport, vast crowds of people assembled to 
greet the Bishop and receive his blessing. At length the train 


crossed the great bridge, which spans the Mississippi at Davenport, 
and the Rt. Rev. John McMullen, D. D., first Bishop of Davenport, 
was in his Episcopal City. Thousands of people thronged the 
streets to welcome him ; the Kimball House and Perry Street plat- 
form were filled with men and women from the Fourth Street 
bridge to Perry Street, while on Fourth Street the roadway was 
filled . with carriages, save where different societies were in line 
and the sidewalks were crowded with people from Rock Island 
Street to Brady Street. As the Bishop looked upon this outpouring 
of citizens to give him welcome, he was deeply moved. 

So thickly were the people crowded on the platform that it 
was found difficult to make a pathway from the special car to 
the Kimball entrance, so as to allow the Bishop, the Chicago 
escort and local committees to pass into the hotel. After a few 
minutes the clergy and committees passed out at the Fourth 
Street entrance and took their seats in carriages, and the pro- 
cession was formed by the Chief Marshall, T. J. O'Meara, and 
his assistants, James Croak and Fred. Ruhl; Strasser's Union 
Band was at the head followed by the following societies : St. 
Marguerite's Sodality, St. Patrick's Benevolent, St. Mary's Total 
Abstinence, the Ancient Order of Hibernians, after which came the 
City Band, followed by the St. Joseph's and St. Aloysius' societies, 
all proudly marching in full regalia with their distinctive bright 
and beautiful banners, while the Great Western Band lead the 
reception committee and the clergy, who were in carriages. 
The observed of all observers, Bishop McMullen, came next 
in a carriage, in which were seated Rev. Father Riordan, Chancel- 
lor of the Archdiocese of Chicago, Rev. Father Roles and Mr. 
Philip Conley of Chicago ; the Bishop wore cassock, rochet and 
cape, and blessed the Faithful who knelt by the wayside ; then 
came the Chicago escort committees in carriages, after these 
marched the members of the Young Ladies' Sodality of St. Mar- 
guerite's arrayed in white dresses with one of their number bear- 
ing their beautiful banner and all marching with fine precision. 
Following them, were hundreds of children marching by twos, 


carrying flags and looking happy, indeed it was an ovation for 
the Bishop. From Perry along Fourth to Brady, down Brady 
to Second, along Second to Main Streets, the crowds of people 
were very great, as they were at intervals along Main Street, clear 
up to Eleventh, and above that, the East side of the College grounds 
was occupied by hundreds. And so it was on Twelfth Street, and 
on Brady along to Eleventh, and along Eleventh to Iowa Street, 
never did the citizens of Davenport witness such a gathering 
of people. As the procession moved on and the Bishop passed 
by, hats were raised and handkerchiefs were waved in respect 
and welcome, and he answered the salutations constantly. On 
Iowa Street, south of Eleventh, the societies formed and along 
Tenth to St. Marguerite's the Sodality and Sunday school 
children were arranged in the same order ; the girls in white 
attire, wearing wreaths and holding white flags inscribed : " Wel- 
come," " Happy Day," and other mottoes ; behind those ranks 
the people stood in crowds, filling the street and adjacent yards. 
The committees, clergy and Bishop passed between the lines, 
the little girls casting flowers into the Bishop's carriage, and so 
on, to the front of St. Marguerite's, over the steps to which was a 
high platform, 26 feet wide and 46 feet deep ; a Gothic arch was 
here erected, the .pointed apex surmounted with a white cross 
which rose above two emblematic Sacred Hearts formed of car- 
nation tinted flowers in the archway space ; this arch was 28 
feet from the ground ; the balustrades at the front and on the 
side were decorated with the national colors red, white and blue 
and the arch work was trimmed with evergreens. The sun had 
set when the procession reached the Church, and the exercises 
were held in the deepening twilight; the hundreds of varied 
colored lanterns which were suspended all along the parsonage 
grounds from the Church to Iowa Street, and about the platform 
and arch, illumined and beautified the scene, while several re- 
sidences in the vicinity, ablaze in brilliant lights, gave an ad- 
ditional grandeur to the surroundings. On the stand in front of 
the Bishop's throne were three magnificent floral designs. As the 


Bishop ascended to the top of the steps, eleven little girls, Nellie 
McGrath, Ella Powers, Mamie Stafford, Nellie Whalen, Lucy 
Coffey, Libbie Foher, Mamie Duggan, and Maggie Nolan, in pure 
white array, adorned with floral crowns and flowing veils, scat- 
tered flowers in his way, saying : " Welcome, Bishop ! " Then he 
knelt in prayer in the church doorway ; all the clergy and the 
large multitude kneeling also, while the organ's sweet sounds greatly 
heightened the effect of the solemn scene. After a few minutes the 
Bishop arose and went towards the front of the platform when 
Mayor Henry of Davenport, was introduced to him. Father 
Cosgrove called the vast assemblage to order and in a minute it 
was marvelously quiet for so vast a crowd. He announced that 
Mayor Henry would welcome the Bishop in behalf of the citizens 
of Davenport, and that Mr. M. V. Gannon would do it for the 
Catholics of the Diocese of Davenport. 

The Mayor's welcome address was as follows : 

"Rt. Rev. Bishop of Davenport! By virtue of occupying for the 
time being, the position of Mayor of this beautiful city upon the 
Western slope of the Father of Waters, and not because I am pos- 
sessed of any reputation as a speaker, the agreeable duty has been 
assigned me of welcoming you to your new home, in behalf of the 
officials and citizens of Davenport. I assure you, Rt. Rev. Bishop, 
that, irrespective of religion, we feel highly honored that the 
authorities of your Church have selected Davenport as the See 
City of the new Diocese within the limits of this State, and that a 
man of your high standing in the religious world for scholarship 
and piety, should have been selected and sent among us to 
perform the important duties of the high office of Bishop. 
In your future travels throughout your Diocese, you may 
and probably will find other cities which claim to rival (I 
hope there are none so rash as to claim to out-rival) Davenport; 
but while we can truthfully tell you in advance that they are fine 
growing cities, and we are proud of them as sisters of the same 
Diocese, your Reverence need never be ashamed of the city which 
is a part of your title, either on account of that city's relative im^ 


portance or beauty, or on account of the respect shown by its 
citizens of the Roman Catholic faith to the Bishop of Davenport, 
or on account of the respect, affection and neighborly kindness 
which you will ever receive from its citizens as a whole, without 
regard to creeds. This much 1 may safely pledge and keep far 
within bounds ; and if, after living amongst us for a while, you 
find that not only is there no cause for regret in the name of 
" Davenport," but that on the other hand, you have reason to be 
thankful and proud of that name. I shall not be surprised nor 
take any credit to myself for prophesying that such will be the 
case. Again, Right Reverend and dear Bishop, in the name of 
the city and citizens of Davenport, I bid you welcome and may 
the divine ruler prosper your coming to the good of this Church, 
of yourself and of this city." 

The welcome to the Diocese by M. V. Gannon then followed. 
He said : 

" Rt. Rev. Bishop ! I have been selected by the committee to 
welcome you in behalf of the Catholics of Davenport, it is indeed 
a grateful task. The Catholics of this city, Rt. Rev. Sir, are fully 
impressed by the great honor which has been done their city and 
themselves by our most Holy Father Leo XIII, in erecting Daven- 
port into an Episcopal See. Long and prayerfully have they 
waited for this glorious day, and deeply and reverentially grateful 
do they feel to our most Holy Father for this mark of his love 
and favor. Rt. Rev. Sir, this act of wise condescension on the 
part of the Holy See has been unspeakably enhanced by sending 
to us as the first incumbent of the See of Davenport one, the fame 
of whose lofty attainments and abounding charity has been borne 
to us for many years by every wind from Lake Michigan. Al- 
though we feel, dear Bishop, that notwithstanding your elevation, 
it cost you many a pang to part with those whom you love so 
dearly and for whom you so long labored, yet, as their loss is for 
the welfare of the Church, the mutual mourning will be softened 
when it is seen how willingly we shall aid, and how humbly and 
obediently we shall serve you. Many have passed before into the 


better land who would be enthusiastic in their welcome, were they 
here to-day. If the spirit of the occupant of yonder grave, the 
first great benefactor of the infant Church in Davenport, Antoine 
Le Claire be looking from heaven upon this scene and there is no 
room to doubt, it must be an additional joy to him even there. 
Far away in his loved France lie the bones of one who was the 
greatest toiler for God in this part of his vineyard. Great were 
his hopes for Davenport, and now, sainted priest, look down and 
see the beginning of the ripe fruition. Another valiant soldier 
priest lies beneath the marble in St. Mary's ; one who has left his 
mark and for good, upon Catholicity in Davenport; one who 
stormed opposition and took it captive. He to, would shout for 
joy, were he here upon this occasion. Why speak of the dead 
alone? The Catholics of Davenport have been ministered to, for 
long years by an able and devoted band of priests, who, bent to 
their Master's work with a willingness, zeal and unanimity that 
won applause from all. No breath of scandal ever marred their 
labors. Churches, hospitals and schools are the trophies of their 
exertions. In every work they had the sanction of our late Bishop, 
whose zeal in providing priests for the Diocese was great and un- 
tiring. We stand this moment upon the steps of a Church pre- 
sided over for twenty-five years by one who is the embodiment of 
religion, order and scrupulous exactness. The priests who have 
labored so hard, the Sisters whose Academy and Hospital are our 
boast. The whole Catholic population of Davenport, who fairly 
thrill with joy to-day, bid you welcome, a thousand times, wel- 
come, welcome to our fair city, among our generous people where 
the rancorous bitterness of religious strife is seldom or never 
heard. May your years be many; your success abundant and 
we humbly ask your blessing upon ourselves and our families. We 
pledge ourselves to do everything in our power to facilitate your 
labors, smooth your path and to uphold your authority." Mr. Can- 
non's allusions to those who rest in peace, but whose hearts would 
be filled with joy could they gaze on this scene, stilled the audience 
into a remarkable quietude, which was maintained to the close. 


Bishop McMullen's response was as follows : 

Your Honor, the Mayor of the city of Davenport, Hon. M. V. 
Gannon, Fellow Citizens of Davenport and of the great State of 
Iowa, Ladies and Gentlemen : From the time that I heard that 
Providence had opened my way to come amongst you I have 
been oppressed with feelings that I cannot throw into words, and 
when to-night the citizens of this most beautiful of the Mississippi 
cities have come forth to greet me and offer me such words of 
welcome as you have, and when the representatives of the people 
here have spoken to me bidding me to come into the labors of the 
Sainted that have gone before me, I feel that same sentiment come 
upon me more oppressive, and in loud and thundering tones 
which reach int<J the middle of the soul and say : there is no 
individuality here, something greater than an individual presents 
himself before the citizens of the State of Iowa and the citizens 
of Davenport. It is an office, a course of duty to be discharged; 
it is a sphere of living that is brought into the locality, into the 
midst of those people in this official capacity. It is this feeling 
that has been spoken of by his Honor, the Mayor, and I was 
pleased to hear that the people of the city of Davenport have 
taken this elevated view of my arrival amongst them, because it 
is indubitable that a new center of religious work has been 
established in this city and among this people, and whatever good 
the zealous pastors of the people may have exercised amongst 
them, and given promise of in their children who live after them 
in this mighty State, greater and brighter things are to be ex- 
pected as a result of this important event. And next, I am 
pleased with my individual greeting as it has been offered to me 
to-night on my coming to establish a new See in the southern 
part of this great State, to establish in this city constituted by the 
beauties of nature, a new center of religious work. Again, I am 
much pleased, very much, fellow citizens, to hear his honor, the 
Mayor, express these sentiments of strong respect for Christian 
principle and Christian truth, because it brings home to me con- 
victions that have never departed from my soul, that iny fellow 


citizens of this mighty Kepublic can never be anything but 
Christian; their civilization is founded on Christian principle; 
their history has been marked in its brightest spots by eminent 
Christian characters ; their advancement is due to the power of 
Christianity that enlivens their laws and makes the people bow 
down in reverence to their majesty, and the American people 
cannot deny this history, nor reject the glorious past without 
removing the very foundation stones on which this glorious 
Republic was erected, has existed and now stands. They can- 
not deny Christianity, no, in peace, order and prosperity. As 
surely as they must go on, so surely must they maintain princi- 
ples of Christianity. We hear from time to time words spoken 
by men reviling and denying the word of God, and when I 
hear these words spoken the answer comes, and "the fool 
says in his heart there is no God." These things are heard 
from time to time, but they do not stir the mighty masses, 
nor disturb them. As well might a tender twig go down to 
the current of this great Mississippi, and with presumption say 
to it, " I will stay your onward course." As well might it endeavor 
to stem that current and then behold the majesty and power 
burst forth to sweep it beneath and downward, as with resistless 
truth and force the river flows onward. And so are these vain 
words against God and religion swept out of sight and lost before 
the onward progress of the Christian people. I have already 
spoken to you more lengthy than I expected, because, as I have 
already said to his Honor, the Mayor, that I come amongst you in- 
tending to stay, and while I live with you I would that every one 
of you would come to me and tell me his or her joys or sorrows, 
and I pledge myself that so long as this heart shall beat it will 
always be moved to counsel, advise and assist every interest that 
may belong to any individual of Davenport or the great State of 
Iowa. I will add but one thing regarding myself and I say it 
last: I leave a home where I have spent forty years of my life, I 
have left friends and all and have gone forth into a strange 
country ; a strange country, whose people rise up and with open 


hands and arms bid rne, Welcome ; a country that is the fairest 
that the Mississippi views on its onward course of thousands of 
miles towards the ocean ; a strange country, inhabited by people 
who seem to take into their souls the kindness and gentleness of 
nature about them and have embodied it into their words and 
acts, bidding me come and live with them and be one of them- 
selves." These words were listened to with deep attention, and they 
caused in their hearers admiration for the Bishop's readiness of 
thought and speech, as he had no previous knowledge of the 
points made in the welcome address. He spoke with statesman- 
like deliberation and yet with an earnestness of tone and manner 
that rendered him truly eloquent. 

When he concluded, the people sank upon their knees and re- 
ceived for the first time from their new Bishop his episcopal bless- 
ing. The intoning by the Bishop and the responses by the clergy 
were in such accord, that a blessing of music came with the bless- 
ing of the Bishop. Then Bishop McMullen walked through his 
Cathedral for such St. Marguerite's had now become the little 
girls in white preceding him scattering flowers. And so ended the 
reception ceremonies, which were roost gratifying to the Bishop 
and very pleasing to his Chicago friends who accompanied him. 




With matured experience and his soul filled with zeal, Bishop 
McMullen took possession of the Davenport See in the forty-eighth 
year of his age. He found a large well cultivated field before 
him ; a people devoted to their religion and a clergy filled with 
the spirit of their Master Jesus Christ. He at once took up his 
abode with Father Cosgrove, who had for twenty-five years faith- 
fully administered in St. Marguerite's Church. Bishop McMullen 
wrote to a friend shortly after his arrival in Davenport : " St. Paul 
says, a Bishop is one that ruleth well his own house ; I have one 
thing to mention, that Father Cosgrove relieves me at present of all 
responsibility iti that matter." Now, a Prelate of the Church, he 
sought so to regulate his mode of life and whole exterior, that he 
would neither show any foolish pride or too great plainness. The 
simplicity of the priestly life was continued as far as possible, though 
he upheld his episcopal dignity with a reserve that was most at- 
tractive, thereby strengthening the authority of his office with 
priests and people. He at once showed an independence in the 
management of all diocesan affairs, and though he was always 
ready to receive the advice of the experienced among the clergy 
and laity, he carefully guarded against undue influence, always 
preserving a strict silence respecting his plans and affairs. " If I 
lay the foundation well," he said to a venerable priest of his new 
Diocese, " there will be nothing to impede the building of a great 
structure. I have every reason then, to go slowly in learning my 
duties and studying my plans carefully." 

The Bishop determined to at once make a Visitation 
of his Diocese in order to become acquainted with its 
advantages and needs. We have seen him arrive on 
the 30th of July in Davenport, but no sooner had 
he rested a few days, then he commenced this Visitation. 



First, he went to each of the Davenport churches, convents, schools, 
academies and the hospital under the charge of the Sisters of Mercy, 
all of which he found, as he expressed to a friend, " so advanced 
and prosperous that they compared well with those of any Diocese 
in the United States." At the Mercy Hospital he was delighted to 
find some old Chicago friends, Rev. Mothers Francis de Sales, 
Stanislaus and Baptist. These good Sisters, who had known their 
new Bishop when a young Seminarian in Chicago, were greatly 
rejoiced on seeing him come to them, clothed with episcopal 
authority and ready to look after their spiritual welfare. Bishop 
McMullen preached his first sermon in the Cathedral, the Sunday 
following his installation. A synopsis of the sermon is as follows: 

He announced his text from the Gospel of the day, the eighth 
Sunday after Pendecost : 

" Make unto you friends of the mammon of iniquity, that when you 
shall fail, they may receive you into everlasting dwellings." After epi- 
tomizing the action of the unjust steward, referred to in the Gospel, 
the Bishop said : " By the expression ' mammon of iniquity/ as you 
well know, is meant the goods of this world. The goods of this world 
are called the riches of iniquity, because they apply to that by 
which men's minds are led astray from the things of God. They are 
called the ' mammon of iniquity/ because on so many occasions 
they are apt to engross the human mind, and tie it down to the earth 
for which it was not made. To make it earthly with earthly food 
and fill the souls and minds of men with sensuality, dangerous to the 
things of God, and make men animal men that appreciate not the 
things of God ; make, therefore, yourselves friends of the ' mam- 
mon of iniquity/ The Great Steward, as the maker and provider of 
us all, the Great Master that employs us all, gives us the means, gives 
us this world and the stewardship under him, and we must give 
an account of our stewardship to this Great Master, who has placed 
everything under our dominion by the decree of his creation, the 
earth and the animal creation are subject to us. Man is to be the 
great steward, and represent the Great Owner and Master of all 


" That these things should lead man astray and make him for- 
get his Maker and Preserver is sad indeed. Sad to think that 
these things, this world's goods, which our Creator from the 
abundance of the goodness of his heart has given us and bade us 
feel happy, to live and be happy, that these things should be the 
means of our downfall, that they should be the very stepping 
stones to ruin, at least with deviation from the divine steps 
marked out for us and lead us in that fall which sin has brought, 
not only in one but in all the race, is, indeed, sad, and we fear, 
therefore, the use of these things ; a reasonable dread that they 
tend to lead us astray gradually from the service of our Maker and 
of our good Provider. We fear the use of them when we look to 
the great servants of the Most High one ; one as strong as David 
and another as wise as Solomon ; when we look at such examples 
we fear their use, because, before our eyes we see so many go 
astray, when we see so many tie themselves down to earth and make 
earth alone the purpose of their being. The lesson of the Gospel 
to-day tells us that we must make use of these very things with 
reasonable dread, and to see the point of the instruction of our 
Great Master. To make use of these things, you should do so with 
fear. He says, ' I am the owner of all things, be not afraid to take 
these things and use them properly ; to your neighbor do nothing 
upon his rights or upon his justice ; take these things and distri- 
bute them with a lavish hand to those who are indebted to your 
Master or to you ; use these things as if they were your own, and 
make friends of these things that indeed belong to me, but of 
which you are only the steward, and know that you have my ap- 
proval for that which you do to those who owe you or owe me ; 
what you do in either of these you do unto me, and I will make 
it redound to your advantage.' 

The other lesson is, love God above all things; after your 
Maker love your neighbor as yourself. Take a lesson from the 
great goodness of God and of His love for every child, however, he 
may have proved himself unworthy. Be strong, be loving in behalf 
of the poor, in behalf of the sinner, in behalf of those who are 


gone astray, or likely to be led astray and he will make that dispo- 
sition redound to the advantage of the person who may have had 
for the time a position over them. The epistle of the day, which 
I read for you in the words of the Apostle, represents Christians as 
servants of God. They receive the spirit of God by which they 
are worthy of the care of the Great Father. They become sons, 
and if sons they are also heirs. Hence it was the intention of 
God in creation, and is now His intention from the redemption 
of the race that we should not only be His companions, but be 
His children, His sons, and if His sons, His heirs. And what is 
heirship of the most High God, but to be blessed forever. You 
are therefore God's sons as emphatically as you are stewards when 
dealing with things here. If we have these truths impressed 
upon our minds to elevate our actions and put them forth towards 
those who are lowly, these things that are so dangerous to so 
many ; if we take this guide to our actions and our dealings with 
the things we use, our lives will be ennobled, supernaturalized 
and. brought near to God; they will be rendered precious in His 
sight, as so many offerings to gain eternal happiness. Dealing 
with those lowly things of life, if we look upon ourselves as his 
stewards to distribute his goods, and enjoy them according to His 
will, there would not be the smallest occasion for thought that our 
lives would not be precious in the sight of God. Hence, in prose- 
cuting our business as stewards under the allwise and generous 
Father, let us endeavor to strip ourselves from the fear of the use of 
these goods, by the lesson we have received, from our Savior to use 
them cheerfully and profitably with those around us who are in need 
and be not afraid that He will be offended. He has intended them 
not only for us but for others, sometimes they are heaped together a 
sometimes accumulate around individuals, but we should make wise 
use of our general stewardship and thereby merit a noble mansion 
in Heaven : Let us also remember that these transactions under the 
Great Master should be ennobled by making and doing them all 
for his sake, and for the fulfilment of his will. By daily prayer 
should we consecrate our every action to him as children, as true- 


sons, and as those feeling that we are to be in the same heirship 
as God himself, should we stand in his presence and with courage 
perform our duties in his sight, not relying on our power, for that 
would sink us down amid the sensible things around us, but 
relying upon his enlightening and strengthening grace, he kept 
on the right way of everlasting salvation and be strengthened to 
follow in the footsteps of our great model who has gone before 
us. And now my dear people, in accepting the position of chief 
pastor amongst you, let me give you this lesson which our Lord 
gives us to-day and let us hope that you remember it all through 
the course of ministration that I may lead amongst you. Let us 
hope that you will not permit your efforts to be corrupted by 
worldly success; that you will not forget the teachings of our 
dear Lord for which he laid down his dear life, that these are the 
beginnings of salvation, and because necessary for salvation is 
faith in the teachings of our Lord, which we receive from His 
Church and which cannot fail to the end of time. 

That these teachings ; this word of God are worth all things 
beside. The greatest blessing that God can give us from Heaven 
in our fallen condition, is to keep Himself before us and keep His 
will before us, for these open the mind of God to us and brings 
down Heaven upon earth. Keep. your faith in God bright above all 
things. Let no Mammon of iniquity ever take this from you 
let no worldly success or desire for fame or worldly standing ever 
make you ashamed of the teachings of the Church or its cross of 
Christ. Then make your faith alive ; let your faith ennoble all 
your actions and your lives will be lessons, you will be happy in 
the sunshine of Heaven. Then let darkness gather around you 
as it may, you will have the happy feeling that you are the 
children of the Most High ; obey the will of your good and gentle 
Father, and when you come to the time to surrender your lives, 
when you come to the end of your journey, you will be received 
into an everlasting home." 

The Bishop delivered his sermon without any attempt at orna- 
ment, his simplicity of manner was eloquence enough. 




Whan Bishop McMullen took up his residence with Father 
Cosgrove in the Parish house of St. Marguerite's, he had formed 
no idea of where he would finally locate the Episcopal House. His 
first and only thought was to make there his headquarters and 
spend as much time as he could possibly spare in visiting his 
Diocese. " I will live with my priests for a while," he said in 
reply to a question as to where would his home be. Truthfully 
did he exemplify the character of his Divine Master, for regard- 
less of self he started forth to see, to teach, to administer to all 
who might need his care. He was not, however, to be with- 
out a home. The priests of the Diocese united in the purchase 
of a residence in keeping with the dignity of a Bishop, and 
with such a generous spirit of disinterestedness, that as long as 
the Bishop's house will loom, up in its grandeur over the 
Father of Waters on the Le Claire Bluff, it will stand as a wit- 
ness to the attachment of the priests of the Diocese of Davenport 
to their new Bishop, and when time and decay may cause it to be 
replaced by another structure, still history will preserve in fond 
recollection this rare act of priestly devotedness. Previous to his 
departure on his second tour of Visitation, Father Cosgrove hav- 
ing for sometime noticed that the Bishop was out of place by not 
having a home of his own, said to him : " Bishop, your health 
seems not to be good, it would be advisable for you to have a 
home of your own, where you can have care and also look after 
your many interests, my house is not suitable, it was not intended 
for an Episcopal residence." " That is true," answered the Bishop, 
" but I cannot build." " Well buy a place," said the good Father 
" Why," said the Bishop, " that is easier said than done, I have no 


money." "Never mind, Bishop, pick out a place," said Father 
Cosgrove, " arid we shall see." With such encouragement Bishop 
McMullen took several strolls about the city of Davenport and 
the one place that pleased him was the Le Claire residence. This 
fine mansion was built by Antoine Le Claire, who had settled in 
Davenport when it was a small trading post. Le Claire's wealth 
had increased with the advance of the great West. This good 
man built out of his own resources the Church and parsonage of 
St. Marguerite's and in time he erected a home for himself on the 
most prominent of the Davenport Bluffs, but did not live long to 
enjoy it. With his death his vast interests were scattered. Situ- 
ated on the very summit of the bluff, amid charming scenery 
woods, hill and vale, its appearance reminded one of an old 
baronial hall on the Rhine. The hills on both sides of the great 
river slope down in graceful curves to the water edge, the large 
manufacturing cities of Moline and Rock Island on one side ; 
in the center, the National Depot of war armaments on an Island 
that gives name to one of the three sister cities ; on the other the 
Episcopal city of Davenport, beautiful as a picture, lies terraced 
from the woods far back, down to where the noble river foams 
and flows. 

When Bishop McMullen returned from his Visitation, Father 
Cosgrove met him at the depot, and, inviting him to a carriage 
they drove up to the Le Claire mansion; arrived at the en- 
trance, the Bishop was very much surprised when he was asked 
to enter his future home. Father Cosgrove presented the deed of 
it to him, saying that he did so in the name of the priests of the 
Diocese of Davenport, as an expression of their devotion to him, 
and that he might live long to enjoy it. The residence was 
furnished with a profusion of elegance, and thus without any 
cost to him personally, the Bishop found himself well provided 
for, nor did he fail to show his appreciation of this gift. In 
writing to a priest of the Archdiocese of Chicago, he says : " I 
am fairly overwhelmed with kindness shown me by the priests 
and people of the Diocese, wherever I went, they did all in their 


power to show their esteem for me ; but above all, here on my 
return to Davenport, do I find a testimonial of their love for 
their Bishop. Tears of gratitude came to my eyes when I entered 
the Episcopal residence ; I have not yet recovered from my sur- 
prise. Come and see my beautiful home." 

He wrote to Miss Starr : 

" October 28th, 1881. 

" Dear Friend Miss Starr : I wrote to Rome for the dispensation,, 
but you did not say in your letter whether I should send the dis- 
pensation to you or to . I have just returned from a six weeks' 

trip, and start again this evening to be gone for three weeks, after 
which I shall not travel so constantly. At present, if you write 
your letters will be forwarded to me. I am just beginning house- 
keeping ; the priests bought me the prettiest house in Davenport,, 
and, they say, on the whole river. My niece has just arrived and 
will have everything in order, when I return from this trip. 

" Bishop." 

That he was persevering in his Visitation of every part of his 
Diocese, the letter of December 27th, 1881, to Miss Starr is strong 

" Dear Friend : St. John and your holly arrived safely, and I 
answer on St. John's Day, thanking you in his and my own name 
for your great kindness. If I were not so old, I would say that I 
was lonesome on Christmas, but your note and presents made me 
feel somewhat as of old. After visiting the half of my Diocese 
more difficult of approach, I have been at home for a week and 
shall not go away for two weeks more. I have already confirmed 
seven thousand persons and learned many things that will enable 
me to meet the wants of the people. This is a great country, and 
when I am gone, will be a great Catholic country, for a great and 
lasting beginning is already here. 




His first question on visiting a Church in the Diocese was : 
" Father, how are your schools getting along ? " If he then learned 
that there was no school he would advise the opening of one as 
soon as possible, and he would say encouragingly : " Well, try 
there is no harm in trying."' By this means the clergy of the 
Diocese took great interest in Catholic education. One day in 
conversation with his Vicar-General, Father Cosgrove, the subject 
of a select school in Davenport, for the Catholic youth, was brought 
up; the fact of a large number of young Catholics who were well 
qualified for a higher course of education after they had left the 
parochial schools was commented on, as well as . the inability of 
reaching this, owing to a lack of worldly means, and that therefore 
many bright intellects had to waste away in obscurity. Then, as 
if his mind was made up to act, he said : " Father Cosgrove, 
where shall we find a place to give a beginning to a college?" 
" Bishop," answered Father Cosgrove, " I will give you two rooms 
in my school building." "All right," replied the Bishop, " let us 
start at once," and thus began St. Ambrose College and Seminary, 
an institution fostered by Bishop Cosgrove, who is following up 
the mind of its founder and making it a seat of learning second 
to none in the State of Iowa. Bishop McMullen never forgot the 
words of Bishop Quarter, which he had heard in old St. Mary's 
Church in Chicago. It was at once seen that his great ambition 
was to establish a college as soon as he could in his Diocese. 
During this time he ordained two priests, Revs. J. Schulte, now 
President of St. Ambrose College, and J. C. White. On Holy 
Thursday, 1882, he consecrated the Holy oils for the first and last 
time. He laid the corner stone of the new St. Joseph's Church, 
Davenport, Father Nierman, pastor, and blessed the bells of the 
Church. He also looked, as soon as he was able, into the condition 
of the different institutions of the Diocese. When at home, it was 
his special delight to go down from his house on the hill to visit 
the Academy of the Immaculate Conception under the charge of 
the Sisters of Charity of the B. V. M., which institution for the 
education of young ladies, is so delightfully situated in the See 


city. He said one day in conversation with a priest of the Diocese 
of Chicago : " I was greatly pleased to see the excellent commun- 
ities of Sisters in my Diocese. We have the nuns of the Visitation 
of the B. V. M. in Ottumwa ; also in the same city I found the 
Motherhouse of the Sisters of the Humility of Mary. The spirit 
in both those communities is very edifying. Then there are the 
Benedictine Sisters at Creston, they are fine teachers in parochial 
schools. I was gratified on seeing this, for the sphere of useful- 
ness of those religious orders cannot be treated inconsiderately, 
and as to the Sisters of Mercy and the Sisters of Charity of the 
B. V. M. you know them as well as I do, if not better. I can as- 
sure you that I was delighted with all these communities and 
may God give them every prosperity. I was overjoyed when 
visiting Creston, Iowa, to see the institution founded by our dear 
old friend Father Burne. The Benedictine Fathers have a fine 
Church and priory, and these I can say are in the very heart of 
the Diocese. I will do all I can to promote their interests, and all 
I look for, is good health and' the help of God. Since my Visita- 
tion I feel greatly encouraged, the future looks bright." 

He writes again to Miss Starr : 

"FEBRUARY 14th, 1882. 

" Dear Friend : I do not know what the weather is coming to 
hardly the middle of February and the frost all gone ; Mississippi 
as clear and warm looking from my hill as in mid-summer; the 
robins, blue birds and small wood-birds building their nests, and 
the blue jays and wood peckers that remained with us all winter 
in our trees, holding noisy conventions every morning as if to 
enter on new and important proceedings. It will be sad if so 
much hope and preparation be doomed to disappointment, 
but at all events the present is simply charming. There 
is, I am quite sure, more seen on my hill than any other place in 
North America as far as my experience goes, and I think a body 
would feel spring coming out here about a month, before it gets to 
Chicago. There are many mansions in our house, and I would 


that they were filled at least to some extent. If you wish to 
bring anyone with you, even your servant, you can do so as well 
as not. Please remember me to Mrs. Dr. Cooke, also to Mrs. 
General Smyth, and say that I called with Father D. Riordan 
when in the city last. 


" Bishop." 

He made known the changeable condition of his health in a 
letter to Miss Starr, dated April 21st, 1882. 

"Dear Friend: I just finished reading your long letter, its 
length bearing no proportion to the kindness that filled it and the 
interest and pleasure it gave me. I passed your house this 
morning to look at the new parish house and the church, and 
called on his Grace, then I took the train home. I leave to-mor- 
row morning on my campaign of three or four weeks. If the 
weather had been warmer I should be better now, but it is 
chilly and I am not so well. I should have said that I went up 
to Chicago with Fathers Roles and P. W. Riordan, who came to 
Davenport on Tuesday. 


" Bishop." 

Wherever Bishop McMullen went during his " campaign," he 
received a most cordial welcome from his people, who were re- 
joiced to receive a visit from their Bishop. The Bishop himself 
was profoundly impressed by the condition and prosperity of 
the portions of his Diocese he visited, and he had opportunities 
to see much, for he traveled by stage, buggy, lumber-wagon, and 
in some instances, by hand car, as well as by passenger coach. 
He also found the Churches throughout his Diocese in a gratify- 
ing condition of increase and prosperity, as may be judged by 
the number of confirmations in the parishes visited. The an- 
nexed statement will give an idea of the extent of his labors : 



Sept. 20th Walnut Grove, Father Smytli confirmed . 135 

" 25th Dallas Centre, Dallas County, Father Hainey 242 

" 27th Stuart, Guthrie County, Father Foley . . 72 

" 30th Aurora, Keokuk County, Father Nugent . 107 

" " Sigourney, " " " " . 25 

" " Millsburg, " " " " . 57 

Oct. 1st Liberty, Clark County, " " . .81 

" 2nd Barden, Father Kearns . . . . 116 

" " Clear Creek, Father Kearns .... 92 

Oskaloosa, Father O'Carroll . . . 163 

" 3rd Knoxville, " .... 139 

9th Ottuniwa, Father Kuckel . . . 165 

12th West Point, " .... 172 

St. Paul, " 110 

" ] 6th Keokuk German, Father Orth . . .76 

" " " St. Francis', Father Henard . 77 

" " " St. Peter's, Father O'Reilly . . 245 

" 17th String Prairie, Father O'Brien . . 22 

18th Fannington, " " ... 26 

" 19th Fail-field, Father Morau .... 37 

" 20th Germanville " " .... 75 

21st Mt. Pleasant, Father O'Farrell . . 186 

' " 23rd Burlington, St. Paul, Father Lavery . . 75 

" " " St. John's, Jesuits . . 120 

" " St. Patrick's, Father Kilpatriok 83 

" 24th Columbus Junction, Father Flannery . 26 

25th Washington, " " 85 

" " Richmond, Wash. Co., Father Brumenschenal 192 

Total, . . . 2890 




Bishop McMullen's first official visit to the city of Council 
Bluffs, on Monday, October 29th, 1882, was made memorable by 
the hearty welcome he received. On his arrival at the depot he 
was met by a large delegation from St. Francis Xavier's congrega- 
tion, Rev. B. F. McMenomy, pastor, and escorted to the priest's 
residence. The following addresses were read to the Bishop. 

" Rt. Rev. and Beloved Bishop : In behalf of the Catholics of 
the city of Council Bluffs we offer you our most sincere and heart- 
felt congratulations on your elevation to the sublime dignity of 
the Episcopate, a most cordial welcome to our midst and sincerely 
congratulate ourselves on Providence placing over this our new 
Diocese, so able and wise a pastor. This, Rt. Rev. Bishop, is but 
a feeble expression of that love and affection which have in all 
ages as ardently burned in the Irish heart for their " Soggarthe 
Arone," a love the like of which is experienced by no other 
people under Heaven as it is by the ever faithful people of 
Ireland, no matter where their lot may have been cast, whether 
on the banks of the St. Lawrence or Mississippi, or on the shores 
of Australia ; a love, which is not a mere sentiment, but a deep 
rooted passion interweaving itself with all the business of their 
lives, running through all the varied tissues of their thoughts, 
growing with their growth and strengthening with their strength. 
We have no desire here or elsewhere on an occasion like the 
present to depreciate the fidelity of other nations to the faith of 
their forefathers, for we are well aware and cheerfully bear testi- 


mony to their unswerving fidelity : the Catholics of Germany to 
their Bishops and priests through their recent persecution in the 
face of laws, unequaled for their injustice and despotism in the 
annals of history, a fidelity that has been honored by the palui 
of victory over the vain and glorious boasting and , military 
prestige of the German Empire, as is patent to all, the most 
prejudiced from recent events, for Prince Bismarck has cried out 
Peccavi and sought for peace from the prisoner at the Vatican. 

"The only demand for our fellow countrymen, that meed of 
admiration which they deserve for their faithful adhesion to> 
the religion in which they sincerely believe, for which they would 
themselves bleed and die to-day as readily as in days of yore,, 
were such a test of their fidelity needed. It gives us the most 
sincere pleasure, also Rt. Rev. Bishop, that the occasion has come 
for us to express our sentiments openly with regard to our very 
affable and dear pastor, Father Mack as he is called among us, 
whose zeal and efficiency in the cause of Catholic education is 
evident from the institutions of learning, which in a compar- 
atively short time have sprung up in this city under his fostering 
care. Looking more to the salvation of souls than to external 
appearances, he has been content to minister in a poor unadorned 
Church in order to build Catholic schools, where the little ones of 
his congregation can receive that religious and moral training so 
essential in these days of infidelity and scandal; when faith and 
morals are exposed to so many and such violent temptations, and 
we pray that He who said : "suffer the little children and prevent 
them not, for such is the kingdom of Heaven," will spare him to 
us for many years to come, to consummate the noble work which 
he has so well begun, and watch with the vigilance of the true 
pastor, as is his custom, over ourselves and our children. We hail 
you then, Rt. Rev. Bishop, as one of the successors of the Apostles 
sent to watch over our spiritual interests by the successor of St. 
Peter, and it shall be our joy and glory to serve, obey and love 
you with the sincerity and disinterestedness of faithful children 
and ever pray God to make your burden light and your ways 


smooth. Again, Rt. Rev. Bishop, we give you a whole souled wel- 
come ' Cead Mille Failthe ' to our midst." 

The Bishop thanked the delegation very warmly and 
assured them that their welfare should always hold a foremost 
place in his mind, and that he would make frequent 
visits to Council Bluffs for their encouragement and wel- 
fare, and expressed himself highly pleased with the state 
of affairs both spiritual and temporal. On Sunday the 
Bishop was tendered a very warm welcome by the school 
children, both boys and girls. The Rt. Rev. Bishop was 
visibly affected by this manifestation of love, and spoke 
to his little ones words of encouragement and good cheer, 
which could be prompted only by parental love. The 
following day the Bishop administered the Sacrament of 
Confirmation to two hundred children. He then took his 
departure for other portions of his Diocese, leaving behind 
him fond remembrance and kindly feelings, both with priests 
and people. 

In February, 1882, the observance of the " Months Mind " 
took place in St. Marguerite's Church, in memory of Rev. 
Father Ryan, who died at Georgetown, Monroe County, a 
month previous. There was a large assemblage of the 
priests of the Diocese, and the ceremonies were very im- 
posing; Bishop McMullen was celebrant of the Mass, and 
at its close, addressed the priests in attendance on their 
labors, the sacrifices they had to make in the cause of their 
Master, the happiness in being 'conscious of performing faithfully 
their duty, and gaining the crown that awaited the faithful serv- 
ant at the end of a useful life. 

July 25th, 1882, was the first anniversary of Bishop McMullen's 
consecration. He deemed that in no better manner could he com- 
memorate the occasion than by holding a Diocesan Synod. He, 
therefore, sent a letter to the priests of the Diocese, calling 
them to Davenport, for the purpose of making a spiritual retreat, 


and stating that at the end of it the. first Diocesan Synod 
would be held. Fifty-five priests were brought together at their 
Bishop's wish, and entered into the retreat given by a Jesuit 
Father of Chicago. At its close the Bishop spoke kind words 
of encouragement to his clergy. He said, he felt assured that as 
now they had become strengthened with the spirit of grace, they 
would prosecute their labors with increased vigor, and that he 
and they would be a unit in all that could further the advance- 
ment of the Church in the Diocese and their respective Missions. 
He asked their co-operation and advice so that they unitedly may 
promote the worship of God amid the dangers of this corrupt age 
and preserve faith and morals pure and holy as they come from 
the fountain head. He exhorted them to be holy in, conduct, 
zealous in good works, and men of interior life, worthy of the 
sacerdotal dignity with which they were honored. 

The first Diocesan Synod was held after the retreat. The de- 
crees of the National Councils of Baltimore and the Provincial 
Councils of the Archdiocese of St. Louis were accepted. As they 
ruled the action of all laws governing that part of the Diocese 
of Dubuque before the erection of the Davenport See, they were 
to continue in vigor. The priests to be members of the Bishop's 
Council were named and the jucftces causarum, were inducted into 
office. Then all the priests at the Synod made a public pro- 
fession of faith in the teachings of Holy Church, and re- 
newed their pledges of obedience to their Bishop. "It was," 
Bishop McMullen remarked afterwards to a priest of the Arch- 
diocese of Chicago, " one of the happiest moments of my life." 

Before the priests dispersed to their different Missions, they 
called in a body upon Bishop McMullen at his residence. They 
formed a circle on the shady lawn and the Bishop came out to 
greet them ; as soon as he was well within the circle, there came 
a fine horse and phaeton up the driveway, which was stopped 
when it neared the assemblage. Then the Rev. P. B. Mc- 
Menomy, of Council Bluffs, called the attention of the Bishop to 
the innovation upon his social circle, and with words expres- 


sive of the reverence of the clergy for their Bishop, their appre- 
ciation of his labors among them during the brief term which 
had elapsed since he became the head of this new Diocese, the 
value of his services to the Church, no less than the affection, his 
kindness had created in their hearts, asked him to accept the 
horse and phaeton as the gift of his clergy. Bishop McMullen 
did accept it in the spirit in which it was tendered, and his 
brief and feeling response moved all. The fact is, that it was 
the intention of the clergy to present Bishop McMullen with a 
team and beautiful carriage, but when the matter was broached 
to him, he said he would not have it because he did not need 
it, and the parties knew he meant what he said ; they knew, 
however, he could not well reject a compromise, and Friday's 
presentation was made as the compromise and surprise. 

Bishop McMullen soon after addressed the following, his first 
Pastoral Letter, to the clergy of his Diocese : 

"Rev. Dear Sir: As the time for complying with the condi- 
tions of the Jubilee expires at the end of the current year, I avail 
myself of the opportunity to request your Keverence to read the 
Apostolic letter with the instruction adjoined to your people, and 
make such further explanations as your judgment may suggest. 
You will, no doubt, find it satisfactory to be authoritatively in. 
formed regarding the boundaries of the Diocese of Davenport, as 
set forth in the Apostolic Brief of erection. The Diocese is bounded 
on the East by the Mississippi river, on the West by the Missouri 
river, on the South by the State of Missouri and on the North by 
the northern bounds of the counties of Harrison, Shelby, Audu- 
bon, Guthrie, Dallas, Polk, Jasper, Poweshiek, Iowa, Johnson, 
Cedar and Scott. It is my wish that the faculties and privileges 
possessed by the clergy from the esteemed Bishop of Dubuque 
and his venerable predecessors, remain for the present unchanged, 
except in one particular : that application be made to the Ordinary 
for dispensations in matrimoniis mixtis. The Cathedraticum, 
which I have been informed was estimated at five per cent, on the 
gross income of the pastor, may continue to be regulated by the 


same standard and forwarded to the Bishop at the usual time. 
I have found it necessary to receive several students for the Dio- 
cese and judge it advisable to add to their number, and as it has 
been usual that the Christmas and Easter collections be applied 
to the purpose of aiding in the education of ecclesiastical students, 
your Reverence will readily perceive the propriety of instructing 
the Faithful, regarding the necessity of contributing more liberally 
in this regard, as the bounds of their Diocese have been restricted. 
In order that the transfer of title, by which the property of the 
Diocese is held, may properly and thoroughly be effected, your 
Keverence will please send me the deed or deeds of all the Church 
real estate in your parish, and if you have not got the same, go 
to the Recorder's office and have the Recorder make a certificate, 
giving the following facts in regard to each conveyance, viz : 1, 
The names of the grantors and grantee ; 2, The dates of making 
and filing the instrument ; 3, The book and page where recorded ; 
2, Description of the land conveyed. You can aid the Recorder 
by giving him the number of section or lot and block in which 
the land is situated. If no deed has been placed on record, you 
will give the reasons why not, and how possession of the land 
occupied by the Church was acquired and give as complete a 
description of the land as you possibly can ; state every particular 
of which you have any knowledge in regard to the title of the 
land. Finally, Rev. Dear Sir, I would say that I feel my life 
renewed, coming among a body of clergy who have done so much 
and are still doing so much to advance religion and save im- 
mortal souls. On every side I see co-laborers of our dear Lord, 
expressing by their works more than by words dum tempus 
habemus operemur bonum. Sent among such a clergy by the choice 
and command of the Great Vicar of Christ, and being assured of 
the assistance of their daily prayers in the Holy Sacrifice, I may 
well hope to be able to discharge my sacred duties in a manner 
pleasing to the great Bishop of souls. I remain, Rev. Dear Sir, 
" Yours faithfully in Christ, 


" Bishop of Davenport." 







The first time that Bishop McMulleu gave any intimation that 
his iron constitution was subject to the universal inheritance of 
sickness and death, was in a letter, dated January 24, 1882 : " I 
find," he wrote, "that I have no longer the vigor of other days. 
At times I feel that my earthly pilgrimage is coming to a close j 
I cannot stand the cold weather and this winter has been very 
severe on me. I realise now that the flesh is weak caro est in- 
firma. Well, the Lord's will be done. I hope you will remember 
me during the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass and pray that I may 
bear patiently whatever comes in the way of bodily infirmities 
and accept all with sincere resignation." 

When he left Chicago for the See of Davenport, his friends did 
not notice that an insidious malady was lurking within his power- 
ful frame. Apart from the accident in his youth, the temporary ail- 
ment of his eyes and other " light matters," he often said that he 
was " never seriously sick for twenty-four hours in his life." The 
first Visitation of his Diocese, undertaken in the Fall of 1881, 
overtaxed his strength and served to develop a disease which 
soon called into action the best medical skill. In making this 
Visitation, which was most minute, he forgot entirely his own 
comfort; nor did the inclemency of the weather and the difficult 


modes of travel in many districts ever prevent him from filling 
his appointments. One day he arrived late for the train at a 
station, and he was informed that the only means by which 
he could reach his destination was on a hand-car. "Hand- 
car?" he replied, "why it will not be the first time that 
I have traveled that way in going to or from some mission, 
and besides, I worked my way." When remonstrated with for 
doing so, thus exposing himself to excessive fatigue and danger, 
he would smilingly say : " My dear Father, I could not afford to 
break my word and disappoint you and your people, and 
I know no fear while in the performance of my duty." 

On his return from this Visitation he appeared greatly ex- 
hausted and his indisposition soon became so aggravated as 
to cause great alarm to all and especially those who 
were deeply interested in his care. He was earnestly advised 
to desist from any further Visitation until his health 
should be restored and above all not to go anywhere 
during the coming winter and spring. He listened to this 
advice and promptly admitted that it was a duty to pre- 
serve his health for future good. "It matters a great deal/' 
he said to a friend during this winter, " that we should un- 
derstand our worth in this life. When we do so, we look after 
ourselves with more interest, not that we will be greatly missed 
when we die, but, that while we are here, we may remain in such 
condition that we can perform easily all our obligations." He 
wrote to a priest of the Archdiocese of Chicago : " I have had to 
give into the will of superior wisdom and keep a strict watch over 
my health. I am doing so, but I find it very hard to live quietly, 
and so much depending on me." As soon as he thought that he 
could safely continue his work of Visitation, he commenced to lay 
out his plans and designate the Missions he would visit. His 
physician, however, made many objections and told the Bishop 
that he should drop all cares of office and take a longer rest. 
"Rest?" replied Bishop McMullen, "rest is killing me. I have 
not finished the Visitation of my entire Diocese, I must do so, and 


then I will rest." His determination to accomplish this duty 
overcame every anxiety about himself. On April 28, 1882, he 
set forth on this his first and last official trip through the 
remainder of the Diocese, and afterwards said that he suffered 
a great deal during this time. He seemed to exert him- 
self more than ever; his indomitable will added greater power 
to all his efforts, and though to all appearances symptoms of 
physical decline were manifest, still there was a spirited con- 
fidence that asserted itself, and deceived many keen observers 
as to the true condition of his health. The zealous Bishop 
never relaxed the practice when visiting any Mission of going into 
the Confessional and remaining while there was a penitent in need 
of his help. He also took a special delight in going among 
the children assembled in the school-room or Church, asking 
questions in Christian doctrine and instructing those who were 
preparing for First Communion and- Confirmation. 

During this Visitation he failed one evening to make connec- 
tions at a railroad junction, and he was compelled to put up at 
the only boarding house in the place where the accommodations 
were poor, but the best the people could afford. For obvious 
reasons he could get no sleep ; so finally he went out into the 
open air and walked around until tired out, he sat on a bowlder 
in a field the balance of the night. In going another time be- 
tween distant Missions, in an open vehicle, he was caught in a 
storm, and for several hours was exposed to a cold piercing wind 
and rain that caused him great suffering. Such and other hard- 
ships served to aggravate his condition, yet he bore up cheerfully 
and though his priests would make many remonstrances at the 
risks he was subjecting himself to, he would accept them with a 
total disregard for himself, saying : " 1 must do the will of my 
heavenly Father." Not until he returned to his home in Daven- 
port, did his life-long courage seem to desert him. " I fear," he 
said to Father Cosgrove, " that I will never go over the ground 
again my time is coming." These words cut deeply into the 
heart of his faithful Vicar-General, who gently reproved any such 


thoughts, saying that there were many years of usefullness in. 
store for the Bishop. 

By the advice of his physician and request of friends Bishop 
McMullen was induced to consider the necessity of taking a voy- 
age to Europe, or if unable to undergo so long a journey, to at 
least spend some time at the sea-shore, where he might recruit his 
health. The Bishop at length submitted to their persuasions when 
it was represented to him that in making the trip, he could have 
in view a visit to Rome, and fulfil the obligation of a pilgrimage 
to the Holy See. "lam willing to go," he said to Father Cos- 
grove, " but I have no funds on hand requisite for such a voyage, 
arid I do not wish to borrow money for such a purpose." 
" Never mind Bishop," said Father Cosgrove, " the means will be 
provided for you to defray all expenses." 

As soon as the Bishop was ready to start on his trip a commit- 
tee of the priests of the Diocese waited on him and presented him 
with a purse containing two thousand dollars. " Take this purse 
dearly beloved Bishop," they said "let the contents enable you to 
regain what you have lost in the service of God and the Church, 
it is but a slight token of the deep love your priests have for you, 
and they one and all will pray that you may return to them in 
the full vigor of health, to dwell with them for many years to 
come." This unexpected act of generosity on the part of his 
priests so deeply moved the Bishop, that he could not find words 
to express his gratitude, but his pale face lit up, while unbidden 
tears coursed down his cheeks, saying more than voice could 
utter it was the silent eloquence of a thankful heart. 

Accompanied by his old time friend, Father Roles, Bishop Mc- 
Mullen. took his departure for New York by easy stages. He had, 
however, his misgivings as to the beneficial results. When the 
priests and attendants of his household bade him farewell, a 
pleasant journey, and a safe return, he replied, " Yes, I will return, 
and that soon ; my jaunt will not be very long." 

He stopped at Joliet, 111., where he assisted at the dedication of 
St. Mary's Church, August 15th, 1882, Rev. Maurice F. Burke, 


pastor, afterwards Bishop of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory. He 
preached an eloquent sermon on the occasion, and it was the last 
time his voice was heard in a church in the Archdiocese of Chi- 
cago. His changed appearance on that day startled his friends, 
who had assembled to greet him, and it was the sad, silent under- 
standing in every mind that Bishop McMullen's days were num- 
bered. On his arrival in New York the physicians whom he 
consulted declared it impossible for him to make the ocean trip, 
but that rest and the sea air might restore some of his lost 
strength and prolong his life. Everything was done to bring this 
about, but it seemed that he could find no rest ; his mind was al- 
ways running back to the priests and people of his Diocese. Often 
he would recount many incidents which occurred during his Visi- 
tations, and spread forth his plans for the future, as he would sit, 
surrounded by loving friends, at a stopping-place by the seaside. 
His health was somewhat improved by this change, and feeling 
himself, as he said, " considerably invigorated and homesick," 
and as his European trip had to be given up, he decided to 
return to Davenport. One day he went alone to New York City, 
leaving his friends unaware as to where he was going. Return- 
ing in the afternoon he said to Father Roles, "I am going 
back to Davenport in the morning ; " " What ! " exclaimed 
Father Roles, " not yet ? " " Yes," replied the Bishop, " I have just 
got enough money left to pay my way back." " How is that ? " 
asked Father Roles, "where are the two thousand dollars?" 
" Well, answered Bishop McMullen, " I sent the amount to the 
Holy Father, he needs it more than I do, let us go home." 

The autumn and early winter of 1882, told heavily on his en- 
feebled constitution, and his weakening condition became so pro- 
nounced that his physicians ordered him to leave without delay for 
some milder climate. He, however, entreated them to allow him to 
spend Christmas at home, " probably my last," which request they 
reluctantly granted, but as soon as Christmas had gone by they 
urged his instant departure to Les Vegas, New Mexico, or Los 
Angeles, California. After his arrival at Los Angeles he was so 


dangerously prostrated by the change of climate, that he was 
taken to San Francisco where for a few weeks he remained under 
the charge of the Sisters of Mercy in their Hospital and Mercy 
House. The Most Rev. Archbishop Alemany visited Bishop Mc- 
Mullen at the Hospital, and manifested a deep interest in the 
Bishop's condition and recovery. 

Bishop Mora of Los Angeles, at this time wrote to the Very Rev. 
Father Cosgrove, that Bishop McMullen had but a few weeks to live. 
The Bishop, however, received such excellent care at the hands of 
the good Sisters that he rallied from his debilitated condition, and 
determined immediately to leave the Pacific coast for his Diocese. 
The news of his hopeless case had already preceded him and the 
sad intelligence was received everywhere with the deepest sorrow. 
On March 7th, 1883, Bishop McMullen arrived in Davenport: "I 
am glad that I am home again," he exclaimed, as he was brought 
to his residence on the hill. 

When he had taken a necessary rest after his long journey he 
had a report made to him by his Vicar-General, on the state of 
the Diocese which proved to be highly satisfactory. He now 
sent for his attending physician, Dr. Peek, who, at the instance of 
the Bishop, made a candid statement of his condition, giving no 
hope of any betterment. The doctor told him many months 
previous to this time that his disease was incurable, that it 
was cancer of the stomach and fatty degeneration of the 
liver. " Well, doctor," said the Bishop, " I am ready, my books 
are balanced, I am ready for the journey; I know I cannot 
get well and my time will now be devoted to preparation in 
order to worthily meet my Heavenly Father. I am outside and 
beyond life ; it is all in the past ; I will wait patiently for the 
good Lord to take me." Bishop McMullen's courage was not 
impaired in the least on hearing that his case was hopeless ; 
his mind was made up to the inevitable, and a calm spirit of 
resignation ruled all his actions. If there was at any time an ex- 
pression of repining or unwillingness to submit to " a superfluous 
treatment," as he termed the kind attentions of those around him 


it arose from his conviction that it was unnecessary, and that 
he was now " only a burden and in the way." 

To inquiring friends, during the months of March, April and May 
of 1883, the answer invariably was, "the Bishop is no better." 
When the priests of his Diocese would visit him and speak to 
him words of comfort, he would say, " I am deeply grateful 
for your kindness, but I must go, I cannot live ; I am a 
bodily wreck ; see what is left of me wasted to a skeleton, I am 
of no use; my place ought to be filled. My Father in Heaven 
has been too good to me. I desire, with St. Paul, to leave and 
be with Christ. He would then lift up his eyes to Heaven and 
repeat the words of the Psalmist ' In Thee, Lord, have I 
hoped.' Remember me in } 7 our prayers after I am gone, so- 
good-bye," and his pale, emaciated features would become en- 
. livened, while he would give them his blessing, and his eyes 
follow them as they left his presence. The days dragged slowly 

The Davenport papers published occasionally, bulletins to 
the effect, that : " May 12, 1883: It is with feelings of deep regret 
and most sincere sorrow that we must divulge to our readers the 
fact that the Right Rev. Bishop McMullen is failing rapidly, with 
no hopes of his recovery. This sad intelligence will be received 
by the priests and people of his Diocese, and by a large number of 
personal clerical friends in different States with sincere sorrow." 
"In St. Marguerite's Church, May 21, 1883, the Very Rev. 
Father Cosgrove, V. G., announced that Bishop McMullen was 
failing continually, and asked the prayers of the people for him." 
"June 1, 1883: Right Rev. Bishop O'Connor of Omaha, honored 
the city with his presence Monday. He was here to visit his 
dearly beloved brother in Christ, Right Rev. Bishop McMullen, 
who is growing weaker every hour." 

Having projected great improvements to be made in the Dio- 
cese, often while sitting on the lawn before his residence in his en- 
feebled state, wasting away, he was seen with a far off look to- 
wards the West his spirit wandering out to his priests and 


people. At these and other times when roused by some remark, 
incident or reference made to the vast interests of his Diocese, he 
would, with an appearance of regret, exclaim, " If I only had ten 
years more, what would I not do, with God's help, for my people. 
But as it is the will of God, I am ready to leave all earthly am- 
bitions aside." 

The warm weather in the month of June made an unexpected 
improvement in Bishop McMullen's health. His friends were 
elated at this, and for the 'purpose of increasing the favorable 
change in his condition, with loving solicitude, that no means 
should be left untried, hoping against hope, to prolong a life so 
precious, they urged him to make a brief visit to Chicago. Yield- 
ing to their urgent entreaties, he said to Father Cosgrove before 
his departure : " If I see that I am getting worse in Chicago, I 
shall return to Davenport as soon as possible. I do not want to 
die there, but here among my people." He left Davenport on 
the night of the 15th of June, and stopped with his brother, 
James McMullen. His friends in Chicago vied with each other 
in showing him every care that was in their power, but he derived 
no benefit^' he said, " from this ramble." On Thursday evening, 
June 21st, he was brought back to Davenport in a very feeble 

A chapel had been arranged in a spacious room across the hall 
from his bed-room. Every morning he would celebrate Mass 
until he could no longer stand at the altar, even with the assist- 
ance of others, he then caused himself to be carried into the 
chapel on a lounge when he would assist at the Holy Sacrifice and 
receive Communion with a fervor that was most edifying to the 
members of his household, who, he desired, should be with 
him at this solemn hour of prayer. When Bishops and priests 
visited him during these, his last days on earth, none left him 
without showing strong emotion ; noticing their tears he would 
exclaim: "Well, well, what is the matter? Hodie mihi, eras 
tibi ! I to-day, Thou to-morrow ! " He never failed to exhort 
all who had the privilege of drawing near him at this time, 


" to live to God, to be faithful to the last." On the morning of 
the 29th of June, the feast of the Apostles, Saints Peter and Paul, 
he was brought into the chapel to hear Mass, and summoning 
Father Cosgrove to his side, he expressed a desire to receive 
absolution. Father Cosgrove told the attendants to leave for a 
few moments, when the Bishop said : " Never mind, you need 
not go, I have nothing to conceal, I am willing all should 
hear." He now made a will. His temporal possessions amounted 
to little else than his library and Episcopal robes; the 
first he gave to the Diocese, the latter he ordered to be dis- 
tributed among his friends or left to his successor ; then asking 
for a pen he signed a check ordering all the money to his 
credit in the bank, $117, to be paid to the Very Rev. Father Cos- 
grove ; there was not enough for his funeral expenses. In hand- 
ing the order to his Vicar -General he said: "My mind is free; 
thank God I die poor. It is my express command that the cost 
of my coffin shall not exceed one hundred dollars." The Bishop 
also placed a paper in an envelope which he sealed, requesting 
that it be not opened until after his death. The paper, as it was 
found, contained instructions, underlined, as to the disposition of 
his body. " In case of my death, I desire to be buried in Davenport." 
During these his last days, he frequently expressed his gratitude 
to God for giving him an opportunity to say, that he had never 
wilfully or knowingly wronged anyone, that whatever he did was 
for the greater glory of God for the good of others and welfare of his 
own soul. A touching scene occurred at the commencement exer- 
cises of the Academy of the Immaculate Conception, June 22, 
1883, the day after the Bishop's arrival from Chicago. At the 
closing of the exercises Father Cosgrove stated to the Sisters, 
pupils and large audience, that he had been commissioned 
by Bishop McMullen, who was fast approaching his end, and 
who said that he would never see them again on earth, to 
express his devoted love for them all and to give them his 
blessing. The large assemblage of people knelt on hearing 
this, and Father Cosgrove with trembling voice, pronounced the 


Bishop's last blessing. The eyes of all were bathed in tears dur- 
ing the solemn scene, and fervent prayers were uttered from every 
heart for their beloved' Bishop. 

The following announcements appeared in the Davenport 
newspapers and were flashed over the wires to friends far away : 
" June 28, Bishop McMullen is failing rapidly growing weaker 
every hour." "July 1, Right Rev. Bishop McMullen's condition 
is apparently about the same ; there being no visible change to 
his friends." " July 2, Bishop McMullen was reported dying at 
midnight. He rallied slightly this morning." "July 3, Bishop 
McMullen will not live many hours. The constant watchers at 
his bedside during his last hours are his Vicar-General, Father 
Cosgrove, the venerable Father Trevis and the Bishop's nieces, 
Misses Catharine McLaughlin and Mary Doyle." 

Towards midnight, July 3, the Bishop became very animated 
and seemed to get quite strong. He conversed with his attend- 
ants in a clear voice, speaking of the mercies of God, and of the 
unspeakable happiness which the soul enjoys in the Divine 
Presence, in words so vivid, that he appeared to have had a vision 
of Heaven. His filial devotion to the Blessed Virgin and his 
absolute confidence in her powerful intercession plainly appeared 
in the short fervent prayer which he now uttered it afterwards 
was recalled to memory by one of his attendants : " O Queen of 
Heaven, Mother of Grace and of Mercy, my beloved Mother, thou 
who hast done so much for me in life, whenever I had recourse 
to Thee, I beseech Thee now at the hour of my death to come 
and assist me to die worthily." 

The circumstances attending his death were peculiar. It 
was noticed on Tuesday morning, July 2nd that a de- 
cided change for the worse had taken place a sinking, 
as it were, of all his physical strength ; the while his 
mind remained clear, he asked questions and answered 
them as lucidly and distinctly as ever. His physical 
powers failed through the day. At half past six in the 
evening Father Schulte entered the room with the Vicar-General, 


Father Cosgrove, who had been to Marengo, at the Bishop's re- 
quest, to attend to some ecclesiastical matters, and hastened 
to the house on his return ; the Bishop gave him a cheery greet- 
ing, and said : " How did you find that business out there ? " 
The Vicar-General replied that it had all been arranged satisfac- 
torily, and the Bishop answered : " that's right, and I hope 
they are happy." The Bishop then asked, "when did you see 
Dr. Peck ? I would like to see him so much ; all that could 
possibly be done for a patient he has done for me from the first, 
and I would like to see him to thank him." He was told that 
the doctor had been called to Delaware county to attend to a 
critical case, and he answered, " I must be content then, but I 
should dearly like to see him." Father Cosgrove saw, though, 
that a great change had taken place. He went to his own home, 
and about 9 o'clock at night returned to the bedside of the 
Bishop, who asked him questions as to Diocesan matters which 
he said he had forgotten before. Father Cosgrove was suffering 
from a severe headache, and again returned to his home. At 
midnight the Bishop sent for him, and asked that the Sacrament 
of Extreme Unction be administered. The wish was complied 
with, then the Bishop said: "You had .better go home, Father, 
and take a long rest for you must be tired. Good-bye ! good- 
bye! ! " Father Cosgrove had reached the door, when the Bishop 
called him back and said : " I think I am going to die to-night! 
Don't you think so ? " I hardly think, Bishop you can survive 
much longer," was the reply. " That is so," said the Bishop. " I 
feel that I am sinking rapidly. I have not many hours to 
live." He then bade his beloved Vicar-General an affectionate 

As the morning hours advanced, the Bishop said to his attend- 
ants : " Go and rest for a while, you are all so tired that I feel for 
you." They were moved to tears at this expression of anxiety for 
them, seeing that he forgot all about himself and thought only 
of their comfort, his ruling spirit asserted itself in the presence 


of death. They continued to remain, kneeling around his bed- 
side, silently praying. Meanwhile the venerable Father Trevis 
noticing with his experienced eye that life's hold was fast becom- 
ing relaxed, commenced to recite the prayers of the dying, in 
which the Bishop slowly joined in a voice a little above a whisper. 
At last it was 4 o'clock Wednesday morning -just as Bishop 
McMullen was dropping into an apparently peaceful sleep, Father 
Trevis softly uttered in measured tones: "In Thee, Lord, have 
I hoped, into Thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit ; " these 
words the Bishop silently repeated, his lips scarcely moving, 
when gradually he sank into a quiet sleep it was the long sleep 
of death. Such was the beautiful death of this servant of God, 
such was the death he prayed for, and his prayer was heard. 
A beautiful life had rounded to a close ; the lips, accustomed to 
praise God, to teach and exhort men to walk in the ways of God, 
were motionless, the hands lay open and extended giving, as it 
were, still giving ; a solemn silence reigned throughout the Bishops 
house on the hill, only broken by the sobs of those who re- 
mained kneeling around the bed of death after the soul had 
taken flight to its heavenly home. 

The sun burst forth gloriously beyond the eastern bluffs on 
that July morning, and the waters of the great river, glittering 
in the sunlight, placidly flowed on ; the flowers Bishop McMullen 
loved so much, bloomed in all their loveliness and the birds 
sang joyously among the trees on the lawn ; the boom of cannon 
at the United States Arsenal on the Island sent forth the glad 
tidings of another recurrence of Independence day, but the 
solemn toll of the Cathedral bell, taken up by those of all the 
Churches of Davenport, spread the news quickly that Bishop 
McMulien was dead. The Catholic people from all parts of the 
city hastened up the hill to verify the fact, which was no sooner, 
confirmed than they went sorrowfully into the Cathedral to pray 
for their good Bishop's departed soul. The most poignant grief 
was manifested by all the citizens of Davenport on hearing that 
Bishop McMullen was no more ; his unostentatious bearing, his 


genial manner, his purity of character and exalted purposes in 
life had endeared him to everyone who had in any way come in 
contact with him; therefore his death was considered a great 
bereavement, and the sorrow at the loss of such a noble Christian 
man was as sincere, as it was universal. The body was em- 
balmed and clad in cassock, surplice and stole, it was kept 
from public gaze, until transferred on the following morning, 
Thursday, July 5, to St. Marguerite's Cathedral, where attired in 
pontifical robes, it lay in state, and was visited by thousands of 
people who went to take a farewell look of all that was mortal of 
their beloved Bishop and friend. 



" That the noble and good Bishop McMullen had not lived in 
vain, that he had won the hearts of men, that his life had been 
one of holy purpose, that he had been a son of the Church, who 
had been found worthy of the high office in which she placed 
him and who had done his duty to her, and that the Church and 
people were cast into deep sorrow over his death, was evidenced at 
the obsequies in St. Marguerite's Cathedral, on Friday, July 6, 
where were gathered a large assemblage of the clergy of the 
Church, and a vast number of men, women and children who 
filled the Cathedral to overflowing, or stood in solid masses on the 


ground beneath the windows and in the street. In the multitude 
were clergy of Protestant denominations who reverenced the de- 
parted Bishop, representative business and professional men of 
Davenport, Chicago and other cities in Illinois, while numer- 
ous Catholics came from near and distant parishes in the Diocese. 

" The Cathedral's great altar, its sanctuary, and the side altars, 
its columns and arches, its window recesses and the galleries were 
draped in graceful folds of black. The mortal remains of the 
sainted Prelate, clad in pontifical robes, rested in a casket sup- 
ported by a catafalque, which stood before the altar railing at the 
entrance to the sanctuary, and on either side were lighted candles, 
while here and there along the sanctuary rails were beautiful 
floral emblems of faith, love, mercy, charity, hope and victory." 

The late Bishops relatives and immediate friends filled the 
front pews on either side of the main aisle, and behind them 
were ranged representatives of the different religious orders of 
Sisters in the Diocese, while seated in the open space before the 
sanctuary rails, around the catafalque it seemed as a body-guard 
were surpliced priests. In the sanctuary were the Archbishop, 
the Bishops and the priests, who assisted in the celebration of the 
Divine offices. It was touching to see grief depicted on every 
face ; all seemed to have lost a father, a benefactor and a friend. 

At the appointed hour, 9.30 A. M., the kneeling of priests in 
the sanctuary gave the multitude notice that the Office of the 
Dead was to commence, and amid the most impressive silence a 
clear voice, rich and full in music, fairly thrilled the congregation 
with the opening invitation, " Venite exultemus Domino, jubile- 
mus Deo salutari nostro, Come let us praise the Lord with joy; 
let us joyfully sing to God our Father." It was the voice of the Very 
Rev. Dean Butler, of Rockford, who had assisted at the consecra- 
tion of his Propaganda College classmate, and read the Pope's brief 
on that occasion. He was here now, afflicted in soul, to take part 
in the obsequies of his long-time friend. At 10 o'clock Archbishop 
Feehan of Chicago, Bishop Ryan, of St. Louis, Bishop Spalding, 
of Peoria, Bishop Hennessey, of Dubuque, and Bishop O'Connor, 


of Omaha, entered the sanctuary for the celebration of the Solemn 
Pontifical Requiem Mass. The Bishops wore vestments of mourn- 
ing, and their countenances indicated deep sorrow, for Bishop 
McMullen was from among them and they all knew the worth 
of him, of whom all that was earthly now lay befor.e them. 

At the Mass the celebrant was Most Rev. Archbishop Feehan, 
with Assistant priest, Rev. J. P. Roles, of Chicago ; Deacon, Rev. 
P. W. Riordan, St. James 7 , Chicago; Sub-deacon, Rev. J. W. 
Smyth, of Iowa City ; Master of Ceremonies, Rev. D. J. Riordan, of 
Chicago ; Chanters, Rev. T. J. Butler, D. D., of Rockford, and 
Rev. P. J. Butler, of Chicago. The solemn service was carried out 
with the profoundest manifestations of grief and respect. The 
Archbishop was deeply moved. The time had been brief 
since he had consecrated Bishop McMullen, and wished him 
a long life and prosperity ; here he was called on to officiate at 
the Mass of Requiem and read the prayers for the Dead over 
the remains of his friend. Immediately after the conclusion of 
the Holy Sacrifice, Bishop Spalding ascended the pulpit and 
preached the funeral sermon an eloquent tribute to the memory 
of the deceased Prelate. 

The text was from II. Kings Ch. xiv : " We are dying and sinking 
into the grave, like the waters which flow into the earth, and return no 
more." "Most Reverend, Rt. Reverend, and Reverend Fathers: 
Death is God's promise of life. It is in the world to prepare the 
way for a more abundant and higher life. On the grave of the 
child youth blooms, and then fades, that manhood in full 
strength may hold out its ripe fruit to nourish other life. And 
when this work is done, the grave opens, not to swallow 
up what cannot die, but to make a straight way to God 
where life is infinite, eternal, all -conquering, all-pervading. 
Hence those who have great faith, or hope, or love, or all 
of these, which are the avenues that lead up to God, are 
busy with life and are not troubled by the thought or gloom of 
death. God is in the world. All is well. Whether we wake or 
sleep, or live or die, we have our being in Him who can neither 


do nor suffer wrong. When the soul is stirred up to its full depth, 
it laughs at death. On the battlefield where the life of one's 
country throbs, what cares a true man for the cannon's hot 
and murderous breath? Or can the grim monster frighten the 
mother when her child is in peril? And when we have lost- 
the one we love, is there in the wide world ought so beautiful 
as death ? See how the martyr yearns for it, like a despairing 
man who has no hope, except through it, of reaching to the very 
heart of God. Think of St. Paul, who amid heroic strivings and 
God-like endurings, seems to be looking in his high life-battle for 
the face of death, as a maiden watches for the coining of him she 
loves. Ah ! can it be that we who droop and are without hope in 
the presence of death are tile brothers of Jesus Christ, who has 
snatched from death his crown of victory? Life, life, life I 
spreading and overflowing ami superabounding, and death 
only that life may spring from it and be it its lord, for 
ever-more This is Jesus Christ. And the Christian Bishop 
and true man whose body lies here, would not have me speak as 
though he were dead. He lives ; he is closer to God than when 
he walked on earth. Is this evil, or is the company of men so 
delightful that I should envy him who is in the company of God ? 
most sincere, most honest man, I will not wrong thee by 
giving utterance here to one unreal sentiment. Thou hadst small 
faith in words, and now thy work is done, thou wouldst rest in 
peace. , While power remained thou didst neither utter, nor suffer 
others in thy presence to utter a regret that death wa.s at the 
door ; and now that he has entered, I will make no complaint. 
This is not the time or place to speak at length of the life and 
labors of Bishop McMullen, and I shall but mention a few facts 
in his career which, for the rest, are not unknown to you. He was 
born in Ireland in 1833, and came when yet a child with his 
parents to America. The family took a farm in Lower Canada ; 
moved thence to Ogdensburg, N. Y., and finally settled in Chicago 
in 1843. The following year young John McMullen entered the 
college of St. Mary of the Lake and was graduated at the age of 


twenty-one, in 1853. A few months later he started for Rome and 
began the study of theology in the Urban College. In 1858 he 
finished his course of studies, received the title of Doctor of 
Divinity, and was ordained priest. He at once returned to Chicago 
and was appointed pastor of St. Louis Church. He entered upon 
the work of the holy ministry with the energy and ardor of a 
strong and enthusiastic nature. His soul was aflame with, zeal, 
and his closely knit wiry frame was equal to any labor he im- 
posed upon himself. In the midst of pastoral duties and cares 
that seemed enough to absorb the whole thought and time of a 
man, he found opportunities to organize new missions and to 
build new churches. Sycamore, Lodi, De Kalb and other places 
in the Diocese of Chicago were the' scenes of this Apostolic zeal. 
At the end of three years, in 1861, Dr. McMullen was appointed 
President of the University of St. Mary of the Lake, and Rector 
of the new Seminary. He threw himself with boundless energy 
into this new field of labor. He taught, he wrote, he laid the 
foundation of a new university building and sought by every 
means to securely and permanently establish an institution, which, 
had it been sustained, might to-day be a beacon to the 
Catholics of the whole Northwest. Of all places the great city of 
Chicago was and is the point for such an institution. It is the 
heart of the west, the most enterprising, the most progressive, 
the most American of the great geographical divisions of our 
Republic ; and with its vast Catholic population it ought to 
have lifted up a torch for all of us. But, alas ! causes which here 
I cannot trace closed the doors of the university, and the Catholics 
of the Northwest have no center of intellectual light, but grope in 
the dark, or each hunts his way with tallow dip, as best he may. 
When the University was closed Dr. McMullen resumed his 
pastoral labors, and organized the parish, and built the Church of 
St. Paul in Chicago. He was engaged in this work when Diocesan 
troubles, which are now a matter of history, brought him into 
conflict with Bishop Duggan, whose mind had been weakened by 
long continued ill-health and who finally became insane. What- 


ever opinion may be held concerning this unfortunate affair, no 
one who knew Dr. McMullen can doubt that his action was 
prompted solely by a sense of duty. In consequence of these 
troubles he was sent to the village of Wilmington, 111., to take 
charge of the congregation there, and he remained at that post 
until 1870. Bishop Foley having been appointed Administrator of 
the Diocese of Chicago, he was recalled to the city and made rec- 
tor of the Cathedral of the Holy Name. He saw his church fall 
before the flames which swept away two-thirds of the city of Chi- 
cago, and a few days afterwards he went forth to collect means to 
build the new cathedral. In 1877 Bishop Foley made him his 
Vicar-General, and in 1879, when he saw death approach, he 
appointed Dr. McMullen Administrator of the Diocese. While he 
held this office he paid the Cathedral debt, built the parochial 
schools, organized new parishes, started new churches, and in every 
way proved himself an able Administrator. No one, therefore, 
was surprised when, upon the creation of the new Diocese of 
Davenport, he was appointed its first Bishop. Sincere regrets and 
heartfelt sympathy of the people of Chicago followed him to this 
new field, to which he was welcomed with genuine enthusiasm by 
priests and people. He at once set about his work, and in five 
months had visited almost every parish and mission in the 
Diocese, and confirmed more than six thousand people. He fell 
a victim to his energy. 

The zeal of the house of the Lord had devoured him, and he 
never rallied from the ill-health into which he sank in conse- 
quence of the hardships of these long journeyings and arduous 
labors. He felt the hand of death upon him, but, like a brave 
man, he was wil]ing to live that he might be of use, and so he 
fought disease with drugs and change of climate and whatever 
other means those who are well, suggest to the sick. He, how- 
ever, a man of sense in all things, had no immoderate desire for 
life, and as he saw his body surely decay, made no complaint, nor 
grew weak for a moment even, in mind or heart ; and so trusting 
in God ; believing in Jesus Christ and loving all men, his soul 


departed as consciousness leaves an infant that falls asleep. He is 
gone, like the waters that flow into the earth, he will return no 
more, and we who remain may pause by the way side and speak a 
word of him. The quality that first strikes me when I think of 
him is his strength : he was strong in mind, in heart, in body. 
Napoleon's face was not a worthier mask of an indomitable will 
than his. As you stood before him, the thought arose : here is 
a man, a very piece of nature, fixed and firm-set, as though infinite 
forces working through endless time had converged to stamp and 
mark him as with God's own hand. To be weak is to be wretched ! 
and when weak men have power, to be weak is to make others 
wretched. It was then good for him to be strong, and it was good 
for those who looked to him as to a father and guide. The strong 
can be just, the strong can be generous, the strong can show 
mercy. Akin to his strength was his perfect sincerity, his com- 
plete honesty. He lied to no man, flattered no man, sought no 
man's favor, knew no devious ways that lead to desirable ends, but 
walked bolt upright before God and man. In such a character, 
there is easily found a lack of flexibility, of open-raindedness, of 
sweet reasonableness, and, possibly, a certain narrowness is insepar- 
able from complete rectitude and straightforwardness. But what 
will you have? The perfect man does not exist, the mind 
grows at the expense of the body, and a great heart pushes 
reason aside. No man was ever freer than he from the idolatry 
of money, none ever sought less to propitiate the rich. " Blessed," 
says Holy writ, " is the man who has not gone after gold, nor put 
his hope in money and treasures. Where is he and we will 
praise him, for in his day he has done marvelous things." 
He is gone, my fathers and brothers ; these are but the mortal 
remains of such a man. When the news came that he had been 
appointed Bishop of Davenport, a friend asked him whether he 
had the means to buy his pontifical outfit. " I have, he replied, 
ten dollars in my pocket and this is all I have in the world ; " 
hut there are, he continued, some old things in the house that 
belonged to Bishop Foley and they can be fixed up so as to do 


nie. In the mouth of some men these words might be only a 
phrase, but on the lips of Bishop McMullen they are a mark of 
character. He loved the poor and the unhappy too much to have 
any love left for money. Bat last night a priest told me that he 
chanced one evening to be sitting quite late with Dr. McMullen in 
his room at the Cathedral of Chicago, when a little girl, barefooted 
and in rags entered. Her story was soon told ; her mother with her 
little children had been thrust into the street for nonpayment of 
rent and there seemed no hope that she could find a lodging for the 
night. Dr. McMullen said nothing, but stood up, put on his hat and 
followed the poor child, and as my informant afterwards learned, 
did not return until he had secured a room and placed the family 
in security. His life was full of such deeds of mercy done as 
quietly, as sweetly, as tenderly as a mother rocks her babe to 
sleep. Like all truly charitable men, he shrank from the revela- 
tion of his good deeds as a timid man might shrink from an 
insult. He worked in secret, as a great and holy purpose grows 
and gathers strength, in silence. A man of deeds and not of 
words, a real man, and not the form and figure of a man, was he. 
In his early life and as a young priest Dr. McMullen was fond of 
study and manifested no small literary talent, and had he per- 
severed, would doubtless have distinguished himself as a man 
of intellect. But in the midst of this bustling world of ours, with 
its noise, progresses, newspapers, buildings of cities and roads, and 
ten thousand Babel confusions that keep the soul in the ears and 
eyes, who can hold to the end, or long even to habits of serious 
study ? And how shall this be possible to the priest with his cares, 
preachings, buildings, debts, removals? And do we not all toward 
middle life lose hope and enthusiasm? Having attained to some- 
thing of what are called the goods of this world, as position, 
wealth and name, we turn away from the divine ideas that filled 
our young souls with boundless confidence and love. One man, 
we then say to ourselves, can do but little, why wear out life in 
fruitless labors? Men, like liquids, have their level and only 
God can raise them above themselves. But Dr. McMullen was so 


true and real a man that it was not necessary that he should al- 
ways remain a student, and if he ceased to study books, this com- 
pensation was reserved to him, that he did not read newspapers 
and so the sap that nourished his brain never became a watery 

Of Dr. McMullen's deep faith and sincere piety I need hardly 
speak, this was, indeed, the life-blood that nourished him, though 
of this, as of all that is deepest in his nature, as little as possible 
was permitted to appear. All seeming was loathsome to him. 
One night, when preaching on the Passion, he became so moved 
that for a time he was unable to proceed. A friend, who was sur- 
prised at this, because he thought nothing could to this degree 
affect so strong and self-contained a man, gave utterance to his 
thought. "I think," said Dr. McMullen in reply, "a man ought 
never to show emotion except when he speaks of the Passion of 
Christ." His submission to authority was without reserve and he 
would at any moment have accepted the smallest and obscurest 
mission, and lived and died there as contentedly as at the head of 
a Diocese. He did not love the world, nor the wordly side of the 
Church ; if his promotion to Davenport gave him any pleasure, it 
was only because it was a testimony to the rectitude and honesty 
of his life. But I must make an end ; too many words have I 
spoken of a life richer in act than in speech. I commend thee, 
then, strong, true-hearted, loving Christian Bishop, to God's 
mercy, and the keeping of the holy angels ! while the example of 
thy modest, upright and beneficent life shall remain to us and to 
the Church, to which, in the blossom of thy young years, thou 
didst dedicate thy heart and soul." 

At the conclusion of the sermon, which was heard by the vast 
audience in rapt attention and with open manifestations of grief, 
the solemn ceremony of the " Absolution of the body," before con- 
signing it to the tomb, was begun. Archbishop Feehan, Bishops 
O'Connor, of Omaha, Spalding, of Peoria, Hennessey, ofDubuque, 
and Ryan, of St. Louis, took part. When the last invocation was 
uttered " May his soul rest in peace " a deep sigh arose from 


the sorrowing hearts of the entire assemblage of clergy and peo- 
ple, and all felt that lonesomeness experienced in the loss of a 
friend and benefactor. Then followed the entombment of the 
body. The first casket was placed into another, made of solid 
oak, by the assistant lay Pall 'bearers, Messrs. John Lillis, C. D. 
Martin, Victor Huot, Daniel Ryan, Paul Deutsch, E. P. Conole, 
Edward Grace and J. P. Halligan. After this came the proces- 
sion to the place in the rear of the High Altar, from which the 
remains were lowered into a crypt which was constructed for that 
purpose. The Archbishop, Bishops and clergy assisted at this 
sad close of their melancholy duty of respectful tribute to their 
deceased friend and Bishop ; slowly and reverently the body was 
lowered into place, the chanters singing in the meanwhile the 
Benedictus. The opening to the vault was closed, and hermetic- 
ally sealed in the presence of the above witnesses, when they, 
with the people, sorrowfully withdrew from St. Marguerite's 
Cathedral and dispersed to their homes. 

The Solemn Requiem Service of the " Months Mind Mass " for 
the repose of the soul of the late Bishop McMullen was held 
August 4, 1883, in St. Marguerite's Cathedral. The mourning 
drapery on the altars and walls of the Church had remained 
since the day of Sepulture ; the catafalque was covered with deep 
folds of black cloth surrounded by lighted candles, and on it were 
laid the mitre, crosier and processional cross of the late Bishop. 

The service began at the Cathedral at 9:30 o'clock A. M., con- 
tinuing until 11. The Office of the Dead was recited by the 
priests in attendance, the chanters being Revs. P. Kern and I. 
Grieser. This was followed by a Solemn Requiem Mass, the 
following clergy officiating : Celebrant, Rev. A. Trevis ; Deacon, 
Very Rev. S. Lyons, O. S. B. ; Sub-deacon, Rev. M. Flavin ; Master 
of ceremonies, Rev. P. Smyth; Thurifer, Rev. J. Kernpker; 
Acolites, Revs. M. Fitzpatrick and W. Purcell. There were present 
in the sanctuary the Rt. Rev. J. Hogan, D. D., Bishop of Kansas 
City, Very Rev. H. Cosgrove, Administrator, and all the priests 
of the Diocese of Davenport, and many from neighboring Dioceses. 


Not long after this, a meeting of the priests of the Diocese was 
held, at which it was decided to erect a monument to the memory 
of Bishop McMullen in St. Marguerite's Cathedral. The subscrip- 
tion at the time covered the entire estimated cost and it was there- 
fore found possible to erect the beautiful Cenotaph which adorns 
the inside centre of the west wall of the Cathedral. It is built of 
white Italian marble, with pillars of red and green Tennessee 
granite, after the style of similar memorials in churches in Rome. 
The following inscription on a tablet of black Quincy marble gives 
a short expressive outline of the monument's purpose. 

111 . ac . Revdissimo . D . D . 

Johanni . McMullen . 

Natione . Hiberno . 

Collegii . Vrbani . Alvmno . 

Primo . Davenportvensis . Episcopo . 

Stvdiorvm . et . Zeli . 

Prsscipvo . Cultori . 

Qui . Hvmilitatis . Amator . 

Virtvte . Clarvs . Eei . Catholicss . 

Fortissimvs . Propvgnator . 
Divitias . Mvndiqve . Illecebras . 

NiMl . Esse . Dvcens . 
II . Episcopatvs . Ann6 . Nondvm . Elaps6 . 

Sacerdotii . XXV . Annis . Expletis . 
Di6 . IV . Ivlii . A . D . MDCCCXXX1II . 

.ZEtatis . Suas . LI . 
Svmmo . Cleri . Popvliqye . Mcerore . 


Pii . Sacerdotes . Hoc . Monvmentvm . 

Erigi . Cvrarimt . 

K. I .P. 


To the Eight Reverend John McMullen, D. D. Born in Ireland. Student of the Urban 
College. Pirst Bishop of Davenport. A zealous pr9inoter of the study of Sciences and 
Religion, who, a lover of humility, eminent in every virtue. A strong defender of: 
Catholic truth, caring nothing- for the riches and allurements of this world. In the II 
year of his Episcopate, and XXV of his ordination to the Priesthood. Aged 51 years. 
Died, mourned by Priests and people. His Priests caused this monument to be erected 
to his memory- RIP 




Vice Presided REV. J. McMULLEN, D. D. 

Secretary REV. J. P. ROLES. 




Professor of Metaphysics and Moral Philosopky. 

Professor of Latin. 

Director of Discipline and Professor of History. 


Professor of Greek. 

T. E. HOWARD, A. M., 

Professor of Rhetoric. 

Professor of French and Mztsic. 

Professor of Mathematics, N. Philosophy and Chemistry . 

C. J. BELEKE, LL. D., 
Professor of Hebrew, German and Spanish, 

Prof essor of Astronomy and Geography. 

Principal of the Commercial Course. 

P. FOOTE, A. M., 
Professor of Commercial Law. 



Professor of Surgery and Clinical Surgery. 

Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy. 

Professor of Principles and Practice of Medicine and Clinical Medicine. 

J. W. FREER, M. D., 
Professor of Physiology and Surgical Pathology. 


Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children. 


Professor ofMaleria Medica and Medical Jurisprudence. 

Professor of Anatomy. 


Demonstrator of Anatomy. 

Prosector to Professor of Anatomy, A. J. BAXTER, M. D 



Professor of Contracts, Personal Property, Seal Estate and Common Law. 

Professor of Equity and Jurisprudence. 


Professor of Criminal Law, Personal Rights and Domestic Relations. 

Professor of Common Law Pleadings, Evidences and Practice. 


Professor of Ecclesiastical History and Sacred Scriptures. 

Professor of Dogmatic Theology. 

REV. T. J. BUTLER, D. D., 

Professor of Moral Theology and Liturgy. 

Spiritual Director. 



One of the most touching and deeply interesting tributes to the 
character of the Right Rev. John McMullen, D. D., that has ap- 
peared, was published in the New York Freeman's Journal and 
was written by Eliza Allen Starr : 

" If we cannot measure the loss of this noble and devoted Pre- 
late to his young Diocese, of which he was the first Bishop, neither 
can we measure it to the Hierarchy of the United States or to the 
interest of the Church of our country. His career was one to be 
remembered for its singleness of purpose, its utter disregard of 
personal objects, and for an energy which," as Father Daniel Ri- 
ordan said in his sermon at the Golden Jubilee of St. Mary's 
parish, " was bounded only by the impossible." From the very 
first, the stamp of a lofty purpose was upon all his actions, and with 
this greatness of purpose a spirit of self-sacrifice, which made it a 
necessity to cast himself into the breach whenever it came. Amid 
all the trials, we may say, all the great sorrows of his career, it 
was no light thing for his Metropolitan, to say : " One thing is cer- 
tain, John McMullen is an honest man." At Rome where he was 
thoroughly known and understood, there was a cordiality, a real 
heartiness of regard for him, which sustained his great soul as 
nothing else could have done ; and at one time, at the instance of 
Cardinal Barnabo, faculties were given to him by the late Pope 
Pius IX., when in a letter to Chicago he wrote : " Thank God, I 
have not been deprived, for one moment, of my ecclesiastical fac- 
ulties." At this time, Rev. Dr. Butler, who had known him 
in Rome as a fellow-student, said : " John McMullen is the 
truest man that ever lived." The Pastor of the Holy Name, 
under Bishop Foley, and as his Vicar-General, and by the circum- 
stances of the great fire of 1871, became in a peculiar sense, 
the father of the people under his care. No one who did not ac- 


tually see him living in one corner of the shanty Cathedral the 
succeeding bitter winter, with only the loose boards of the floor 
between him and the ground until a friend laid a carpet under his 
feet, can appreciate the way in which he made himself one with 
his people ; nor understand the ties cemented, sanctified, absolute- 
ly glorified by suffering and privation, which united him to the 
people of the Holy Name parish, and have won for him the un- 
ceasing prayers and blessings of high and low, rich and poor, to 
this very hour. 

It was such a grief to lose him ; but when they said : " How 
well he deserves the mitre," and who that saw him on the 25th 
of July, 1881, can forget the solemn, almost transfigured grandeur 
of that face and figure, as he stepped from the sanctuary with 
mitre and crosier, to bless his people, who wept as they bowed to 
receive his Episcopal benediction. There were a few days given 
to old friends, to saying Mass in the different religious houses, 
visits to the dying penitents and then the harness was put on. 
His reception at Davenport at his Cathedral, St. Marguerite's, is 
one of the beautiful events which will go down in history. Its 
like has hardly been known, even as to numbers ; and as to cir- 
cumstance, the pouring forth of the inhabitants of a city, with- 
out regard to creed or nationality, to welcome the Bishop of this 
new Diocese. 

As was ever the case, the Bishop's elequence rose to the occa- 
sion. Never had he been more sublimely moved himself, and never 
did move or exalt others more utterly above the level of small 
considerations, of mortal interests and issues, than upon this 
memorable occasion. The harness laid on, it was never put off. 
There was the forming of all things anew, the crystalizing of all 
the elements of the great Diocesan power ; there were the interests 
of education, and above all, there was the establishing of religion 
in all hearts. Without delay he began his Visitations through 
the scattered stations, as well as towns and cities of his vast 
Diocese. Nor were these Visitations trips of pleasure ; very often, 
to reach some village of the railroad, he was obliged to take not 


only freight trains but hand cars, and then the long rides in the 
vehicles of the country to some farm house where he had been 
told there was a Catholic. When told there might be one Catho- 
lic there, he replied : ' If there is one, there are two, three a 
dozen ; and pressed on in rain and storm to this nested home of 
Catholic faith to find it as he had predicted. The vestments which 
had lain in a bureau drawer for years were brought forth; the 
log house became a chapel. A herald was sent to gather in the 
scattered sheep of the house of Israel. Those who "ought to 
be Catholics" were told the glad tidings of a visit from their 
Bishop, children were baptized, youths, maidens, adults even, 
prepared for confession and first communion, and then confirma- 
tion given, and the wilderness blossomed as the rosebush under 
the shower of divine grace, only to see the worn Bishop go on 
his way upon the same missionary labor. When one year had 
gone over the head of the first Bishop of Davenport, thirteen 
thousand souls had been confirmed by his hand. But, as if 
strength had gone out of him in order to strengthen the flock 
given to his care, a fatal prostration had seized upon him. A mys- 
terious disease which left him with his vigorous will, his wonder- 
ful clearness and strength of mind to the last, but baffled all skill. 
Once he consecrated the holy oils, and once only, but the great 
work of organization went on. A higher school for boys was estab- 
lished and there was not a nook in his Diocese upon which he 
could not lay his hand, nor a priest at any station, however dis- 
tant, to whom he could not give local advice, and all this went on 
to within a few days of his death. Old friends who went to see 
him at his home, " the hill," as he laconically named it, overlook- 
ing Rock Island and the Father of Waters for miles, found that 
tongue still eloquent and the heart still alive to all the claims of 
friendship, and the exalted will, still united unhesitatingly to "the 
will of the Heavenly Father;" that title which he loved of all 
others, to give to his God. For his Episcopal motto he had chosen 
those words from the Psalm: "In te Do mine speravi." And 
never was he untrue to his motto ; again and again he said : " I 


have never asked God to cure me;" and yet he had such great 
and noble works in hand, which were to be the crown of his 
life. His fiftieth birthday was celebrated by his devoted priests 
the 8th of March, after his consecration, and he lias now only a 
little passed his fifty-first year. The summing up of such a life 
is an epitome of the history of a generation, for he was essentially 
for his day and for his time with the intention of making that 
day and that time pass fruitfully and gloriously into another 
generation. We may say that his faith in prayer was one of his 
distinguished characteristics; he believed in prayer and in its 
efficacy. The little epigram which appeared in a book of poems 
almost twenty years ago was a literal putting into verse of his 
words of faith in prayer. 

" If men but knew, a wise priest gravely said, 
His Roman Doctor's cap upon his head, 
If men but knew what they had gained by prayer 
Apart from all their labor and their care, 
They would be tempted in a literal sense 
Always to pray: and with just toil dispense." 

The last sermon we heard from him was upon prayer ; and to 
what is contained in the close epigram, he added, he had learned 
by twenty years experience of its efficiency. Bishop Foley told 
us with his own lips and with tears in his eyes, that he had never 
known Dr. McMullen to have two coats, that he had often made 
some excuse to go to the Doctor's closet and wardrobe to see if 
there was a second suit to be found, but without success. When 
a second suit was provided a little before his consecration, he 
managed to lend it to a most deserving poor priest from a country 
district who was to present himself to his Archbishop, and then 
hurried him off to the cars, insisting that there was no time to 
make a change. While in the shanty Cathedral of the Holy 
Name, his beloved curate, Father Flannigan, declared if there 
were five cents left at the end of the week, the Doctor was sure 
to give it to the first child he met. The palms of those 
anointed hands shunned money like a Franciscan, and so far 


from being shut, were always open downward, so as to hold 
nothing. The pen-sketch of such a priest, of such a Bishop, 
however feebly done, is one to be laid up in the memory of all 
men as that of a priest and a Bishop truly apostolic. Scarcely 
more than one year a Bishop, he has given up his soul within the 
Octave of SS. Peter and Paul, whom he loved so well, whom he 
served so faithfully, whose spirit he drank in so abundantly at the 
fountain-head, and we who mourn for him must still join with 
him in the canticle of praise : " In te Domine, speravi," and we 
say in hope, in faith, Requieseat in pace. 

NOTE. In the picture at St. Agnes outside of the Walls commemorating 
the falling in of the floor with Pope Pius IX., his Cardinals and the students 
of the Propaganda, we see likenesses of Bishop McMullen, Rev. T. J. Butler, 
D. D. and Rev. James J. McGovern, D. D. 

E. A. S. 

Davenport, July 6th, 1883. \ 

Vested and mitred, crozier at his head, 
Our requiem stirs not the majestic dead. 
Sublime in life, in death the grandeur grows 
To silent rapture, statue-like repose, 
As if for centuries that form had lain 
Relieved of mortal weariness and pain. 

Ye mitred Prelates, let the absolving word 

In the deep hush around his bier be heard ; 

Asperyes; let the holy water fall 

In drops of comfort on his funeral pall, 

While incense still, in prayerful clouds, ascends 

For him, the just in God, the prince of friends. 

Sweet Cantors, make your best response, and far 

To heaven's empyrean send his Libera; 

O Priests, his brothers, let your voices swell 

His JSenedictus, for he loved you well; 

And hymn and canticle in one swift breath 

Sound, at his tomb, his triumph over death ! 



The following Memorial Tribute to the deceased Bishop^was read 
by William J. Onahan, LL. D., Corresponding Member of the 
Chicago Historical Society, at a meeting of the society, held Sept. 
18, 1883 : 



" The decease of the widely lamented Right Rev. John Mc- 
Mullen, D. D., Bishop of Davenport, Iowa, which occurred July 4, 
1S83, added another distinguished name to the lengthening roll 
of the necrology of the Chicago Historical Society. The sorrow 
shown by all classes of citizens, including members of every re- 
ligious denomination in the city of Davenport, on the occasion of 
the public obsequies, was a spontaneous and touching tribute to 
the elevated character and personal worth of the deceased Prelate. 

" During a comparatively brief administration, Bishop Mc- 
Mullen had so acquitted himself in his great office as to win the 
esteem and respect of the entire Protestant community, while his 
own people naturally regarded him with sentiments of mingled 
pride and admiration in fact, his popularity with the people 
generally had passed into a proverb. 

"Most touching was the tribute delicately paid to the memory 
of the deceased by the Right Rev. Dr. Parry, the Protestant Epi- 
scopal Bishop of Iowa, who directed that the bells of his own 
Cathedral and of the other Protestant Churches of Davenport 
should be tolled during the funeral services ! A graceful and 
significant testimony of the generous esteem in which Bishop 
McMullen was held, even by those outside his own Church and 
faith. The public journals of Davenport and of our own city 
united in warmly eulogizing the eminent abilities and elevated 
character of the Bishop, laying special stress on his benevolence 
and charity, as shown in his regards for the poor and the afflicted. 

" In the light of these recent testimonies it seems unnecessary 
to sketch the life of Bishop McMullen in this Memorial, 
-specially here in the city, which was so long the scene and field 


of his priestly labors, where he grew into manhood and where was 
laid the foundation of the educational training which was after- 
wards to ripen and mature in breadth and solidity, and to be 
manifested in many public striking proofs of power and elo- 
quence. In Chicago, his most characteristic traits and qualities 
were recognized, and his intellectual force was made apparent 
on many occasions in the pulpit and "in the columns of the 
journals of the city. 

"There, too, his capacity as a pastor and Administrator was 
demonstrated by years of trying and arduous labors; and his 
zest in every Christian and charitable work was "known of 
.all men." 

" Naturally and fittingly, in Chicago the decease of Bishop Mc- 
Mullen excited emotions of deep and wide spread sorrow, not 
limited to his co-religionists, but shared by the people of the city 
without distinction of sects or nationality. 

" The Bishop will be remembered here as the head of an ever 
promising institution of learning 'The University of St. Mary 
of the Lake.' His high qualifications as a teacher and Professor, 
his varied and extensive acquirements as a scholar, the ability 
shown in his writings, sermons and public lectures will long 
remain in remembrance. His literary labors and talents were 
manifested also in the columns of a periodical, " The Monthly " 
which was published during his presidency of the University. 

" The gravity of his manner, the simplicity and regularity of 
his daily life, his devotedness and self-sacrifice as pastor and 
teacher ; the unremitting zeal which he gave to works of charity, 
his kindness to the poor and the afflicted, his consideration 
and tenderness towards the erring and the fallen, all these 
combined with his characteristic disregard of self, to render him 
a model Christian gentleman. 

" The memory of his beautiful and tender character will long 
remain a cherished remembrance in Chicago. 

" The Historical Society owes it to the memory of an honored 
and valued member of the society to record its appreciation of the 


virtues, the learning and the great character and shining qualities 
of the deceased Bishop and the society offers to his bereaved and 
sorrowing relatives and friends its earnest and sincere sympathy. 
" A copy of this paper will be entered upon the records of this 
society along with a sketch of the life of the deceased Bishop, 
taken from the public journals. 


DIED JULY 4, 1883. 

THB sun has risen in the Eastern sky, 

The scorching day succeeds the stifling night, 

And shouts of triumph and of joy rise high, 
To greet the dawn of morning's earliest light. 

The cannon's boom like distant thunders roar, 
The pistol's sharp report rings clearly out ; 

And from Atlantic to Pacific shore, 

'Tis noise, and mirth, and gladness round about. 

The wordling casts his pride and power away, 
The poor man turns with pleasure from his toil ; 

And each does honor to the glorious day, 
Which first brought Freedom to his native soil. 

The stillness which so plainly speaks of death, 
The calm repose which tells that life is o'er, 

Hangs round that chamber where, with bated breath, 
They whisper prayers for him who is no more. 


The dazzling sun finds not an entrance there, 
The Nation's joy strikes no responsive string ; 

The tumults rising on the summer ail- 
Alone wild tidings from the city bring. 

The contrast formed 'twixt outside and within, 
The death-knell mingling with the musket peal 

Is not so strange if we will begin 

To note the truths that contrast would reveal. 

The mad delight which seeks expressive form, 

The hearts o'erbubbling with the pride of strength, 

Attest that power which met oppression's storm, 

And, conquering, claims the freeman's crown at length. 

The silence reigning in that darkened room. 
The fair, cold clay encompassed with due state, 

Speaks of another Freedom, past the tomb, 
Which needs must come to all, or soon or late. 

The spirit's freedom from its earthly thrall, 

The glorious triumph over Sin's domain, 
"When answering to the Master's loving call, 

He turns vis home, to wander ne'er again. 

From the Chicago Tribune. 



HE never closed his heart or door 
To one of Christ's distrest or poor : 
With willing hands he generous gave, 
Content, like Christ, to lowly live 
Content to do his Father's will, 
And faith, and hope, and love instil, 
And souls from death to save. 

He lived as one with strength endowed 
Shunning the plaudits of the crowd ; 
Seeking the byways where was need 
Of heavenly solace, grace, and creed. 
Ah ! many a home of strife and care 
Will miss his kindly visits there, 
And many a voice can true relate 
His secret deeds, Christ-like and great, 
For where the poor, there too was he, 
Relieving want and misery. 

O Bishop, from thy home look down ! 
Scatter some jewels from thy crown, 
That we may gather as they fall, 
And know that death is not the all ; 
That by their brightness we be led 
To lift our souls to things o'erhead ; 
To bow to Him that doeth best ; 
To Jcnow that labor bringeth rest, 
And life's renewed on Jesus' breast. 

Ah ! meet o'er such as thou to sing, 
Whose spirit glad hath taken wing, 
" O Grave, where is thy victory ? 
O Death, where is thy sting ? " 

M. in Chicago Tribune.- 



CHICAGO, January 20, 1880. 

Rev. Dear Sir : The conviction has no doubt come upon you 
that in parts of Ireland the people are found in extreme distress. 
Letters have come to me from Bishops and religious establish- 
ments, to whom the people look for relief, announcing suffering 
and in places extreme want, and asking for such assistance as 
Christian charity may afford. Besides, I have understood that 
many of the Faithful of the Diocese are eager to contribute, and 
several clergymen have asked that a channel be indicated in which 
such offerings may safely and speedily reach their proper object. 

I therefore direct that a collection be made throughout the 
Diocese on Septuagesima Sunday, February 1st, or the Sunday 
following, and forwarded to the Chancellor, who will publish the 
amounts received from each parish. 

It is not for me, Rev. Dear Sir t to suggest to you motives to 
prompt the charity of the Faithful. These you have abundantly 
at hand and feel stirring strongly in your heart. But there is a 
fact which gratitude cannot permit us to forget, or pass without 
due appreciation. Nine years ago our Diocesan city was laid in 
ashes and two hundred thousand homeless people looked forward 
to the severities of winter without food or raiment. In that day 
of our affliction, Irishmen in Ireland and throughout the world 
came to our assistance, with hearts full of sympathy and hands 
laden with relief and however abundant our offerings be to 
Ireland in this day of her sad visitation, I expect to find our city 
and people still debtors to Ireland's generosity. 

Very faithfully in Christ, 

Secretary. Administrator. 



IT should not be a matter of wonder that the different Christian 
denominations would put forth great and constant exertion in 
spreading their peculiar tenets, and aggregating new members to 
their various communions. The manifestations of energy in a 
cause is a poor argument for its truth or rectitude. Great earnest- 
ness has been displayed in a bad as well as in a good cause. No 
religious body, whether sincere or hypocritical in its professions 
and practices, can afford to manifest indifference regarding its 
success, unless it would give the strongest argument to its adver- 
saries against itself, that of insincerity and unbelief of its own 
communicants. As enthusiasm can spring from temporal, base 
and wicked motives, as well as from the promptings of Divine 
grace, so men may be induced to abandon the true religion and 
embrace one which offers them more worldly advantages or grati- 
fication of the senses. Hence, the popular sect which displays the 
greater amount of energy, and for the time, may be seen adding 
multitudes to the number^ of its believers, may be farther from 
the truth than its apparently obscure and insignificant neighbor. 
It is true that the Church of Christ must be the religion of man- 
kind, but it is no less true, that heresies must occur ; and that in 
the hour of darkness, those who would draw away, if possible, 
even the elect, would succeed in leading after them the worldly 
minded or indifferent, and in certain places for a generation, or 
even a century far outshine the Church or banish her from their 
midst, should be so far from being a matter of wonder, that it 
should be expected to occur, and not unfrequently, during the 
life-time of the Church militant. The case, however, is altered 
when the sect endeavors to recruit its ranks from heathen nations. 


The religion of heathens is formed to suit the worldly tendencies 
of man, is founded on passion and the gratification of sense ; and 
hence, to rescue them or induce them to embrace, even partially, 
Christian truth and practice, a power which is not of this world 
is required, a power from on high, which can only be found in 
the Church of Christ. 

Protestantism has certainly been one of the most successful her- 
esies which has arisen in Christian times. Whether its extensive 
spread is attributable more to the enfranchisement of the mind 
from the principle of divinely instituted authority, which it pro- 
fesses as a fundamental tenet, or the favorableness of the time in 
which it arose, 011 account of political organizations and the more 
than usual laxity of morals among the members of the Church, 
we will not inquire. It is certain, however, that this heresy, like 
its predecessors, has manifested in its rise and duration nothing 
that is more than worldly, human and temporal ; and produced 
nothing which it is necessary to account for by the action of a di- 
vine agency. A little more than a half a century has elapsed 
since the sects of Protestantism have attempted, with a definite 
purpose, the conversion of the pagan nations; and we must 
acknowledge the endeavor made, by the expenditure of vast 
means, and by enlisting in the cause great numbers of their most 
zealous preachers, is truly wonderful. We are much pleased to 
witness this earnest attempt ; for while the sects can congratulate 
themselves that they have left little undone to effect their purpose, 
the more thoughtful and impartial individuals belonging to them 
are obliged to acknowledge the total inefficiency of all these vast 
endeavors. The Bishop of Natal has abandoned his work among 
the Caffres, because he found it impossible to induce them to be- 
lieve the Bible although he acknowledges they possess as much 
intelligence and docility as the average of pagans. He cannot ex- 
pect to convince these simple people that the Bible is the word of 
God, or even that any part of it is inspired, unless a divine au- 
thority which cannot err, proclaims to them this fact. Well 
would it have been for himself had he listened to that teaching 


power, rather than have constituted himself the judge of the 
inspired word. 

Father Marshall a convert of the Tractarian movement, and 
a quondam associate with, the then, Archdeacon Manning in the 
Episcopalian ministry in England has, in his " Ckristian Mis- 
sions, their Agents and Results," compared the missionary labors of 
Catholicity and Protestantism, that, by contrast, the success of the 
former and the total failure of the latter may be rendered more 
striking. Father Marshall has spared no labor in the perform- 
ance of his task. He has used the testimony of Protestants re- 
garding their own works, and showed their incompetency to con- 
vert the pagans and Mahometans. Although his repetitions of 
the same strain of thought may be too frequent, and his illustra- 
tions of the great contrast might have been more concise, we must 
acknowledge that he has produced a work eminently beneficial at 
present, and one that is not likely to fall into disuse for at least 
the next century. This work, however, is not a history of Catho- 
lic Missions. The scattered accounts of the virtues, the labors 
and trials of the great Apostolic men who have borne the light 
of the Gospel to the benighted children of darkness, in latter 
times, have yet to be collected and put in form. What has been 
done by the publication of the " Relations des Jesuites," and its 
popularized form, by Mr. Shea, for the French Missionaries in 
North America, remains to be done for the Spanish and Portu- 
guese in Mexico and South America, and for the Missionaries of 
every European nation, in Asia, Africa and Oceanica. 

Christ died for all men, and the religion which he founded must 
consequently have been designed by him to embrace the whole 
human family. Were his religion intended to include but a por- 
tion of mankind, redemption could not be universal with the 
children of Adam; Christ could no longer be viewed as the Sa- 
viour of all, nor regeneration through the second Adam be com- 
mensurate with the death which the first brought into the world 
and entailed on his posterity. Hence the mission which He 
gave to the Apostles, or the rulers of the Church, " to teach all 


nations," and the obligations which He at the same time imposed 
011 every member of the human family, of accepting their teach- 
ings, when he added, and " they who believe not shall be con- 
demned," must be not only ever found in the Church, but must 
never cease to be one of her characteristics, easily recognizable by 
men. This mission of teaching all men implies the power to 
teach all and everything that is required on the part of the 
Church to make all men believers in her doctrine, and observers 
of revealed truth. And why are not all mankind, after the lapse 
of so many centuries, not only believers, but observers of the doc- 
trine of Christ? The only answer which can be given to this 
question is, that the reason why all the children of Adam do not 
belong to the Church of Christ is found in their unwillingness to 
believe, and their refusal to practice Christian truth. The major- 
ity of the human family is outside of the Church of Christ, not 
on account of their inability to teach all, and invite all, and aid all 
to believe, but they are so constituted because of their wilful 
blindness to the light of the Gospel, and their own wilful repugnance 
to its precepts. It is clear, then, that although the Church be 
universal or Catholic, that we need not be astonished to find many, 
or even the greater portion of mankind, at any given time, not 
enrolled among her faithful. The Church was Catholic, or uni- 
versal, when St. Peter preached his first sermon, although her 
members did not exceed a few thousand, because she then had, as 
she must have had ever since, the capacity of teaching all na- 
tions, and, if not their fault, of making them not only believers, 
but of making them Saints. 

In order that the Church should teach all men according to the 
mission of her Divine founder, it is not necessary that all should 
be believers, but it is necessary that she should give all an oppor- 
tunity to believe. In the course of human events, then, and as 
soon as reasonably could be expected, her missionaries, or the 
heralds who would proclaim, the Christian doctrine, should have 
been found with every people, that all might have an opportunity 
of believing, becoming Christians, and being saved. The Church 


is, in reality, Catholic, when, through her teachers, she presents 
an opportunity to all to participate in the benefits of redemption. 
Now, we should call to mind that God's religion does neither op- 
pose the natural course of things, much less destroy it, but what- 
ever is in religion is adapted to our nature, and is ordered to suit 
the natural sequence of causes and effects. But how is any doc- 
trine naturally presented to mankind? We can consider man- 
kind as composed of nations, families, or individual persons. Now 
in order to give the human family an opportunity to believe, it is 
not necessary, in the natural course of things, to send an Apostle 
or catechist to each and every individual to announce a doctrine 
or a code of precepts. Any one would say, that a people has had 
a very fair opportunity to know and accept a body of truths, in 
case instructors were sent to each family ; and if the instructors 
were rejected by the heads of families and those who were looked 
tip to as leaders by the others, we would say that those families 
certainly had an opportunity to accept these teachings, although 
they may have rejected them. In like manner in respect to na- 
tions, it cannot be inferred, that, because every citizen in a city, 
province or nation, or even a majority of them, does not receive 
the faith, an opportunity has not been given them to believe, 
when the teaching of Christ is announced to the greater portion 
of the community, which represents the thought and influence of 
the whole. When our Lord sent his disciples to teach, He in- 
structed them not to hold communication with those families who 
refused to hear them, but to shake the dust from their feet and 
go their way; and the unfortunate cities of Chorazin and Beth- 
saida, which did not receive himself, He abandoned to their 
errors and darkness, and passed to other places more worthy of 
his ministry. Thus, not only men can reject the faith as indi- 
viduals, but as families, communities and nations. Christ wept 
over Jerusalem because she had rejected the opportunity of re- 
ceiving His teachings, not knowing, or being unwilling to recog- 
nize, the time of her visitation. And thus we read, that the 
Apostles abandoned to their ignorance the cities which rejected 


them. Opportunities are given to receive the faith, which, when 
neglected, are not presented for a long time afterwards, not, per- 
haps, for many generations, and even centuries. God wishes 
earnestly all men to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of 
the truth, to enter the Church and become Christians ; but He 
does not wish to do this otherwise than in accordance with man's 
nature as an intelligent free agent, and a member of society. 
Those who come to Christ are " drawn by His Heavenly Father," 
not forced or compelled to approach Him. As men can accept 
the Gospel in their individual capacities, or accept or reject the 
missionary as communities or nations, so they may be left without 
instruction on account of their individual or national unworthi- 
ness. Faith is from hearing, "fides ex auditu;" but that all may 
have an opportunity of hearing the Christian truth, it is neither 
required that each individual be an auditor, nor is it necessary 
that the missionary be found in every year, or even in every cen- 
tury, in every city, province, or nation of the world. If a people 
will shut its eyes to the truth, and have "ears and hear not," and 
will not recognize the "time of its visitation," God punishes them as 
a nation, or community, by withdrawing Himself from them, 
and leaving them without the guidance of His supernatural truth, 
until, humbled by their own infirmities, they acknowledge the 
Lord to be their God, hearken to His voice, and bear, in obedience 
to his will, the light burthens of his precepts. 

It appears to many a striking anomaly that the Church of 
Christ is Catholic or universal, intended to draw into her com- 
munion all mankind, and still, after the lapse of centuries, be 
seen embracing not one-half of the inhabitants of the earth. We 
do not hesitate to say that this seeming contradiction is a great 
stumbling-block in the way of many in their advancement to the 
Church. Men look to facts, rather than theories; and seeing the 
larger majority of the descendants of Adam unregenerated, per- 
sisting in their various forms of worship which Christianity con- 
demns, are induced to conclude, rashly, that Christianity has 
failed as the religion of mankind, and that its very claims and 


professions of being so, prove that it is teaching error, and hence 
cannot be from God. Such persons never seem to inquire 
whether the cause of this great number being outside the Church, 
is attributable to the defect or inefficiency of the Church, or is to 
be found rather in the unwillingness of men to receive her teach- 
ings. They should read the works of St. Paul, "and indeed their 
sound [of the apostolic voice] has gone forth throughout the whole 
world, and their words to the bounds of the earth." They should, 
before laying this want of faith of the majority of men, at the 
door of the Church, read the apostolic history, and the indubita- 
ble testimony of early times, and they would learn that the 
Christian heralds had been heard by every people then known; 
and since Christian truth is not contradictory to reason, but in 
accordance with its dictates, their unbelief must be attributable to 
their own willing perversity, their self-caused blindness, by which 
they did not perceive the light which was shining resplendently 
in their midst. 

The sound of the apostolic preaching was yet heard amidst the 
nations, when heresies and schisms commenced to oppose the 
true doctrine, and split off from the society of the faithful. Hence, 
it became necessary that certain characteristics or marks should 
be determined, by which the Church of Christ might be distin- 
guished from those sects and religious combinations which falsely 
laid claim to her prerogatives, and led men astray by setting them- 
selves up in her stead. Catholicity, or the universality of the 
Church, was not only set forth, but was the most prominent sign 
indicated by the Apostles and their immediate successors, as that 
by which the true Church could be easily recognized. The 
oneness of her doctrine and government, the uninterrupted descent 
of her rulers from the apostles, the sanctity of her members, and 
her extension to the whole human race, were presented as charac- 
teristics by which she could at once be distinguished from those 
communities which assumed her name and semblance. The fact 
of her universality being the most striking, was frequently held 
up by her defenders to prove that she alone could be the religion 


of the universal Saviour, who died to save all, and through her, 
was inviting all to participate in the salvation which He had ob- 
tained for the descendants of Adam. 

While the various sects, in the first three centuries, either en- 
deavored in vain to convert the remnant of the Jews, by mixing 
up the practices of the Synagogue with Christian dogma ; or at- 
tempted, with no greater success, to draw into their various de- 
nominations the idolaters, by adopting the false traditions and 
philosophical principles of Paganism ; it was only one society 
which converted both Jews and Gentiles which, in Europe, was 
found in Italy, Gaul, Germany, Spain and Britain : in Asia, had 
taught the Semetic nations, the Scythians, people of India and 
China, and in Africa, had sent her heralds to the Moors, Egyp- 
tians, Abysinians and Ethiopians, and, not improbably, to the 
inhabitants of America. 

. This fact was urged with great force by Catholic writers, such 
as Tertullian, Justin, Ireriseus and Origen, against the sectarians 
of those times, and with a still greater force may the Catholic, 
after the lapse of so many centuries, urge, to-day, that there is but 
one society, having the name of Christian, which has gone abroad 
throughout the nations of the world, and presented her doctrine 
to all, and added to her communion believers in the truths of 
Christianity. The Arians, who denied the Divinity of Christ, 
rose in the fourth century, and although they counted their mem- 
bers by millions, and claimed many of the Koman emperors 
as professors of their blasphemy, they never succeeded in bring- 
ing one nation of idolaters to their communion. The Nestorians 
and Eutychians of the fifth century, collected their members from, 
those who already professed Christianity, but we never hear that 
they induced idolators to accept their tenets or enter their com- 

In the seventh century, Mahometanism spread over a large por- 
tion of Asia and thence to Africa, by conquest ; but as it did not 
require that the Jew would abandon his belief, or the Pagan his 
superstitions, it attracted not by the influence of truth, but 


by the allurements of sense, and the fear of extermina- 

The Greek Church separated from the great Christian Society,, 
in the ninth century, and she who had converted the various 
tribes of Northern and Central Asia, became, henceforward, una- 
ble to spread her doctrine among the heathens. 

From this glance at the history of Christianity, we see but one 
society which is fulfilling the mission of our Savior : of "teaching 
all nations;" the others are formed from the members of that 
same society, who leave it to enrol themselves in other religious; 

We observe, in the next place, that it is no characteristic of the 
Church of Christ to draw to her communion those who already 
profess the Christian doctrine ; as that has been done by Arian- 
ism, ISfestorianism, Eutychanism and Mahometanism; but to draw 
men from the superstitions of idolatry and induce them, to accept 
the Christian doctrine, must be an indubitable sign of the fulfill- 
ment of the mission which Christ gave to His Church. The fact 
that millions of Christians accepted the Arian doctrine, offers no 
more proof of the truth of Arianism. than does the fact that mil- 
lions followed the sensual extravagancies of Mahomet prove that 
Mahometanism is the religion of Christ. Men are prone to follow 
passion, as well as grace, and hence the power which is required 
to induce Christians to change religion, may be of the darkest 
dye, the most inimical to God ; but the power which raises men 
from the state of idolatry to that of Christian belief, must be from 
God, and can be only found in that society which Christ commis- 
sioned to teach mankind. Our object, however, is to refer especi- 
ally to the catholicity of the Church of Christ at the present day, 
and inquire if that one society, and it alone, be still drawing in 
members from the various idolatrous nations ? To compare the 
missionary successes of Catholics with the attempts of the various^ 
Protestant combinations to convert the Pagans, we would simply 
inquire what nation of idolaters, since the origin of these denomi- 
nations, three centuries ago, has been added to their numbers, or 


has accepted the faith which they propose ? Spread out the map 
of the world before you, pass your eye over its grand divisions, 
and however much inclined to acknowledge the endeavors of Pro- 
testants, and attribute their exertions to the best motives, you will 
.search in vain to find any one people converted to their forms of 
worship, the inhabitants of even one island, one tribe of savages, 
or any notable part of any nation enrolling themselves as profess- 
ors of the doctrine proposed. The religion of the Reformers has 
not failed to convert the heathen because it has not been suffi- 
ciently tried. The various denominations of Protestants, consid- 
ering them collectively, have sent their emissaries to every known 
people, and possessed every worldly advantage that they could ex- 
pect. They have enjoyed the patronage of the most respected 
nations, the facilities of the most extensive commerce, and the as- 
sistance of almost unbounded treasure; and still the voice of their 
preachers has been like the sound of empty brass. It has failed 
to multiply the children of God ; it has failed, as they themselves 
.admit, to do anything truly great or lasting. And what, pray, 
has the Catholic Church effected since the time of the Reforma- 
tion, for the heathen world ? The answer is on the pages of the 
history of the world for every year since that time. Her mission- 
aries are found among the nations, not laboring in vain, like those 
of Protestantism, but seen reaping a rich harvest of souls for their 
Divine Master. 

If we look to Asia, we see Catholicity making rapid strides 
among the Armenians, Syrians and the Semetic nations, gener- 
ally, so long oppressed by the grinding power of the Moslem. In 
India, one Apostle baptizes with his own hand over one million, 
And prepares millions more to be won by those who go to continue 
his work. In China millions have died in the faith of the Catho- 
lic Church, and nearly two millions scattered through that vast 
Empire, after all their trials and persecutions, are now found ex- 
ernplary Christians. If we look to Africa, we see Egypt, to a 
great extent redeemed from Mahometanism, missions established 
successfully in Abysinia and the regions of the upper Nile, and 


the work of converting the heathen going on, with various de* 
grees of success, along the eastern and western shores of the con- 
tinent, until we contemplate with delight the two flourishing dio- 
ceses near the Cape of Good Hope. Let your eye pass from island 
to island of the Southern ocean, and scarcely one is found, capa- 
ble of sustaining human life, where the Catholic Church does not. 
count her believers. The aborigines of Borneo and Australia, as 
well as those of the Sandwich Islands, have not only had an op- 
portunity of hearing and receiving the faith, but many of them 
have known the time of their visitation. 

Look next to the continent of America. The nations of South 
America have long since abandoned their idols, and now worship 
one God in spirit and in truth. In North America, a large por- 
tion of the Aborigines have participated in the inheritance of the 
saints ; and if the Mexicans, and people of South America are not- 
as exemplary in the practice of Christian virtue as would be 
wished, or as perfect as most Catholics, we should remember that 
the gloom of recent barbarianism has hardly disappeared from 
among them, and that it ill becomes us, whose forefathers were 
raised from the condition of wandering tribes or savage classes, 
under the civilizing influence of Christianity, not by a sudden 
transformation, but by the discipline of centuries, to undervalue 
the advancement which the savages of America have made in the 
habits and virtues that Christianity inculcates, during the short- 
period of two centuries. 

If this power of drawing the nations of the earth into her com- 
munion, be a sign by which the Church of Christ is distinguisha- 
ble from heretical denominations, and easy to be recognized, we 
know nothing easier to the mind of ordinary capacity, than to 
glance at the map of the world and mark the advancement of 
Catholicity since the sixteenth century among idolatrous peoples, 
and notice at the same time the total inability of the Protestant 
denominations to make, in this regard, the least advancement. 

This success, on the part of the Catholic Church, is certainly 
not attributable to a superiority in worldly advantages. Since 


the beginning of this century not less than ten millions of dollars, 
on an average, have been expended, yearly, for the propagation 
of the Gospel by the sects of Protestantism, while not more than 
three hundred thousand dollars have been drawn from the funds 
of Rome, Munich and France combinedly, for aid to the Catholic 
Missions in any specified year. How, then, is the success, on the 
part of Catholic missionaries to the heathen, to be accounted for 
in the presence of the striking failure of the most vigorous 
.attempts made by the Protestant sects, unless it be that the for- 
mer had the aid of Him who sent the Apostles to teach all . 
nations, and the latter were mere pretenders to the prerogatives 
of the apostolic mission. So patent and indisputable is the failure 
of Protestants to evangelize the nations, that one of their able 
writers (North British Review, May, 1864,) proposes a most ingen- 
ious inquiry to his co-religionists, viz., " whether it would not be 
better to leave the conversion of the nations to the Catholic 
Church entirely, and let Protestant zeal be hereafter expended in 
recruiting members for their various denominations from her 
ranks." "We do not pronounce dogmatically," says he, "on 
this interesting inquiry ; but we say that it is one the solution of 
which calls for deeper thought and greater fairness than polemical 
-divines have yet accorded it. For the student of history will not 
be satisfied without some theory or law adequate to account for 
the undeniable fact that hitherto the progress of Christianity 
.among the heathen has been chiefly carried on by Romanism, 
.and only in a slight measure yet by consistent and scriptural 
Protestantism. " And, warning English Protestants of their 
striking inefficiency, he concludes : 

" Let us remember the so-called dark ages ; the Abbot Columba, 
the Monk Agustine, and the thousands who rushed from Irish 
cells, wattled huts on lonely islands ; or the Romish priests and 
knights and scholars of the fifteenth century who followed Xavier 
to the East, or Nobrega to Paraguay ; and as we think of their 
zeal and courage and sacrifice and faith and love of souls and love 
of the Lord : if these were children, of darkness, are we walking 


like children of light? Is it not worth a little serious considera- 
tion whether our " clear views " and committees and collections 
present, after all, so grand a spectacle, or do so great a work as 
the brave and solemn enthusiasm of those great-hearted men. " . 

It is thus we too often see the unmistakeable characteristics of 
the Church acknowledged by those who refuse to commit their 
salvation to her who is to be the only saving ark to bear them 
through the dangers of man's fallen condition. 

While contemplating the mission of the Church to teach all 
nations, and her constantly recurring triumphs in the lapse of 
years, we should not forget that we are now holding the place of 
those on whom Christ left this solemn injunction, " To teach all. 
nations^ " Why should not zeal for the salvation of souls prompt 
Catholics to contribute their means to forward the labors of the^ 
missionary, in a still more ample measure than the misguided 
promptings of sectarians ? True that God's work will still go on. 
despite of our apathy, but how much more might He do if Avill- 
ing instruments were ready for His use in carrying out 
designs of mercy. Many a young apostle is now looking to 
generosity of God's people to enable him to enter the apostleship, 
and many a laborer in the great cause of Christian advancement- 
is sending up his prayers that the hearts of the people may be 
moved to send him aid in his numerous necessities. The com- 
paratively little fund, for the Propagation of the faith, in France,, 
has aided our necessities when our means were scanty, and now,, 
when our Church has passed through the necessities of childhood, 
how ready we should be to increase that more than earthly 
treasure, which is to aid in establishing the faith where it is.- 
struggling amidst the gloom of barbarism, and writhing beneath. 
the scourges of the iron rod of persecution. 



What is likely to be the condition of the Holy Father in refer- 
ence to his temporal possessions, is among the great questions 
which agitate the public mind at present. There are three solu- 
tions proposed, each of which has its particular class which earn- 
estly urge its adoption. The Piedmon'tese government, with its 
more zealous adherents, sometimes by covert means, but gener- 
.ally by open and indubitable measures, seeks to depose the Roman 
Pontiff, strip him of the temporal sovereignty, and make Rome 
the capital of the new kingdom of Italy. In this class, may be 
counted the Mazzinians or ultra Republicans, who, under the 
name of Free Masons, Carbonari, or Consulte Nazionali, are in 
favor of establishing a universal Italian Republic, with Rome as 
centre. Garibal Ji and Mazzini, the acknowledged leaders of the 
Republican faction, are at variance, at present, with the Sardinian 
government ; charging it with having made tools of the demo- 
cratic revolutionists in the late commotions, in order to establish 
.a universal monarchy, which to them, is not more grateful than 
the old condition of things ; but as regards the temporal sover- 
eignty of the Pontiff, they are even more inimical to it, than the 
most ardent adherents of the government of Turin. A more mod- 
erate class, who are warmly attached to the Roman See, and who 
would not, without regret, witness the interests of religion in any- 
wise imperiled, calls for a United Italy ; some prefer the monar- 
chical unity, others the republican, but a political unity of some 
kind they consider indispensable to the well-being of the Italian 
people. This party is in favor of leaving the Pontiff in possession 
of the territory which Piedmont has been pleased not to take from 
him a district around Rome of a little over one hundred . miles 
square. They are of opinion that the scheme of uniting the peo- 
ple of the peninsula, may be effected to all practical purposes, and 
will be sufficiently guaranteed by the possession of the Adriatic 


coast, and that the independence of the Holy Father is amply 
provided for, by the retention of his, at present, contracted terri- 
tory. The third party is made up of all those who, either in 
Italy, or elsewhere, maintain the infeasibility of Italian unity, 
under any form of government, and hold it as impossible to effect 
such a purpose, either by means of Piedrnontese accessions, or the- 
agency of secret-societyism. 

We who are far removed from the field of struggle, may look 
on, not indeed with indifference, but with more impartiality of 
judgment than those whom interest or other circumstances have 
involved in the strife. How then are we Catholics, who do not 
acknowledge the temporal sovereignty of the Pope, as that to 
which we owe allegiance, but who recognize him as the successor 
of St. Peter, and vicar of our Lord, to whom we owe obedience in. 
spiritual matters, to view the question of the temporal sover- 
eignty of the Holy See ? 

It needs not be said, that we can plead indifference to the ques- 
tion. The Holy Father has defended, and not. without illustri- 
ous and almost innumerable precedents, the integrity of his tem- 
poral possessions, not only as king, but as Pontiff, not only by the 
force of arms, but by ecclesiastical censures. He claims immun- 
ity from, seizure for his dominions, because they are in a sense 
ecclesiastical, inasmuch as their possession secures to the supreme 
legislative, executive and judiciary authority in God's church, 
more independence and freedom to act for the promotion of the 
spiritual welfare of Christians. It is not necessary here to inquire- 
whether the Pontiff be gifted with inerrability in disciplinary 
matter ; and those who agitate that question, in order to be at lib- 
erty to differ from, his policy, merely deceive themselves. It is 
the legitimate sphere of action of the Holy Father to direct what 
is favorable to the interests of religion, and \Vhat its requirements, 
demand, and all who are loyal and earnest children of the 
Church, should yield obedience. As in the case of civil power, 
whose duty it is to care for our temporal welfare, when it sends- 
forth its regulations concerning any matter, we do not consider 1 


ourselves at liberty to contravene them, because the legislative 
person may be liable to err : so the decrees and regulations of the 
Roman Pontiff, for a greater reason, require our conformity, inas- 
much as he is immediately empowered by God, to direct His 

Church in the way of eternal life. Nor is our obedience irrational 
in such cases ; for the Saviour who committed to him the care of 
His lambs and sheep, no doubt renders the shepherd competent 
to the difficulties which arise in the discharge of his duty. Hence 
he must be right in the generality of cases, and in matters of 
greater importance : which is sufficient to form a presumption in 
his favor, that he is right in each and every instance. We con- 
tend, then, that Catholics have no right to hold contrary to what 
the Holy Father has stated, that the temporal sovereignty of the 
Roman See, inasmuch as it secures the free exercise of ecclesiastic- 
.al power, is at present, and in existing circumstances, intimately 
connected with, and favorable to, the more important interests of 
religion. Believing that the Pontiff is the authoritative judge of 
the case in question, we consider ourselves obliged to accept his 
decision as practically correct. Nor should we be induced to 
change our opinion in the event that the Pontiff were stripped 
entirely of his political power, any more than we do now, when 
we behold Providence permitting him to be deprived of part of 
his dominions, despite of all the means of defence that he could 
.summon to his aid. Providence permits wrong to triumph, not 
unfrequently, even against His Church, for a time, that from it, 
He may draw forth greater good than that for which she may 
have contended ; that men may discern more vividly, the inter- 
ference of divine power in her behalf. 

We are far, however, from accepting, what we have so often 
.seen repeated in popular prints, that the temporal and spiritual 
prerogatives are so mingled and blended, that in no instance, and 
under no circumstances, can they be separated. The " non 
possumus"of Pius IX, when asked to relinquish his right as 
.sovereign of his territories, is certainly not to be accepted in an 
.absolute sense, but relatively to the present condition, of things t 


We all know that there have been times in which the spiritual 
prerogatives of the Pontiff were exercised most effectively, without 
a vestige of civil or political power, and should the sceptre of roy- 
alty pass away from the successor of the Apostolic chief, and the 
pastoral staff alone he the insignia of his power, far ' from giving 
way to a shadow of despondency, we would exult in the confidence 
that Providence was about to initiate, in a new order of things, a 
more glorious career for His Church. Whether it be a mere pre- 
tension, or a sincere conviction which we have heard expressed so 
frequently, by non-Catholics, regarding the downfall of Papacy, 
whenever a movement threatening the overthrow of the temporal 
power may have appeared, we are not prepared to say ; but when 
Catholics intimate that the temporal power of the Father of the 
faithful is necessary to, and inseparable from his spiritual prero- 
gatives, their ignorance should certainly be imputed to them as a 
crime. We are aware, that it has been considered providential, 
by the ablest minds, that in the words of Bossuet, " the Roman 
Church should have acquired a temporal dominion in order that 
independent in her chief, she might hold the balance in her 
hand." But Providence would not provide for His religion, 
unless, when the order of things were changed, He did not like- 
wise ordain the relinquishment of the temporal dominion when- 
ever it tended to obstruct the advancement of religion, or no 
longer subserved the independence of its chief. 

Cardinal Pacca, Secretary of State to that great heroic Pontiff, 
Pius VII, a servant well worthy of so great a master, has left us 
some reflections on this head, which we consider most appropriate 
to be recalled at the present juncture. A great statesman, and a 
great ecclesiastic, he possessed ability and learning which quali- 
fied him for the most trying emergency which has ever visited 
the Holy See in any age. Imbued with a tender piety, and never- 
failing confidence in the triumph of the Church, he might be con- 
sidered as divinely commissioned to console the Holy Father, 
during his protracted exile, his long and severe imprisonment ; be 
at once the prop and comfort of his declining years, and best 

xviii APPENDIX. 

adapted to urge him on in that determined and strenuous course 
of opposition to Napoleon Bonaparte. " That year of my Min- 
istry," lie wrote in the preface to his notes on his Ministry, " was 
in the eyes of the public, and according to a worldly way of think- 
ing, a disastrous and unfortunate moment, but to those who well 
understand it, a period eminently glorious, and worthy of eternal 
memory to the Holy See and the immortal Pius VII; and so true 
is it in a certain sense, that a modern author, (MONTESQUIEU, on 
the greatness and fall of the Romans,) has written, that the prosperity 
of the Church is different from that of kingdoms : the humilia- 
tions of the Church, its dispersions, the destruction of its temples, 
the sufferings of its martyrs, are the times of its glory ; and when 
it appears in the eyes of the world, that she triumphs, that is usu- 
ally the time of her depression." 

Confident in the rectitude of his course, he feared no adverse 
consequence of his bold and uncompromising action; he urged, 
more than any of his colleagues, the publication of the Bull of ex- 
communication against the emperor, and the unconditional con- 
demnation of the numerous outrages committed against the Holy 
See, in those remarkably strong terms in which that instrument 
is drawn up. When he beheld the palace of the Quirinal entered 
by a detachment of French troops, who hurried away the aged 
Pontiff a prisoner, the faithful minister begged that he might be 
permitted to share the fate of his master, during the hardships of 
a long and rapid journey, passing the days shut up, in a close 
carriage, under the heat of an Italian sun, in July, and the nights 
in the inns and cabins on the wayside, and for three years and a 
half suffered his inprisonment at Fenestrelles, separated from the 
venerable Pius, whom he loved with the devotion of filial piety, 
manifesting the unflinching resolution of a martyr, and the calm, 
and thoughtful dignity of a sage. He records the identical words 
of the Holy Father to general Radet, sent to receive the renuncia- 
tion of the temporal dominion : " We cannot give up nor renounce 
what does not belong to us ; the temporal dominion belongs to 
the Church of Rome, and we are only the administrators of it. 


The emperor may divide it into pieces, but he shall never obtain 
the cession of it from us." In these few words, we find stated, 
briefly and forcibly, the true condition of the Sovereign Pontiff, 
in reference to his temporal possessions. The sovereignty of these 
territories was given to the Church of Rome, and consequently 
became, as it were, an adjunct of the Roman Episcopacy. The 
primacy, by virtue of which supreme jurisdiction is exercised in 
the universal Church, is likewise an adjunct to the Roman Epis- 
copacy ; but, unlike the temporal sovereignty, the union is insep- 
arable, being united by the Divine founder of the Church, in the 
person of St. Peter. The temporal dominion, or the right to gov- 
ern certain territories, is to be viewed as a worldly good, possession 
or assistance which the Roman See has come into possession of, 
by the most just means, and held by indisputable rights for cen- 
turies. Those who are elected to the Roman Pontificate, are not 
therefore constituted owners, with power to dispose at will, of the 
temporal dominion of the Holy See ; but they are chosen to an 
office whose duties they are bound to discharge, and hold its pos- 
sessions and emoluments, and exercise its prerogatives, whether 
spiritual or temporal, for the benefit of the Church. Hence the 
Holy Father answered, " we cannot give up or renounce what 
does not belong to us." Hence the right of the Roman Pontiffs 
to defend with spiritual censures, the integrity of the temporal 
dominion, and not only the injustice, but sacrilege of the sover- 
eigns who seek to wrest it from the Church, and the possession of 
her chief magistrate who holds it for her benefit. 

The special advantage accruing to the Church, from the tem- 
poral dominion, is, as has been so often set forth by Pius IX, the 
political independence of the Roman Pontiff among the nations. 
We hear the question often asked, " Why should so much contro- 
versy be excited, and for so long maintained, about the dominion 
of a comparatively insignificant territory ? Why should the con- 
cerns, whether political or civil, of this corner of the earth, be 
made a cause of the universal Church, and the affairs of Roman 
citizens be made to enlist the sympathies of Roman Catholics ? " 


The views which we have just set forth, should be considered as 
meeting, at least to some extent, this and similar inquiries. But 
the sovereign Pontiffs, and Catholics in general throughout the 
world, do not oppose the aggressors of the temporal power, merely 
to defend the rights of the Church to what is hers, nor even to 
secure freedom and independence to her Head ; but they do so to 
preserve religion from being made the serf and menial of civil 
power, to be used at pleasure to forward the plans of the ambi- 
tions, to satisfy the cupidity of the rapacious and grasping, to be 
made an apology for injustice, and the object on which the odium 
and obloquy of every vile deed may be cast by those who find it 
necessary to attempt a justification of their actions. The object 
of the first Napoleon, in his persecution of the Pius's, was not so 
much, as he often stated, to obtain possession of the papal terri- 
tory, as it was to be able to use the Pontiff and religion, in all its 
phases, to further his purposes. " He was to have the nomina- 
tion of bishops," the " full disposition of Church property," the 
power to sanction or reject ecclesiastical legislation, and elect the 
Pontiff himself, as he asked that "two-thirds of the sacred college 
be chosen by the Catholic sovereigns." 

The revolutionary movements of 'forty-eight, were leveled 
against religion, as much as against the then existing social order; 
and the leaders sought the destruction of the altar, that they 
might succeed in overturning the throne. The present hostili- 
ties carried on by the Sardinian government, while they are 
aimed at making Kome the capital of the kingdom of Italy, are 
with equal determination, intended by that power, as a means to 
obtain the mastery of the Pope, that it may use him to its pur- 
poses. We can imagine, to some extent, the dreadful state of deg- 
radation to which religion would be reduced, were the sovereign 
Pontiff left subject to some powerful European monarch, or be 
compelled to bow to the dictates of some petty absolutist. When 
we read that the Roman generals made use of the augurs and 
haruspices to impose upon the rabble, or induce their troops to 
look upon a projected campaign or impending battle as already 


determined in their favor by the decrees of the gods, however de- 
testable and degrading may have been that idolatrous worship, 
we cannot help loathing from our souls, the man who would 
make use of it, in order to practice deception, and seize upon the 
credulity of the populace, in order to further his mere worldly 
and often vicious designs. The Christian ministry, we are 
aware, would not be found such a ready instrument in the hands 
of temporal rulers as were those imposters who dealt in the super- 
stitious practices of paganism, but we do know, that from the first 
Christian emperor, down to the imperial author of " Napoleonic 
ideas," by far the greater number of Christian potentates have 
sought, more or less, to obtain undue control of religious affairs, 
and prostitute the things of God to satiate their worldly cupidity. 

History, the fallen condition of man, and the sanctity of relig- 
ion, warn us of the atrocities which we may expect as a conse- 
quence of the subjection of the visible head of the Church, to the 
jurisdiction of any civil power, in the present condition of society. 
When the Pontiffs were subject to the imperial power of Rome, 
there were not so great opportunities on the part of the ruler, to 
circumscribe or dictate their action, as there would be were they 
left at the mercy of some government in the present order of 
things. As the emperors were idolators until the fourth century, 
they sought to destroy Christianity by the extermination of those 
who might have given it their names ; but not having the confi- 
dence nor respect of Christians, they never attempted to use the 
Christian religion to practice imposition upon its believers. 
Ecclesiastical legislation necessarily was free and untrammeled, 
and religious decrees and regulations were as well adapted to exi- 
gencies, and as clear and well defined and as well observed then, 
as ever they have been in any subsequent age of the Church. 
When the emperors embraced Christianity, it is true that their 
interference in the affairs of religion on many occasions, tended 
to encourage the spread of erroneous doctrine, and support and 
defend heresies against the authority of the Church, and no doubt, 
laid the foundation of the Greek schism which counts its adher- 


ents by millions at the present day ; but whatever religion may 
have suffered from their oppression, we have reason to apprehend 
still greater evils as likely to ensue from the subjection of the 
Holy Father to any of the existing governments of Europe. 
There was but one great power usually in those days, and hence 
there was none of that political rivalry, or comparatively little, 
which in modern times has existed, and will undoubtedly con- 
tinue to exist among the many governments which have sprung 
up from the ruins of the empire ; and consequently the induce- 
ments to usurp religious prerogatives were fewer than at present. 
The Roman Pontiff, moreover, had delegated his authority to a 
far greater extent in those times, than he has in the present 
order of things. Patriarchs, Metropolitans and Exarchs possessed 
many powers, which, since the middle ages, have been reserved 
exclusively to the Holy See. The subjection of the Pope to a 
temporal government at present, would place the exercise of the 
plenitude of ecclesiastical jurisdiction more at the disposal of the 
civil power than it ever was when he acknowledged allegiance to 
the Roman emperors. 

But while we thus theorize on contingencies, we are by no 
means apprehensive of results. Those who have cursorily 
glanced at the history of the Church, have seen her pass through 
too many trials and vicissitudes, to expect that anything may oc- 
cur in the future, which will not accrue to her advantage, and 
add new laurels to the many she has won. in her triumphs in the 
past. Should that guiding Providence, who is ever directing and 
sustaining her, deem it well in His infinite wisdom, that the uni- 
versal Pastor should be stripped of this vestige of worldly power, 
we would recognize in His decree, another blessing bestowed upon 
His people, and hail the dawn of a new day in which His relig- 
ion, renewed and invigorated, would perform great and glorious 
works for His honor, and the salvation of men. 

It is in this spirit, that Cardinal Pacca, from whom we have 
already quoted, when he saw the States of the Church engulfed 
in the vortex of the conquering power of the first Napoleon, the 


sovereign Pontifi a prisoner in France, and the sacred College dis- 
persed that his mind soared above the gloom that spread itself 
as a pall over the prostrate form of religion, and saw in a new 
order of society, which, to all appearances, was about to spring 
forth from the wreck of dynasties, and the ruins of the nations of 
Europe, a brilliant career open for the Church ; in which, having 
shaken off the rubbish, which in the lapse of centuries may have 
accumulated around her, and freed herself from the worldly 
bands and fetters which had been gradually drawn tighter and 
tighter, restraining her liberty of action, and cramping her best 
endeavors, she would stand before the world no longer an object 
of its suspicion and envy, to exercise a new and more powerful 
influence on the minds of men. 

" Everything then announced the rising of a great monarchy, 
which would, as it had already done, have dissipated that multi- 
plicity of kingdoms and principalities which, according to the 
saying of Bossuet, render the subjection of the Popes almost in- 
compatible with the government of the universal Church. This 
reflection made me fear that the temporal dominion of the Holy 
See, being by some inscrutable judgments of Providence, taken 
from it, the same Providence, always intent on the preservation 
of His Church, was preparing those changes of states and gov- 
ernments, which should render it possible again, and without any 
serious inconvenience, that the Pope, though subject, should reign 
over and govern the entire flock of the faithful.' 

" I was confirmed in this fear by the thought, that, from the 
unfortunate and sorrowful event of the termination of the sover- 
eignty of the Popes, the Lord would extract other still greater ad- 
vantages for His Church. I thought that the loss of the temporal 
dominion, and of the greater part of the ecclesiastical estates, 
would have put an end to, or at least weakened, that jealousy and 
ill will which exists everywhere against the Roman court and the 
clergy ; that the Popes, freed from the weighty charge of the tem- 
poral principality, which obliged them to sacrifice a great portion 
of their precious time in secular negotiations and affairs, could 


turn all their thoughts and cares to the spiritual government of 
the Church ; and the lustre and pomp of their glory and the in- 
centive of temporal goods being taken away, those only would 
have undertaken the ministry, 'who deserved the good work,' and 
in future, the Popes would, in the choice of their ministers and 
counsellors, have not so much regard to the splendor of their 
.birth, the engagements made with the powerful, and the recom. 
mendations of sovereigns, of whom may be said, with regard to 
Roman promotions, 'you have multiplied the nation, but not 
magnified the joy ;' that finally, in consultations on ecclesiastical 
affairs amongst the nations which should present themselves to 
take or reject a resolution, the fear of losing the temporal power 
would no longer exist, a motive which placed in the balance, 
might make it lean to the side of a complete pusillanimous con- 
descension. These, and other considerations, weakened, as I said 
above, my hope of seeing the pontifical power soon arise." 

There are but few reasons now, comparatively to what were 
found amidst the confusion of national affairs existing in the be- 
ginning of this century, to induce us to suspect that the extinc- 
tion of the temporal sovereignty is by any means imminent. It 
is true that strenuous endeavors, both covertly and above board, 
are being made to transfer to Rome, the seat of government of 
the kingdom of Italy. But pubilic opinion, especially among the 
more thoughtful and influential men of every class and religion, 
declaring the necessity for the permanency of the Papal domin- 
ion in the present system of society, is not easily withstood, and 
the bands of attachment binding the hearts of Catholics to Rome, 
as the centre of religion and the capital of Christendom, will foil 
the wiles of diplomacy, and be able to nullify the victories of 

But the strongest indication of permanency of the temporal 
power, according to our views, is that firm determination, that 
untiring exertion, that unfailing confidence, with which the 
reigning Pontiff Pius IX, has contended for its possession. 

The Popes accepted the temporal power for the advantage of 


the Roman Church, the capital of Christendom, and they are the 
only competent judges of what is of real advantage to the univers- 
al Church, and consequently, when the time shall come, if it ever 
shall, when the temporal sovereignty will be no longer beneficial 
to the spiritual power, the Popes will be the first to seek the sepa- 
ration, and cast away as worthless, that semblance of earthly 
greatness, which may have done real service in its day. 

The convention of the plenipotentiaries of France and the 
kingdom of Italy, on the 15th of September, 1865, in Paris, has 
agreed on certain articles, which are set forth by their framers, as 
best adapted to give a satisfactory solution to the Roman ques- 
tion. France, in this, as in all other important concerns of the 
peninsula, assumes the part of dictator, and the convention 
might be viewed rather as an exponent of the policy of the 
French government,than a means of favoring international arrange- 
ments. France requires, I, That the kingdom of Italy renounce 
all claims to Rome, as its capital, and, to effectually settle the ques- 
tion regarding its seat of government, Florence is determined as 
the locality. II, France requires that the present territory of the 
Holy See, limited by the recent invasion and usurpation, be left 
undisturbed, and to this end, the Piedmontese government is to 
protect it against all incursions from without, while the Pope is to 
be supplied with sufficient means to raise and support such an 
army as will be capable of suppressing any internal turbulence; 
and III, The French troops are to be withdrawn from the Italian 
soil. The adherents of the temporal power, as well as the Mazzin- 
ians, have looked upon this convention, so far as it concerned the 
kingdom of Italy, as a mere sham, a pretext, a furtive means by 
which it might be able to come into possession of the city of Rome. 
Mazzini declares the policy of the convention to be deceptive and 
dishonorable to any nation, and exhorts the Italians, rather to 
choose the portion of Helots than that of Judas. But whatever 
doubt may have remained regarding the insincerity and mala fide 
of the Sardinians, it was at once dissipated, by the publication of 
the document for the convocation of Parliament by the minister 


of the government of Turin. He rejoices over the happy results 
of the Parisian convention, because the national rights and aspirations, 
so far from, suffering any check by the publication of these arti- 
cles, will be promoted, by substituting moral and pacific means in 
place of the forcible, heretofore employed for the attainment of the 
same purpose. He looks upon the removal of the government to 
Florence, as being particularly favorable to the design of gaining 
possession of Rome by moralmeans because of the proximity of the 
two cities. All honest and honorable men must be compelled to 
denounce, with the arch-revolutionist Mazzini, this action of the 
government at Turin, as base in the extreme, degrading to national 
dignity, and destructive of that confidence, both at home and 
abroad, on which the very existence of a government depends. 

France, however, to all appearances, has acted with becoming 
honor and sincerity in this affair. The French embassador at 
Rome, M. de Sartiges, received from M. Drouyn de L'Huys, the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs at Paris, a lengthy and lucid explana- 
tion of the doings of the convention ; and whatever may be the 
arrogance and usurpation of the French government in thus un- 
dertaking to determine, by its own fiat, matters which concern not 
only Italy, bub all Europe, we see no reason for laying the charge 
of duplicity at its door. We have strong reason then to believe 
that France will not tolerate the present territory of the Pontiff to 
be disturbed either by Sardinian force or connivance. But even 
should the Franco-Italian treaty of Paris be carried into effect, we 
have no apprehension that the government of Victor-Emanuel 
would be successful in its dishonest designs. 

France, during the last eighteen years, has assumed the honor 
of guarding and protecting the sovereign Pontiff, and in discharg- 
ing her trust, has given utter dissatisfaction to the Catholic world. 
We believe that Catholic sentiment, and the Catholic goverments 
in Europe, are willing and able to defend the temporal possessions 
for the Holy Father, as long as he may deem it advisable to hold 
them, and we would look upon it as a blessing, rather than a ca- 
lamity, if France, by withdrawing her troops from Rome, would 


thereby surrender her tutelage of the pontifical estates and 
leave it to be discharged by the other Catholic powers, if nec- 


The House of the Angel Guardian, established in Boston, in 
1851, by Father Haskins, is not only the first Catholic Reform 
School for boys, which has proved successful, but at present, is 
undoubtedly the best of its kind in the country. Father Haskins 
has lately published a report, historical, statistical and financial, 
of his establishment, which, for many reasons, must be both in- 
teresting and useful at this time, when the attention of Catholics 
in most of our larger cities, is aroused to the necessity of making 
provision for a numerous class of youths, who require either cor- 
rection, or preservation from contracting evil habits. Dr. Ives, in 
a lecture lately delivered in New York, in behalf of a similar in- 
stitution in that city, shows how deep is the interest, and how 
strenuous the exertion, which the people manifest there for the 
success of the enterprise. Two years ago, a reformatory asylum 
for boys was established in Chicago, mainly by the exertions of 
Rev. Dr. Dunn, and as far as we are capable of judging, in regard 
to provision for support and efficiency in working, holds the next 
place to the House of the Angel Guardian in Boston. 

How can we best provide for our precocious, keen, sturdy, way- 
ward boys, who are found in considerable numbers in our cities, 
entirely deprived of parental tutelage, or who, through the igno- 
rance, negligence, crime, or dissipation of natural guardians, are 
left without protection, and thus in danger of becoming contami- 
nated, or are, in fact, addicted to habits of indolence and vice, 
is a question which we hear frequently agitated, and which is re- 
ceiving a satisfactory solution by the foundation of such establish- 
ments as these to which we have referred. We do not say that 
this is a vital, or most important matter with Catholics. We can 

xxviii APPENDIX. 

easily understand that the building of churches, and the establish- 
ment of congregations, so that the people may attend the divine 
Sacrifice of the Mass, and receive the sacraments and becoming in- 
struction, are, at present, the most requisite, and of themselves, 
the most meritorious works that can be performed for the benefit 
of religion in this country. After this, to instruct Catholic chil- 
dren in the Christian doctrine, and particularly to establish such 
a system of catechetical discipline as will- be most complete, and 
at the same time reach the greatest number, according to the cir- 
cumstances of different localities, undoubtedly holds the next place, 
in order of importance. Building churches, and teaching cate- 
chism, are certainly the greatest works of our day, and those who 
are in earnest in carrying them on, must be doing what is most 
pleasing to God. We only refer, however, to these most important 
requirements of our times, in order to give our present subject its 
proper rank in the consideration of Catholics, leaving to some 
other occasion, the pleasing duty of speaking of the labors of those 
great and noble apostolic men, among the clergy and laity, who^ 
aie really perpetuating religion in this country, by building 
churches, and establishing Sunday schools. 

What is intended to benefit a class, can never hold the same 
rank of importance with what most intimately concerns the whole 
community, and hence our colleges, orphan asylums, reform 
schools, and similar establishments, though highly beneficial, we 
most willingly mention, as secondary to the great works of our 
age, which, because they are so common and ordinary, do not re- 
ceive from, many the attention they deserve. 

But we have provided, and can provide still further, for these 
secondary requirements. A great number of children and we 
hope a greater number now than there will ever be at any future 
period, are deprived of proper domestic care and parental tutelage, 
regarding religious instruction and example. We should never 
lose sight of our actual condition. The vast majority of Catholics 
in this country have come here within the last twenty-five years 
(1865), and although civilly and politically indentified with those 


who were here before us, we differ from them, many in language, 
and more in habits of life and religion. Though the emigrant 
may come to improve his condition, and actually confers a benefit 
on his adopted country, by his talents, his learning, and his labor, 
he has his hardships, his disappointments, and sometimes must 
encounter want of sympathy, and even the prejudice of those 
around him. In the midst of these disadvantages of the present, 
we look forward to a brighter prospect in the future. The rising 
generation of American Catholics are a hardy, stalwart, labor- 
loving race, with as much talent and ingenuity as were ever pos- 
sessed by the youth of any country. The young Irish American 
is found everywhere, except in the temples of Protestantism, so 
that we might say, with an apologist of the early ages, addressing 
the unconverted Romans, " sotum wbis relinquimus templa." They 
are found in every grade, in every station, putting forth an energy, 
and manifesting a spirit of enterprise, not easily rivaled, and cer- 
tainly not surpassed. Their ability and learning are felt in the 
halls of legislation, adorn the forum, are displayed in the pulpit 
and the press, and shine brilliantly in the various posts of danger 
and responsibility in our armies. They are the proprietors of the 
soil in the west, and are met in the busy marts of commerce in the 
east. They are, in a word, numerous amongst those who deserve 
to be called the pride and hope of our country, numerous among 
her best citizens and bravest defenders. 

We should not be astonished, when we consider that the most 
of Catholic parents are emigrants, and contemplate the restless 
progressive spirit of their children, that not a few irregularities 
should necessarily result. The parent will depart from the virtu- 
ous habits in which he grew up in his father-land, and the active, 
enterprising youth will seek to free himself from parental control, 
and long to try his strength and wits amidst the struggles for 
wealth and fame. Many are left orphans at an early age, 
and before their parents had acquired a sufficiency to sup- 
port them, in such an emergency. Some parents are incapable 
of holding the reins of domestic government with a steady hand ; 


some children, by evil associations, will not brook parental 

Neither are such cases few, nor confined to certain localities. It 
is a common fallacy to judge that they are found only in large 
cities. They are found in the village and rural district ; and if 
not observed in these places to any great extent, we should call to 
mind, that our country friends are ever willing to provide a facil- 
ity of transport to all such unfortunates, to the larger cities, where 
it is believed there are, or should be, institutions to provide for 

A danger to which our wayward boys are exposed, is capture by 
philanthropists. They are of two kinds. Those who profess 
philanthropy as a religion, acknowledge no other obligations than 
those which are merely social, whose highest and only standard of 
Christian perfection is that of a good citizen. Be honest in your 
dealings, live a sober, industrious life, and you will acquire honor, 
wealth and influence, and chance the rest. There are others who 
depend on philanthropy for a living. They are frequently preach- 
ers, who, for want of requisite information or other important 
reasons, are obliged to live from whatever turns up. They must 
live as best they can from their wits, "have no visible means of 
support," and expect to gain a livelihood by declaring themselves 
benefactors of the human race. To this latter class we may add 
a number of officious and benevolent ladies, who are engaged in 
most of the popular charities of a community, have lived beyond 
the period of life when they could naturally expect the offer of a 
desirable partner in domestic care, and are eager to exhaust their 
maternal affection on all the little ones who may be so unfortu- 
nate as to come within its influence. We do not wish either to 
decry or deride philanthropists. They are as good as we could 
expect them to be without Christianity, and our only regret is 
that the community will suffer them to carry on their practices in 
the name of Christianity, and that their natural virtuous qualities 
are not sanctified by supernatural influences. View them as we 
will, they are enemies to the welfare of our boys, who need the 


protection of the asylum or the training of the reform school. 
They would prefer that the little unfortunates were anything than 
Catholics. They profess not to interfere with the religious con- 
victions of the children, but will insist that they must be taught 
nothing more than what is deemed the "fundamental principles 
of Christianity," which means any kind of Christianity, or none 
at all, as you will. They are connected with Bible societies 
Christian associations, Homes of the Friendless, and are earnest in 
their endeavors to obtain control of city reform schools, and similar 
institutions supported by the public revenues. Their latitudiniar- 
ian professions make them pass as liberal minded persons, to whose 
action no Christian need object. However, it is found that the 
Catholic boy is given to any guardian but one of his own religion, 
and prejudices against Catholicity, by every indirect means, are 
industriously instilled into the youthful mind. They, in fact, 
never undertake to correct a youth. The boy, if anywise controll- 
able, is smuggled off to some distant place, where he is given away, 
or more frequently sold, for an amount corresponding to the ex- 
pense attending transportation and the salary of the person in 
charge. If the boy be caught in the commission of crime, he is 
sent to a juvenile prison, a city or county reformatory, dosed with 
" fundamental principles," and liberated when he becomes thor- 
oughly accomplished in all the evil practices which he could not 
learn elsewhere. The old Protestant predestinarians, who held 
that a child is created to be saved or lost, without any regard to 
good or evil actions, could not have taught in practice that correc- 
tion is impossible, better than our latter-day saints, the philan- 
thropists, do, in their mode of treatment of our unfortunate boys. 

The best remedy against the hostilities waged by philanthrop- 
ists, is, we think, to have our reform schools and asylums incorpo- 
rated, and empowered to take under their protection Catholic 
children whose natural guardians fail to discharge their office. 
Such rights have been guaranteed to the Chicago Asylum, and, 
We believe, to that which is being established in New York ; and, 

xxxii APPENDIX. 

indeed, it is with difficulty that duch institutions can succeed any- 
where without a similar protection. 

Unless our children are under a proper domestic discipline, they 
are necessarily exposed to many and great dangers, of not only 
losing their virtue, but their faith. The prevailing sentiment of 
indifference to any fixed form of religious belief and practice, sur- 
rounds them, whether at school, at work or at play ; and unless 
they be fortified with a proper religious education, example 
and training by their parents, they cannot be expected to possess 
the requisite qualifications to counteract the opposing influence. 
In nearly every instance the fit subject for the Asylum of Correc- 
tion is found to have wanted proper domestic care and parental 
government. .We must, as a consequence, expect that in the juve- 
nile prison our Catholic boys will, in most of cases, have their faith 
shaken, and hence be cut loose from whatever sense of moral obli- 
gation may have attached them to the practice of virtue. We 
must, therefore, distrust all establishments which propose to either 
restrain, correct, or support Catholic boys, if they be not under 
Catholic control. The House of Correction maintained by the city 
or county government is a social blessing, inasmuch as it restrains, 
if it does not reform, the non-Catholic child, and protects the com- 
munity from his misdemeanors ; but we are mistaken if we expect 
that they are to be a source of greater good than evil to Catholic 

It is cheering to see that really zealous, enterprising Catholics 
throughout the country have awakened to one of the urgent re- 
quirements of our times, that of establishing Reform Schools and 
Asylums for our vigorous, talented, restless, wayward boys. They 
are generally possessed of better natural qualities than any class of 
children in the country, and, if properly provided for, can be made 
to compete with and even surpass those more sedate and docile 
youths whom we look upon as the great hope of the nation, spes 
altera Romae. They are far from being incorrigible. A little kind- 
ness is not soon forgotten by them, as restraint and punishment 
are resisted to the last. 


Much could be done to save our boys from the temptation of evil 
associations and dissolute habits by establishing a proper boarding 
house for them. Many an honest boy, who may start out with the 
best intentions to gain a livelihood, is drawn imperceptibly into 
evil habits by force of circumstances. He cannot support himself 
at a respectable boarding house, and hence, is frequently obliged to 
lead an irregular life, surrounded with the worst associations. 
This species of boarding house could be conducted with compara- 
tively little expense, by requiring a certain amount per week, which 
would not be above the means of the class in question. The pen- 
sion required for board would be beneficial to the boys themselves- 
as they would thereby be trained in habits of industry and econ- 
omy. Spiritual instruction and prayers, morning and evening, 
would attach them to religion ; and a night school, in which they 
could learn to read and write, would prepare them for higher oc- 

The question of support is one of primary importance. We find 
that there exists a great diversit} 7 - of opinion on this head, and 
such- a diversity, we believe, will result beneficially. No general 
rule can be laid down for the support of all such establishments. 
Circumstances are so different in various localities that that which 
would prove successful as a means of support in one place, in an- 
other might prove a failure. One of the principal sources of reve- 
nue in all institutions of this kind should be a fixed pension, 
which, as far as possible, should be exacted from parents, guard- 
ians, or friends of the children of the school. There is a certain 
delicacy of feeling by which most persons think it, in a measure, 
degrading to acknowledge in after life, that they have received 
their education and support in a charitable establishment. It is 
not desirable to destroy this sentiment of self-reliance and inde- 
pendence in the scholars, as much of their future success in life 
will depend on its proper cultivation. By the payment of a 
moderate charge, even less than what is necessary to support the 
boys, they will be induced to look upon their condition as honor- 
able, will be saved from the imputation of pauperism, and the in- 

xxxiv APPENDIX. 

stitution itself will thereby be enabled to preserve that dignity 
which is required to command the respect and attachment of the 

" It by no means follows," says the report referred to, " that be- 
cause a child is an orphan, or the victim of crime and bad exam- 
ple, that it has no means of support. On the contrary, it often 
happens that the near relations, or guardian, or surviving pa- 
rent, are abundantly able to meet its expenses at a boarding school. 
If, unable to control the children committed to their care, or un- 
willing to make the necessary exertions, they choose to consign 
them to others, it is but right that they should pay the cost of their 

" Many, however, are children of the very poor, and have no rel- 
atives able to defray their expenses at the Asylum. These can 
either claim a residence in some parochial district, or they cannot. 
If they cannot, then, as before remarked, our doors fly open for 
their reception, and they are clothed, fed and instructed, till a more 
permanent home can be provided for them. If they have a pa- 
rochial residence, then we refer them to their parish priest for his 
advice in the case. There are few parishes who have not some 
Young Catholic's Friend Society or other charitable association 
whose object is to search for, protect and save the bereaved and 
wandering lambs of the flock. When a case of distress is made 
known to them, they are prompt to relieve it. Neither one indi- 
vidual nor one parish could possibly maintain the burden of all. 
It is but just and reasonable that each parish should support the 
children they actually send. The tax in that case falls more equit- 
ably than if all the parishes were required to make annual collec- 
tions, affecting only those directly interested." 

It must not be expected, however, under any system, that an in- 
stitution of this kind can be made entirely self-supporting. Boys 
do not earn their board and clothes anywhere, at the age at which 
they are generally admitted to the Asylum, and if they could do 
o by dint of labor, it is not advisable that so much should be ex- 
acted from them. They require the greater portion of their time 


for school exercises, and another considerable part of it for re- 
creation, and if they give another portion to labor, it must be of 
such a nature as not to disgust them with their situation. 

Some persons are strongly prepossessed with the notion that 
farming is not only the best but the sole occupation in which the 
scholars should be engaged. Against this theory, which, as far as 
we know, has never been tried practically in this country, it is 
urged that farming is not the most profitable occupation ; that 
families settled on farms, do little more than earn a livelihood; 
and that farm work does not afford a sufficient variety, nor is it suf- 
ficiently in-doors to suit the capacities of most scholars. It is 
urged besides, that an Asylum situated on a farm, does not afford 
sufficient facilities of approach to be eminently useful. It cannot 
be visited by parents or friends of the boys as easily as if situated 
in a large city ; the expenses of transportation are considerable, 
and the department for externs, or boarders, so necessary and al- 
most indispensable, could not be carried on. 

We are in favor of a dependence on public charity to some ex- 
tent, but not entirely. The Catholic people take greater interest in 
what they support by their own exertions, and an institution of 
this kind is so truly benevolent, and so intimately connected with 
the interests of the masses, that it would grow in popularity by be- 
ing made, from time to time, the object of charitable contributions. 
Neither would it be judicious to rely entirely on Christian benevo- 
lence for a support. This would be too precarious, and care should 
be taken that the exercise of charity does not become burdensome. 
We are of opinion that every exertion should be made to endow 
Schools and Asylums of this kind, and put them in receipt of a 
steady income. The Asylum in Chicago has secured a considera- 
ble investment in such branches of business as can be carried on 
by the inmates of the place, under the direction of qualified trades- 
men. This investment has thus far proved profitable, and so long 
as the direction of affairs are in competent hands will, no doubt, con- 
tinue to pay- well. We would like to see the Brothers of the Chris- 
tian Schools give their attention to the management of such insti- 

xxxvi APPENDIX. 

tutions. They could most probably be more successful than any 
others who might assume such a responsibility, and would be liv- 
ing more in accordance with the spirit of their community than 
by attempting to impart an education in the higher branches of 

This is the age of founding institutions, of building churches, 
and providing for the religious wants of a Catholic people. The 
time which requires the greatest exertion is upon us, and if we have 
done much we cannot cease from the great work before us. More 
remains to be done, and we can do it, and carry it to completion 
with greater ease than we have effected what is already performed. 
Let us push forward the great enterprise, not only for the sake of 
ourselves and our children, but for the innumerable blessings that 
through our labors of the present will be perpetuated to remote 



With very many people it is a plausible argument that the 
Popes did not always possess temporal power, and therefore they 
should be deprived of it now. If ever any argument was illogical 
this surely is, for what living ruler today can claim the right of 
governing on the authority of an unbroken line for eighteen hun- 
dred years? No one chief magistrate in the world; and least of 
all, the present Emperor of the French. Most of those who oppose 
the temporal sovereignty do so through motives of hostility to the 
Papacy itself ; for they suppose, wrongly indeed, that the tempo- 
ral is so intimately connected with the spiritual power that the lat- 
ter must of necessity go down with the former. It is not our pur- 
pose, however, to show, in this place, what the nearness or remote- 
ness of their relationship is, nor what their relative dependence, 
we merely wish to make history give a negative answer to the 
question with which we commenced. 


Christ shall possess the world, because the Father has given it to 
him. By this prerogative He shall acquire it, as it were by slow 
conquests, as He has acquired what He already possesses of it. We 
say slowly, not indeed as it regards Himself, but as it concerns us 
who await His day. As for Him, He has no time, for the whole 
duration of time is but a flash when compared to His eternity. 
But it is not in God, it is in man that He desires to make this con- 
quest, so that by its slowness He may show what an insignificant 
being man is of himself, and, by a victory supposed impossible, 
how powerful this same being is in the hand of the Almighty. 
In order to display this greatness and this power, He wished, at 
first, to take Rome, which, as the world knows, was both great and 
mighty. He, therefore, whom He had made His Vicar and with 
whom He had promised to remain all days, Peter, one of those 
rude and unpolished men who were called the dross of the earth, 
descended from Calvary to Rome, the mistress of the universe, and 
taking possession of it, inaugurated an order of miracles as wonder- 
ful as those performed by Christ Himself. Rome, the ruler of the 
world, thus taken became a pledge, a hostage for the world ; and 
the entry of the Apostolic prince into the eternal city placed the 
;seal of Christ upon the inheritance which had been given to Him. 
Behold ! the result of mingled power and weakness ; the work of 
God achieved through human agency. The Cross was the first 
tree planted by Peter in his dominions. To it he was fastened 
with his head downwards, in order that he might be nearer to the 
'Catacombs, into which the roots of the life-giving tree of his real 
and imperishable sovereignty descended deep. The blood of Paul 
flowed by the side of the gibbet of Peter; and thus, during ages 
the new sovereigns planted and irrigated, fertilizing with their 
blood, that Rome which had been given them, and irrigated it 
more profusely with their blood than its pagan masters had done 
with the blood and tears of captive nations. 

At length the Catacombs found themselves full sufficiently full 
to enrich with sacred relics all the altars which were erected in 
after times throughout the world, and then the mysterious royalty 

xxxviii APPENDIX. 

of the apostle began to manifest itself openly. The emperor, 
abandoned Rome. They carried with them, the seat, the shadowy 
symbol of the empire, and the empty title of high priest, the pon- 
tificate of the rejected gods ; but the Bishop of Rome was left mas- 
ter of the Vatican, besides the deserted Capitol and the Curia, now 
only the monument of their former greatness. Ages rolled on 
and the city had in reality no other chief but this humble Priest ; 
and though there might still have remained some men of learn- 
ing, some senators attached to the worship of the Penates and the 
immortal gods, there was no other people than the Christian people ; 
no other sanctuaries of refuge than those of the Church. When 
Alaric had been appeased and Attila driven back, then came To- 
tila, king of the Goths, who carried the senate into captivity and 
left the city a desert. Belisarius hastened back, bringing with him 
for the last time, the Roman eagles. The sound of his trumpet 
announcing his arrival went forth from the capital, and was an- 
swered back by the echo of the surrounding solitude on which the 
the victorious general gazed with dismay. No triumphal arches, 
no cohorts, no senate, no Roman people appeared. The gods had 
fallen in the dust, and their broken statues never more regained 
their pedestals Pagan Rome had passed away! 

But the seeds, of life sown, by Peter survived the invasion of To- 
tila, as they had survived the power of Claudius and of Nero. The 
Bishop of Rome came back to Rome, but the senate never return- 
ed. He brought back with him the Christian people ; and in the 
next century the Pope, St. Gregory I, could write : " The Pastor of 
Rome is so burdened with external affairs that he hardly knows 
whether he is Bishop or king." At a later period, towards the 
times of Pepin and Charlemagne, this royalty de facto and dejure, 
assumed its real name, when, at length, the Popes, in order to save 
Italy and preserve civilization in the world, were obliged to take 
away from the effeminate Emperors of Byzantium, that part of the 
empire so long secured to them by the Papacy. The transition, 
however, wa.s only in name, for the Romans knew, the world knew, 
that the Pontiffs, not the emperors, were then the real rulers of 


Rome. Centuries had, in fact, already elapsed during which Rome 
was governed, re-peopled and nourished by her Bishops alone. It 
was in truth, Leo, the Isaurian, who, by his fanaticism in favor of 
the Iconoclastic heresy, had placed the temporal crown on the 
brow of the Popes, and who raised the tempest that separated By- 
zantium from her Italian empire. Leo, the Isaurian was a block- 
head and a bad man. Those princes who quarrel with the Church 
are always notorious for their wickedness or their stupidity ; and 
very frequently both these qualities are found combined in them. 
The emperor caused the images of the Redeemer to be broken at 
Constantinople ; and in return the people of Italy broke his im- 
ages, regardless of the laurels which crowned them. To the warn- 
ings of the Pope the emperor replied by threatening to have him 
dragged in chains to Constantinople. " Take care of the people," 
said the Pope. But the Byzantine emperors no longer knew what 
a Pontiff was. They desired to found a species of those national 
churches, so dear to that class of sages who wish to have a religion 
for the people a state religion a human invention. Gibbon, one 
of the most distinguished lights among these popular religion doc- 
tors, restrained a little by the historian's conscience, gives us the 
difference between the Pontiff and the office-holder : " The Greek 
prelate was a domestic slave under the eye of his master, at whose 
iiod he alternately passed from the convent to the throne, and from 
the throne to the convent. A distant and dangerous station, among 
the barbarians of the West, excited the spirit and freedom of the 
Latin Bishops." 

He continues, and speaks the truth, without speaking more 
justly about the Popes: "Their popular election endeared them to 
the Romans ; the public and private indigence was relieved by 
their ample revenue ; and the weakness or neglect of the emperors 
compelled them, to consult, both in peace and war, the temporal 
safety of the city. In the school of adversity the priest insensibly 
imbibed the virtues and the ambition of the prince. The same 
character was assumed, the same policy was adopted by the Italian, 
the Greek or the Syrian, who ascended the chair of St. Peter; and 


after the loss of her legions and provinces, the genius and fortune 
of the Popes again restored the supremacy of Rome." How much 
caution is used to establish and interpret these facts, independ- 
ently of a miracle of Divine assistance I Describing the fearful 
times in whose midst was accomplished the very prodigy which he 
explains without understanding, Gibbon thus expresses himself: 
" The want of laws could only be supplied by the influence of re- 
ligion, their [the Romans] foreign and domestic counsels were 
moderated by the authority of the bishop. His alms, his sermons, 
his correspondence with the kings of the West, his recent services, 
their gratitude and oath, accustomed the Romans to consider him 
as the first magistrate of the city. The Christian humility of the 
Popes was not offended by the title of Dominus, or Lord ; and' 
their face and inscription are still apparent on the most ancient 
coins. Their temporal power is now confirmed by the reverence 
of a thousand years ; and their noblest title is the free choice of a 
people whom they had redeemed from slavery." Gibbon was no 
friend of the Papacy, and we think that his testimony can readily 
convince an honest mind that the Popes are not the tyrants, nor 
their subjects the slaves, which prejudice so often represents them 
to be. Bondmen and free choice are strangers to one another. But 
after this avowal, forced, by the logic of facts, from a non-Catholic, 
let us listen to the soul-stirring words of a French Bishop : " Rome 
is a work of the love, of the intelligence, of the fidelity of the Sov- 
ereign Pontiffs. They have filled it with their tears and their 
blood ; they have adorned it with heavenly beauty ; it is their in- 
heritance. Fathers, sublime artists, generous defenders, there is 
no title, there is no prerogative by which they do not hold it!" 

It is thus that the temporal power of the Popes has been estab- 
lished. No other government springs so deeply and so legiti- 
mately from the nature of things. Nowhere employing material 
force, but everywhere rudely opposed by it ; without the means or 
the intention of aggrandizement, the Papacy became mighty with- 
out knowing it. 

Those stormy ages which had swept away every ancient land- 


mark, and carried along with them institutions, empires, nations 
and gods; those lawless consequences of brutal force labored as 
faithfully for the marvelous construction of the Papal throne, as 
they had been assiduous in the overthrow of the most powerful 
works of antiquity. Slow miracle! So much the more glorious 
and sublime ! Work of God ! by the hand of man : not by the 
hand of those willing to accomplish it, but by the hand of those 
who saw it not, who supposed it not, and who desired it not ! As 
to those who were willing to obey God, and whom Providence had 
also employed, their aim was to uphold the spiritual dominion of 
the Church. The barbarians and the emperors have in their turn 
carried the building stones, and placed and cemented them in the 
position indicated by the invisible Architect, who alone knew the 
plan, who alone marked the hour, and who alone had chosen the 
material. The barbarians and the emperor, equally noted for their 
sacrilegious enterprises, have also had an equal share in the foun- 
dation of that royalty without a precedent and without an example 
in the world. Their persecutions have made Eome what it is, the 
impregnable citadel of liberty, against which barbarity and impe- 
rialism have dashed themselves to pieces. Just as the waves, while 
they increase their fury along the shores, only heighten the banks 
which they threatened to submerge, by deepening their own bed. 
They may constantly roll against them, and in times of great ag- 
itation succeed in covering them with foam ; but, unless God 
would change the laws of nature, the sea shall roll and foam for- 
ever within the bounds first assigned to it at the creation. So, too, 
shall the fury of men and the power of hell beat in vain against 
the Rock on which rest the everlasting foundations of the Church. 
When the work had been finished, then men saw that it was 
good, and they made it their regulating principle. From that per- 
secuted place, that city called Rome, tormented by wicked empe- 
rors, in the absence of barbarians, not more cruel, the Papacy be- 
gat Catholic nations far away from Italy and Byzantium. Such 
was the result of what Gibbon calls a " correspondence " of the 
Popes with the people of the West. The East was falling into her- 


esy ; the West was ruled by heretical barbarians. " Then," says 
Baronious, " God raised up for himself a prince from the midst of 
the unbelievers ; a privileged people was formed who would pro- 
tect His Church against the assaults of heresy and the power of 
the barbarians," and soon the nation of Clovis, in " correspond- 
ence " with the Popes, became the nation of Charlemagne. Let us 
hear again what the great Prelate, already alluded to, says : " Ev- 
ery human act which transpires here below is only the execution 
of a part of an eternal design. When God wishes to employ a 
man as a direst or chosen agent, He adorns his soul with filial pi- 
ety towards the Church. At the necessary time he shall go forth 
and ascend to take his place in the front ranks, so that his actions 
may be the more fully and freely displayed." It was thus with 
Oharlemagne. " That man so great," says de Maistre, " that great- 
ness has become incorporated with his name, and whom the voice 
of the human race has pronounced greatness instead of great." 
During the times of Charlemagne the Iconoclastic dynasty of the 
Isaurians was continued at Byzantium by a Copronymus, who 
merited on the throne the ignoble surname which he had earned 
at the baptismal font ; and it passed away in the person of Flavins 
Constantino, betrayed by his flatterers, defeated by his tributaries ) 
and dethroned by his mother, whose maternal counsel had him. 
deprived of his sight. Charlemagne undertook more than fifty 
military expeditions, the greater number of which he himself com- 
manded. Everywhere his victorious arms smoothed the way for 
the Gospel. Under his sway manners grew gentle, the sciences 
and the peaceful arts flourished, and the day of true civil liberty 
began to dawn. The civilization which the envoys of the Sover- 
eign Pontiffs had introduced among the Gauls, took root in their 
genial soil and never left it. But Charlemagne would have been 
only a meteor, much less a conqueror, or, rather, he would have 
been a barbarous invader, like the chiefs of the Huns and Goths, 
who quickly disappeared, if he had not loved the Church. He 
was a dutiful son to her, and she was to him a beneficent mother. 
Inspired by her love, obedient to her laws, he received from her 


those lights which made him so truly great. Never were the 
priesthood and the empire so united as at that hour, and never 
could human wisdom have created a union so majestic and so pow- 
erful. Charlemagne went to Rome, where he saw the work of 
ages and completed it. The Pope beheld Charlemagne, recog- 
nized the man sent by God, and made him Emperor. Each acted 
his own part : the prince acknowledged and confirmed the labor 
of the past ; the Pontiff raised the veil of the future. 

In the year 800, on Christmas day, the eve of a new age, the 
successor of Peter, St. Leo III, consecrating Charlemagne at Rome 
instituted the empire of the West, the holy Roman empire. The 
Sovereign Pontiff did what he alone, in the fulness of his authority, 
could do. Charlemagne, say modern historians, understood him 
with the discrimination of latter times. They add, (yet what do they 
know of it?) that the chief of the Franks, with the most finished 
prudence, wished to appear surprised when the Pope anointed his 
head with the sacred oil and placed the imperial crown upon his 
brow. The philosophy of Charlemagne did not go so far as to 
make him doubt of the prerogatives of the Sovereign Pontiff, neither 
did his " prudence " lead him far enough to fear the armies of the 
Empress Irene, the widow of Copronymus, and the mother of Fla- 
vins Constantine. If he appeared surprised, it was precisely be- 
cause he was so, and because the Pope, before that time, had only 
spoken to God concerning what he was about to do in the name of 
Him whom, the regenerated human race recognized as the King of 
kingdoms and empires. 

" On the glorious night of Christ's nativity, the Sovereign Pontiff 
presented a sword and a helmet, surmounted by a dove, to a great 
Christian Prince. The ceremony is complete with symbols. By 
the Incarnation the Son of God conquered the author of death ; a 
victory so grand is fitly represented by the sword, which is indeed 
emblematical of the supreme power conferred by Christ on the Pon- 
tiff, His vicar on earth, according to the sacred text : All power is 
given to me in heaven and on earth; and elsewhere : He shall rule 
from sea to sea, and from the ocean to the ends of the earth. The helmet 


with the dove, is typical of the protection of the Holy Ghost ex- 
tended over the brave man honored by the gift of the Sovereign 
Pontiff. Such are the beautiful meanings of this ceremony. The 
hand armed with the sword, the head shielded with the mys- 
terious helmet, bind the noble Christian henceforward to be the 
fearless defender of the Faith and of the Apostolic See." 

Such Charlemagne proved himself to be, and his fidelity to 
Rome was the source of his greatness, which is immortal. His 
course is finished, however ; his empire has fallen ; of his laws and 
institutions, the effect only remains. Another emperor less suc- 
cessful, less Catholic, less great, has taken his place ; his fidelity to 
the Holy See is measured by personal interest and the fear of se- 
cret societies. History will point to the imperial successor of 
Charlemagne as the ally of Alaric and Copronymus ; but in the 
confirmation of the temporal power of the Popes the impress of 
Charlemagne shall remain visible forever. He placed the crown 
of completion on the monument, which, eight hundred years be- 
fore his time, had been slowly erecting, and which, " now confirm- 
ed by the reverence of a thousand years," still rests immovable 
against the assaults of its enemies, on the basis which has been 
laid for it almost nineteen hundred years ago, and which has been 
strengthened by the genius and piety of Charlemagne. 


War tries not only the nations engaged, but individuals and 
minor societies which compose them. Nor are the brave men 
who imperil their lives, and the bereaved mothers, wives, and 
generous friends who bid them go, with God's blessing, the only 
ones whose virtues are tested in the struggle. Those who remain 
at home, who till the soil, who traffic, who spin and weave, and 
work the stubborn ore, all must participate in the- convulsions of 
hope and fear and prejudice, which shake the nation's frame. 


But civil war is not so nmcli like a struggle as the attack of some 
fearful plague, which one after another prostrates the members of 
the human body, advancing towards the seat of life, while every 
power and healthy organ is exercised to its fullest stint to shake 
off the fatal influence, and save the system, from threatened disso- 
lution. In such a crisis all the social virtues are called forth to 
their fullest extent, and all the weaknesses or vices which deform 
the social body are made apparent. Heroic deeds for one's country 
are viewed alongside of works of cruelty and vengeance. Charity 
performs her mission to the destitute, the widow and the orphan, 
the sick and maimed, surrounded by crimes of extortion, rapacity, 
and betrayal of public trust. Religion, the soul of society, the 
imperishable part of the social being which has outlived the death, 
of nations, and the duration of great and powerful governments ; 
religion, the immortal and heaven-born element of human society,, 
would naturally, like the mind in the sickened body, not pass, 
unaffected, but manifest the liveliest sympathy by the interrup- 
tion of her operations, and the effort she would put forth to re- 
store the peaceable and healthful condition of the organism. The 
Church is not of this world, but she is in this world. It is the 
purpose, or end, for which things are made that gives them. a 
name. The Church is a spiritual society, because her object is the 
welfare of souls ; and she is not of this world, because she is not 
human, and principally because she seeks happiness for men, not 
in this but in the life to come. But the means which she may 
adopt, or the instruments which she may employ, for the purpose 
of sanctifying and saving souls, must frequently be of this world 
her temples, her schools, her convents, her asylums, the sup- 
port of her pastors and missionaries, all must be taken from this 
world, and being ennobled by their sacred use, contribute to the 
eternal well-being of mankind. As the peaceful and orderly con- 
dition of society, and the full and effective exercise of virtue, pro- 
motes the interests of religion, so religion reflects her benign in- 
fluence on society, by spreading profusely Charity, Joy, Peace, and 
the other gifts of the Holy Spirit so eminently beneficial to men 


in their worldly intercourse. Thus society and religion are so in- 
timately associated, their interests are so near akin, their mutual 
action so important to the well-being of both parties concerned, 
that when we mention the Church, and the War, when we inquire 
how religion may have fared and comported herself during the 
late terrific rebellion how she has come forth from the desperate 
struggle we institute an inquiry touching the dearest interests of 
both our country and the Church. 

There has been no other term as greatly absurd as that of 
" Union of Church and State." We hear it made the subject of 
declamation, and a fruitful topic for the denunciations of popular 
editors. Few outside the Church ever reflect that the State can 
ever be united with religion anywhere but in a catholic country, 
and imagine themselves free from this monster of the fancy by 
being alienated from the Church, whereas a little consideration 
should convince any one that a certain union between Church 
and State is natural, just and holy, and that such a union can 
only take place between society and the Catholic Church. Every 
connection made between sects and society must result in a con- 
fusion of prerogatives, and give rise to acts of tyranny and usur- 
pation on the part of either power. 

We can conceive how Church and State can be united in three 
different ways. First, when the laws of the true religion are 
sanctioned by the secular power which protects the interests of 
religion, and seeks to promote the temporal welfare of the people 
by sustaining religious ordinances, which are the means to the 
attainment of the eternal, because the temporal welfare is natur- 
ally ordered to the eternal. Earthly happiness is promoted by 
being made a means to the everlasting, and mere natural civil 
society is benefited and immeasurably perfected by the salutary 
influence of the supernatural power of religion, disposing men to 
the exercise of every virtue. This union of Church and State is 
rational, most desirable and holy, and can never obtain between 
sects and the secular power, however they may seem or attempt to 
effect it. All religious authority is founded on the right to teach 


what pertains to eternal happiness, and the correlative obligation 
on the part of men to receive such instruction and act upon it. 
In order, however, that men should feel themselves bound to be- 
lieve, they must be convinced that the teacher can not lead them 
into error, or in other words, it is a contradiction to assert the 
existence of a religious authority, unless it is in fact, or claims to 
be, infallible in teaching. Sects or bodies which separate from 
the original government of the Christian society never can have 
infallibility, and never do, for any length of time, lay claim, to it. 
Some of the early heretics, a portion of the leaders of the reforma- 
tion, Swedenborg, and Joe Smith the founder of mormonisrn, may 
have claimed private inspiration for themselves, or others, in 
order to succeed in their several undertakings, but the frequent 
contradictions, the deviations from known truths, and the clear 
want of foundation for private inspiration, very soon induced 
every sect to relinquish its claims to this species of infallibility ; 
and we doubt if there be a body bearing the Christian name out- 
side of the church which believes in the inspiration of its founder. 
No form of religion which does not claim inerrability in teaching 
can require obedience in belief and practice. Every one is free 
to adopt what he knows to be true, and follow what appears to be 
good in his own eyes, unless he is assured that he is certainly in 
the wrong. Hence it would be usurpation on the part of a relig- 
ious body, not claiming infallibility, to command obedience in 
faith or practice, or to attempt legislation in affairs of conscience, 
and the secular power which would enforce such regulations would 
be acting tyrannically in matters of the gravest moment. It is 
consequently evident that the union between Church and State, 
which is to be approved of as natural and sacred, cannot be found 
in the association of any of the sects with any form of secular 
government, and can only be found in the connection with the 
Catholic Church with a government and people who recognize, 
her as the infallible expositor of revealed truth. 

The second form of union between Church and State is that in 
which the secular power absorbs the entire control of religious 

xlviii APPENDIX. 

affairs, and necessarily occurs wherever temporal government 
adopts a sectarian form of worship as that of the nation. The 
sects not being infallible, and not claiming infallibility, cannot 
offer final and supreme decisions in what is to be believed as 
true, and what is to be acted upon as just and agreeable to the 
divine institutions, and since such decisions and their enforce- 
ment are necessary to the existence of a religious body, the conse- 
quence is, that the State must assume this function and act 
.supreme in all matters of controversy concerning doctrine and 
discipline. This is the only union of Church and State which is 
essentially wrong, unjust, and tyrannical. In such a condition of 
things, the State imposes on the people commands, which it has 
no right to promulgate, and whose enforcement is grievously 
oppressive, while the people, if they render obedience, do so in the 
spirit of attachment to their country, pride, obstinance, or fear, 
and very soon must manifest an utter indifference to truth and 
falsehood, right and wrong, and hasten forward to offer themselves 
a ready prey to utter infidelity. Such is the union between 
Church and State which has obtained in England, Denmark, Nor- 
way, Sweden, Prussia, some of the German principalities and can- 
ions of Switzerland since the reformation ; among the followers of 
Mahomet, and among the schismatic Greeks and Russians whether 
under the Eastern Emperors or the Czars. Where the people 
liave been kept in ignorance, and, either by accident, or a syste- 
matic policy, have been deprived of the ordinary advantages of 
mental culture, the wildest superstition has been the result, but 
where, in Germany and England, the sciences and arts have been 
nurtured, and the popular minds developed according to the re- 
quirements of an advancing civilization, the rejection of all super- 
natural influence, or doubt and indifference regarding religious 
truth, has been the consequence. 

The third species of union of Church and State is found in the 
case where the Ecclesiastical dignity acquires, by legitimate 
means, the possession of either civil or political power, or may 
.have added both of these to the office of spiritual ruler. Such a 


conjunction of powers has, for many centuries, been found in the 
person of the Roman. Pontiff, and instances of it are not few in 
the case of bishops and other ecclesiastics, especially in ages past; 
Civil functions are discharged by a few bishops in Germany and 
in the Austrian empire ; but, besides these, with the exception of 
ecclesiastics in the states of the Church, there are no other 
examples of this union of spiritual and secular power in our 
times. We are aware that many have considered the exercise 
of political and civil power as incompatible with the character 
of a minister of religion, and explained such a condition of 
things in past ages on the principle of ecclesiastical usurpation, 
which is a ready and most common reason assigned by non- 
Catholics for most of the peculiarities of the middle ages. 
That the exercise of secular power be necessarily opposed to 
the perfect performance of one's duty, as an ecclesiastic, under 
all circumstances, we think will not be asserted by persons 
of impartial minds. We grant that, unless the possession of 
such power tend to promote the efficacious and more extensive 
performance of the churchman's duty, as minister of religion, it 
becomes an incumbrance, and should be shaken off as incongru- 
ous, and a hindrance, rather than a real advantage; but does it 
not frequently occur that civil power, by which the . minister of 
the church can exact obedience from the obstinate or indifferent, 
is as useful as wealth and honor, which no one doubts are fre- 
quently potent auxiliaries in the discharge of the sacred ministry ? 
If the dignitary exercises political power in order to the sanctifi- 
cation of souls, as the good ecclesiastic does wealth and honor, it 
cannot be doubted but that power, like any other worldly means, 
can be employed, under certain circumstances, for the advance- 
ment of the spiritual interests of men. The Roman Pontiff de- 
fends his temporal sovereignty before the world on this very same 
principle, claiming that the independence of the supreme ruler 
in spirituals would not be properly consulted without supreme 
dominion in the temporal order. It is on account of the benefits 
derived by religion from, the states of the Church, that the Roman. 


Pontiff has sought to retain them, as head of the Church, and 
punished with ecclesiastical censures those who would seek to de- 
prive him of his dominions, and many of the most learned in 
Europe, outside of the Church, have admitted and defended the 
justness of this proceeding. We agree that it is not difficult to 
instance abuses of secular power in the hands of churchmen in 
the middle ages, but do not such examples occur not unfrequently 
in the lives of most sovereigns without causing any consider- 
able alarm ? In the middle ages the ecclesiastics were not only 
the ministers of religion, but the leaders of civilization, masters 
in the arts and sciences, care-takers of men's souls and bodies, the 
promoters of men's temporal as well as spiritual welfare, the civi- 
lizers of the world, as well as heralds of heavenly truth. Men 
who brought the light of the gospel in one hand, held up the 
torch of civilization in the other, and those who tamed the fero- 
cious spirit of the Northern tribes, and induced them to abandon 
their nomadic and other savage modes of life, and gave them fixed 
habitations, teaching them to enjoy the fruits of peace and honest 
industry, must have, even without their will, and from the natural 
condition of things, been forced to accept the management of the 
reins of temporal government, and no doubt they were the most 
competent to hold them so as to exercise a steady and beneficent 
control. Such a conjunction of authority was peculiar to the re- 
quirements of the people of Europe, and when the young civiliza- 
tion had left its infantile condition, and the laity were sufficiently 
elevated to guard the social order, the Church was the first to seek 
a separation, and the ministers of religion abandoned secular 
affairs to give themselves entirely to their sacred avocation. The 
first difference between Henry II, of England, and St. Thomas 
a'Becket arose from the latter refusing to act in a civil capacity, 
and the desperate contest between the Church and Henry IV, of 
Germany, concerning investitures consisted precisely in the right 
which the emperor claimed and the Pontiff denied of investing 
the bishops and abbots with civil authority by placing the episco- 
pal ring on the finger of the invested, and presenting to him the 


pastoral staff. The Pontiff offered opposition for a double reason ; 
first, because the emperor, by conferring the pastoral insignia, 
seemed to arrogate to himself the authority of the Church ; and, 
secondly, because the ecclesiastical dignitaries were absorbed more 
with the affairs of the empire than the care of souls. To many 
other ecclesiastics, as well as Wolsey, might the words be attrib- 

" Had I served my God with, half the zeal 

I served my King, he would not in mine age 
Have left me naked to mine enemies." 

Some, no doubt, have forgotten their higher duties in the ser- 
vice of their country, but the lasting and solid service which has 
been rendered to society by the exercise of political power on the 
part of ecclesiastics deserves the gratitude of every friend of 
European civilization. Bede, in his Eccl. Hist., book III, speak- 
ing of the civil power exercised by the abbots of monasteries 
founded among the Picts and those which St. Columbanus estab- 
lished, shows how naturally the simple people had recourse to 
those who had taught them the true faith, and rescued them 
from the darkness of idolatry, to seek from their greatest bene- 
factors how they should conduct themselves in civil intercourse, 
learn how to settle their differences, reward the good and inflict 
salutary punishment on the forward. 

Constantine conferred 011 the bishops of the Empire the power 
of revising all sentences passed by magistrates in the several dio- 
ceses, and imposed upon governors the obligation of enforcing the 
commands of the hierarchs. Socrates narrates, in the VII book 
of Eccl. Hist., how the Arians represented to the Emperor that St. 
Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, had imposed a tribute of linen 
on the people of all Egypt, and how the saint was sent into exile 
on account of such false accusations. The historian adds that St. 
Cyrille was the first Bishop who had the civil authority of the city 
ot Alexandria conferred upon him. 

This goes to show that as early as the fifth century, the Alex- 
andrine patriarch, exercised a species of civil jurisdiction, not only 
in. the episcopal city, but through the whole extent of Egypt. 


When the Roman power in France went down before the 
advance of the united Huns, Goths, Alans and other barbarous 
tribes led by the ferocious Attila, the Christian people flocked 
around their bishops to take counsel and receive their directions 
as to the best means of defence. We see St. Aignanus, bishop of 
Orleans, when he could not induce the Roman general to defend 
the city, going out to treat with the scourge of God, for the protec- 
tion of the city, as Pope Leo did afterwards for Rome. The dec- 
laration of Pascal II. in the dispute of the investitures wrought a 
great change in the action of prelates, concerning the exercise of 
civil power. He required that all ecclesiastical dignitaries should 
relinquish all civil jurisdiction over cities, duchies, castles, and 
other dominions, with the exception of such as may have been 
left as bequests, or given as offerings to the church ; and thus as 
he himself remarked in his articles of agreement with the 
Emperor, the prelates were relieved of a pressing burthen of 
worldly cares, and were left more at liberty to consult the spiritual 
requirements of the faithful. In those times, however, when the 
feudal system of government was still in its vigor, not only the 
possession of lauds and other valuables were bestowed on the 
Church, but also the charge of the civil government of occupants, 
so that notwithstanding this decree of Pascal, a greater number of 
prelates throughout Europe were found in the possession of civil 
power than the number of those who exercised merely the spirit- 
ual. This interference on. the part of ecclesiastics in secular 
affairs, appears shocking to those only Avho have not understood 
the condition of those times. The people were protected against 
the absolutism and ferocity of the half civilized feudal lords, by 
having their government tempered with the mildness and charity 
of the Christian ministers ; while on the other hand laws of the 
Church could with difficulty be enforced against the strong vices 
and long existing habits of people newly converted, and civil 
power in the hands of the ecclesiastic, was often times necessary 
to the successful performance of his sacred functions. 
St. Bernard, the great advocate of church discipline, and re- 


former of his age, saw clearly the great advantage accruing to re- 
ligion, from the exercise of secular power by the bishops of the 
Church. In his " Discourse to Pastors," he treats with just sever- 
ity, those who gave their attention more to care of worldly things 
than to their sacred duties, but shows at the same time what solid 
aid and profit to religion is the possession of secular power by 
those, who in those peculiar times, were charged with the care of 

We gather from the foregoing, that secular government was 
accepted by ecclesiastics for the temporal well-being of the people, 
when none among the laity, on account of the uncultivated condi- 
tion of the times, could exercise its prerogatives to so much ad- 
vantage. It was sometimes desired and sought for by them to 
aid them in the discharge of their sacred offices. Now that the 
laity are instructed in what pertains to this world, to even a 
greater degree than church-men, the first reason no longer exists 
in civilized countries, and as temporal power brings with it many 
cares but remotely connected with the spiritual order, and even 
dangerous to some extent to the meekness and humility of the 
nearest followers of a crucified Saviour, there are many reasons to 
believe, that generally it would confer but slight, if any advantage 
on religion, if at present possessed by the ministers of the Church. 
We have made the foregoing remarks at some length, before 
arriving at the subject announced in the title of this paper, the 
" Church and the War," because the true relation between the 
position of ecclesiastical rulers and the exercise of civil and politi- 
cal prerogatives should be understood before touching the ques- 
tion before us. In truth, little can be said on the action of the 
Catholic Clergy during the late desperate struggle for national 
existence, which is not generally known. The position of the 
clergy in both the contending parties, has been that of marked 
neutrality, especially when compared with the course pursued by 
sectarian ministers, who, during the last four eventful years, have 
made their pulpits so many rostrums from which were heard the 
most extravagant harangues to the loyalists of the North, and 
the insurgents of the Southern States. 


No doubt the Catholic Clergy as they were found in the rebel- 
lious or loyal States, participated in the prevailing sentiments by 
which they may have been surrounded or in which they may 
have been educated. But if they acted or spoke at all on the 
great matters at issue, they did so in their capacity as citizens 
and private individuals. The Church is Catholic, universal, not 
national or sectional, partisan or sectarian. The Church does not 
wage war, and never undertook a war. She claims a dominion 
over the intellect and will of men, by teaching Christian faith and 
practice, and hence does not require the aid of external force in 
exacting observance of law equally with civil governments, which 
only take charge of men's external deeds. Catholics have been 
engaged in every war, and in both of the contending parties, 
which may have originated among Christian nations, and have 
not on that account been deprived of the communion of the faith- 
ful. It is true that when the Church comes into the legitimate 
possession of some particular government in the temporal order, 
and holds it for the benefit of religion, as does the Roman Pon- 
tiff, and as in former times, many prelates throughout Christen- 
dom have done, she can. defend her rights to it by spiritual pun- 
ishments, the same as in cases of violation offered to her material 
possessions, and for this same reason does the Pontiff at present 
defend his sovereignty by promulgating censures against his 
enemies; but independently of this case of the Church defending 
what is hers, she does not exercise her authority in international 
or civil disputes. The Church teaches morals and the complete 
code of morals, obedience to authority, respect for individual and 
public rights, but the mere matter of fact which falls under the 
dominion of human reason to determine, she leaves to individuals 
to discuss and decide. Hence the Catholic is more independent in 
mere political matters than the sectarian can possibly be, for the 
sects as they have done in the present rebellion, and in every civil 
and political contest presume to dictate in all things to the in- 
dividual member, and if he desires to exercise his faculties, and 
ask who is the subject of authority, or how public policy is to be 


regulated, he must agree with the majority of his co-religionists, 
or abandon their communion. Every sect in the country, as far 
as we can recollect, has been severed regarding the merits of the 
late rebellion, and even on points of governmental policy on either 
side, have members been read out of their fraternities. All this 
arises from the nature of religious bodies outside of the Church, for 
inasmuch as they recognize no properly so-called religious author- 
ity, they necessarily prostitute their religion to whatever may be 
the popular opinion or the dominant party. Sectarian bishops and 
ministers have led the Southern insurgents, and preachers acted 
as generals in the national armies, who have read each other out of 
their several communions, and evoked on each other not only 
temporal, but eternal ruin. We are convinced that there are few 
men of sound thought in the country who are not persuaded that 
the various denominations have gone too far, and regret to see 
those religious tenets for which they had entertained a high re- 
spect, passed over and almost ignored in comparison to the great 
questions of national interest. Much of whatever religious truth 
had been partially held by the several sects, has been lost in the 
late conflict, and the nation comes out of the war in this respect, 
less Christian than when she entered it. We have gained, how- 
ever, the destruction of slavery, which is a great benefit, and one 
that can hardly be over-estimated. Slavery is an evil, but not the 
greatest of all evils, and hence can only be tolerated where greater 
evils would be likely to ensue from an attempt to remove it. It is 
a condition of society in which both the master and servant are 
generally in a worse condition than they would be otherwise. 
The Church has been the constant and effectual enemy of slavery. 
She has so protected the slave against abuse that she has rendered 
him unprofitable under ordinary conditions to his master, and 
hence effected his liberation by a steady, gradual, and peaceable 
course of action. While we read the history of the feudal times, 
and how the serfs were relieved from labor by the number of 
holidays, and from military service by the tregua or days of peace, 
observe the action of the Church prohibiting the slave trade, pro- 
tecting the aborigines of the Americas against the rapacity and 


avarice of the Spaniards and Portugese, remember a Las Casas, or 
the Jesuit Reductions of Paraguay, and recall to mind that this 
most extensive and absolute African Slavery of this country was 
introduced and established by the English protestant colonies, we 
may mourn the many and dire miseries which have befallen our 
late prosperous, peaceable and happy country, but hail as a blessing 
the overthrow of the greatest monument of barbarism known in 
later times. 

A few denominational prints have raised a cry of persecution of 
Catholics as the next subject of pulpit agitation, which may in any 
wise be adequate to supply the want felt by the suppression of the 
late rebellion. These expressions of a few obscure fanatics con- 
nected with a resolution passed at an assembly of the Old School 
Presbyterians, held lately in Brooklyn, to the effect that " there 
should be a united action against the advancement of Catholicity," 
has afforded a subject of conversation to many on the probable 
union of the sects against the Church in this country. We do not 
believe that there is any denomination so blinded to its interest of 
recruiting members, as to become responsible for such an attack, 
for there are none of these zealots who " are not wise enough in 
their generation " to know that the result must prove a signal 
defeat. The whole matter is a subject of amusement rather than 
one to which persons of judgment and discrimination would give 
a moment's serious consideration. More Catholic soldiers have 
fought in the national armies and returned to their homes, than 
there are of old ladies and gentlemen who have yet heard the 
suggestion of a Catholic persecution ; and more Catholic generals 
are yet in command of the national armies than there are 
preachers who dare urge such measures in. the face of the Ameri- 
can people. Catholic persecution has been tried to its utmost in 
know-nothingism, and the result is, that its adherents must either 
sink into their original obscurity, or defend themselves as best 
they can from its disgrace. We would be much pleased to see 
such a course of action adopted by the fanatics of the country, as 
it would wake up the people from the fatal indifferentism in which 


they repose, and call public attention to the merits of Catholic 
doctrine. There is not sufficient earnestness among sectaries to 
conduct a persecution against the Church. There is no earnest 
belief amongst them. The people have passed that point where 
they feared the influence of Church on society, and the first 
signal of attack would call forth the ablest men of the country, 
independent of religion, to place upon the coffin of religious 
bigotry, the inscription that it was dead and buried forever in the 
land. The conduct of the Catholic clergy in the late war, has 
sufficiently demonstrated that the Church is not of this world, 
arid seeks to serve men in the next world, leaving them to consult 
their temporal well-being with that light with which their maker 
has endowed them. Elevated above the agitated sea of prejudice, 
passion and strife, she sought aid from above when none could be 
obtained on earth, to restore peace and the blessings of a just and 
strong beneficient government. 


There is nothing new in the late Encyclical of the Holy Father, 
and nothing expressed in a manner different from, that which we 
see generally observed in similar instructions. 

The list of condemned propositions attached to the Encyclical 
letter, only repeats what may be found in the various allocutions, 
and other apostolic instructions of Pius IX, and the letter itself con- 
tains nothing which should not be known by any properly informed 
Catholic, or that instructed Protestants do not know, is taught by 
the Church. Why, then, this unusual commotion of public 
thought and feeling regarding the Encyclical? The answer is 
obvious. False social principles have seized upon the public 


mind ; have been propagated by individuals, and adopted by 
governments, and the letter of Pius IX has struck the most 
cherished and radical errors of the day. Nor are these erroneous 
opinions confined to those outside of the Church. Catholics them- 
selves have been endeavoring to forget or overlook the plainest 
truths pertaining to Christian society, and while professing 
Catholicity, have attempted to practice it heretically, by not 
adopting it in its integrity, as a rule of action, and by selecting 
such portions of it as might have pleased themselves. Catholic 
governments have not acknowledged the Church as an unerring 
guide in what is moral right and wrong; have not subjected 
themselves to Catholic teaching ; have not only refused to aid the 
Church, in her endeavors to enforce sound morals and teach 
Christian truth, but have not unfrequently been themselves the 
most flagrant violators of her commands, professing open defiance 
to her authority, and declaring their indifference to her and every 
other form of worship, however extravagant. Individual Catholics 
have likewise permitted themselves to swerve from sound princi- 
ples regarding science and revealed truth. They have refused to 
acknowledge the Analogy of Faith as a guide in the pursuit of 
human knowledge, have declared reason emancipated from the 
Divine authority, and proclaimed the independence of the mind in 
mere rational speculation, introducing infidelity in the domain of 
philosophy, as governments have done in reference to society. 

The Encyclical is a universal instruction, emanating from the 
highest authority in the Church of Christ on earth, warning 
Catholics of errors which they have already fallen into, or which 
they may be in danger of adopting. Non-Catholics are not ex- 
pected to benefit directly by such instructions. The more forcibly 
the Catholic doctrine is expounded to them, the more are their 
prejudices excited ; because the difference between them and 
Catholics becomes more striking, and their belief and practice in 
respect to ours more strongly opposed. The intention of the teach- 
ing Church is, that we ourselves receive this instruction which is 
given, that we may correct our views, make it the rule of our con- 


duct as circumstances require, and form our lives upon it, regard- 
less of what those outside the Church may think of us or Catholic 
doctrine. If we be desirous of bringing others into the Church, we 
need not expect to effect our purpose by going half way to meet 
them, by surrendering a portion of Catholic doctrine which may 
be particularly disagreeable to them. By pursuing such a course, 
we would not only fail to make them Catholics, but lose the true 
religion ourselves, by departing in some respect from the integrity 
of an indivisible faith. It then behooves us to be solicitous how 
we receive the instructions of the Encyclical ourselves, rather than 
to be concerned how others are effected by them. At least, it is 
our first and paramount duty to apply them to our own minds, 
correct and enlarge our views by them, ask ourselves if we have 
differed from them in the past, and make them the landmarks in 
our theory and practice in the future. We are convinced that out- 
siders would be influenced more favorably by Catholic doctrine, if 
we ourselves were more intent on acquiring a clear and forcible 
knowledge of it, that we may give it a faithful exposition, than, 
they are by our readiness in offering apologies for its 'seeming 
asperities, and by taxing ingenuity to show them that after all they 
do not differ widely from Catholics in their opinions. 

We cannot ignore the fact that most erroneous and pernicious 
opinions regarding Church and State, the forms of spiritual and 
secular power, the combination of civil and ecclesiastical law, have 
been growing, and gradually spreading among Catholics, and in 
many places taking a firm hold on the popular rnind, during a 
period of nearly a century. 

The French revolution, although it failed by overreaching 
itself sought in theory, and, as it was set forth by its prime 
movers, to separate society from the Church, to establish the social 
order on a mere rational basis, without admitting into its consti- 
tution a single Christian element ; no Christian doctrine, no 
discipline, no influence, if possible, was permitted to enter this 
dominion of pure nature, this kingdom of mere human reason. 
The revolution failed, but its fury was deeply felt, and was far from. 


being spent in vain. The stalworth monarch of the forest that 
has braved the tempests of a hundred years, will show some scars 
as indications of the struggles in which he came off victorious ; the 
frowning cliff will show some indications on its front of how it 
braved the fury of an angry ocean ; and so the human mind, after 
having hurled aside the tide of atheism and tempest of anarchy 
which swept over it at that eventful period, threatening to make 
a tomb for civilization amidst the ruins of religion and society, 
came out victorious from the struggle, but not unscathed. Sound, 
enlightened thought, was deeply wounded. Many a fair flower of 
social virtue was swept away, and many a sound principle dis- 
sipated, broken from the public mind like branches from a trunk, 
which cannot be replaced, but must be reproduced. A generation 
grew up during this age of reason, trained in irreligion and social 
mania ; and when, oppressed with the miseries of its condition, it 
was compelled to invite government to the throne and religion to 
the sanctuary, it did so not because they were beloved, but because 
they were considered useful. . Religion was received more as a 
servant than a friend, more as an ally in need than a cherished 
companion ; not because it was to promote spiritual welfare or 
save souls, but because it was necessary to temporal well-being, a 
promoter of worldly happiness. The property of the Church was 
confiscated in France, and the freedom of the clergy restrained by 
dependence on the State for yearly pension. The Josephine laws, 
infringing on the prerogatives of the Church, were established in 
Germany, and the Code Napoleon, with its materialistic; groveling, 
anti-religious ordinances, imposed upon conquered Italy. The 
civil policy of the first Napoleon treated religion as a subject of 
the empire, as something to be used by the temporal power in 
governing the masses. He retrenched holy days established his 
censor of public worship sought to obtain the appointment of 
bishops, and endeavored to acquire a predominancy in the sacred 
college, that he might control the election of the Popes. 

It is with some difficulty that a sudden change of opinion is 
brought about in the individual mind, on account of the force of 


habit of thinking and acting in a determined manner for a 
length of time; but when the opinions of an entire people, of a 
nation, a continent, or the views of a generation, are changed, 
the agencies must not only be powerful, but the process must be 
as slow as petrefaction, and as insensible as the dew that settles on 
the evening flowers. The generation of the revolution reared 
another, which, with less ardor, carried on the strife against the 
altar and the throne in France, Germany and Italy, until it 
broke forth, in '48, in the extravagances which we ourselves have 

Again sound thought came forth and condemned the disorders 
which the anarchical spirit had brought forth ; governments 
were re-established, and again were peans chanted in the praises 
of religion. Religion returned to take her seat on the foot-stool of 
the throne, to be the very menial of civil power and bear the op- 
probrium of the crimes of civil rulers. The, until lately, pros- 
perous condition of the United States, has acted powerfully on the 
minds of these revolutionists, or, as they have been styled, liberal- 
ists, of Europe. They saw our growing prosperity ; they felt our 
moral influence and material strength, and asked themselves could 
they not rival us, or at least imitate our young Republic, in the 
Old World. They only viewed the exterior of our nation, and 
were effected by its fair proportions, which they sought to copy, 
without either the skill or material which had reared the noble 
fabric in the Western Hemisphere. They saw our republican 
constitution, universal suffrage, vast civil freedom, and admirable 
order and general contentment of our people, and sought a con- 
stitutional government by the establishment of radical individ- 
ualism. They witnessed the non-interference of temporal power 
in affairs of religion, and sought to resemble us by casting off 
religion from the companionship of the civil power, suffering its 
laws to be violated, and abused it themselves, forgetting that our 
government is founded on Christian principles, is their protector 
and defender, and only ceases to act in favor of a given point of 
doctrine, when it is found not to be essential to social order, and 


one on which the people widely differ. With the exception of 
De Tocqueville, Lacordaire, and others of the Catholic party, we 
find none who seemed to understand the true secret of American 
prosperity, and we know of no work which has done more to pro- 
duce a healthy tone in public thought, regarding social principles 
than " Democracy in America." England has also been an object 
of admiration for the liberalists of continental Europe, and has 
been as little understood by them as was our own country. By 
her favorable position and successful wars, England has, even in 
the last century, held the position of the first commercial power 
of the world. She is seen planting her colonies in distant lands, 
and drawing to her rock-bound shores the wealth of 


Or where the gorgeous East, with richest hand, 
Showers on her kings barbaric pearls and gold. 

Her vast commercial interests and corresponding manufact- 
uring power have brought her before the eyes of the world as 
the personification of material greatness, while the superficial 
observer has overlooked the lowly condition of her populace ; the 
ignorance and poverty of her manufacturing classes; the in- 
human state in which her miners and poverty-stricken population 
of the rural districts are found, whose civil rights areas limited 
as are those of the subjects of the most absolute autocrat. They 
have not considered that England's greatness, her predominance 
on the seas, has come to her by the fortunes of war, and that 
her riches and constitutional privileges are enjoyed only by the 
higher classes, on whom the permanency of the whole system 
depends. They had seen her Protestant government, which had 
thrown off allegiance to the Church, and assumed supremacy in 
religion itself, and concluded that the model government of which 
they dreamt should be indifferent to religion only inasmuch as it 
subserves the temporal order, and can be wielded for national 

We do not maintain that the irreligious tendency of this self- 
styled liberal party finds its original and primal cause in the first 
French revolution. It is easily traced back to the Reformation, 


and the agencies which combined to bring about that most im- 
portant event, are the same that orignated the present anti-church 
party. The Reformation is to be traced to the workings of secular 
governments as an efficient cause ; the other agencies, of what- 
ever kind they may have been, were conditions of which the 
governments availed themselves in carrying out their religious 
rebellion. The governments of Northern Europe had long op- 
posed the enforcement of ecclesiastical discipline ; they would not 
practically acknowledge the directing power of the Church in 
Christian morals, and were eager to throw off all restraint that 
might limit the absolute will of monarchs. Many disorders were 
found for some time before the reformation in Germany, England, 
Scotland, Denmark and Norway, but we know that these abuses 
arose from the lack of enforcing discipline, and there are too 
many examples of stubborn opposition to Church ordinance on 
the part of those governments, to permit us to ignore the cause 
which brought about this laxity of discipline. Monarchs would 
manage Church affairs in their dominions according to their 
momentary interests, passions and prejudices, producing grievous 
disorders in religion by promoting their favorites to sacred offices, 
where their vices not only desecrated the holy places, but infected 
those around them. Church authority was intrusted to those 
men who were intended to exercise it rather for practicing extor- 
tion than for guiding the people in the ways of God's command- 
ments. The Holy See had been constantly at variance with some 
one of these governments, from the tenth century. The proflig- 
acy of monarchs required a firm defense of the inviolability of 
Christian marriage, on the part of the Pontiffs, and there is scarcely 
a throne in Europe which has not been protected from dishonor 
through the corrections administered to monarchs by the Holy 
See. The dispute concerning Investitures was, when reduced to 
the question at issue, nothing more than a contention between 
Church and State about the right to appoint bishops and invest 
them with sacred powers. Seizure of church property by the 
secular government was another cause of contention. The Prag- 


matic Sanction, issued by Charles VII, of France, in the assembly 
of Bourges, gave rise to the first Concordat properly so-called 
formed between Francis I, of France, and Pope Leo X. Con- 
cordats are, at the best, only less evils, and are preferable to con- 
fusion ; but they have never been prompted by just motives, on 
the part of Princes. They do not leave the Church to judge of 
the extent of her own rights and powers, and have always arisen 
either from a suspicion on the part of kings that she would usurp 
their rights, or from a desire that they might, encroach on her 

We have made these allusions to history to confirm our asser- 
tion that all the great and lasting heresies now existing, are 
mainly attributable to the usurpations of spiritual jurisdiction by 
secular governments, and that many things which are considered 
as the immediate agencies of heresy and chism are clearly at- 
tributable to the tyranny of secular rulers. How, then, does it 
occur that the church is forever at variance with some govern- 
ment? The answer to this question is given by considering that 
governments as well as individuals, are subject to the Church in 
faith and morals, but as they are her most powerful subjects, com- 
manding each of them more mere material force than she herself, 
they are consequently the proudest and the most disobedient. 
The representative constitutional form of government, is for many 
reasons, preferable to the monarchical, at the present time, for 
the enforcement of ecclesiastical discipline. There the people are 
assembled in there representation, and while such a condition of 
things is found in any country, we can easily preceive the diffi- 
culty of a government dragging a people after it, into heresy or 
chism, by tyranny and oppression. In a country like ours, where 
all forms of religious worship, tolerated here, may be admitted to 
a participation in the government by representation, the religious 
requirements of the people are generally as well consulted as in 
any other nation, and, considering circumstances, Catholics have 
comparatively little reason to complain of our legislation, and he 
who would endeavor to interpret this Encyclical of the Holy See, 


or any other of its dogmatic instructions, to militate against the 
existing relations between Church and State in this country, would 
act most unjustly towards the Church teaching, and give a strik- 
ing exhibition of his incapacity to expound her views. We do 
not mean to say that in our State and local legislation there are 
not sometimes to be found acts which are unfair and oppresive to 
Catholics. The civil government should support the indissolu- 
bility of Catholic marriage, and should leave us free to educate 
Catholic children under our own religious influences, for the same 
reason that it protects Church property, protects the clergy in the 
exercise of their functions, and defends the decorum, of public 
worship ; and it is only the prepossession of the great majority of 
our people against the necessity of dogmatic instruction, and 
their adhesion to the old Protestant principle of the dissolubility 
of marriage, that prevents them from recognizing our rights and 
providing for their protection in these respects, as in others. The 
principle of neutrality, regarding the different forms of worship, 
adopted by the Federal government, and which is generally made 
the model for the action of States and minor governments, is so far 
from being reprobated by Catholics that it meets with their most 
enthusiastic approval. We by no means defend that this princi- 
ple could be admitted in what would be considered absolutely the 
best government, or in other words, we can conceive how a gov- 
ernment could be better ordered and more perfect, where circum- 
stances would permit that the civil authority support and sanc- 
tion exclusively the laws of the true religion. A government 
could only do so, however, when it is thoroughly convinced of the 
truth of the national religion. Such is not the case in the United 
States, nor is it likely to be so for an indefinite period ; for as 
every citizen can. concur in electing our rulers, any religious de- 
nomination, whose practice is not opposed to the more general 
social principles of Christianity, may be represented in the gov- 
ernment, and vested with judicial, legislative or executive powers. 
But if any government could absolutely be better than ours, in this 
respect, ours is, considering the religious differences of our people, 


the best for us, and the best for this country. We may justly 
extol the frainers of the Constitution for inserting in that instru- 
ment, " Congress shall make no law concerning religion or the 
free exercise thereof," and honor the memory of those Catholic, 
neither few, nor of little influence, who gave this measure their 
earnest support. 

Constitutional provisions are not the work of any one man, nor 
the enactments of many at any given time. They are the growth 
of many generations, and arise from the condition of a people, 
which is not determined in a few years, but is the result of a 
lengthy series of historic events. They must be the expression of 
the requirements of a people, become identified with public 
thought, and venerable in the estimation of generations. 

The history of the Catholic colony of Maryland is too well 
known to require any delay in detecting the origin of the prin- 
ciple of freedom of conscience, as expressed in the constitution of 
the United States. These refugees from religious persecution 
made their homes in the wilderness, in order that they might 
practice their religious belief, free from all coercion of the civil 
power, and at the same time open an asylum for all who might, 
seek a refuge amongst them from similar grievances. The very 
fact that' originated their society included the principle of civil 
freedom of religious belief and practice. The Massachusetts 
colony sought to establish a nation of Puritans. Their religion 
was new, and with the enthusiasm of all sectarians who originate 
a form of worship, they endeavored to give it a national protec- 
tion, far removed from the influence of the great powers of Europe 
The Virginia colony was exclusive in its protection of religious 
worship, because it partook more largely of the national feeling, 
sympathies, and religion of the mother country, than any other 
of her American offspring. Maryland suffered for her character- 
istic and cherished principle, but the intermingling of the 
colonists for commercial reasons, and finally their social union, for 
the promotion of common interest and defense, made the princi- 
ples of religious liberty a requirement of all the colonies, and 


thus the peculiar phase of the Maryland government passed as an 
element into the Federal constitution. Civil toleration in the 
United States sprung from the necessity of combining the mem- 
bers of various forms of religious worship in one community, 
that they might co-operate to the common temporal good of all 
under the same government. It was not adapted as an element 
of the best form of government for all mankind, or for every 
people, but as a principle which should enter into the best form of 
government for Americans, who required it not only for that time, 
but still more because they were a prospective people, who pro- 
posed to take in the overflowings of the Old World, and give them 
homes and equal rights with themselves, that they might increase 
and multiply and fill a virgin earth. 

That every civil government should permit freedom of religious 
profession and practice, is false. That in a well organized society 
the government should le equally indifferent to true and false 
worship of the Deity, or should not support the true, and favor it 
by removing obstacles to the free exercise of its powers, is absurd 
in the extreme, and contradicted, not only by sound reason, but by 
the history of our country. A constitution is not a mere written 
instrument containing a division of the governmental powers, and 
the rights of the governed, to be expounded and applied accord- 
ing to the written letter. The written constitution is a mere ex- 
pression of living and acting principles embodied in the public 
thought, and in the minds of the people; and the written docu- 
ment, if useful at all, must be understood, explained and enforced 
according to that significancy which the nation may have 
given to it. 

Our Federal constitution was framed by persons who differed 
regarding Christian doctrine and forms of worship, and was in- 
tended to provide for the temporal well-being of a people. who, 
though disagreeing widely on many points of religious dogma, 
agreed regarding many of the social principles of Christianity, or 
those portions of Christian doctrine which more particularly 
affect the order of societv. While it was desirable that the differ- 


ences existing between the then existing Christian denominations 
should not be touched by legislation, it was the desire of all to 
establish a Christian society, or, in other words, to enforce such 
portions of Christian doctrine touching society, on which there 
was a general agreement. The people of this country would 
never have admitted a colony of Mussulmans into their national 
communion. They never would have tolerated the abhorrence 
of civilization which these religionists profess; their denial of the 
rights of others; their degrading practice of polygamy, and 
many other observances enjoined by the Koran. When our own 
people adopted such religious doctrines as involved a negation of 
the unity of marriage ; founded a community in which all things 
were common with its members, and denied the rights of others 
to their worldly goods, thus infringing the fundamental princi- 
ples of a Christian society, they were warred against, excluded 
from the body of the people, and driven beyond the bounds of 
civilized life. Yet the wise and good of our nation did not look 
upon this treatment of the Mormons as derogatory to the spirit 
of religous toleration, which is expressed in the national consti- 
tution. We hear no complaints of religious intolerance, when our 
State and municipal authorities require the Sunday to be observed 
as a day of rest from servile labor, although the son of Abraham 
may have rested on Saturday, and prayed to his satisfaction, and 
would be readier to labor and traffic on Sunday than any other 
day of the week. The doctrine of Free Love may be discussed 
and professed, but if practiced, its believers would become amena- 
ble to our laws. Marriage is regarded by our laws as the basis of 
the social system, and if the old Manicheans, who held that mar- 
riage is essentially illicit and from an evil principle, attempted to 
establish their conscientious observances in our midst, we would 
soon give them to understand that while we suffer such religious 
practices as do not contradict the more general principles of a 
Christian people, we are intolerant to the contrary, and would ex- 
clude from national protection all who attempt to reduce them to 
practice. The Hussites and Waldenses, who denied the power of 


administering public justice in those who are not themselves 
just and righteous, who confounded the morality of the individual 
with the powers which society had committed to him, and who, 
consequently, refused obedience to those rulers whom they may 
have judged not entirely honest, upright, and temperate, and hence 
took it upon themselves to obey the laws of a community, or set 
them at defiance when able, would be justly persecuted with no 
less severity in these times, and in our own country, than, they 
were in consequence of the the commands of the Lateran council, 
or that of Constance. Superficial thinkers may view the action 
of Catholic princes, regarding the Waldenses, as severe and inde- 
fensible, but while we have the history of the Mormons before 
our eyes, we should learn what would be the inevitable fate of 
these anti-social religionists of the thirteenth century. It is, con- 
sequently, false, as the history of our country clearly demonstrates, 
that no government should favor one religion more than another, 
or that a government should be indifferent to the true religion, or 
treat it as if it did not exist. The principle of freedom of 
conscience in America is not understood by our people, and never 
was understood, to mean universal license of belief and practice, 
but the right to profess and practice such forms of Christian wor- 
ship as existed when the constitution was framed, or which are 
are not radically opposed to the principles of a Christian com- 
munity, or as they understand a Christian community to be 
regulated. In grave matters -of this kind, men easily fall into 
gross and dangerous errors, by exaggerating what is peculiarly 
advantageous to themselves, and depreciating in comparison 
what, in their neighbors, may be both just and useful. The same 
reasons which require the principle of freedom of conscience to 
be restricted to the requirements of our people, may demand that 
other governments which have different interests to consult, and 
different exigencies to satisfy, limit this principle to a more con- 
tracted sphere, or understand it in reference to one determined 
form of worship which the government, with the people, hold as 
the only true religion in which God is to be honored, and in 


which man is to be benefited, both here and hereafter. We would 
certainly depart from the dictates of sound reason if we would 
brand such governments with the stigma of tyranny and injustice, 
if they would support what all hold to be the only saving truth 
to guide men through, time and prepare them for eternity. We 
have been accustomed to hear the Catholic governments of Italy, 
Spain and Austria denounced as despotic, because they endeavored 
to maintain a unity of what they were convinced to be the one 
true religion in their dominions, by sanctioning its ordinances and 
punishing those who would violate them with impunity; but a 
little sound reflection on our own government, and the history of 
the country, would have made us blush with shame 'when we 
heard such erroneous platitudes, even in high places, and made 
the means by which aspirants to public patronage might acquire 
the favor of the people. 

But let xis examine what are the true relations existing between 
the secular power and the Christian religion. The reader need 
not be terrified at the vastness of the subject which we propose to 
discuss, nor fear that we are about to lead him through the inter- 
minable number of social theories that have been originated dur- 
ing the last three centuries; or even expect him to follow us 
through the labyrinth of details in which Church and State meet 
and form a Christian society. The matter is of vast importance, 
over which there has been much contention, but he who has ac- 
quired a knowledge of what the elements of a nation are, and 
how they are combined ; and, on the other hand, has applied him- 
self to consider what is the Christian Church, can with ease, fix 
upon a few general principles which will enable him to determine 
the action of both Church and State, and mark the legitimate 
bounds of either power, in particular cases. 

What then is the nature of society ? Society is the agreement 
or conspiring of many individuals, in order to obtain a common 
good known to all, and by all desired. The constituent elements 
of a society are, consequently, unity of object or good to be ob- 
tained, agreement of the associates in their knowledge of it and in 


their wish to possess it ; and lastly, selection and order of the 
means by which the common good may be obtained. Men may 
agree regarding the common good, may all know it equally well, 
and desire it ardently ; but regarding the means they are to adopt 
in order to obtain it, they will necessarily disagree. To under- 
stand what is conducive to the fulfillment of their common pur- 
pose, it is necessary that each should clearly understand what is 
most conducive to it in every combination of circumstances, which 
is clearly impossible for the mass of mankind. Hence the neces- 
sity of a directing power which is capable of understanding what 
are the most efficient means to be employed in order to obtain the 
good in view, and is besides capable of obliging the associates to 
conduct themselves in a manner that the common purpose may 
be obtained, as a result of their co-operation. Men are induced 
to co-operate for a common end, by instructing them, regarding 
what they are to do, and proposing to them such motives as will 
impel them to act. Consequently, to govern, direct or command 
has been considered correctly to mean the same as induce indivi- 
duals to desire or wish. But intelligent beings cannot be induced 
to agree in their judgment, unless concerning a truth that is self- 
evident or clear to all, nor led to act in concert, unless by the infi- 
nite good. Each individual is free to set aside any particular or 
finite good, but all seek the perfect good, and every perfection being 
found in the Infinite, the infinite good alone can oblige a man to 
seek it in preference to all others. Hence the infinite good 
known to all, and sought by all, is the origin of all social obliga- 
tion. All power is from God. Since social authority or govern- 
ment is the power to oblige, all government must be derived from 
God, the self-evident and summum bonum. He who possesses social 
power must receive it from God, from whom all obligation must 
arise. One individual may hold the authority, as in a monarchy, 
or it may be exercised by many, as in constitutional governments, 
which may or may not be representative, as the persons who gov- 
ern are elected, or hold their offices by hereditary succession. 
Whether the ruling power be exercised by one or many, it must 


be held as participated from God, and must be used to direct the 
associated to God, who is the common, ultimate, and all satisfying 
good that all seek. Hence the object of every association must be 
ordered, in some respect, for the advancement of men to perfect 
felicity, or the possessing of eternal life ; and consequently there 
is no governing power when the object aimed at by the associates 
be evil, or becomes an obstacle to the possession of perfect happi- 
ness. Society may have an almost innumerable diversity of par- 
ticular objects for its end. A national society seeks the peace, or- 
der and interest of a whole people, so that they may live with the 
greatest amount of earthly happiness. 

In a nation, and subject to its authority, various other forms of 
society may arise ; those of cities, counties, towns, commercial as- 
sociations, manufacturing, scientific, educational, and other forms, 
according to the special object which the associates may seek as 
advantageous to them. All these subordinate societies in a nation 
must all redound to the advancement of national felicity, since, as 
members of the national association, they are obliged to do noth- 
ing detrimental to its interests ; as the national authority, while 
seeking the temporal good of all, should do nothing to impede the 
people in their advancement towards the possession of perfect hap- 
piness in heaven ; but is required to facilitate their spiritual wel- 
fare, inasmuch as the reason of all social power is found in the 
necessity of seeking perfect happiness. 

Having made these remarks regarding society in general, and 
particularly in reference to political, civil or secular government, 
let us now turn to consider religious society and sacred govern- 
ment. Since men can associate for the attainment of various ob- 
jects which regard their well-being on earth, for a greater reason 
they can and should combine, and act in concert, in order to ob- 
tain perfect happiness, which is not found on earth, but only be- 
yond the grave, and can be no other than the enjoyment of all 
good, the possession of God, the happiness of heaven. Religious 
society is, consequently, natural to man, and in fact men in all 
times, and all places, have ever been formed into some religious so- 


ciety, and those who, as exceptions, have separated themselves- 
from all religious associations, have justly been subject to the con- 
demnation of the great body of mankind. God has condescended 
to teach men directly in what pertains to their eternal welfare,, 
how they are to worship him, how to act towards their neighbor, 
their*parents, their children, their temporal superiors, how they 
are to treat themselves ; in a word, has declared to men, what is 
morally right and wrong, what actions are conducive to the at- 
tainment of eternal happiness, what would promote their ad- 
vancement, what pleases God and what offends Him, in short, 
what is the whole moral order in which men may walk on earth 
so as to enter heaven. He has also committed His teaching to a 
society, for since all good which is common to many, is sought by 
social combinations, eternal felicity, desired by all men, must be 
obtained through one universal religious society. Hence, the true 
religion must be Catholic, or universal, not only because the truth,, 
which is taught, is for all, but also because the society, which 
guards the eternal welfare of all, must be universal. And so, in 
fact, it was in the patriarchal times, when God, by his visible in- 
terposition acted himself as the great centre of unity between the 
Patriarchs, who, while they acted as temporal rulers, were, at the 
same time, Priests of the Most High, and teachers of religious- 
truth. So it was under the Mosaic dispensation, where an here- 
ditary hierarchy was formed, according to the instruction of God, 
which was to direct His people in the ways of His command- 
ments ; and although the true religion was especially connected 
with a particular nation, that it might be protected against pre- 
valent idolatry, it was, nevertheless, accessible to the people of 
every nation, and actually became universal when it was perfected 
by the appearance of the Messiah, for whose coining it served as a. 

The universality of the Christian Church is a fact easily recog- 
nizable from the Apostolic times. This universal society acquires 
members through faith ; in other words, it convinces men that it 
possesses the truth revealed, and is able to teach it without danger 

ixxiv APPENDIX. 

of erring, and indeed, if such a society were not infallible in its 
teachings, men would not be obliged to believe what it proposes, 
and it could not, nor should not have believers. None can believe 
that which he is not certain of, and hence, no one in reality, can 
.accept the teachings of a Church which cannot teach with cer- 
tainty, or, in other words, which is not infallible, and he who pro- 
fesses to accept the teachings of a fallible Church, acts rashly, unrea- 
sonably, or is a hypocrite, but in reality cannot, nor should not be a 
believer. The first great reason for a Church is to aid men to en- 
ter heaven. Since God has spoken, and left certain truths to guide 
them in their onward course, it follows that no aid can be given 
to men which will promote their advancement, unless they are in- 
structed with certainty in the truths revealed. It would be worse 
than no instruction to teach them erroneously, and consequently 
no religious society can exist which is not infallible. A fallible 
Church is a contradiction, or is no Church. 

Having examined these two kinds of society secular society, 
which promotes our well-being on earth, and religious, which 
takes charge of us inasmuch as we are ordained for eternal hap- 
piness, citizens of heaven, advancing to its possession, let us con- 
sider what relation exists between them, and what are the bounds 
of each. It is evident that the same individual Christian is the 
subject of these two powers, and that it is of the utmost importance 
that they agree, and a very grievous misfortune should they con- 
flict, so as to impose opposite, contrary or contradictory commands 
on the same individual. How far then, should the action of 
either power extend ? This is to be answered from what we have 
.already shown to be the nature of either power. 

Church authority requires that men believe wuat it infallibly 
teaches as revealed truth, and that they practice moral good and 
avoid all moral evil, because moral good is conducive to perfect 
happiness, and moral evil is the only obstacle which debars man 
from its enjoyment. Hence the whole domain of faith and morals 
must be subject to the Church authority, both as 'to teaching, 
directing and enforcing. But the exercise of all Church authority 


is founded on the voluntary subjection of men to be directed and 
governed in everything pertaining to salvation, and since no power 
can force the human will to assent, so the Church cannot compel 
any one to enter her communion. But after having entered her 
communion, they become amenable to her laws, and she can use 
all social means apt to induce men to observe her ordinances and 
advance towards heaven, by maintaining them inviolable. Now 
the motives for observing the moral order are certainly not only 
the fear of God's punishments, and the certainty of rewards in the 
life to come, but can be and are many temporal rewards and pun- 
ishments which affect our earthly condition. God himself sanctions 
the laws of morals with rewards and punishments in this life. 
The virtue of temperance in eating and drinking, in the exercise 
of all our sensible inclinations upon the objects which they natu- 
rally seek, is rewarded with a sound mind in a healthy body,. 
" mens sana in corpore sano," and there are too many examples of 
the strongest constitutions being wrecked, and the brightest minds 
dimmed and deprived of the use of reason by corporal excesses. 
We extol the goodness of God for giving us these temporal rewards 
and punishments, to draw us nearer to Him. Why then should 
not the Church, established to govern men visibly, and aid and 
direct them to heaven, use temporal rewards and punishments to 
serve as stronger protections to the moral order ? Why not by 
penitential works, instil the enormity of sin, and the dreadful rer 
tribution which awaits it in the life to come ? Why not, by her 
disciplinary rules of Christian life, make the way of the sinner 
severe for him, that he may be induced to abandon it ? The 
Church is a society, and has a right to use every legitimate social 
means to bring men to heaven, temporal as well as spiritual. 
Hence, in this Encyclical, we see how reasonably the Holy Father 
condemns " that in reference to the use of temporal things the 
Church should decree nothing binding the faithful in conscience," 
and that " the Church cannot inflict temporal punishment on those 
who violate her laws," as also " that it is conformable to the prin- 
ciples of public law and sacred theology, that the civil government 


can claim and seize the proprietorship of goods possessed by reli- 
gious communities and churches." There certainly is nothing 
either strange or obscure in all this ; nothing which does not 
spring from the constitution of the Christian Church, and which 
is seen in the history of every year of the Christian era. As a 
society, viewed in the light of natural principles, the Church has 
.all the rights of defense and self-preservation, and if there be a 
point at which her use of physical force should cease, that can 
never be determined by philosophy, since, on mere rational prin- 
ciples, we would be obliged to concede to her all the prerogatives 
of public authority, and if a limitation is to be admitted, and 
where it is to be admitted, in reference to worldly power, must be 
learned from her divine constitution, and be inserted there by her 
divine founder. As she only is the interpreter of these powers 
.and conditions, the expositor of the fact of her institution, she 
alone can determine what her rights are, where they are limited, 
.and to what they can reach. Hence, the Pontiffs have condemned 
the opinion " that the Church cannot expound the extent of her 
own powers." The divine institution of the Church causes her to 
differ widely from all other societies. Sovereign power is that, 
which is supreme, and not answerable to any other, under God, 
in its own sphere ; and in this sense, the Church may be considered 
.as a sovereignty in spirituals, as an independent political power is 
in temporals ; but while the political power can alter its original 
constitution, and change the conditions on which it was founded, 
Church authority, which is bound to maintain and preserve the 
divine constitution, cannot depart from the conditions on which it 
was organized, and when viewed in this respect, ecclesiastical 
,-authority is not supreme, but has only vicariate power, or, in other 
words, can only act according to an immutable constitution given 
by the God-man. 

We need not hope to agree with Protestants regarding the rela- 
tions of Church and State. Their first fundamental error is their 
denial of all Church authority, by which they do away with every- 
.thing resembling a religious society and body of authorized rulers 


and teachers, protected from error in preserving and imparting 
revealed truth. Grotius, the Coryphseus of Protestant philosophers, 
whose reason had led him to perceive and acknowledge the divin- 
ity of the Catholic Church, but whose negligence rendered him 
unworthy of dying in her communion, has initiated the opinions 
regarding civil authority and religion, which have been dominant 
among non-Catholics since his times. In his work, on the Empire, 
De Imperio, he denies that a religious authority can be admitted 
in consort, with the temporal, and hence hands over the supreme 
and entire control of religious affairs to the authority of the State. 
His commentator, Barbeyrac, only applied to a greater extent, the 
same principles. The class of utilitarians, Puffendorf, Burla- 
maqui, Machiavelli, Benharn, and Romagnosi, in order to render 
everything subject to national aggrandizement, have left religion 
as a means which should be regulated and ordered to the welfare 
of the State. This complete and universal subjugation of religion 
to the secular power, was the originating fact of the reformation in 
England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia ; and prot- 
estant philosophers, taking what they found in Protestantism, a 
number of scattered members without any authority governing 
in spirituals, acted consistently if not truthfully, in committing 
religion to the tender care of secular authority. Thus did the reb- 
els against ecclesiastical power, who said they would not serve a. 
ruler commissioned by God, fall into subjection to the powers of 
earth, to have every heaven-born truth that may have clung to 
them in their desertion of the Church, made a mockery of, by the 
passions and selfishness of those who are only for the things of 
this world. As Jansenism was the imperceptible growth of Prot- 
estant dogmatism, so Febronianism and the national Church 
theory in France, have arisen from the almost unobserved influ- 
ence of Protestant social theories. They were condemned, and 
ceased to give a single indication of vitality, but revived again 
under new names, and various shapes of religious toleration, 
liberalism and social atheism. Napoleon 1, was a utilitarian. All 
his social theories tended to engross religion and domestic and in- 

Ixxviii APPENDIX. 

dividual rights in one grinding and all-controling Csesarisrn ; and 
Napoleon III, is endeavoring to accomplish what his predecessor 
had initiated. As Ccesar struggled to obtain the popular supre- 
macy, that he might control the revolution of his times, and 
establish the Empire, so Napoleon III, while professing to be the 
arch-revolutionist, the great representative of the popular will, 
seized the revolution by the forelock, and guides the people into 
the meshes of absolute power. Piedmont has acted on his sug- 
gestions, and while crying out for separation of Church and State, 
endeavors to obtain supreme control of religion, and make her 
the very tool of the government, and stepping-stone at the foot of 
the throne. Guizot has done much to bring about the present 
state of feelin'g regarding the relations of Church and State. In 
his works on European and French civilization, he has said many 
things well, and as the historian who sketches facts. He has il- 
lustrated the transit from the feudal system to the national or 
monarchical, but he is a Protestant philosopher, with the same 
principles as his predecessors, Grotius and Burlemaqui, but with 
none of their consistency and strength. He proclaims a recogni- 
tion of the authority of the Catholic Church, and the independ- 
ence of Church and State, and yet could write, " in the very ear- 
liest ages, the Christian society appeared a mere community of 
believers, united by faith only, without any body of rulers." Mr. 
Guizot is the first among the champions of universal toleration, 
which means the most deplorable condition of meanness to which 
a learned man can descend, that of professing indifference to 
truth and falsehood, and using them both equally to the attain- 
ment of selfish ends. 

But how are we to understand religious toleration ? Certainly 
no one who believes that there is a Church of Christ, or that His 
truth is still taught as the light of the world which it is necessary 
to believe in or to be saved, can categorically assert that we can 
profess indifference to the true religion, or regard religious truth 
and falsehood as equally conducive to eternal life. But waiving 
the question under this aspect of religious Peronism, let us ask, 


should the secular power be indifferent to every form of religious 
belief, and when ? Historically speaking, neither in this nor in 
any other country, has this civil toleration in a most general sense 
ever been followed in practice. 

Secular authority combines individuals, by inducements of 
temporal rewards and punishments, to co-operate for the common 
earthly good of all in a community. This authority cannot teach 
religious truth, for it gives no guarantee of its veracity, or of its 
certain knowledge of revealed truth. No teacher can' oblige men 
to believe, unless he can convince, and he who can be deceived or 
deceive in what he teaches, cannot produce conviction, and hence, 
since no secular government has received the commission of iner- 
rency in religious truth, no government can teach it authoritatively; 
and to oblige its subjects to receive its religious teaching, would be 
the extremity of tyranny. Every individual may enjoy his own 
opinions until he sees sufficient reason why he should change 
them, and since no political or civil power can give reasons why it 
is in possession of the true religion, more than an individual can, 
because they are both liable to err, hence no government can force 
any one to adopt a religion; a principle Avhich the Catholic Church 
vindicated in the case of Charlemagne and the pagan Saxons, and 
which she still maintains as inviolable. But suppose that a nation 
has received the true religion, and from motives presented in its 
favor, has become a member of the true Church, and that its gov- 
ernment, whether exercised by a single physical individual, or by 
a moral person, also believes revealed truth, and acknowledges the 
infallible teaching authority, can such a government as this be 
indifferent to the true religion, or refuse to enforce its laws, and 
punish, when necessary, violators of its commands, or treat it as 
if it were not, or act in its regard, the same as it does in reference 
to false religions, or permit freedom of public discussion concern- 
ing its dogmas so as to endanger religious unity in the realm ? 
These are answered negatively in the Encyclical of Pius IX, and 
have been ever answered in the negative by the Catholic Church.. 
But it may be said that all this is very unpopular at the present 


time ! We answer that it is to correct popular opinion, that such 
principles have been again thus solemnly announced by the Sov- 
ereign Pontiff, and were these errors likely to die of themselves, 
.and not spread to a very great extent, he would not have spoken, 
but left them to be corrected by others. You say it is imprudent 
to encounter the opposition of governments on these questions 
when the Holy See is laboring, at present, under attacks from 
various quarters! We answer, that it is very inconvenient to 
profess the truth on every occasion when necessary, but the in- 
fallible authority whose first duty is to teach sound morals, cannot 
betray its most sacred trusts, and if there be dangers to ensue 
from the performances of such duties, God knows how to dispose 
of them. But you say finally, that there are many good Catholics 
who have not followed out such questions in detail, and who would 
willingly have remained in blessed voluntary ignorance of such 
matters, and who even now endeavor to explain away the instruc- 
tions of the Encyclical as if it meant that Catholic governments 
should not persecute the Church, oppose her laws, or thwart her 
action, but leave her free, but unsupported in their dominions ! 
We answer, that such Catholics are cowards, and unworthy of the 
faith which they most unworthily profess, and the very class that 
the Encyclical is intended to correct ; who would sell their inher- 
itance at a lower price than Esau took for his ; who could be 
bought for less than what Judas cost, and as they are worthless, 
both to Church and State, unfit for earth or heaven, should do 
what Judas did, go hang themselves. There is nothing in these 
instructions which a well-informed Catholic should not see by con- 
sidering what are Christian duties, and we hold him as inexcusable, 
who will attempt to misinterpret or ignore these truths. The 
temporal good of a community must be subject, and ordered to 
eternal good, as a means to an end, as all things must co-operate 
to the attainment of perfect happiness. The happiness of earth 
is trivial and scanty indeed when disjoined from the prospect of 
its completion in. heaven, and the civil community which would 
impede men in their attainment of the summum bonum ceases to 


be legitimate, has no authority to impose obligations, and is noth- 
ing more than a disorganized rabble. 

Hence the government which will not support religious authority 
directing men to eternal life,, aid it in the enforcement of its laws, 
not only by removing obstacles to their free exercise, but by posi- 
tive sanction of them, punishing their violators and rewarding 
those who observe them ; doing, in a word, what lies in. it to pro- 
mote the religious welfare of its subjects, does not discharge the 
duties of public authority. In this case the secular power does 
not invade the dominions of the religious, but supports, aids and 
cherishes the spiritual, as the exponent of moral right and wrong, 
as the authorized guide in the way of salvation, in which govern- 
ments as well as individuals should walk. Moreover, the unity 
of religion in a nation is a great blessing, because the fewer 
differences between the citizens, the more harmonious is their 
co-operation, and the influence of the true religion on the social 
virtues and public intercourse of a nation is so iniportant } that a 
government must be blinded to its dearest and nearest interests, 
when it refuses to co-operate positively with religion in her works 
for the spiritual advancement of a people. 

In a Catholic nation, where the rulers and subjects believe and 
practice religion, and where the government has made the laws 
of the Church, to a great extent, the law of the land, it is right 
to punish, according to the civil law, those who are transgressors, 
either in regard to faith or morals. Government cannot oblige 
men to believe, but it can restrain them from corrupting the faith 
or morals of others. This we have said in the sense of the Ency- 
clical, that is, regarding the duties of Christian or Catholic govern- 
ments to which this instruction is directed. Non-Catholic govern- 
ments, such as ours is, the government of England, Denmark, 
Sweden and Prussia, do not receive these instructions, because they 
do not acknowledge the Pope as the supreme Hierarch. These ob- 
ligations, as far as they respect those governments, are unknown, 
and cannot be recognized until they become Catholics, and hence 
they are not bound by them, and not only may proclaim universal 


liberty of religious profession, and hold themselves indifferent re- 
garding the various forms of Christian worship, but they are bound 
to do so, if they do not wish to play tyrants. It is only the 
Catholic Church which claims infallibility in teaching and a 
monopoly of teaching religion. Protestantism admits the right 
of each individual to believe what may please himself; to take 
his own belief from the Bible, and on this hypothesis, certainly no 
government, nor man can prevent his neighbor or subject, to form 
his own religious opinions, and act according to them. An in- 
tolerant Protestant government is more tyrannical than was that 
of Pagan Rome, that persecuted the early Christians, because, ad- 
mitting the individual right of every one to think as he pleases 
regarding religion, admitting that itself or no other person can 
teach without danger of erring, it, at the same time, endeavors to 
compel persons to agree with it, and treats them as malefactors 
for exercising their own acknowledged rights. 

We are far from admitting that civil toleration is what philos- 
ophers call a pure perfection. A Catholic government which 
makes the laws of the Church the law of the land, if good in 
other respects, is more perfect than one which has not been blessed 
with the true religion, and which consequently is obliged, if it 
would not overstep its bounds, to leave all its subjects entirely in- 
dependent, regarding any religious profession which does not in- 
terfere with the advancement of temporal prosperity. Such 
governments are bound, moreover, to protect the rights of their 
subjects in freedom of religious practice, and if individuals wish 
to form religious associations, they have a right to do so, and the 
Catholic Church has a right to the free exercise of its laws, and 
should be defended against those who would offer her violence. 
The Catholic Church has nothing anti-social in its constitution or 
laws, and Catholics have, consequently, a right to protection from 
the non-Catholic governments. Thus did the Roman Emperor 
Aurelian act in the case of Paul Sainosaten, requiring that his 
case should be decided according to Christian discipline, and or- 
dering that the See of Antioch be held by one who was in com.' 


munion with the Roman See. So did the Emperor Theodoric, in 
the case of Pope Simmacus, require that the matter in controversy 
be decided according to Church law, in a council of Bishops. In 
this country our government is just in preferring no form of 
Christian worship, and is in advance of any non-Catholic govern- 
ment in the world. We may have reason to complain of State 
and local legislation, but no more than we should expect from the 
passions and prejudices of a portion of our population, who far 
outnumber us. 

Nor need it be apprehended by our non-Catholic fellow citizens, 
that if we obtained a representative ascendancy that we would 
seek to proscribe them for their religious opinions or pretensions. 
Our government was organized on the principle of religious free- 
dom, and as long as there are differences in religion among our 
people, the constitution will remain unchanged, and will be 
violated last and least by Catholics. We shall not live to see the 
day, but we earnestly expect it will come, when the people of this 
country will recognize the Catholic as the only Christian Church, 
and voluntarily render themselves subject to her infallible au- 
thority. When that day shall come, the American people may 
change their constitution, but if they do, they will do so freely, of 
their own accord, and will express what they will then perceive to 
be the requirements of the whole country. The representative 
form to which the governments of Christendom are tending, in a 
greater or less degree, is the most favorable to the recognition of 
the rights of conscience, and the prerogatives of the Catholic 
Church. While the people can nominate their own rulers, it can 
never occur, as it has so often, that the absolute monarch, de jure 
or de facto, will claim power over religion, and drag a nation after 
him by tyranny and persecution, to relinquish the true faith. The 
Oriental schism, humanly speaking, is attributable to the grasping, 
grinding despotism of the Emperors of the East, perpetuated in 
the Czars ; and the Protestant heresy is principally to be accounted 
for by the absolutism of the raonarchs of Northern Europe, who 
dragged after them, through blood and rapine, the defenceless 


people. We who enjoy this advantage, and have come into posses- 
sion of it to a greater extent than any other modern people, let us 
prove ourselves worthy of its enjoyment, not only for our well-being 
in time, but for our eternal welfare. 


The abolition of slavery in the United States ranks amongst the 
greatest events of the present century. That the destruction of this 
relic of rude and heathenish times will not bring with it inestimable 
blessings, both in the religious and social order, is not to be 
doubted by any but those who are better adapted to live in the 
ages of barbarism and idolatry, than in a civilized country and 
under the influence of Christian truth. Our government has 
received the congratulations of the civilized world for its action in 
regard to slavery, inflicting the loss of their slaves on rebellious 
subjects us a punishment of their crime, thus removing this great 
religious and social canker from the face of society without wound- 
ing rights of property or giving to anyone the shadow of a cause 
on which to found a 'complaint. The master forfeited his rights 
to his slave by the sin of rebellion, and thus from the guilt and 
bloody chaos of treason is born universal freedom in our country ; 
and the last trace of slavery is erased from the galaxy of civilized 
nations, by a power which sprung from the greatest national crime. 
We may justly exult over the downfall of slavery ; for, after the 
maintenance of our national integrity, perhaps existence, it is the 
next greatest good which has resulted from the late terrific war. 
Let those who brought on that war, both in the North and South, 
be accountable for its ravages, both to God and man ; it is ours to 
seize and enjoy the blessings which He who knows how to bring 
forth good from human perversity has sent us through His 


The summer grass waves over the graves of half a million of the 
bravest men of America ; starvation has visited many a once 
happy home ; the desolation of the desert is spread over the fairest 
portions of the country; the government is laden with a debt 
which will be felt for generations, and many will say that the end 
is not yet. The price paid for the maintenance of government is 
great, and if the abolition of slavery is added in the purchase, it 
should be appreciated not only according to its intrinsic value, but 
because it was most dearly bought. Let it not be said that we are 
facile to join in the triumph, and loud in proclaiming its magnif- 
icence, or greedy in claiming a portion of the spoils of victory. 
As Catholics we have a food of the mind that, ye, outside of the 
Church, know not of. We have a standard of judgment that does 
not vary with changes of fortune, and cannot be warped by the 
force of attraction exercised by the prevailing interests of the hour. 
We rejoice over the grave of slavery, for with it is buried the 
thousand wrongs, the crimes of lust, the debasement of ignorance, 
the degradation of general depravity, which usually surround it ; 
but we scorn the whining philanthrophy which has been known 
heretofore as abolitionism, with as deep and holy hate as ever. 
Philanthrophy is like honesty, in this, that he who proclaims it as 
his own, shows by the very deed, that he has the least of it. 
Catholic theology, or in other words, Christian truth, applied to 
human actions, is invariable. Circumstances change, the objects 
of men's actions vary, and what was convenient and beneficial at 
one time is detrimental at another, but the same measure of right 
and wrong is applied to every time, to all circumstances, and the 
mind that wields the golden rule need never suffer itself to be 
made the slave of mere appearances. Catholics are the only real 
and true opponents of slavery. They are its only consistent and 
persistent enemies, all others are merely so by accident, and often 
by the grossest blindness and perversity. What the Church held 
regarding slavery she holds with the same tenacity as ever, and 
what she teaches the master and bondman, she teaches to-day in 
our own land, regenerated and disenthralled by the genius of 


universal emancipation. Some years ago, when the peace and 
prosperity of this country were proverbial throughout the world, 
and no cloud had arisen to indicate the hurricane of desolating 
strife that has lately swept upon us, the holy and lamented Arch- 
bishop of Baltimore, America's greatest theologian, wrote : " It is 
indeed to be regretted that in the present fullness of liberty in 
which we glory, there should be so many slaves, and that to guard 
against their movements, it has been necessary to pass laws pro- 
hibiting their education, and in some places, greatly restricting 
their excercise of religion." The great and ever memorable Bishop 
of Charleston, in the rnidst of a slave-holding population, wrote 
these lines, the last, perhaps, that his pen gave to the public : 
" I have been asked, by many, a question which I may as well 
answer at once, viz : Whether I am friendly to the existence or 
continuation of slavery? / am not, but I also see the impossibil- 
ity of now abolishing it here. When it can and ought to be 
abolished, is a question for the legislator, not for me." 

Bishop England, in his letters on Domestic Slavery, to the 
Honorable John Forsyth, Secretary of State under Mr. Van 
Buren's administration, gave to the public one of the most valuable 
treatises, and the most ample notwithstanding his work was in- 
terrupted by his demise that has ever appeared on the subject of 
slavery. When Catholics were charged with being identified with 
the abolition faction ; when Mr. O'Connell had sided with the anti- 
slavery clique, and stricken the shackles from the limbs of a negro 
on the banks of the Liffey, in the midst of one of his monster 
meetings ; and Gregory XVI. had denounced the slave-trade as 
impious and anti-Christian, and condemned the abuses to which 
masters had subjected their slaves ; when the party that sought 
Mr. Harrison's election claimed Catholics as opposed to the slave- 
holders' interests, and when Democrats denounced Catholics as 
abolitionists ; the most finished and ablest polemic writer that ever 
graced the hierarchy in this country, gave to the world the Catholic 
doctrine regarding slavery, unraveling it from the practices of the 
Church from the earliest times. This work of Bishop England has 


been pointed to by many of the abolition agitators as an argument 
that the Church is supporter and ally of slavery, and indeed the 
ablest defenders of the peculiar institution have had recourse to it 
in search of arguments to vindicate their position. Thus it has 
come to be considered by many as an apology for slavery and we,, 
for that very reason, are the more anxious to call attention to it at 
the present time, that we may show the consistency of Catholic 
teaching on this momentous subject, and how Catholics, while they 
never could endorse the false and unjust principles of abolitionists, do 
most heartily and sincerely join in the common exultation over 
the extinction of African slavery in this country. 

The term slavery, inasmuch as it can signify an extreme con- 
dition of earthly miseiy, like its opposite, freedom, is subject to the 
greatest abuse, and if we wonder at the number of atrocities per- 
petrated in the name of freedom, not a less number of things good 
and commendable have been execrated by the infamy inseparable 
from the sound of slavery. 

The condition of slavery, or involuntary servitude, arises from an 
inequality of interests, which so often exists in a society in which 
the servant gives his labor for the benefit of a master, and the 
master offers as a reward his protection and his wealth. To serve 
means to be ordered to the benefit of another, and in order to 
determine what kind of slavery is not at variance with the law of 
reason in certain circumstances, and what species is opposed to 
reason in all times and under every condition, it will suffice to 
determine the different significations of the term to serve. 

It is evident that no one can be entirely the owner of his fellow 
man, inasmuch as man, as to his being, is owned only by the 
Creator, and is ordered to His service and enjoyment. To assert 
that man can be the property of his fellow man, therefore, and 
can be made an object of traffic, and otherwise disposed of, in the 
same manner as mere material things, or the inferior animals, 
would be to claim the privileges and rights of God the Creator, for 
the slave-master. This pretension to the possession of absolute 
dominion over the bondman constituted the criminality of slavery 

Ixxxviii APPENDIX. 

among the pagan nations. This it was that rendered the con- 
dition of the Helots among the Greeks so deplorable and oppressive ; 
that of the mancipium among the Romans so unjust, that of the 
captive among the Mussulmans so revolting to Christian feeling, 
and that of the negroes in many portions of the South so deplor- 
able in the eyes of all who could pity the wrongs of suffering 
humanity. Mr. Van Evrie, in his work in defence of African 
slavery, lays down this detestable ownership, by endeavoring to 
establish that the negro is of a race distinct from that of the white 
man ; that he is by nature the inferior of the child of Japheth, 
and created to be his slave, the same as the beasts and birds are 
created to serve him in other respects. Mr. Jefferson, in his Notes 
'on Virginia, suggests the inferiority of the negro as a reason for 
his servitude " I advance it, therefore, as a suspicion only, that 
the blacks, whether originally a different race, or made distinct by 
times and circumstances, are inferior to the whites, both in mind 
and body ! " This original difference of races which the ultra-pro- 
slavery advocates maintained, has been taking a wide and strong 
hold on the minds of a numerous class of our fellow countrymen ; 
a doctrine which would sever all the sympathies which bind us to' 
the blacks as members of the great family of a common parent, 
and being opposed to the revealed truths of original sin and 
universal redemption, is essentially impious and anti-Christian. 

But if man cannot become owner of his fellow man as to his 
being, it by no means follows that we cannot acquire rights to the 
actions of our fellow man, inasmuch as they may tend to our real 
advantage. The laborer, the clerk, the mechanic, the man of edu- 
cation all sell their services to their employers. The state claims 
the services of many criminals and captives in war, and exercises 
the right of pressing citizens into military service. The very 
name soldier, so honorable among all nations, originally signified 
him who was sold to the public service, or received the soldus, a 
piece of money, for bearing arms in defence of his country. The 
rights, therefore, which each one has to his own labor are not in- 
alienable, and in asserting that they are, constitutes the fundamental 


error of these pseudo-philanthropists, who declaim against slavery 
in every form, notwithstanding they see it every day, under more 
honorable titles, in the best regulated societies. It need not be 
said that a person cannot be deprived of the benefits of his labor 
for his entire life, since we see that such is the indisputable 
practice in the case of criminals in all times, and among the most 
enlightened peoples. And since it is not contrary to the principles 
of sound reason that a man may dispose of his labor for many 
years, it cannot be less reasonable, that one would dispose of the 
benefits resulting from his actions for the period of his entire life, 
provided he receives in exchange, protection, subsistence, com- 
modities, or other sufficient and satisfactory rewards. Slavery is, 
in the strict acceptation of the term, that condition in which one 
gives the benefits of his entire labor, through not a portion only, 
but through the whole term of his earthly existence, to a master, 
and such a one is called properly a slave; while he who, for a 
determined period, gives his labors to the benefit of another, is 
called a swvant. There are those who are bound to a special kind 
of service only, as agriculture, and are known as servi glebce 
although their service be perpetual. Service for a specified time, 
as well as perpetual service, or slavery, arises ordinarily from the 
necessity of acquiring from others what we cannot acquire by our- 
selves. Hence slavery arises from the inequality of wealth and 
power among men, which causes that the weak and indigent dis- 
pose of their labors to those who can guarantee their protection, 
and offer them a sufficient means for a commodious subsistence. 
It is therefore absurd to condemn as impious and unnatural, 
slavery under every form, for the very reason that it is natural 
for men to possess the goods of fortune in an unequal manner. 
Slavery is therefore not immoral in itself, as philosophers say, or 
when viewed according to the principles of strict reason ; and if it 
is to be deprecated as an institution or a condition of man, it is 
because of the many facilities it gives to the encroachment of 
great abuses and the opportunities it affords of oppressing, wrong- 
ing and perpetrating the most revolting crimes. 


Slavery is therefore a legitimate form of society, and when 
called an evil, this term is applied relatively to a more perfect form. 
When and where slavery does exist, it may be said to depend on 
the great predetermining causes which give form to society, rather 
than upon the will of the masters themselves. The patriarchal - 
state required that wealth and power be monopolized by one, who 
gave in return for the services of his domestics, his protection and 
a portion of his ample means. 

In all the simpler forms of governments, where the civil power 
is exercised by the few, and where it is the interest of the multi- 
tude to give them their support, slavery has been found ; and in 
the natural course of events, was unavoidable. Slavery is destroyed 
most effectually, by removing the dependence of a great number 
on a few, by equalizing as much as possible the goods of fortune ; 
and until such a change is effected in a nation in respect to the 
masses, slavery is unavoidable, despite of the writings and 
harangues of the most ardent philanthropists. Kegarding slavery 
in this country, there is this peculiarity, that it was confined to a 
barbarous people of a distinguishing color, who were imported to 
our shores. It had been established at an early period, and had 
given a peculiar form to society in those regions where it was 
found ; had become intermingled with the very life's blood of the 
social body, and nothing but a general annihilation of the old 
condition, such as occurred during the late war, could suddenly 
remove it. How or when it was to be abolished is not the pro- 
vince of religion to determine. It was her duty, however, to teach 
masters their obligations, and protect the slaves against abuses. 
She did so loudly and constantly. The ignorance, even religious 
ignorance, in which the slaves were kept according to law in many 
states the separation of hrfsband and wife the selling of children 
who needed parental care ; the profligacy of the dominant class, 
and the slave-trade by which the system was increased and per- 
petuated, have all received the most unequivocal condemnation of 
the Catholic Church. The following letter of the last Pope, 


Gregory XVI., may suffice to give an idea of the practice of the 
Church regarding slavery : 

" We consider that it pertaineth to our pastoral solicitude that 
we should thoroughly endeavor to turn away the faithful from 
the inhuman traffic in negroes, or any other class of men. 

" When, indeed, the light of the Gospel first began to be dif- 
fused, those wretched persons, who, at that time, in such great 
numbers, went down into the most rigorous slavery, principally 
by occasion of wars, felt their condition very much alleviated 
among Christians. For the Apostles, inspired by the divine Spirit, 
taught, in fact, the slaves themselves to obey their carnal masters 
as Christ, and to do the will of God from the heart ; but they 
commanded the masters to act well towards their slaves, and to do 
to them what is just and equal, and to forbear threatenings; know- 
ing that there is a Master, both of those and themselves in the 
heavens, and that with Him there is no respect of persons. 

" Universally, however, since sincere charity to all would most 
strenuously be recommended by the law of the Gospel, and Christ, 
our Lord, could declare that he would esteem as done or denied to 
himself whatever of kindness or mercy might be done or denied 
to the least and to the poor, it easily ensued therefrom, not only 
that Christians should regard their slaves, and especially Christians, 
.as brethren, but also that they should be more prone to present 
with liberty those who might deserve it ; which, indeed, Gregory, 
of Nyssa, indicates to have been first habitually done on the occasion 
of the paschal solemnities. Nor were there wanting some who, ex- 
cited by more ardent charity, cast themselves into chains that they 
might redeem others, of whom that apostolic man, our predecessor, 
Clement I., the same of most holy memory, testifies that he had 
known many. Therefore, in the course of time, the darkness of pagan 
superstitions being more fully dissipated, and the morals also of the 
ruder nations being softened by means of faith working by char- 
ity, the matter progressed so far that now, for many ages, no 
slaves can be held among many Christian nations. But, grieving 
much we say it, there were subsequently, from the very number 


of the faithful, those who, basely blinded by the lust of sordid 
gain, in remote and distant lands, reduced to slavery Indians, 
negroes, or other miserable persons ; or, by traffic begun and ex- 
tended in those who had been made captive by others, did not 
hesitate to aid the shameful crime of the latter. By no means, 
indeed, did many Roman Pontiffs of glorious memory, our pre- 
decessors, omit severely to rebuke, according to their duty, the 
conduct of those persons as dangerous to their own spiritual safety, 
and disgraceful to the Christian name ; from which, also, they 
perceived this to follow, that the nations of infidels would be more 
and more hardened to hate our true religion. To which refer the 
apostolic letter of Paul III., of the 29th day of May, 1537, given 
under the Fisherman's King to the cardinal archbishop of Toledo, 
and another, subsequently, more ample than the former, by Urban 
VIIL, given on the 22d day of April, 1639, to the Collector of the 
Rights of the Apostolic Chamber in Portugal, in which letter they 
are by name most severely censured who should dare to presume 
to reduce to slavery the western or southern indians, to sell, to 
buy, to exchange, or give them away, to separate them from their 
wives and children, or spoil them of their property and goods, to 
conduct or send them to other places, or in any manner to deprive 
them of liberty, or retain them in slavery, and also to afford to 
those who do the aforesaid things, counsel, aid, favor or assistance, 
upon any pretext or studied excuse, or to preach or teach that it 
is lawful, or in any other mode to co-operate in the premises. 
These ordinances of the said pontiffs, Benedict XIV. afterwards 
confirmed and renewed by a new apostolic letter to the Bishops 
of Brazil, and of certain other regions, given on the 20th day of 
December, 1741, by which he excited the solicitude of those pre- 
lates to the same end. Still earlier, moreover, another predecessor 
of ours, more ancient than these, Pius II., when in his time, the 
dominion of the Portuguese was extended to Guinea, a region of 
the negroes, gave a letter on the 7th day of October, 1462, to the 
Bishop of Rubi (?) who was about to proceed thither, in which 
he not only conferred on that prelate proper faculties for ex- 


ercising his sacred ministry in that region with greater fruit, 
but, on the same occasion, animadverted severely against those 
Christians who dragged the neophytes into slavery. And, in our 
times, also, Pius VII., led by the same spirit of religion and 
charity as his predecessors, sedulously interposed his offices with 
influential persons, that the traffic in negroes should at length 
cease entirely among Christians. These ordinances and cares 
of our predecessors, indeed, by the aid of God, profited not 
a little in protecting the Indians and other persons aforesaid 
from the cruelty of invaders or the cupidity of Christian 
merchants; not so much, however, that this holy see could 
rejoice in the full success of its efforts in that behalf; since, on 
the contrary, the traffic in negroes, although in some degree 
diminished, is yet, hitherto, carried on by many Christians. 
Wherefore, WE, desiring to turn away so great a reproach as this 
from all the boundaries of Christians, and the whole matter being 
maturely weighed, certain cardinals of the holy Roman Church, 
our venerable brethren being also called into council, treading in 
the footsteps of our predecessors, with apostolic authority, do ve- 
hemently admonish and adjure in the Lord all believers in Christ, 
of whatsoever condition, that no one hereafter may dare unjustly 
to molest Indians, negroes, or other men of this sort ; or to spoil 
them of their goods ; or to reduce them to slavery ; or to extend 
help or favors to others who perpetrate such things against them ; 
or to exercise that inhuman trade by which negroes, as if they 
were not men, but mere animals, howsoever reduced into slavery, 
we, without any distinction, contrary to the laws of justice and human- 
ity, bought, sold and doomed sometimes to the most severe and exhausting 
labors; and, moreover, the hope of gain being by that trade pro- 
posed to the first captors of the negroes, dissensions, also, and, as 
it were, perpetual wars are fomented in their countries. We, in- 
deed, with apostolic authority, do reprobate all the aforesaid 
actions as utterly unworthy of the Christian name ; and, by the 
same apostolic authority, do strictly prohibit and interdict that 
any ecclesiastic or lay person shall presume to defend that very 


trade in negroes as lawful under any pretext or studied excuse, or 
otherwise to preach, or in any manner, publicly or privately, to 
teach contrary to those things which WE have charged in this, our 
Apostolic Letter." 

The Pontiff, in this letter, touches briefly upon the history of 
slavery, showing the influence of the Christian faith on this insti- 
tution. He attributes the almost entire abolition of slavery among 
Christian nations to the fact that " the darkness of pagan supersti- 
tions has been more fully dissipated, and the raorals also of rude 
nations have been softened, by means of faith working by char- 
ity." We have heard it stated by persons not members of the 
Church, who had given the subject special consideration, that the 
slaves were treated with much greater leniency, justice and mercy, 
and that their condition was comparatively happy, in those por- 
tions of the country where the Catholic religion prevailed such 
as some parts of Maryland, Kentucky, and Louisana. May we 
not venture to surmise that if the Catholic Church had counted 
the majority of the American people as her children, since the 
beginning of the present century, that a complete and bloodless 
abolition of slavery would have been effected before this, in every 
portion of the country? We cannot comprehend how slavery 
could withstand for any considerable time the silent but never- 
ceasing spirit of that religion which, in the words of the Apostolic 
letter, quoted above, requires that " Christians should regard .their 
slaves as brethren ;" that " they should be prone to present with 
liberty those who might deserve it," which was first habitually 
done on the occasion of the paschal solemnities, or which 
"prompted so many to cast themselves into chains that they 
might redeem others." It is particularly worthy of notice in the 
above letter how persistently the Roman Pontiffs have condemned 
the slave trade, or reduction of men from a state of freedom to 
that of bondage, either by waging war for that purpose, or 
purchasing slaves from the savages themselves. By such meas- 
ures the very sources of the evil were cut off, and had the civilized 
world remained submissive to the Vicar of our Lord, long ago, 


slavery would have been heard of only in the history of remote 

There are many who experience a difficulty to understand why 
children of enslaved parents can justly be held in bondage. 
" Why," they ask, " should the child, with a personality, will, and 
intellect, entirely distinct from its parents, be subjected to the mis- 
eries of their condition?" The misconception of these persons 
arises from an error regarding the causes which determine the 
condition of individuals. They assume that it is man's free power 
to select a state of life more or less exempt from the grievances 
attending human existence, whereas, the very contrary is gener- 
ally the case. The wealthy parent can leave a wealthy inheritance 
to his progeny, while the poor father sends forth his children, 
poor as himself, to begin the world. Ignorant or vicious parents 
will entail on their offspring ordinarily the like misfortune, and 
in an altogether similar manner does the condition of bandage 
become that of children, because it is that of those who beget 
them, and care for them in their helpless condition. The dictum 
in Roman law, " partus sequitur ventrem," or that the offspring 
falls into the condition of those who beget it, is therefore not to 
he set aside as a specimen of barbaric usages. 

We have argued that perpetual service, or slavery, in its strict 
acceptation, descending from parents to children, is not, when con- 
sidered separately from its abuses, evil, wrong or reprehensible. That 
it is an inferior order of society, and indeed the lowest, we admit; 
but still it may be frequently the only one, or the best form which 
society can assume, under certain combinations of circumstances. 
When protected against abuses by whatever means public author- 
ity may best devise, it becomes legitimate, and should and must 
be borne with, until it be removed by the action of the governmental 
power, which assumes the direction of the social well-being. 
Hence we need not be astonished to see the revealed or positive 
law of God, acknowledging the legitimacy of slavery, and con- 
taining ordinances for its proper direction, in both the old and 
new dispensations ; but we have reason to be shocked when we 


hear the presumptuous self-styled abolitionists declare that "if 
slavery be sanctioned in the Bible, they cast it from them, and 
pronounce the declaration of the sacred text a lie." It is in vain 
to use reason against those who reject the records which they 
themselves acknowledge to rest on the authority of God. Slavery 
is not only said to be an evil, because an imperfect form of society, 
but also because, like all other defects in our present condition, it 
had its origin in the fall of man from the state of earthly felicity. 
Sin being the cause and origin of all our infirmities and afflictions, 
so is it attributed to sin as an effect to a cause in the writings of 
the early Fathers. St. Augustine, in his work "The Oity of God" 
1. 19, says : " The condition of slavery is consideied as justly im- 
posed upon the sinner. Hence we never read stave in the Scrip- 
tures, before the just Noe, by his word, punished the sin of his 
son." St. Ambrose, in his book "Elias and Fasting," remarks: 
"There would be no slavery to-day were it not for drunkenness; " 
and St. Chrysostom, Horn. 29, in Gen.: "Behold brethren born of 
the same mother! Sin makes one of them a servant, and taking 
away his liberty lays him under subjection." But although slavery 
be attended by miseries, and afford facilities to the entrance of 
abuse, and be a consequence of sin, yet it is not to be denounced 
as immoral, and under no circumstances to be tolerated ; else 
"earning our bread by the sweat of our brow," a great hardship, 
indeed, and another consequence of sin, would be equally illicit 
and abominable. 

"We have endeavored to set forth the Catholic doctrine and 
practice in respect to slavery, withoiit caring for the vagaries of 
its presumptuous advocates on one side, or the cant of vain phil- 
anthropists on the other. 

Bishop England, in the series of letters before us, appeals 
lengthily to the writings of the Old Testament, showing by most 
copious quotations the divine sanction accorded to the institution 
in the patriarchal times, as well as under the Mosiac dispensation, 
and, passing to the New, collects instances from the Gospel, and 
the writings of St. Paul, which abundantly suffice to show that 


Our Lord not only did not condemn slavery, but gave it his 
sanction ; being satisfied with offering such instructions to both 
master and servant as would be best adapted to exclude the crimes 
of injustice and oppression, and the ignorance and debasement 
which so easily attach themselves to the system. It would appear 
to any one who has read the Bible even cursorily, that it would 
belabor in vain to collect the various testimonies, to show that 
the relations between master and slave are not contradicted by the 
Law of God ; it would seem that he who would not be convinced 
by the innumerable passages bearing on this subject, could 
not be convinced by any species of argument. But there are 
those whom it is necessary to silence, if we cannot force convic- 
tion upon them, and such a class, no doubt, have felt in various 
ways the effect produced by this treatise of Bishop England. 
The more interesting portions of the work to readers generally, is 
that in which the author, with his peculiar ability and patience, 
traces out the practice of the Church regarding slavery from the 
earliest time, through the decrees of the various councils, the 
works of the fathers, and other monuments of ages past, proceed- 
ing then to trace the causes which combined to perpetuate slavery 
for so long a period, among Christian people. It is to be regretted 
that the great prelate was not spared to complete the evolution of 
the last mentioned topic, which, when treated in his thorough and 
lucid manner, would have afforded a high degree of interest to 
the student of history. 

The most general agency which for so long a time sustained 
slavery in Europe, consisted in the condition of the early tribes 
and families from which the great body of Europeans trace their 
origin. In such a state, the servant could not change his master 
without expatriation, nor could a master send away his servants 
without destroying his family ; and thus slavery became an in- 
evitable consequence. Civil liberty became a benefit only after the 
sstablishment of civil society, when man had the protection of 
law and multiplied facilities for subsistence. Before the establish- 
ment of civil order, absolute freedom would be rather injurious 

xcviii APPENDIX, 

than beneficial to a person bereft of flocks, herds, lands, and serv- 
ants. The feudal system, which was merely a modification of the 
patriarchal, perpetuated slavery, as essential to its existence, inas- 
much as the serfs, viewed in their most favorable aspect, were 
bound to reside upon the lands of the lord, to contribute a large 
portion of the results of their labors to him, and to follow him to 
the field afc his command. 

The second universal cause which co-operated with the rudeness 
of the times, was found in the frequent wars waged by barbarians 
or Mahometans a.gainst the Christian and more enlightened 
nations. When vast multitudes of barbarians were captured by 
the Christian people, as frequently occured in the wars which the 
northern tribes waged against the Roman Empire, both in the 
east and west, and in the vast and overwhelming campaigns of 
Charlemagne, in which he shattered the power of the barbarians 
and Mahometans in Europe, it became necessary to reduce the 
conquered to the condition of slavery, in order to provide for their 
subsistence and effectually to prevent them from rising in arms 
when opportunities might present themselves. The incursions of 
the Northmen along the entire coast of Europe from the Archi- 
pelago to the Netherlands, and along the shores of England and 
Ireland, afforded a continual supply of slaves, up to the beginning 
of the eleventh century. 

We deem it appropriate here to transcribe from Dr. Lingard's 
history of England the following description of slavery in that 
country, under the Anglo-Saxon rule, which will impart a knowl- 
edge of the usages of those times which prevailed throughout' 
Europe. Speaking of the Anglo-Saxons, he observes : 

" They alone were possessed of liberty, or power, or property. 
They formed, however, but a small part of the population, of 
which, perhaps, not less than two-thirds existed in a state of 
slavery. That all the first adventurers were freemen, there can 
be little doubt ; but in the course of their conquests, it is probable 
that they found, it is certain that they made a great number of 
slaves. The posterity of these men inherited the lot of their 


fathers ; and their number was continually increased by the free- 
born Saxons, who had been reduced to the same condition by 
debt, or had been made captives in war, or had been deprived of 
liberty in punishment of their crimes ; or had spontaneously sur- 
rendered it to escape the horrors of want. The degradation and 
enslavement of a freeman were performed before a competent 
number of witnesses. The unhappy man laid on the ground his 
sword and his lance, the symbols of the free, took up the bill and 
the goad, the implements of slavery, and falling on his knees, 
placed his head in token of submission under the hands of his 

" All slaves were not, however, numbered in the same class. In 
the more ancient laws, we find the esne distinguished from the 
theow ; and read of female slaves of the first, the second and the 
third rank. In later enactments we meet with borclars, cocksets, 
parddings and other barbarous denominations, of which, were it 
easy, it would be useless to investigate the meaning. The most 
numerous class consisted of those, who lived on the land of their 
lord, near to his mansion, called in Saxon, his tune, in Latin, his 
villa. From the latter word, they were by Normans denominated 
villeins, while the collection of cottages in which they dwelt ac- 
quired the name of village. Their respective services originally allot- 
ted to them according to the pleasure of their proprietor. Some 
tilled his lands, others exercised for him the trades to which they had 
been educated. In return they received certain portions of land 
with other perquisites, for the support of themselves and their 
families. But all were alike deprived of the privileges of freemen. 
They were forbidden to carry arms. Their persons, families, 
and goods of every description, were the property of their 
lord. Pie could dispose of them as he pleased, either by gift 
or sale ; he could annex them to the soil or remove them from it; 
he could transfer them with it to a new proprietor, or leave them 
by will to his heirs. Out of the hundreds of instances preserved 
by our ancient writers, one may be sufficient. In the charter by 
which Harold of Buckenhale gives his manor of Spalding to the 


Abbe of Croyland, he enumerates among its appendages, Colgrin, 
his bailiff; Harding, his smith ; Lefstan, Iiis carpenter ; Elstan, 
his fisherman ; Osmund, his miller, and nine others, who prob- 
ably were husbandmen ; and these with their wives and children, 
their goods and chattels, and the cottages in which they live, he 
transfers in perpetual possession to the abbey. 

" It should, however, be observed, that the hardships of their 
condition were considerably mitigated by the influence of their 
religion. The bishop was appointed the protector of the slaves 
within, his diocese; and his authority was employed in shielding 
them from oppression. Their lords were frequently admonished 
that slave and freeman were of equal value in the eye of the 
Almighty ; that both had been redeemed at the same price ; and 
that the master would be judged with the same rigor as he had 
exercised towards his dependants. In general, the services of the 
slave were fixed and certain : if he performed them faithfully, he 
was allowed to retain. his savings, and many of those who culti- 
vated 'portions of land, or had received permission to exercise 
their trades in the burghs, acquired a comparative degree of opu- 
lence, which enabled them to purchase their liberty from the 
kindness or avarice of their lords. Even the laws suppose some 
kind of property in the slave, since they allow him to commute 
the legal punishment of whipping for a fine of six shillings, and 
fix the relief of a villein on a farm at the price of his best beast. 

"The prospect of obtaining their freedom was a powerful stim- 
ulus to industry and good behavior. Besides those who were 
able to purchase it themselves, many obtained it from the bounty 
of benefactors. Some were emancipated by the justice and gratitude 
of their masters ; others owed their freedom to motives of relig- 
ion. When the celebrated Wilfrid had received from Edelwalch, 
King of Sussex, the donation of the isle of Selsey, with two 
hundred and fifty male and female slaves, the bishop instructed 
them in the Christian faith, baptized them, and immediately 
made them free. Their manumission was an act of charity fre- 
quently inculcated by the preachers : and in most of the wills which 


.are still extant, we meet with directions for granting liberty to a 
number of slaves. But the commiseration of the charitable was 
more excited by the condition of wite theow (those who had been 
reduced to slavery by a judicial sentence) than of such as had 
been born in that state, and had never tasted the blessings of liberty. 
By the bishops in the council of Calcuith, it was agreed to free, at 
their decease, every slave of that description ; and similar provi- 
sions are inserted in the wills of the lady Wynfleda, of Athelstan, 
son of King Ethelred, and of JElfric, Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Their manumission, to be legal, was to be performed in public, in 
the market, in the court of the hundred, or in the church at the 
foot of the principal altar. The lord, taking the hand of the slave, 
offered it to the bailiff, sheriff, or clergyman, gave him a sword 
.and a lance, and told him that the ways were open, and that he 
was at liberty to go wheresoever he pleased. 

" Before I conclude this subject, it is proper to add that the sale 
.and purchase of slaves publicly prevailed during the whole of the 
Anglo-Saxon period. These unhappy men were sold like cattle 
in the market ; and there is reason to believe that a slave was 
usually estimated at four times the price of an ox. To the im- 
portation of foreign slaves no impediment had ever been opposed ; 
the export of native slaves was forbidden under severe penalties. 
But habit and the pursuit of gain had taught the Northumbrians 
to bid defiance to all the efforts of the legislature. Like the sav- 
ages of Africa, they are said to have carried off, not only their own 
countrymen, but even their friends and relatives; and to have 
sold them as slaves in the ports of the continent. The men of 
Bristol were the last to abandon this nefarious traffic. Their 
agents travelled into every part of the country ; they were in- 
structed to give the highest price for females in the state of 
pregnancy ; and the slave ships regularly sailed from that port 
to Ireland, where they were secure of a ready and profitable 
market. Their obstinacy yielded, however, not to the severity of 
the magistrates, but to the' zeal of Wulstan, Bishop of Worcester. 
That prelate visited Bristol several years successively, resided for 


months together in the neighborhood, and preached on every 
Sunday against the barbarity and irreligion of the dealers in 
slaves. At last the merchants were convinced by his reasons, 
and in. that gild solemnly bound themselves to renounce the 
trade. One of the members was soon after tempted to violate 
his engagement. His perfidy was punished by the loss of his 

"We have still to consider a class of men, partly free, and 

partly slaves, the inhabitants of the cities, burghs and ports r 

which were the property sometimes of one, sometimes of several 

opulent individuals. The burghers were in general tradesmen 

and mechanics, divided into two classes : the one of men who 

held their houses by a fixed rent, and were at liberty to quit them 

when they pleased ; the other of villeins, or the descendants of 

villeins, who had been permitted to migrate from the country for 

the benefit of trade, and lived in houses which were considered as 

portions of the manors to which the original settlers had belonged. 

The burghers were still annexed to the soil, and transferable 

with it ; and were still compelled to do service in like manner 

with their brethren in the country. They were better protected 

from the attack of an enemy ; they enjoyed the benefit of a market 

for the sale of their wares. They formed gilds or corporations, 

which guaranteed the good conduct of their members, and were 

under the government of the reeve or chief lord. But the privi- 

ledges and burdens, the customs and services of the inhabitants of 

different burghs, and frequently of those in the same burgh, were 

so various, complex, and contradictory, that it is impossible to 

arrange them under distinct heads, or to describe them with 


When we consider that the Danes became the masters after- 
wards, and the Anglo-Saxons again triumphed, under Alfred, 
and that the Normans in their turn assumed the ascendency, we 
may be able to judge what terrible changes must have come over 
the condition of society in England. 

Thanks to the gradual advancement of civilization under the 


influence of Catholic truth, the condition of the lower classes be- 
came gradually ameliorated, until slavery disappeared in every 
portion of Christendom. 

The cupidity which associated itself with the commercial enter- 
prise of the Spanish and Portuguese, sought to revive the system, 
especially in the East and West Indies ; but the Roman Pontiffs, 
as we have seen from the Apostolic letter, cited heretofore, forbade 
the iliicite traffic, and had the great heresy of the sixteenth cen- 
tury never occurred, and the instruction of the universal hierarchy 
been respected as it had been by all Christians for so many previ- 
ous ages, slavery would only have been known in the history of 
rude and uncultivated times, when the spirit of Christianity was 
struggling with the darkness and perversity of heathen customs. 

The unity of the society of Christian nations being severed by 
the reformation, the nefarious traffic in human beings was carried 
on despite of Church authority, and we are convinced that any 
impartial thinker will substantiate the assertion that Protestantism 
is accountable, as an original cause, for all the evils of African 
slavery among civilized peoples in later times. Had the unity of 
the Christian powers been preserved, the slave-trade must have 
been crushed, and African slavery never could have found a per- 
manent foothold anywhere in America. 

English protestants and their descendants in America imported 
the unfortunate Africans to this country, and sold them into 
bondage, and encouraged the desperadoes of every nation of Eu- 
rope to enter the detestible traffic, by offering them a ready market 
for their precious commodity. Thus slavery became a fixed insti- 
tution in several of the States. Owners had acquired rights to 
the service of this unfortunate class by prescription, purchase, 
support, protection, or some one of the various titles by which we 
acquire rights to the service of others. Several State governments, 
considering the condition of the people under their jurisdiction, 
regulated the affair and systematized it by laws, so that it became 
legalized, and could not be removed at will without both destroy- 
ing the existing order of society, and inflicting grievous injustice 


on the possessors of such species of property. A war waged against 
the people of the South for the mere purpose of depriving them 
of their slaves, m et armis, would have been unjust and never 
could have met with the approval of our Catholic people. But 
such was not the case in the war that we have just passed through. 
Much as the question of slavery may have been connected with 
the origin of the dispute, or tended to excite the ultra portion on 
either side, the war presented itself before the masses of the loyal 
people as a mighty struggle between the government and its 
rebellious subjects. The question at issue was : Are the United 
States to have a government, or are they able to maintain the in- 
tegrity of their domain and enforce order and obedience to their 
laws and constitution ? The slaveholders rebelled, were subjugated ; 
and slavery, the chief motive of their insubordination, went down 
with the overthrow of the rebellion. The slaveholder lost his 
rights to his property by lebellion, and we most hearthily concur 
in the action of the government in punishing him by the confis- 
cation of his slaves. No individual rights are violated in the 
case, and whatever suffering may be entailed on a portion of the 
people, we can rest secure in the consciousness that they alone 
are responsible for it all. We exult then, as Catholics, over the 
grave of slavery, which we had no part in begetting or rearing in 
this country, and rejoice in the prospect, that its removal is about 
to open new channels for the exercise of religious zeal, and new 
facilities for the social improvement both of the masters and the 
subjected race. 



Were our divine Lord to remain visibly amongst men, laboring 
for the salvation of souls, to the consummation of all things, it is 
reasonable to judge that he would dedicate the greater portion of 
his works through all time, as he did during his three years of 
public ministry, to prepare, by instruction and exercises of piety, 
those whom he might call to a participation in his ministry. 
When we contemplate the Divine Master bestowing so much care, 
by correcting, teaching, and example, on these rude worldly men,, 
bearing with their incredulity, and laboring to overcome their 
mental blindness ; cheering them in moments of dejection, and 
repressing their ambition and vanity ; when we contemplate, we 
say, how Jesus conducted the first seminary, labored for it, nurtured 
it, and valued it as a second self, as the means by which the pur- 
chased salvation was to be preserved in the world, we naturally 
turn and ask, what is being done by us and in our generation to 
supply recruits to the holy ministry ? What is being done to pre- 
pare these children of the world for the priesthood of the Most 
High? These are most serious and important considerations. 
All great defections in faith or morals, have come to the people 
through the Priesthood, and the quantity and quality of Christian 
religion in a nation, can be accurately determined by examining 
the condition of two generations of the Clergy. The Clergy are 
commissioned by the Saviour to continue his visible ministry. 
"As the Father sent me, so I send you." Their mission from 
Christ is similar to that which He received from the Divine 
Father. He taught by revealing; they perpetuate and extend 
His instructions. He forgave sins by pardoning offences com- 
mitted against himself by his own innate power; they forgive 
sins by a delegated authority. He offered himself a sacrifice for 
the whole human family ; they offer Him in sacrifice in a com- 
memorative manner for the sanctification of souls. As our Lord 


is the mediator between God and man, in a similar manner are 
the ministers of Christ intended to interpose between Him and 
His people. Hence, the high and holy union between the Priest- 
hood and the people, a union so intimate that the defects and 
perfections of the one are participated by the other, and if the 
people are the continual object of the priest's solicitude, the per- 
fection of the Clergy should be sought by the people by every 
endeavor in keeping with their condition, not only to give glory 
to God, but for their own sanctification. 

To expect that there can be a holy and learned Priesthood with- 
out seminaries in which they are disciplined in piety and sacred 
.science, is to look for an effect without a cause, and deviate from 
the order which our divine Lord has established for supplying 
ministers to his Church. 

The Apostles themselves undertook the education and training 
of young disciples who aided them in the discharge of their 
sacred functions, and succeeded them in their labors and dignity. 
St. Peter educated Linus, Cletus and Clement; and St. Paul 
prepared Titus, Timothy and Philemon, for the ministry. We 
find traces of the solicitude with which the early bishops watched 
over the education of young men who gave evidence of more than 
ordinary ability, and felt themselves called to the sacred ministry. 
The bishops themselves either took 'charge of the young clerics, 
or confided them to the tutelage of masters conspicuous for learn- 
ing and piety. In every case the clerical school was under the 
direct supervision of the bishop, and was generally held in the 
bishop's own residence. We read in the history of Socrates, that 
.St. Athanasius was educated by St. Alexander, Bishop of Alex- 
andria, who established a clerical school in his cathedral, where 
the young candidates received such instructions as prepared them 
for the Priesthood. St. Augustine, when he became bishop, estab- 
lished a school of this kind in his own residence, in which he gave 
instructions himself, aided by the clergy of the city of Hippo, 
who resided with the bishop, and formed the first instance of 
the Chapter which afterwards was generally established in 


connection with cathedrals throughout the Western Church. 
St. Eusebius of Vercelli, likewise gives ample testimony regard- 
ing this manner of educating young men for the Priesthood,, 
Judging from the decrees of provincial councils of the fifth 
and sixth centuries, it appears evident that seminaries were 
found in connection with nearly every diocese. They were named 
Episcopia, or Episcopal Schools, and various details regarding 
their establishment and conduct were fixed by decrees of councils. 
When monastic institutions became multiplied, and had come in- 
to posssession of ample revenues, ornamented with men of the 
best parts, they became the great centres of piety and learning,, 
and absorbed the Episcopal seminaries. We find in one of the 
decrees of Aquisgrana, published by Charlemagne, that he re- 
quired that the regular clergy give special attention to the Epis- 
copal schools, and exercise, in learning and piety, aspirants to the 
ministry. Mabilon observes, that the monasteries had two kinds 
of schools, one for the education of " oblati," or young novices of 
the order, and the other a clerical school, which was attended by 
all who applied themselves to general studies, which in those days 
included theology. When monastic discipline became relaxed, 
and the splendor of learning had passed to the universities, we 
find the clerical schools of the monasteries abandoned, and the 
young clerics flocking to the instructions of the better conducted 
institutions. In the beginning of the twelfth century, the mon- 
astic revenues which were allotted to the support of the diocesan 
clerics, were transferred to the Chapters, to be disbursed to com- 
petent persons in charge of the instruction of the young candi- 
dates. Thomassin remarks, that while the monasteries were con- 
ducted according to strict discipline, and as the principal channel 
of public education, they afforded a vast assistance in educating 
the diocesan clergy. But when the original union between the 
monastic orders and the bishops became severed, and the regulars 
withdrew themselves, in many respects, from the episcopal juris- 
diction, then the removal of the clerical schools became necessary. 
The bishop could not exercise that supervision over his young dis- 

cviif APPENDIX. 

ciples which he is bound to do, or discipline them in such 
branches of learning and the practice of such virtues as would 
best qualify them for their holy calling. Hence the preference of 
the bishops for the universities as schools for the clergy of their 
dioceses. At length the schools of the universities declined in the 
thirteenth or fourteenth centuries, and the necessity of recalling 
the ancient discipline for the management of episcopal schools 
became obvious. Cardinal Pole, when he undertook to reform 
the English clergy, in 1556, established an ecclesiastical seminary; 
for which he drew up a code of rules which afterwards served as 
a basis for the decrees of the Council of Trent, touching the edu- 
cation of clerics. About the same time, St. Ignatius opened a 
college in Kome for the education of candidates for the Priesthood, 
to supply the wants of the Church in Germany. In this country, 
the ancient discipline was established, and Audisio, in his work 
on. the " Physical and Moral Education of the Clergy," attributes 
to the labors of this saint the merit of reviving the primitive form 
of clerical education, afterwards enforced by the decrees of Trent. 
" When," says Audisio, " the Holy Council of Trent had defini- 
tively expounded the true faith against the heretics, it directed its 
efforts towards the reformation of discipline and morals, reestab- 
lishing the ancient form of ecclesiastical education, and ordering 
the erection of seminaries throughout the Catholic world. By 
this ordinance, so much of the ancient discipline was revived as 
could be applied to other times and a new condition of things, the 
remedy which was to heal the evils afflicting religion was applied 
to their very root, and clerical education was placed upon its true 
-and original basis, by committing it exclusively to the care and 
supervision of the bishops, who are the masters and rulers of the 
Church, appointed by the Holy Spirit." 

The following is a translation of the decree of the Council 
regarding the establishment of seminaries: "The Holy Synod 
commands that every Cathedral Metropolitan, and other churches 
of greater dignity, be obliged to support, and piously educate and 
instruct in ecclesiastical knowledge, a certain, number of youth 


of the city or diocese in which such cathedral churches may be 
found, corresponding to the revenues and extent of said diocese, 
in a college situated near the church, or in some other convenient 
place, selected by the bishop. In this college youths are to be 
received who shall have attained their twelfth year at least, 
born of a lawful marriage, who have already been sufficiently in- 
structed in reading and writing, and whose disposition and declared 
wish afford reasonable hopes that they will remain perpetually in 
the service of the holy ministry. In the selection, particular re- 
gard should be shown to those who are not capable of supporting 
themselves, not excluding persons of means, provided they con- 
tribute to their own maintainance, and manifest a desire to serve 
God and His Church. The bishop will devide the youths into- 
as many classes as he may judge proper, according to their ages 
and advancement in ecclesiastical studies, and will appoint some 
to the service of the Church, retaining others in the college, sub- 
stituting new candidates in place of those who may have left, in 
order that this college of God's Ministers may remain a continual 
source of supply. 

The Council had evidently in view the establishment of the an- 
cient discipline, especially as the very words of the early synods 
are used to express the proposed plan of education. Every Epis- 
copal See is required to have its own seminary, because a small 
number is more successfully disciplined than many, and also, for 
the reason that every Bishop is, properly speaking, the guardian 
and director of his own subjects. There is a very strong intima- 
tion in this decree, that youths of various dioceses, provinces or 
countries, are not to be assembled in the same seminary. Every 
diocese has its own special character and peculiar requirements, 
according to which the aspirants should be trained, while home 
education tends, to a very great degree, to preserve and strengthen 
the attachment of the subjects to their superior, and by identify- 
ing the priest with the feeling and character of the people, he is 
rendered more practical in his ministry, and is not apt to divert 
his attention to matters which are of little or no importance for 


the salvation of souls. It is therefore, quite evident that the 
decree of the Council of Trent is by no means in favor of 
what might be called central, provincial or national seminaries, 
which, during the last century, were established in Germany by 
the Josephine laws, in Ireland by the government grant, and at 
present are being initiated in this country by the establishment 
of a seminary of this class in the Eastern States. Colleges in 
which a great number are assembled, have peculiar advantages, 
but they have many striking imperfections when compared with 
those which have, what is considered, an ordinary or medium 
number of students, Large educational establishments are sup- 
posed to have more competent instructors, and generally have, as 
their means are more ample than are those of the other class. 
The interchange of thought is greater, and better advantages are 
afforded of becoming acquainted with a variety of talents and dis- 
positions ; but, on the other hand, a greater dissipation of thought 
on a variety of things is a necessary consequence, and less care in 
imparting instruction, and especially in adapting it to the indi- 
vidual capacity, can be bestowed by the professor when the num- 
ber of scholars is large, than otherwise. But in regard of dis- 
cipline, it can hardly be disputed that the educational establish- 
ment with the fewer number of students, has decidedly the 
advantage. This is especially true in the clerical seminary. 
When the number of inmates is not too great to be superintended 
t>y one individual, there is more of the tender and loftier qualities 
of the subjects developed by assimilating their condition to the 
domestic state. The superior understands the perfections and 
weaknesses of each, and all subject themselves rather through 
love than fear, and the obligation of observing order governs the 
heart in place of taking the form of the rigid order of police, 
which must to a great extent obtain, where the number of schol- 
ars is great. In the ecclesiastical school, where the inner man 
especially must be understood and perfected by the judicious 
superior, it is very evident that the small body such as can come 
under the direction of one person is particularly desirable, and 


the reason why the Fathers of Trent require that each bishop' 
have his own seminary became more evident. 

It may be urged that it is less expensive to educate clerics in a. 
central establishment than in several distributed through the 
various dioceses. It is said, besides, that in few dioceses can there 
be a sufficient number of clergymen competent to conduct such 
establishments relieved from parochial duties. Regarding these 
and similar objections to diocesan seminaries, it may be said that 
they exist only in the beginning, or while the seminary is being 
established, but cannot be urged as enduring difficulties. The 
seminary itself will supply its own professors, and the difficulty of 
obtaining them can only exist where there may have been no 
seminary. As to expenses, they are in proportion to the extent of 
the diocese, and hence in proportion to the means which should 
be contributed by the catholic people. We believe that the people^ 
contribute to the support of the clerical seminary in this country 
by an annual collection in the several parochial churches. We 
have often thought that this contribution has been viewed, by 
catholics, to a very great extent, as an offer of charity rather than 
the fulfillment of an obligation, whereas a little consideration, 
might satisfy the most exacting mind, that the expenses attending 
the preparation of candidates for the Priesthood, are strictly in- 
cumbent on the catholic people. The young man who leaves 
father, mother, home, and worldly prospects, to give himself, his 
talents and energies to the salvation of the people, without hope 
of temporal rewards or the desire of worldly recompense ; why 
should he, or rather why should his family, be taxed with the ex- 
penses attending his preparation for the ministry? His family is 
not to be specially benefited by his labors in the ministry, but the 
people at large ; and they, arid not his friends, are in justice res- 
ponsible for what may be required for his education. A youth 
must spend ten years in studies preparatory for the ministry, dur- 
ing which period he requires from two to three thousand dollars 
at least, for his maintainance. Why should his parents be taxed 
to this amount for the benefit of religion ? Why should not the 


people rather, who are to enjoy the benefits of his ministry, con- 
.sider themselves bound to meet these necessary expenses? In many 
dioceses, it is the custom that the student bear half of the burthen, 
.and the people the other ; but it is too evident that even accord- 
ing to such regulations, parents who promote their children to the 
Priesthood, are defraying expenses, which, if the matter were more 
generally understood, belong properly to the public. 

We are induced to make these observations, because we are con- 
vinced that there are greater sacrifices required of parents to pre- 
pare their sons for the Priesthood in this, than in any other 
country. They are expected to give, by educating one member 
of their family, thousands of dollars to the Church, and receive 
nothing of this world's means in return. Less would be required 
to prepare him for any other profession, and a hope of remunera- 
tion would prompt them, to expend. Heavier and more extensive 
studies are required for the Priesthood than for any other profes- 
sion in this country, and as a body, the Catholic Clergy are un- 
doubtedly the most learned class in their sphere to be found in 
the country. Greater private expenditure must be made to enter 
the ministry in the United States than is required in any nation 
<of Europe, where provisions are made for the student after having 
..attained a certain degree in ecclesiastical science. 

We have heard it frequently repeated and written, that there 
are comparatively few vocations to the ministry to be found in 
the United States. But did those who make such lamentations 
ever reflect, that there are incomparably greater difficulties to be 
.surmounted in entering the ecclesiastical state here, than else- 
where ? We ourselves, speaking from experience, know that such 
.an impression is false, and regret that it has fixed itself on the 
minds of many who should have given the matter a more thorough 
consideration. Our greatest want has heretofore consisted in proper 
preparatory or grammar schools, corresponding to what in France 
is called Le petit Seminaire. 

Our colleges have been generally conducted by religious orders, 
and hence they have not, with the exception, perhaps, of those in 


charge of the Congregation of the Missions, succeeded in develop- 
ing vocations for the diocesan. Priesthood. But an experience of 
a few years in connection with an academic course of education 
under catholic control, should convince the most skeptical, that 
one academy or college is quite competent to supply students of 
theology for not one, but many dioceses. We believe that our 
catholic people are as good as any in the world, and we cannot 
understand how any other people in the same circumstances, 
could be more disposed to dedicate their children to the service 
of the sanctuary than they. Our youth are as generous, talented, 
energetic and self-sacrificing as any need be, and if they do not 
labor in the vineyard of the Lord, the fault does not lie with 
them. We are fully aware of the difficulties attending the estab- 
lishment of colleges and seminaries, and hence are not disposed to 
blame any class for the lack of priests which is found to some de- 
gree, everywhere, but do affirm without doubt, that the defect does 
not lie with the youth of the country, but can easily be discovered 
to exist in the scanty facilities which are afforded them of pre- 
paring themselves for the ministry. 

In the decree which we have cited, the Fathers of the Council 
of Trent require that the youth of the city or diocese be assembled 
in a college near the Cathedral, (prope ecclesias.) Many of our 
Catholics have become so habituated to the munificence of the 
missionary system, that they seem to think that Catholics in 
Europe are under obligation to furnish us with priests. The fact 
is, there are not a sufficient number of clergymen in Europe to 
attend to their own people. In Ireland there is but one priest to 
every two thousand Catholics, little over half the number required. 
In Great Britain the demand is but partially supplied. None can 
be spared from Germany ; and Italy, considering what has occured 
during the past few years, must be as scarcely supplied as any of 
its neighbors. We need not deceive ourselves. Our priests must 
be educated at home, taken from our own people, and supported 
by our own means. Four millions of Catholics, as prosperous in 
worldly affairs as could be expected, should not look to other 


countries to have their most essential requirements supplied. 
Exertions should be made to fill the ranks of the ministry, and 
they must be made by our catholic people. Legacies and contri- 
butions should be given to this object in preference to all others. 
We may build up the material Church, erect splendid edifices, 
establish institutions of secular learning, endow convents of relig- 
ious, but if we do not supply Pastors to the people, all our labor 
will be in vain. Faith and morals have declined, and religion 
become extinct in countries studded with noble and imposing 
structures, but where the learned and zealous Priesthood has 
existed, we ever see the choicest blessings of heaven showered 
upon the land. 

The monasteries and stately temples that are found in Northern 
Africa, or Eastern Asia, could not save the people from heresy and 
schism, nay even from the barbarism of the Koran, when the 
spirit of the Priesthood was broken, when ignorance had besotted 
the minds of the Pastors, and the patronage and munificences of 
courts had prostituted their morality. The gorgeous Cathedral 
and the deserted Abbey are still to be found in Protestant Ger- 
many and England, but their echoes are no longer awakened by 
the sound of the Apostolic voice, or the chants of praise to the 
most High God. Kings and courts had introduced their corrup- 
tion into the sanctuary. The moral and intellectual culture of the 
Clergy had declined, and what might have been the paradise of 
saints, had the governments and people performed their duty in 
aiding the Roman Pontiffs to support and perfect ecclesiastical dis- 
cipline, was deserted by the protecting spirit of Christianity, and 
left a prey to error, and an open field for the delusion of every 
moral perversity. 

The unbroken spirit of the Irish people supported an untarn- 
ished Priesthood, a body of Clergy that no allurements could be- 
guile, that no corruption could taint. The Irish Soggarih Aroone, 
who was of the people, shared in their misfortunes, participated 
in their scanty enjoyments, who. was ever identified with the cause 
of the people, who had the interest of the people ever at heart, 


who spurned the proffered bribes of corruption and perversion, 
has left his lasting impression on the minds of the people, pre- 
served their nationality under a foreign government, and the 
integrity of the true religion under the adverse influence of wealth 
and power. 

The exertions of cardinal Ximenez to revive the ancient dis- 
cipline, and correct the abuses which had crept into the system of 
clerical education in Spain, raised a timely and most effectual bul- 
wark against the encroachments of the reformation in that nation. 
France, and many parts of Germany, were saved to the Church in 
a great measure, by the labors of the members of the Society of 
St. Ignatius, and others, who exerted themselves to supply the 
greatest want of the times a learned and pious body of Clergy 
to teach the people. The pre-eminent advantages accruing to 
religion from the life of St. Charles Boromeo, were those derived 
from the great number of ecclesiastical seminaries which he 
established, from which he not only brought forth a host of ser- 
vants of God, who not only met and hurled back the tide of heresy 
which was sweeping down from the Alps on Northern Italy, but 
redeemed many portions of Switzerland from the infection of error 
and corruption, giving, besides, a practical illustration of the 
happy consequences resulting from the enforcement of the Triden- 
tine decree, which served as an encouragement, and afforded 
models for similar undertakings throughout Europe. 

The Fathers of the Council, in the decree to which we have re- 
ferred, have shown a decided disapproval of foreign education. 
The candidates for the ministry should be chosen from the youth 
of the Episcopal city, or the diocese in which they are to officiate, 
and be educated under the direct supervision of their own bishop. 
Foreign education has many and grievious disadvantages neces- 
sarily connected with it, which cannot pass unnoticed. Persons 
who have received their education in other countries, very seldom 
can become thorough practical working men in either Church or 
State. No one who is not educated with the youth of his own 
country, who has not corne in contact with the prevalent opinions 


and modes of thinking of the people, can use his knowledge to 
advantage. His labors must be frequently expended to no pur- 
pose, and his best exertions may often be injurious instead of 
beneficial to the people. 

A good education does not consist in learning anything or 
everything. It must be modeled to the requirements of the 
student ; and we know of no greater pest in any position in life, 
than he who knows much about everything excepting his own 
business. The living questions of the day are, to a very great 
extent, different in various countries, and matters which should 
be thoroughly understood and studied in detail for one people 
may be of the slightest possible importance for another. It takes 
many years for persons to understand that questions which filled 
their whole mental vision in school, which were their pride and 
boast to thoroughly comprehend, are just such as the public are 
least concerned about, and which have long ago been ostracised 
from the domain of public agitation. We cannot easily perceive 
how an American youth can be especially benefited in having the 
better portion of his time engrossed by the tedious and minute 
details of the Gallican controversy, the refutation and history of 
Jansenism, or acquisition of such arguments as may prepare him 
to refute the advocates of La petite Eglise nor do we think that 
one of our students is employed to the best advantage by studying 
the systems of German philosophy in some university abroad, and 
forming his mind to give them a formidable refutation. Such 
persons will no doubt believe themselves learned for a time, and 
may be so esteemed by a few others, but they must outlive the 
delusion, and when they begin to be serviceable, it is just when 
they perceive that they know little or nothing. 

We would not be understood as being opposed to foreign edu- 
cation if it be made secondary and subservient to the education 
received in one's own country. Those who have the disposition, 
time and means to travel and make themselves acquainted with 
the views of learned men in various countries, by even becoming 
for some time their disciples, can undoubtedly be incalculably 


benefited. The Holy Father has moreover encouraged the estab- 
lishment of various national seminaries in Rome, and has at 
considerable sacrifice of means, succeeded in founding one for the 
benefit of the youth of bur own nation ; but Rome is the capital 
of Christendom, and the young cleric is more at home in a Roman 
seminary than he could be anywhere outside of his own country. 
But it never was the design of the Holy Father that the American. 
College in Rome, should be the chief source of supply for the- 
Priesthood of America. A national college in Rome is considered 
full, when it contains fifty or sixty scholars. The design of the 
national college in the Eternal City is, that it should afford an 
opportunity to a few whom circumstances may permit, to pursue 
their studies in the capital of the Church, and by observing the 
actual working of ecclesiastical government, aid in facilitating 
communication between the different nations and the Holy See. 
We believe that there are seminaries in this country, where those 
who are called to the holy ministry, can receive a better education 
for their duties amongst our people, than can be given them any- 
where else, and we consider it very unjust and detrimental to the 
dearest interests of religion, should their sterling worth and im- 
portance not be duly appreciated. The most able and thoroughly 
efficient men in the American Church have been educated at 
home, among our own people, and under greater disadvantages 
than now exist ; and under the protection of God, we look to our 
seminaries, for perpetuating and spreading the true faith through- 
out the land. From various data it has been established that 
there are nearly or about four millions of Catholics in the United 
States, and the territories. For this population there should be 
four thousand Clergymen, whereas in fact, there is little over half 
that number attending to the spiritual wants of the people. The 
children of our own people should be prepared for the ministry. 
We want our own Catholic young men, with their talents, 
their keenness, their spiritof self-sacrifice, and indomitable energy, 
sent into the sanctuary, to teach the companions of their youth, 
pray for them, sacrifice themselves for them, and enter into all their 

cxviii APPENDIX. 

feelings, and sympathize with them in all the vicissitudes of their 
fortunes. As the pastors are the ministerial mediators between 
God and His faithful, we cannot conceive how a Catholic people 
can receive the fullness of Divine beneficence unless they be prop- 
erly represented at the altar of the Most High, the Holy of 
Holies from whence issue forth those rays which are to illuminate 
and strengthen the souls of men. Generally speaking, the people 
do not discover what are really their essential wants until they 
are overtaken by the hour of need. We hope that our Catholics 
will not be obliged to learn from experience, the want of the 
numerous, learned and pious Priesthood, taken from themselves, 
educated amongst themselves, and identified with them in inter- 
est and affection. Nothing should be considered as a preferable 
object of their munificence to the diocesan seminary, and no more 
glorious career should be opened to the aspirations of their sons 
than that of the Ministry of the Word Incarnate. 


Much has already been written and said regarding the best 
means to be adopted for the re-establishment of peace and order 
in those portions of the country where the people rose in opposi- 
tion to the government; and, while the momentous subject is being 
discussed by politicians and statesmen, the matter works its own 
solution in the best possible manner. The state governments are 
being re-orgailized, the old constitutions modified to existing cir- 
cumstances, the laws enforced to a very great extent, and a fact 
that might challenge the history of the world to produce an equal, 
arises before our delighted vision, peace, order, industry and pros- 
perity fast taking possession of those regions where a few months 
ago civil war with all its horrors held undisputed sway. The 


policy which our government had pursued, may have been wise, 
or may have had its defects regarding the object to be attained,, 
but the respect for law, the love of social order, the regard which 
each entertains for the rights of others as the best guarantee of 
his own, in a word, the good old republican habits in which our 
people were so long schooled, immediately returned both in the 
North and South, as socn as the war blast had ceased to be heard 
throughout the land. The social virtue- cultivated in a very ex- 
cellent degree by the American, people have re-established order,, 
proclaimed universal peace and done more to make us one people 
again, than all the theories of our statesmen or the united efforts; 
of all the departments of the government. 

In war the people on either side gave themselves to the support 
of their respective principles in dreadful earnest. They fought 
valiantly as men prepared to sacrifice their lives and fortunes to 
success ; but they maintained throughout a spirit of honor and a 
sense of humanity, not surpassed, if ever equaled, before in any 
civil contest. When defeat and disaster rendered the continuance 
of the struggle useless on the part of the South, the insurgents 
united their efforts with those of the government to put down the 
wandering bands of desperadoes who had lived by plunder dur- 
ing the war, counseled each other to forgiveness, and showed them- 
selves as sincere in acquiescing in the new order of things, as they 
were determined in their efforts to prevent it taking effect. We 
might in truth and justice say these and many more things com- 
mendatory of our people, both North and South, for the noble 
manner in which they have closed the bloody scene, but the high 
encomiums of either nations which greet us on either side, is the 
surest token that our merits are by no means imaginary. Those 
who at home and abroad contended that our people could never be 
re-united, even if the government were triumphant ; that a guer- 
rilla warfare would prolong the strife indefinitely ; that a colossal 
standing army would be required in the conquered territory ; that 
bloody deeds of retaliation would be of continual recurrence, and 
our republic sink to the deplorable condition of her unfortunate 


sister Mexico, are astonished to hear the united voices of the lead- 
ers of the South proclaiming universal peace and obedience to the 
government ; the great army of the North already reduced to a 
mere fraction ; the state militia organized for the maintenance of 
law and order, and industry and the peaceful arts returning to 
their former dwelling places. 

While we make these remarks regarding the general conduct of 
our people, we are not blind to certain deeds of injustice and ani- 
mosity ; certain retaliatory measures which here and there have 
been adopted ; certain acts of private vengeance, which have been 
lately reported all of which we are pleased to say, form exceptions 
to the general course of events, and are so few that we cannot 
restrain or surprise. Among these extreme, revengeful, unjust, 
though exceptional measures, we place the new constitution of the 
state of Missouri, adopted in a convention of delegates assembled 
on the 6th of January last, in the city of St. Louis, carried in an 
election on the 6th of June, and having received the Governor's 
ratification, took effect on the 4th of last July. In this constitu- 
tion are embodied as the fundamental law of the State provisions 
which are unjust and extremely tyrannical ; which were dictated 
in a spirit of vengeance by a triumphant minority, and were in- 
tended to be a punishment for past deeds rather than measures to 
promote the well-being of society in the future. No other State 
was so much divided in the late war as Missouri. Neighbors 
found themselves arrayed against each other in deadly strife; 
even members of the same family were not unfrequently found in 
the opposing armies on the field of battle. In such a state of 
things it can be easily imagined how much private animosity 
would be generated, what wrongs inflicted, and what deeds of 
vengeance perpetrated in the name of liberty and patriotism. The 
vast majority of the people were attached to the Southern cause, 
and a larger number of their fighting men were found in the ar- 
mies of Johnston, Taylor and Price. The few who attached them- 
selves to the cause of the government had suffered many wrongs 


while the insurgents held the ascendency, and when victory 
crowned the national cause, they neither forgave nor forgot. 

To sum up the animus of the revised constitution, is to say tnat 
it aims at no less than the disfranchisement and consequent exile 
from the state of the vast majority of its people and the introduc- 
tion of a new population from the northern portions of the country. 
No one was permitted to vote on the important issue but the few 
who had attached themselves to the cause of the union, and it is 
an indisputable fact that even then the election was carried in 
favor of the instrument by the vote of the United States army 
quartered in the state, and in many instances by counting votes 
that were never cast. The ordinary means of contesting the 
election were precluded, as the courts of justice were committed to 
the party that supports the revised constitution, and nothing was 
left but submission for the present, and the hope that time would 
reveal to the nation the iniquity of the faction that now holds 
the ascendency. 

The protestant clergy in Missouri, as well as throughout the 
whole extent of the rebellious states, became popular mouth-pieces 
of the insurrection. The Methodists and Presbyterians seceded 
in religion, as well as in politics, from their brethren of the 
North, and nineteen-twentieths of the whole body of sectarian 
preachers of the South, like their confreres of the North, 
were entirely engrossed with the war and the political ques- 
tions connected with it. They naturally became odious to 
the so-called union faction, who concocted the revised consti- 
tution, and by that instrument became subjected to grievous 
restraints and penalties for their disloyalty. They no doubt de 
served to be punished severely, for they were traitors to the 
country in as strict a sense as any other portion of the Southern 
people, but they should have been tried according to the laws in 
force when their illegal acts were committed, and when at present 
new enactments are framed and enforced against them, they have 
a right to complain of unjust and tyrannical treatment. For this 
reason we sympathize with them and with the great body of the 

cxxii APPENDIX. 

inhabitants of Missouri, and hope that they will perservere in 
opposing the infamous plot by which the constitution was called 
into existence, until it is viewed in its true colors, and con- 
demned by the unanimous voice of the nation. 

But what we complain of particularly is, that, while the consti- 
tution aims at exiling the rebel preachers, its restrictions are gen- 
eral on all clergymen, and are such that those who took no part 
in the rebellion, (and as the catholic clergy have generally stood 
aloof from the turmoil of political faction, schemes and measures,} 
can by no means conform to them. As Catholics we raise our 
voice against the persecution of our clergy in our neighboring 
state, who, from the great and good ecclesiastical man who governs 
the diocese, to those exercising the lowest functions of the ministry, 
have conducted themselves with that decorum becoming their 
calling in the late most trying times, and borne themselves " as 
ministers of Christ and dispensers of the mysteries of God," 

In article 2, section 3, the constitution requires that, " at any 
election held by the people under this constitution, or in pursuance 
of any law of this state, or under any ordinance or by-law of any 
municipal corporation, no person shall be deemed a qualified 
voter, who has ever been in armed hostility to the United States, 
or to the lawful authorities thereof, or to the government of this 
state ; or has ever given aid, comfort, countenance, or support to 
persons engaged in any such hostility ; or has ever, in any man- 
ner, adhered to the enemies, foreign or domestic, to the United 
States, either by contributing to them, or by unlawfully sending 
within their lines, money, goods, letters, or information ; or has 
ever disloyally held communication with such enemies ; or has 
ever advised or aided any persons to enter the service of such ene- 
mies ; or has ever by act or word manifested his adherence to the 
cause of such enemies, or his desire for the triumph over the arms 
of the United States, or his sympathy with those engaged in ex- 
citing or carrying on the rebellion against the United States ; or 
has ever, except under overpowering compulsion, submitted to the 
authority, or been in the service of the so-called " Confederate 


States of America," with the purpose of adhering to the said States 
or armies ; or has ever been a member of, or connected with 
any order, society, organization, inimical to the government of 
the United States, or to the government of this state ; or has ever 
been engaged in guerrilla warfare against loyal inhabitants of the 
United States, or in any description of marauding commonly 
known as bushwhacking ; or has ever knowingly and willingly 
harbored, aided or countenanced any person so engaged ! or has 
ever come into or left this state, for the purpose of avoiding enrol- 
ment for, or draft in the military service of the United States ; or 
has ever with a view to avoid enrolment in the militia of this 
state, or to escape the performance of duty therein, or for any other 
purpose, enrolled himself, or authorized himself to be enrolled, by 
or before any officer, as disloyal, or as a southern sympathizer, or 
in any other term indicating his disaffection to the government of 
the United States in its contest with rebellion, or his sympathy 
with those engaged in such rebellion ; or having ever voted at any 
election by the people in this state, or in any other of the United 
States, or in any of their territories, or held office in this state, or 
in any of their territories, or under the United States, shall there- 
after have sought or received, under claim of alienage, the protec- 
tion of any foreign government through any consul or other officer 
thereof, in order to secure exemption from military duty, in the 
militia of this state, or in any other of the United States. Nor 
shall any such person be capable of holding in this state any office 
of honor, trust or profit under its authority ; or of being an officer 
councilman, director, trustee or other manager of any corporation 
public or private, now existing or hereafter established by its au- 
thority ; or of acting as a professor or teacher in any educational 
institution, or in any common or other school ; or of holding any 
real or other property in trust for the use of any church, religious 
society or congregation. But the foregoing provisions in relation 
to acts done against the United States shall not apply to any per- 
son not a citizen thereof, who shall have committed such acts while 
in the service of some foreign country at war with the United 

cxxiv APPENDIX. 

States, and who has, since such acts been naturalized, or may here- 
after be naturalized, under the laws of the United States ; and the 
oath of loyalty hereinafter prescribed, when taken by such person 
shall be considered as taken in such sense." 

"Section 6. The oath to be taken as aforesaid shall be known 
as the oath of loyalty, and shall be in the following terms : 

" I, A. B., do solemnly swear, that I am well acquainted with the 
terms of the third section of the second article of the constitution 
of the state of Missouri, adopted in the year eighteen hundred and 
sixty-five, and have carefully considered the same ; that I have 
never directly or indirectly done any of the acts in said section 
specified ; that I have always been truly and loyally on the side of 
the United States against all enemies thereof, foreign and domestic ; 
that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the United States, and 
will support the constitution and laws thereof, as the supreme law 
of the land, any law or ordinance of any state to the contrary not- 
withstanding ; that I will do the best of my ability to protect and 
defend the union of the United States, and not allow the same to 
be broken up and dissolved, or the government thereof to be de- 
stroyed or overthrown, under any circumstances, if in my power 
to prevent it ; that I will support the constitution of the state of 
Missouri ; and that I will make this oath without any mental re- 
servation or evasion, and hold it to be binding on me." 

" Section 9. No person shall assume the duties of any state, 
county, city, town or other office, to which he may be appointed, 
otherwise than by a vote of the people ; nor shall any person, 
after the expiration of sixty days after this constitution takes effect, 
be permitted to practice as an attorney or counsellor at law ; nor, 
after that time, shall any person be competent as a bishop, priest, 
deacon, minister, or other clergyman of any religious persuasion, 
sect or denomination, to teach, or preach, or solemnize marriage, 
unless such person shall have first taken, subscribed and filed said 

"Section 14. Whoever shall, after the times limited in the 
seventh and ninth sections of this article, hold or exercise any of 



the offices, positions, trust, professions, or functions therein speci- 
fied, without having taken, subscribed and filed said oath of loyalty, 
shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by fine, not less than five 
hundred dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail not less 
than six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment ; and 
whoever shall take said oath falsely, by swearing or by affirmation, 
shall, on conviction thereof, be adjudged guilty of perjury, and be 
punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary not less than two 

The term of sixty days allowed for all who preach, teach or 
solemnize marriage, in which to take the oath, expired on the 
second day of August. The Catholic clergy and religious, both 
men and women, who conduct schools, academies or colleges in 
the state, have not taken the oath of loyalty and continue to 
exercise their respective functions regardless of the penalties men- 
tioned in the constitution. The Archbishop or any of the paroch- 
ial clergy or Catholic teachers are liable to be arrainged before a 
circuit court, and receive the sentence of imprisonment for not less 
than six months, or to pay a fine not less than five hundred 
dollars. The Archbishop has directed an instruction to his clergy 
not to take the oath of loyalty, and alleges, as a reason for his 
action, that by requiring such an oath from the clergy, the state 
usurps ecclesiastical authority. It is cheering to witness the calm 
and firm determination of these pastors of God's people to resist 
injustice and oppression though they be protected with the mantle 
of public authority. Such a manifestation clearly shows that the 
spirit of the early martyrs is still living and active, of those holy 
men and women, priests and Bishops, who, in every age of the 
Christian era, have fearlessly protested against whatever arose in 
violation of the law of God, and who have gained so many bril- 
liant triumphs for Truth and Right by laying down their lives. 
No higher instance of the morally sublime can be afforded than 
that of those commissioned to care for the interests of men's souls 
and guard the eternal welfare of the people contending against 
mere physical and material force, wielded in the cause of error and 

cxxvi APPENDIX. 

for the support of what is wrong. Then the true greatness of the 
soul appears in its contempt for what is merely transient and of 
this life, and the most convincing argument is offered for the im- 
mortal aspirations of the human heart, which never is at peace 
until it rests in the entire and perfect possession of the chief Good. 
We, with all the Catholics of the country, offer our most heartfelt 
sympathy in the trials which the machinations of evil disposed 
men are permitted to inflict upon the venerable Archbishop and 
clergy of St. Louis, and offer our humble co-operation to expose 
and dissipate the foul designs of these enemies of religion and 
genuine liberty. 

When the Archbishop alleges as a reason for not taking the so- 
called oath of loyalty, that the state, by such a measure, usurps 
ecclesiastical authority, we venture to judge that the venerable 
prelate refers to the spirit and purpose of the faction which devised 
the iniquitous scheme rather than to the form of the oath itself. 
He must have understood that these men designed to subject re- 
ligion to the public interests, and by enslaving the clergy in the 
concerns of government, render them efficient tools of the political 
power. If such be the designs of the triumphant party in Mis- 
souri, they have added to the crime of religious oppression the 
sacrilege of claiming for " Csesar the things which are of God," and 
the instruction of the Archbishop contains the primary and radical 
reason why the oath can not be taken by the clergy. 

But the mere proposal of that oath by the civil power, independ- 
ently of the spirit which no doubt the Archbishop has discovered 
underlying it, cannot be considered as a usurpation of ecclesiastical 
prerogatives by the State. The power to propose such an oath as 
that quoted above does not belong to any government on earth, 
for it is in itself unjust and violates the first principles of morality. 
Nor can it be said that there is necessarily a usurpation of ecclesi- 
astical power in the mere fact of the civil government proposing 
an oath of loyalty to be taken by the clergy. Clergymen are sub- 
ject to the civil power, and, like other citizens, may be required 
to bind themselves, should the government require it, not to dis- 


turb a legitimate order of society, and even to support it in their 
capacity of private citizens. Such obligations have been, taken by 
the clergy of the Church in so many instances that it is not neces- 
sary here to enumerate particulars, and as such a custom prevails 
in many of the countries of Europe with the approbation of the 
Holy See, the matter is one which does not admit of controversy. 
The oath, as it stands in print, and as we at a distance understand 
it from its reading, should be treated as tyrannical, unjust in. itself, 
and as standing clearly in opposition to the supreme and sovereign 
law of the country, the Constitution of the United States. We 
would prefer to oppose on these grounds, rather than on those of 
ecclesiastical usurpation^ for the reason, that the Protestant clergy- 
men who have been notoriously rebellious, and who have merited 
to be subjected to obligations to conduct themselves as becomes 
subjects of the general government, have raised the cry of usurpa- 
tion of ecclesiastical powers by the state, in order to screen their 
perfidy, and be at liberty to repeat their deeds of treason should 
the opportunity occur. The assemblies of the Methodist and 
Presbyterian ministers, had become such violent and powerful 
instruments in favor of those inarms against the government, that 
a great and prudent general commanding at St. Louis thought 
well to require an oath of loyalty from them before entering their 
conclaves, and we cannot understand why a similar declaration 
should not be required of them now, when every effort should be 
made productive of peace as well as from others who have 
taken a prominent part in the late opposition to the government. 
It may be remarked that whereas the oath is embodied in the 
constitution, it is to be treated as law to which there is a penalty 
attached relatively to all those who have done, said, or signified 
any of the things specified in the third section, second articles, 
which are over fifty in number. Those who preach, teach, or 
solemnize marriage, and have ever "signified their dissatisfaction 
with the government in its contest with rebellion," or " expressed 
a desire for the triumph of the enemies of the United States," or 
"expressed sympathy with those in arms against the United 

cxxviii APPENDIX. 

States," are to be deprived of their positions and prevented from 
exercising the aforesaid functions. This is certainly a very griev- 
ous penalty arid should be inflicted only for grievous crimes. But 
was there any law making such expression as we have quoted 
above and many acts enumerated in the article, criminal before 
the enforcement of the revised constitution ? Certainly not. The 
only law touching the case, was that embodied in the Constitution 
of the United States for the punishment of treason, in which only 
a few acts are enumerated and regarded as treasonable. It was not 
criminal to express dissatisfaction with the Government of the 
United States or signify any desires or sympathies regarding the 
enemies of the government, or place many other acts enumerated 
in section third, and he who may have performed those therein 
enumerated, could in no wise be viewed as a criminal before any 
human law. He was innocent of the violation of any law of the 
land whatever, and as such could not be punished for the commis- 
sion of things enumerated. To punish him would be to punish 
one who was known to be guiltless, and consequently the darkest 
of tyranny and injustice. Yet according to the revised constitution 
all such persons are to be deprived of the exercise of their functions 
and professions, and effectually exiled from the state. This is in- 
flicting punishment for crimes never committed, and constitutes 
the enormity of the tyranny and injustice of ex post facto laws which 
are repudiated by every form of government among civilized 
nations. We quote Mr. Justice Chase's exposition of an ex post 
facto law : 

" I shall endeavor to show what law is to be considered ex post 
facto law, within the words and meaning of the prohibition in the 
Federal Constitution. The prohibition, ' that no state shall pass 
any ex post facto law,' necessarily requires some explanation ; for 
naked and without explanation, it is unintelligible, and means 
nothing. Literally, it is only that a law should not be passed, 
concerning, and after the fact, or thing done, or action committed. 
I would ask what fact ; of what nature or kind ; and by whom 
done ? That Charles I., King of England, was beheaded ; that 


Oliver Cromwell was Protector of England ; that Louis XVI., late 
King of France, was guillotined, are all facts that have happened, 
but it would be nonsense to suppose that the States were prohi- 
bited from making any law after either of these events, and with 
reference thereto. The prohibition in the letter is not to pass any 
law concerning and after the fact, but the plain and obvious mean- 
ing and intention of the prohibition is this, that the Legislatures 
of the several States shall not pass laws after a fact done by sub- 
ject, or citizen, which shall have relation to such fact, and shall 
punish him for having done it. The prohibition, considered in 
this light, is an additional bulwark in favor of the personal security 
of the subject, to protect his person from punishment by legislative 
acts, having a retrospective operation. I do not think it was in- 
serted to secure the citizen in his private rights, of either property 
or contract. The prohibition not to make anything but gold and 
silver coin a tender in payment of debts, and not to pass any law 
impairing the obligation of contracts, were inserted to secure pri- 
vate rights; but the restriction not to pass any ex post, facto law was 
to secure the person of the subject from injury or punishment in 
consequence of such law. If the prohibition against making ex 
post facto laws was intended to secure personal rights from being 
affected or injured by such laws, and the prohibition is sufficiently 
extensive for that object, the other restraints I have enumerated 
were unnecessary, and therefore improper, for both of them are 
retrospective." He then proceeds to state what laws he considers 
ex post facto laws within the words and intent of the constitutional 
prohibition, as follows : " 1st. Every law that makes an action done 
before the passing of the law, and which was innocent when done, 
criminal; and punishes such action. 2d. Every law that aggra- 
vates a crime, or makes it greater than it was, when committed. 
3d. Every law that changes the punishment, and inflicts a greater 
punishment than ' L the law annexed to crime, when committed. 
4th. Every law that alters the legal rules of evidence, and receives 
less or different testimony than the law required at the time of the 
commission of the offence, in order to convict the offender. All 


these, and similar laws are manifestly unjust and oppressive, 3 
Dalla, 390-1." 

And in a late case, Chief Justice Marshall says : " An ex post 
facto law is one which renders an act punishable in a manner in which 
it was not punishable when it was committed." Fletcher vs. Peck, 
6 Cranch, 138. " This definition," says Chancellor Kent, "is dis- 
tinguished for its comprehensive brevity and precision, and it 
extends to laws passed after the act, and affecting a person by way 
of punishment of that act, either in his person or estate." 1 Kent's 
Com. 408. 

That the oath prescribed in the revised constitution is such a 
law as these authors describe an ex post facto law to be, can admit 
of no dispute. It treats acts as criminal now, which were innocent 
when committed ; it inflicts a punishment for the commission of 
deeds to which there was no penalty attached when committed. 
It was certainly never held to be criminal heretofore to express 
sympathy with those in arms against the country. A soldier who 
had fought in the armies of the government and may have had a 
son or a brother in the ranks of the enemy, could not take the 
oath of loyalty in Missouri, and would be liable to be deprived of 
his means of subsistence, forbidden to exercise the right of vot- 
ing or holding office, effectually exiled from the State, if he enter- 
tains those feelings which God by His grace nurtures in every 
Christian heart which nature prompts us to, and which every civil- 
ized man considers virtuous and honorable. If such a law be not 
iniquitous, then there is no lasting difference between right and 
wrong. By what law was it heretofore condemned or punished as 
criminal, to express a wish or desire for the success of the cause of 
South ? Yet the new constitution inflicts all the above-mentioned 
penalties for such an expression. 

We are convinced that the majority of American citizens have 
at some time during the last five years expressed such a wish and 
desire, and that if such an oath were enforced throughout the 
country, that the better and most numerous portion of American 
citizens would be disfranchised and treated as strangers in the land 


of their birth. The radical abolition party were strongly in favor 
of secession during the greater portion of the period that the war 
lasted. Wendel Phillips, Garrison, and other chiefs of the faction, 
advocated publicly the policy of letting the South go, and prayed 
for the defeat of our arms. The New York Tribune, which cer- 
tainly represented at all times a very large portion of the American 
people, was violently in favor of secession for a time, as Mr. Greely 
himself confesses in his late controversy with Thurlow Weed ; and 
the New York Herald for a long time denounced the coercion of 
the seceded States. We are certainly not far from the truth when 
we consider these organs as indicative of the wishes, desires and 
expressions of the people at different stages of the war, and con- 
clude without fear of error that the majority of the best citizens, 
statesmen and true lovers of their country, could not in conscience 
take the oath of loyalty which the Missouri constitution proposes. 
We ourselves have known not a few brave and noble men who 
fought and died on the battle-field to preserve the Union, who at 
times of general despondency, have wished and heartily desired 
that the contest would be abandoned, and the rebellious States 
permitted to secede. How many now are holding places under 
the government of the United States who made no secret of their 
hostility to the war, as useless and a means .of prolonging blood- 
shed and strife, and expressed themselves in " opposition to the 
government in its treatment of the rebellion," who, if they were 
citizens of Missouri, under the revised constitution, would be 
punished as enemies of the country ? 

We doubt not but that many of Catholic clergy in Missouri, as 
elsewhere, throughout the Border and Southern States have given 
expression to their sympathies with the revolutionists. We have 
met several of them who have done so. The Jesuits, especially in 
the West, either because they were principally Southerners, or 
French and Belgians by birth, whose missionary labors had been 
chiefly among the Creoles, were individually in favor of secession. 
We know that their principal organ, the Oivilla Gattoiica in Rome, 
was influenced by their impressions, and that their intercourse 

cxxxii APPENDIX. 

with the Roman clergy tended to form an opinion in favor of the 
Confederate cause. But if such were the feelings of many of the 
Catholic clergy in Missouri, and in the other States which joined 
the rebellion, they acted in their individual capacity, and enjoyed 
the political liberty which every member of the Catholic Church 
claims, of forming his own opinions and views on merely political 
questions ; and since they conducted themselves as clergymen and 
did not, like the sectarian ministers, use their position to influence 
the people to take any act or part publicly in favor of either of the 
contending parties, they had the right as individuals to form their 
own opinions regarding the questions connected with the war, and 
give expression to them. There was no law of the country exist- 
ing that could hold them amenable either then or at the present 
time, and to convert their innocent wishes, desires and expressions, 
into criminal offences, and punish them for crimes never commit- 
ted, we consider most unjust, and in violation of the supreme law 
of the land, the Constitution of the United States. They have done 
nothing more than what many of our best and most prominent 
statesmen, and the majority of the people of the Northern States 
have done, at various stages of the war, and if this obnoxious 
clause in the revised constitution be not speedily repealed, the de- 
populated lands of Missouri will remain as a warning to her sister 
states to avoid the dark tyranny and injustice which caused her 

The tenth section of article first in the general Constitution, 
limiting the powers of the states, among other things, provides 
" that no State shall pass any ex post facto law, or law impairing 
the obligation of contracts." We understand that a movement has 
already been set on foot to test the oath of loyalty according to this 
clause of the Constitution of the United States, and every effort 
should be made in order to render the attempt successful. From 
this restriction of powers it is manifest that the State of Missouri 
has no right to enforce this oath of loyalty, which is evidently in 
the truest sense an ex post facto laiv, and we earnestly hope that it 
will be declared invalid in the first instance in which an attempt 
be made to enforce it. 


It maybe remarked that by proposing this oath to a person who 
may have placed any of the acts punishable by the revised con- 
stitution, that by refusing to take it, he necessarily gives evidence 
of his guilt and becomes a witness against himself. It is in direct 
contravention, however, to the Constitution of the United States, 
to require a person to testify against himself, in any criminal case, 
as is provided in the fifth article of the amendments to the Con- 
stitution, which declares that "no person in any criminal case 
shall be compelled to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived 
of life, liberty, or property without due process of law." This pro- 
vision forms a fundamental principle of our civil liberties, and 
was borrowed from the great palladium of English rights, the 
Magna Charta. There is every reason to expect that the iniquitous 
oath will be abolished as soon as public attention be called to even 
a portion of the injustice and absurdity which it involves. 

Some have surmised that the portions of the revised constitution 
bearing on religion were divined in a spirit of hostility to the 
Catholic Church in Missouri, and we have reason to know that such 
suspicions are not entirely groundless. There is another clause in 
the constitution which annuls all grants and bequests given to any 
church, congregation, bishop, priest, or minister, religious order, 
etc., excepting a small amount of property for a church and paro- 
chial residence. Some of those men who were interested in draw- 
ing up the instrument have been reported to have stated, that they 
aimed at preventing the further acquisition of property by the 
Catholic Church in Missouri, and considering the flourishing con- 
dition of public institutions in possession of the diocese and 
religious societies in St. Louis, we do not wonder that the envy 
and bitterness of a few bigots may have been aroused, and found 
a vent in the revised constitution. We see no reason, however, for 
supposing that the so-called oath of loyalty could be especially 
leveled against Catholics, as it undoubtedly concerns the ministers 
of other denominations to a much greater extent, not one-tenth of 
whom are prepared to acquiesce in taking the proposed obligation. 
The sooner the designs of the faction be unmasked regarding their 

cxxxiv APPENDIX. 

opposition to the Church the better for the cause of peace, and the 
sooner will their iniquitous schemes meet with complete dis- 

The very -mention of a Catholic persecution in this country is 
degrading to the nation. Honest, upright citizens feel that they 
are disgusted with the very sound of the words or their appearance 
in the most insignificant periodical. No more efficient means 
could be adopted to disparage our people than to speak of such a 
movement, in any language other than that of disgust and con- 
tempt ; and no Catholic who would preserve his self-respect or 
defend the honor of his fellow-countrymen from the foulest 
calumny, could mention it in any other language. This senseless 
babble originated with the enemies of the country, and however 
trivial it may appear at present, " it was not so in the beginning." 1 
The cry was raised by persons sympathizing with those in arms 
against the government in order to deceive Catholics and draw 
them from their allegiance. It was industriously echoed in the 
press opposed to the late administration, and strenuous efforts were 
made to induce Catholics to regard New Englanders as their 
natural enemies. The nefarious scheeme succeded best in a quarter 
which the originators perhaps never had in view. A few of these 
restless politico-religious agitators who have been unusually busy 
in the late disturbed times, having mistaken the false alarm as the 
signal of a new attack, joined in the farce, and have, in the course 
of a few months, played it out. But the deceived with the 
deceivers have received the reward so well deserved the con- 
tempt of every honorable citizen and the ridicule of the public 
press. The sectarian press of the country, insignificant and 
intolerant though it be, derided the miserable attempt, and its 
promoters, reduced to an ignominious silence, became entangled 
in the meshes they had spread for others, fell into the pit that they 
themselves had made. It can be said, with credit to our Catholic 
press, that it treated the matter as unworthy of special notice, and 
thereby gave an additional proof that our editors are not blind to 
the course of public affairs. The proceedings of the Pittsburg as- 


sernbly concern them much less than the failure of the attempt to 
lay the Atlantic cable, and the ebulitions of certain pulpit 
demagogues on the antagonism between Catholicity and a re- 
publican form of government, are of little interest in comparison 
to the question of reconstruction. As Catholics we can afford to 
treat any movement of the kind with indifference, but as citizens 
we must, with the vast body of the nation, feel ourselves humbled 
that there are individuals claiming a fellow-citizenship, who, in 
their endeavors to carry their political measures, show that they 
have lost all public honesty and care for the nation's honor, and 
abandoned every claim to self-respect. 

An anti-Catholic movement, as such, and taken on its own 
merits, stripped of mere political questions, can not live in this 
country, and the most efficient means of success left to the enemies 
of the Church, is that of borrowing the garb of some imaginary 
social virtue or public benefit with which to cloak their designs. 
Their purposes can only live for a time in the darkness of bigotry, 
which still clings to the minds of a few sectarians, but melts away 
before the enlightenment of the great body of our fellow-countrymen 
who have learned to admire Catholic truth, and stand with a respect 
next to veneration before the Holy of Holy, which they are pre- 
paring themselves in God's good time to enter. 


I AM now settled in a parish in the city. Our church is finished, 
.and although not clear of debt, its yearly income pays the interests 
and encroaches on the capital, and I never hear an appeal for 
parish purposes except twice a year, when collections are taken up 
in the church to support the schools. There are schools, one at 
either side of the church, which are conducted respectively by the 
Christian Brothers and Sisters, whose special community title I 
have never taken pains to enquire into. My children attend the 

cxxxvi APPENDIX. 

schools and give me as little trouble as is the lot of the most 
favored heads of families. I was never opposed to the common 
schools. They are in the highest degree beneficial to any com- 
munity, and considering the elements which compose our society 
and the necessity of imparting the rudiments of education to the 
masses under our form of government, and the advantage accru- 
ing to any people from a knowledge of reading and writing, I 
have thought them to be of the greatest importance. I have 
always approved of levying a tax on all, to support these schools. 
I would not send my own children to them, since we have a good 
parish school of our own, and would prefer to pay any reasonable 
charges for their education under Brothers and Sisters, to throw- 
ing them into the indiscriminate intercourse of good, bad and 
indifferent, rich and poor, well-bred and ragged, dirty children, 
who frequent the public schools in our ward. I care too much 
for my children to expose them to the dangers arising from asso- 
ciating with boys and girls of the streets and alleys of the 
city, and as I have endeavored to keep the faith myself and 
practice it as my only hope of salvation, I would not like to expose 
the opening and unsuspecting mind of my child to the influence 
necessarily exercised by a teacher who is not a Catholic. 

Let non-Catholics send their children to the public schools if 
they please; better that the rising generation of all denominations 
receive instruction of some sort than that they be left in ignor- 
ance, and for my part, I will cheerfully pay my school taxes, 
although I never intend that any of my family be educated at 
public expense. I consider myself recompensed by having the 
masses of my fellow-citizens taught to read and write. If there 
were no public schools, and all popular education were left to 
private enterprise, we can easily understand how there would be 
a much lower order of society in this country than now exists. I 
never thought that ignorance of the rudiments of knowledge 
could be beneficial to any one, and can easily understand how 
prolific it would be of barbarous customs and every species of 


But I am diverging from my first thought which was to state 
that I am in the enjoyment of every religious advantage for my- 
self and family, and am enough of a Pharisee to thank God, that 
in this respect, I am better off than many others. We appreciate 
and even enjoy blessings in proportion as we may have known or 
experienced their want. I was born and bred a farmer's boy. My 
father's house was a long fifteen miles from a church, which was 
attended by a clergyman twice in the month. I learned my 
catechism from my parents, my elders, brothers and sisters, and 
some of the neighbors in whose houses the little ones assembled 
by turns, this Sunday in one house and the next in another, to be 
put through a series of questions that I understood apparently as 
much about as did my instructors. I consider it a blessing that I 
live within a block of the church, when I think of riding fifteen 
miles on the back seat of a lumber-wagon, and I heartily ac- 
knowledge that the Brothers and Sisters relieve me of much of 
that solicitude which I gave my father when he often had good 
reason to fear that I was in our neighbor's orchard, or nutting in 
the woods, when I should be reciting my catechism at Mr. Keating's 
over the hill. Since I left my father's home and took the world 
on my own shoulders, I have been at the erection of three new 
churches, including our present parish church, and have always 
had sufficient means to make me boast that I let no man give more 
to erect the new church than I. Now, when I am endeavoring to 
settle up accounts in another world, I often think whether the 
pride that I have taken in boasting myself foremost of all on the 
subscription list, has deprived me of my reward for so laudable 
an act as that of co-operating to build a church ; and have con- 
cluded to dismiss the reflection, since it is too late now to mend 
matters ; but I have consoled myself when searching for an excuse 
by the reflection that publicans are more abundant than pharisees 
in our times, and that the persons who lose the merit of their 
good works in this country for being proud of their religion form 
a small class of sinners, comparatively to those tainted with negli- 
gence and indifference, and if my pride were a fault, I thank God 

cxxxviii APPNNDIX. 

it leaned to virtue's side. At all events, I like to see men in 
earnest in religious matters, and if we expect that service rendered 
our country should be recognized by our fellow-citizens, I cannot 
see why it is not right 'to surpass all in rny parish, in promoting 
the interest of religion ; and if people acknowledged my superior- 
ity in that respect, I could not help being pleased. I have taken 
great interest in religious affairs, whether of a general nature, or 
pertaining to my own parish, through my whole long life, and 
have by times been the critic as well as the benefactor of religion. 
I have sometimes expressed to my parish priest my views regard- 
ing improvements to be made, and have ventured to dissent from 
his policy in certain undertakings, while I watched with the 
greatest concern whatever pertained to the general interests of re- 
ligion in the United States. I well remember how anxiously I 
waited the overthrow of the Maria Monk excitement, and how 
I exulted when I heard the cry of indignation that the burning 
of the Chaiiestown convent, and the acquittal of the perpretators 
elicited from the nation. The controversies of Bishop England 
interested me not less perhaps than they did their author, while 
Bishop Hughes on the school question, and Bishop Purcell the 
last of the champions of a heroic age in his controversy with 
Breckenridge, were paramount in my mind to the election of Gen- 
eral Harrison, whom I supported throughout all the excitement of 
temperance, log cabins, and hard cider. 

I think that no occurance in my life ever excited as much 
.anxiety in my mind as the Philadelphia riots while they pre- 
vailed, and I have still in my possession some copies of a news- 
paper to which I sent some contributions with the purpose of 
eliciting to the condemnation of public opinion on their instiga- 
tors. The first time I ever voted the Democratic ticket was to aid 
in the downfall of Know-Nothingism, and I think the last of the 
few speeches I ever made, were some delivered in favor of religious 
liberty and in support of the constitution during that campaign. 

I have written all the foregoing in order to insinuate that I have 
.not been an inattentive observer of religious affairs in this coun- 


try, and particularly matters pertaining to parochial interest, 
and thus, like some books which I have read, translated from the 
French, I have made the greater part of this paper a preface. 
. It appeared to me that the greatest difference between the 
arrangement of temporalities connected with Catholic and with 
Protestant churches in this country, arises from the fact that 
the Catholics confide everything to their pastors, and Protestants 
as little as possible to their ministers. The priest must collect the 
funds with which to build the church and schools, and be the^ 
treasurer, responsible to no one but the bishop, for the parish 

I remember how a few converts and some others urged the sys- 
tem of committees in our parish, and how the pastor acquiesced in 
their request, and appointed a number of parishoners to act with 
him in that capacity. It was all very well as long as the pastor 
was the responsible. individual before the people, but as soon as 
any of these members of the committee or all of them, were to b& 
entrusted with the parish funds, things came to a dead lock, and 
before a single movement could be made again, the priest had to> 
appear as the prime mover and sole responsible agent. I have 
often heard non-Catholics express their astonishment at this 
boundless and implicit confidence reposed in the priest by the 
people, and seemed to wonder at seeing things progress with re- 
markable rapidity and in but few exceptional cases with any 
dissatisfaction or dissensions arising from the system. In fact,. 
Protestant congregations exist in a chronic state of dissatisfaction 
regarding temporalities, and while a Catholic parish would have 
a church built or its debts cleared off, their neighbors, a few 
streets distant, will be still discussing the preliminaries of such an 
enterprise. The congregation builds the meeting house, a com- 
mittee receives the pew rent, makes improvements, gives a minister 
a call, and if the salary be so considerable as to elicit a response, 
he is engaged. 

As long as the preacher gives satisfaction to the majority of his 
people, he is retained, and if otherwise, he is gently reminded 


of the necessity of receiving another " call " by the withdrawal of 
a portion of his salary, or, to use a military phrase, by the " issue 
of half rations." 

1 was always of the opinion, that whatever is found to be the 
uniform and almost instinctive practice of Catholics, has its origin 
in the very constitution, of the Church itself, and think that this 
confidence reposed in their pastors by Catholics, grows out of the 
very nature of our holy religion. I had some pretensions to a 
.general knowledge of church history which I gathered from 
Reeves' compendium, and by reading the controversies which 
.attracted so much attention in my day, I discovered that the 
bishops and priests were entrusted in every age with the manage- 
ment of church property. I was always opposed to church com- 
mittees and was accustomed to argue against the system, by 
remarking that our Lord established the Church, as a society, 
with its rulers exercising an authority which the people were 
bound to obey in all things pertaining to salvation ; and since 
churches, schools, convents, orphanages, asylums, and the means 
of pastoral support, were all necessities or appendages of the 
Church, and means to the working out of men's salvation, that 
the people should obey the direction of pastors in such matters, 
because they were entrusted with the spiritual interest of the 
people. I considered it a usurpation of church authority, that the 
people assume the direction of church temporalities, and charged 
my opponents with an attempt, though on their part inadvertant, 
'to introduce Protestant customs into most important affairs of the 
Church. The rulers of the nation, state, county, or city, are 
necessarily the administrators of public property ; and that private 
citizens would presume to assume the control of the public funds, 
would not be less abnormal or preposterous, than to admit the 
right of the laity in the Catholic Church to administrate her 

I remember, that on a certain occasion, that I put my thoughts 
on this subject into writing and succeeded in convincing the 
principal promoters of committeeism in our congregation, to 


abandon their purpose ; but whether success was more attributable 
to my weight of argument, or to the fact that parochial affairs had 
gotten into a snare, through the operations of a committee on 
probation for a few, months, I cannot say with any degree of cer- 
tainty. I commenced by stating, that popular opinion in this 
country, meaning the mode of thinking and acting of non-Catho- 
lics, was opposed to my position. They appeared to act on the 
principle that the minister was not to be trusted. This fact might 
be accounted for historically to some extent, but it is principally 
to be attributed to the nature of Protestantism which did not 
admit any properly so-called authority in religion. 

The Puritans rebelling against the Established Church and 
government of England, went to the very extreme, and deprived 
their ministers of all control of church temporalities. Besides, th& 
necessity of this country of having all the various forms of religion 
stand on an equality before the laws of the general government,, 
induced the opinion that the social influence of clergymen should 
be looked upon with suspicious eye, least any denomination should 
in any respect attain an ascendancy. Hence laws prohibiting 
clergymen to hold office were enacted in New York, Virginia, 
North and South Carolina, Kentucky, Tennesee and Louisiana. 
Article 7, par. 4 of the Constitution of New York has the following, 
which I adduce as an example : " And whereas, the ministers of 
the Gospel are. by their profession, dedicated to the service of God 
and the care of souls, and ought not to be diverted from the great 
duties of their functions ; therefore no minister of the Gospel or 
priest of any denomination whatsoever, shall, at any time or under 
any pretence or description whatever, be eligible to, or capable of, 
holding any civil or military office or place within this State." 

Catholics need have no objections to these provisions, considering 
the condition of our society and the law of the Church prohibiting 
the clergy to mix themselves unnecessarily in secular affairs. It is 
quite evident that Catholics will not be the first to seek to annul these 
prohibitions. But they serve to show a popular prejudice against 
clerical influence, and as all popular opinions and tendencies never 

radii APPENDIX. 

.stop at moderation, they have gone to the extreme of depriving 
the preachers of all right to administer even denominational prop- 
erty. I had learned by experience how difficult it is to argue 
against a prevailing opinion which is so often appealed to as the 
last criterion of truth and falsehood, and the standard by which 
every controversy is wont to be tested and consequently thought 
it well to level this greatest barrier to conviction at the outset. I 
then added that I wished to call attention to a very remarkable 
fact, that is, that the Catholic Church possessed more property than 
.any government on earth during the greater portion of her exist- 
ence, and notwithstanding her rulers were not considered at any 
time to necessarily rank among the opulent, or those who possess 
.a superabundant means but only among those who have a com- 
petency or sufficient means of support. Their position has ever 
been regarded as that of administrators, not that of owners. The 
canons of the Church require that benefices and emoluments of 
.any kind belong to the receipient, only in so much as they are 
required for his support, according to his condition, and that he 
is not at liberty to dispose of them at will and if he can claim 
.anything beyond his maintenance, that he must save it by parsi- 
mony from the ordinary expenses of his mode of life. As a proof 
that the Catholic clergy had been faithful to their duties as ad- 
ministrators, I appealed to the still existing and ever enduring 
confidence reposed in them by the faithful, through the lapse of 
many centuries. Two-thirds of the civilized world still trusted 
them with the administration of Church temporalities, and that 
long ago would their abuse of that confidence have been detected 
.and charged against them, had it existed in other than exceptional 
instances. I then begged the^n to consider the immense wealth 
that the Church had acquired in this country during the present 
century. I instanced the many millions held in the name of the 
Bishop of our own diocese, how this wealth was increasing daily 
under the administration of the clergy, and asked if they ever 
heard of a government so wealthy, and less peculation charged to 
those in power ? The still existing confidence, I argued, is a proof 


that the clergy are true to their trust. I remarked, besides, that 
the rapidity with which church property is increasing is truly 
astounding. In a city where all the Catholics might have been 
assembled in one small church, not over twenty years ago, now 
twenty or thirty spacious and expensively decorated edifices for 
public service, are found. Schools, colleges, convents, and asylums 
of various kinds, had sprung up under the sole administration of 
the clergy, and I inquired if, in the judgment of any sane man, 
committeeism could work such wonders? 

I presented another view of the subject, which they told me 
afterwards was new to them. 

It is a fact that Protestants who attend service contribute more 
extensively than Catholics individually. The largest donations 
are given by Protestants. The pew rent the ordinary source of 
church revenue in this country is higher in meeting houses than 
in Catholic churches. To what, then, is this rapid accumulation 
of our church property to be mainly attributed ? I answered, to 
the comparative economy of the expenses on the part of the 
Catholic clergy. 

Suppose the number of Catholic clergymen in this city at pres- 
ent to be thirty, and that by the highest estimate their expenses 
amount on an average to $1,000 yearly. Take the same number 
of Protestant ministers, whose salaries range from $2,000 to $5,000 
per annum, and which average at least $3,000 for each. Thus 
every year, if the Catholic contributed equally with Protestant 
congregations, there would be a saving for tbe Catholics of $60,000- 
per annum. No wonder, then, that the property of the Cburch 
increases with so much greater rapidity than that of the sects, since 
during the last five or ten years the Catholic clergy have saved ta 
the people at the rate of $60,000 per annum above what was saved 
by an equal contribution on the part of Protestant congregations. 
No wonder that splendid cathedrals arise, that seats of learning 
are founded, that hundreds of orphans are clothed and fed, that 
the Magdalen is invited to abandon the path of iniquity and pro- 
vided with a home. 

cxliv APPENDIX. 

That there were here and there one who, as his great exampler 
Judas steals the common fund entrusted to. him by his Lord 
.and master I did not deny ; but there were sufficient supervision 
.and restraint in the Church to punish, if not correct these be- 
trayers of their trust I did not hesitate to assert. But how many 
ecclesiastics in this country have we heard of to have acquired 
wealth ? John B. Gough, the great philanthropist and temper- 
ance lecturer, was lately accused of having made a fortune from 
his mixture of temperance and philanthropy, and John B. cleared 
himself of the calumny, by the declaration which all are bound 
to believe that he was only worth $12,000, and the model 
philanthropist was considered by the public as a martyr to modera- 
tion. What would be thought of a Catholic clergyman, who would 
acknowledge himself as poor as the peerless philanthropist ? If 
clergymen saved a little more than they are wont to do, and would 
make provision for the time of sickness or the infirmity of old age, 
and not be obliged to descend from their position as gentlemen, 
to beg a support from one quarter or another in the hour of need, 
I would praise them for it said I and they agreed with me. 
But I had written more, and it all cost me labor, and so I determined 
that I would give them the contents of my paper. I continued. 

The true religion, both in the old and new covenant, has placed 
abundant means in possession of the priesthood. According to 
the laws of Moses, the Levites were put in possession of double the 
extent of land that any other tr