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Full text of "The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion. (1861-1865.) Part I, Volume II. (1st Surgical volume)"

THE 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL HISTORY 



OF THE 



¥AR OF THE REBELLION. 

(1861-65.) 



■> 1^1 I 



PREPARED, IK ACCORDANCE -n-ITH ACT? OF CONGRESS, UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

Surgeon General JOSEPH K, BAHNE.S, United Slates Army. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1870. 



WAR DEPAKTMENT, 

Surgeon General's Office, 

November 12, 1870. 
In the first year of the War it became evident that the form of Returns of 
Sick and Wounded, then in use, were insuflicient and defective; and, on May 21, 

1862, measures were taken by the then Surgeon General of the Army, Wm. A. 
Hammond, to secure more detailed and exact reports of sick and wounded, l)y 
important modifications in the returns from medical officers. On June U, 18(52, 
the intention to prepare for publication a Medical and Surgical History of the 
Rebellion was aimounced to the Medical Staff, in a Circular from the Surgeon 
General's Office. On July 1, ISGo, a Consohdated Statement of Gunshot Wounds, 
by Surgeon J. H. Brinton, U. S. A'olunteers, then in charge of the Surgical 
Records, and Curator of the Army Medical Musuem ; and on September 8, 

1863, a Report on Sickness and Moi'tafity of the Army during the first year of 
the War, prepared by Assistant Surgeon J. -T. Woodward, U. S. Army, in charge 
of the Medical Records, were published by this Office. 

The necessity for a thorough revision of the Returns of Sick and Wounded 
becoming apparent, a Medical Board was assembled for this purpose, in July, 
1862, and subsequently the following order was promulgated: 

[CIRCULAR Xo. 25.1 

GENERAL ORDERS ] WAR DEPARTMENT, 

\ Adjutant Geneeal"s Office. 

No. 355. J Washington, November, 4, 18()3. 

Medical Directors of Armies in the field will forward, direct to tlie Surgeon General, 
at Washington, duplicates of tlieir reports to their several Commanding Generals, of the 
killed and wounded, after every engagement. 
By order of the Secretary of War: 

(Signed:) E. D. TOWNSEND, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 

Surgeon General's Office, 

Washington, D. C, Nov. 11, 1863. 
To carry out the intentions of the above order, Medical Directors of Armies in the 
field will detail suitable officers, who will, under their instructions, collate and prepare for 
transmission to this office, all obtainable statistics and data in connection with past and 



I\ I'RKFATORV. 

future operatious of tliose armies, which may be essential or useful in the accurate 
compilation of the Medical and Surgical History of the War. 

Particular attention is colled to the following points: The morale and sanitary 
condition of the troops; condition and amount of medical and hospital supplies, tents, 
ambulances, etc.: the points at or near the field where the wounded were attended to; 
degree of exposure of wounded to wet, cold, or heat ; adequacy of supplies of water, food, 
stimulants, etc.: mode of removal of wounded from field to field hospitals; to what general 
hospitals the woundf'd were transferred, by what means and where; the character and 
duration of the action, nature of wounds received, etc. When practicable, separate 
casualty lists will be made of commissioned ofHcers, non-commissioned of£c?rs, and 
privates. Tln' attention of all medical officers is earnestly directed to the importance of 
this subject; without their cooperation no reliable record can be preserved — the vast 
experience of th»^ past will remain witli individuals. ai\d be lost to the service and the 
country. 

.1. K. BARNES, 

Medical Inspector General, 
Acting Surgeon General. 

To facilitate the collection and preservation of all important information, 
medical ofiicers serving- with regiments in the field were furnished, in January, 
18G4, with a compact and portable Register of Siek and Womided, and the 
followino- instructions were issued : * 

[CIRCULAR LETTER.] 

Surgeon General's Office, 

Washingto7i, D. G ., January 20, 1864. 

The Register of Sick and Wounded hitherto in use in the U. S. A. General Hospitals 
is hereby discontinued. Tn lieu thereof will be i^ubstituted two Registers for each General 
Hospital, viz. : 

L A Register of Sick and Wounded. 

2. A Register of Surgical Operations. 

In the former the appropriate entries will be made whenever a patient is admitted 
into hospital, and during his subsecpient stay therein; and, to assist in the preparation of 
this Register, a new form of Bed-Cards has been adopted. 

In the "Register of Surgical Oi^erations," will be entered, minutely and in detail, the 
particulars of all operations performed, or treated in hospiital. These entries should be 
made by tlie medical officers in charge of wards. 

The above Registers and Bed-Cards are now in the hands of the Medical Purveyors, 
ready for issue, and you are directed to make immediate recpiisition for the same, adopting 
tlu^m as soon as received. 

J. K. BARNES. 

To the Surgeon-in-charge of Acting Surgeon General. 

U. S. A. General Hospital. 



PREFATORY. V 

In February, 1864, .separate Reports were ordered to be made for Sick and 
Wounded Kebcl Prisoners of War, and for White and Colored Troops, in order to 
obtain with greater facility the sickness and mortality rates of each. 

A Classified Return of Wounds and Injuries received in Action, a Report 
of Wounded, and a Report of Surgical Operations, were adopted in March, 1864, 
and distributed with the following circulars : 

[CIRCULAR LETTER.] 

SuRGKON General's Offtck, 

Wasliington. D. 0., March 23, 1864. 
Medical Directors of Armies in the tleld will issue the "Classified Return of Wounds 
and Injuries received in Action," to the Chief ^^fedieal Officers of Corps and Divisions, 
who will see tliat they are properly distributed. 

This form, correctly filled up by tlie Senior Medical Officer of the command engaged, 
will be transmitted, in duplicate, through the proper cliaiiiiel. d. |]i(> Medical Director of 
the Army within three days after every action. 

The Medical Director of the Army will, as soon as possible, forward to the Surgeon 
General a Consolidated Return of all Casualties, according to the same form. He will, at 
the same time, transmit one copy of all Duplicate Returns received from his subordinate 
Medical Officers. 

J. K. BARNES. 

Acting Surgeon General. 



[CIRCULAR LETTER.] 

SuRfiKON General's Office, 

Washington. D. C, March 28, 1864. 
Sir: 

You are hereby directed to fill up tlie accomjianying " Report of Wounded " and 
" Report of Surgical Operations " for the months of January, February, and March, 1864. 

The Report of AVounded will consist of an accurate and legible copy of all cases of 
wounded entered on the Hospital Register during the quarter. 

The Report of Surgical Operations will consist of a correct copy of the Register of 
Surgical Operations for the same period. 

A list of wounded remaining under treatment on the 31st December, 1863, in the 
hospital under your charge, and on furlough, is enclosed ; you are directed to fill up the 
column " Result and Date," opposite the respective names. 

iVdditional details for the present quarter, of "Surgical Operations remaining under 
treatment December 31, 1863," you will report on appended slips of paper. 

Blank sets of Reports on Secondary Ha?raorrhage, Tetanus, and Pyajniia, are also 
enclosed. These you will fill up in the usual manner. Should no such cases have occurred 
in the hospital under your charge during the time specified, you will so state in your letter 
of transmission. 



VI PREFATORY. 

All of the reports above alluded to will, when compiled, be forwarded directly to the 
Acting Surgeon General. 

By order of the Acting Surgeon General : 

0. H. CRANE, 

Medical Officer in charge of 8urgeon U. 8. Army. 

U. S. A. General Hospital. 

Conteiiipomneously witli the establishment of a more accurate system of 
Medical and Surgical reports, a patliological collection was commenced, which, 
under the chariie of Suro'oon J. H. Brinton, U. S. Volunteers, and Assistant 
Surgeon J. J. Woodward, U. S. Army, became the basis of the Army Medical 
Museum, itself, as it now exists, an eloquent and instructive history of the Medicine 
and Surgery of the War, and without which no history could have been com- 
pletely illustrated. 

The announcement of this project was cordially responded to by Medical 
Officers throughout the service ; and the list of contributors comprises the names 
of many most eminent for zeal and abihty in the discharge of their duties under 
tlie Government, whose honorable records are identified with this work. 

The following Circular was published more to secure a certain class of 
specimens, than to stimulate the liberality with which most valuable pathological 
material was being forwarded : 

[CIRCULAR LETTER.] 

SiJEaEON General's Office, 

Washington, D. O ., June 24, 1864. 

Medical Officers in charge of Hospitals are directed to diligently collect and preserve 
for the Army Medical ^luscum, all pathological surgical specimens which may occur in 
the hospitals under their charge. 

The objects which it is desired to collect for the Museum may be thus enumerated : 

Fractures, compound and siniple ; fractures of the cranium. 

Excised portions of bone. 

Diseased bones and joints. 

Exfoliations ; especially those occurring in stumps. 

Specimens illustrative of the structure of stumps, (obliterated arteries, bulbous nerves, 

rounded bones, etc.) 
Integumental wounds of entrance and of exit, from both the round and conoidal ball. 
Wounds of vessels and nerves. 

Vessels obtained subsequent to ligation, and to secondary haemorrhage. 
Wounded viscera. 
Photogx'aphic representations of extraordinary injuries, portraying the results of 

wounds, operations, or peculiar amputations. 



I'REF A'lOlM . VII 

Models of novel surgical appliances, and pliotographir views of new plans of dressing. 

Plaster casts of stumps and amputations, and models of limbs upon which excisions 
may have been performed. 

It is not intended to impose on Medii-al Officers the labor of dissecting and preparing 
the specimens they may contribute to the Museum. This will be done under the super- 
intendence of tlie Cui'ator, 

In forwarding sucli pathulogical objects as compuund i'ractures, buiiy specimens, and 
wet preparations generally, obtained after amputation, operation, or cadaveric examination, 
all unnecessary soft parts sliould first be roughly removed. Every specimen sliould then 
be wrapped separat(dy in a cloth, so as to preserve all spicuhe and fragments. A small 
block of wood sliould be attached, with the name of the patient, the number of the specimen, 
and the name of the medical officer sending it, inscril)ed in lead pencil. 'I'Ik' inscription will 
be uninjured by the contact of fluids. Tlie })reparatiou should be then immersed in dilutcil 
alcohol or whiskey, contained in a keg or small cask. When a sufficient number of objects 
hall have accumulated, the cask should be forwardi'd directly to the Surgeon General's 
Office. The expenses of expressage will be defrayed in AVashington. The receipt of the 
keg or package will be duly acknowledged by the Curator of the Museum. 

In every instance, a corresponding list or history of the cases should, at the same 
time, be forwarded to this office. In this list the number and liature of every specimen 
should be clearly specified, and, when possible, its history should be given. The numbers 
attached to the specimens themselves, and the numbers on the list forwarded should always 
correspond, and should be accompanied by the name and rank of the medical officer by 
whom sent. Every specimen will be duly credited in the Catalogue to the medical officer 
contributing it. 

,T. K. BAKNES, 

Acting Surgeon General. 



s. 



In order to perfect the returns under examination, as far as possible, the 
following Circular was issued : 

[CIRCULAR LETTER.] 

Surgeon General's Office, 

WasMngton, D. C, FehrxLary 2, 1865. 

Medical Directors of Armies in the field or of detached commands are instructed to 
transmit to this Office copies of all reports in their possession from the Recorders of Division 
or other Field Hospitals, and in future, copies of such rejiorts will be forwarded to the 
Burgeon General within twenty days after every engagement. 

Medical Directors of Departments will forward to this Office copies of all reports of 
individual cases of gunshot injury antecedent to the adoption of the present system of 
registration of wounds, (October 1, 1863.) which are on file in their offices. 

By order of the Surgeon General : 

0. H. CRANE, 

Surgeon U. 8. Army. 



VUI ' PREFATORY. 

On April G, 1860, a letter was addressed to each Medical Director, requiring 
that all Eegisters of Hospitals, Consolidated Registers of Soldiers treated, and all 
information in their possession pertaining to the Sick, Wounded, Discharged, 
and Dead during the war, should be transferred to this Office. Careful revision of 
the material accumulated up to that date, liad established its immense value to 
the civilized world, and it seemed to be demanded that, in justice to humanit}-, 
and to the national credit, it should, at once, be made available by })ublication. 

By authority of the Secretary of War, Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Circular 
No. H, A Eeport upon the Extent and Nature of the Materials available for the 
preparation of a Medical and Surgical History of the War, was published, and 
an edition of seven thousand five hundred copies distril)uted. 

Encouraged by the approbation of Secretary Stanton, who took the deepest 
interest in its success, and aided by his |)0werful influence, an a])plication was 
made to Congress, and an appropriation was granted June 8, 18()8, for the 
purpose of preparing for publication, under the direction of the Secretary of War, 
five thousand copies of the First Part of the Medical and Surgical History of the 
Rebellion, compiled by the Surgeon General, and on March 3, 1869, by a Joint 
Resolution of Congress, the number of copies mentioned above was authorized to 
be printed at the Government Printing Office. 

Assistant Surgeon J. J. Woodward, U. S. Army, who had been in charge 
of the Medical Records since June 9, 1862, and Assistant Surgeon George A. 
Otis, U. S. Army, who was assigned to the charge of the Surgical Records, 
October ,'3, 1864, were directed to prepare the work for publication; the zeal and 
intelligence of these Oflicers having been already fully established. 

No work of this character, of equal magnitude, had ever been undertaken; 
the Medical and Surgical History of the British Army which served in Turkey 
and the Crimea during the war against Russia in 1854, 1855, and 1856, and the 
Medico-Chirurgical Report of Doctor J. C. Ohenu upon the Crimean Campaign, 
published by the French Government in 1665, being the only national publica- 
tions on military medicine and surgery. 

It was not considered advisable to follow the classification of either of these 
works, and a plan was determined on which it is believed will be found adaj)ted 
to the preservation of the great mass of facts collected, in a form for convenient 
study. Through the liberahty of the Government, in its beneficent pension laws, 
it has been found practicable to obtain accurate histories of many thousand 
wounded or mutilated men for years subsequent to their discharge from service. 



PR KF A TORY. IX 

The success which has attended this clTort to ascertain tlie ultimate results 
of operations or conservative measures, employed in the treatment of the wounded 
in the late war, is largely owing to the cordial cooperation of the Surgeons 
(ieneral and Adjutants General of States, the Examining Surgeons of the Pension 
Bureau, and very many private Physicians throughout the country. As in the 
olTicial returns of the casualties of the French and English Armies in the Crimean 
War, the cases were dropped when the men were invalided, pensioned, or 
discharged from service, this information was considered peculiarly desirable. 

In carrying out the intentions of Congress, it has been my earnest endeavor 
to make this Medical and Surgical History of the War, not only a contri])ution to 
science, but an enduring monument to the self-sacrilicing zeal and professional 
ability of the Volunteer and Regular Medical Staif, and the unparalleled liberality 
of our Government, which provided so amply for the care of its sick and wounded 
soldiers. To the Medical Oflicers connected more immediately with this work, 
for most cordial assistance and unceasing industry; to those wlio, at the close of 
the war, returned to civil life; to the members of the Medical Staif of the Army 
and OlHcersof the various Bureaux of the War Department, for the courtesy and 
promptness with which requests for information have invariably been responded 
to, I am deeply indebted. My thanks, and those of every possessor of these 
volumes, are especially due to the Superintendents of the Government Printing 
Oflice, and their skilled assistants, who have spared no pains in making the 
typography and execution of this publication worthy of the Government and the 
Nation it represents. 

JOSEPH K. BAIINES, 
Surgeon General U. S. Army. 



THE 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL IlISTOliY 



OF Till-: 



WAR OF THE REBELLION. 

PART I. 

VOLUME II. 

SURGICAL HISTORY. 



Prepared, under ilic direction of JOSEPH K. BARNES, Surgeon General United States Army, 
By GEORGE A. OTIS, Assistant Sukoeon United States Army. 



IITRODUCTIOiN. 



In tlie j^reparatioii of the surgical portion of the Medical and Surgical History of 
the War of the Mebellion, it was at first proposed to treat of the surgery in connection 
with the military operations in the several battles and campaigns. Surgeon John K. 
•Brinton, U. S. V., originally assigned to the task,* prosecuted his work on this plan. 
After giving a general account of a campaign, enumerating the troops engaged, the niode 
of transporting the injured, and the available hospital accommodations, the wounds and 
operations of each engagement were discussed, the reports of medical directors, and all 
other reliable sources of information being brought into requisition. Among (hese were 
observations personally made in the base and field hospitals of the armies of the Potomac 
and of the West, after the great battles, where much valuable surgical material was 
collected, including admirable illustrations of the graver injuries, pathological specimens, 
and a series of excellent surgical drawings. Such a plan was adapted to the outset of the 
War, when its extent and protracted duration was anticipated by no one ; but toward the 
close of the year 1864, it became apparent that a plan susceptible of wider generalization 
must be adopted, for the clerical force then at the disposition of the Surgeon General was 
hardly sufficient to classify the immense returns from the hospitals and battle-fields of the 
"Army of the Potomac alone. During that year there were no less than two thousand 
skirmishes, actions, or battles, and to have given a correct analysis of the casualties from 
the returns from the field and base hospitals would have been impossible. For the num- 
ber of wounded received at the Washington hospitals alone, during the quarter ending 
Juno 30th, 1864, was over thirty thousand, and the total number of wounded reported by 
all the general hospitals exceeded eighty thousand. 

Therefore, in 1865, it was suggested, in the report of materials available for a Surgical 
History of the Warf that the wounds and operations be classified according to regions, — 
important cases being described at length, and brief abstracts or numerical tabular state- 
ments being furnished of the less important cases. 

It was decided that this plan should be adopted, and that the reports of medical 
directors and others, relating to the field service, should be published as "appended docu- 
ments" to the Medical and Surgical History. They are bound in Volume I, Part I. 

In the preliminary surgical report in Ci-f-cular No. 6, S. G. 0,, 1865, the materials 
available for a complete surgical history are fully described, and in the introduction to the 
medical volume of Part I, of the Medical and Surgical dlistory, the form of the monthly 
report of sick and wounded required of each hospital, post, regiment, or detachment at 
the beginning of the war, and the various modifications made in the blanks during its 
progress are clearly explained, and the causes of discrepancies and probabilities of errors 
plainly pointed out. It remains only to advert briefiy to some other sources of information 
of an exclusively surgical nature. Though, from the beginning, it had been customary for 

* See Circular No. .'), Surgeun GciiPrul's Office, June 9th, 1862. \ Circular iJ, .S. G. O., 18t>5. 



XIV 



INTRODUCTIOK. 



medical directors to forward to tlie Burgeon General lists of the killed and wounded after 
each engagement, it was not until late in 1863/'' tliat these returns were made obligatory 
and rigorously exacted. They were of the greatest utility in furnishing the means of 
tracing patients to base or general hospitals, where their histories were more fully detailed. 
The lists were on forms, twelve by sixteen inches, ruled as follows: 



List of Wounded in the 



Brigade, Division, Corps, Army of , at the Battle 



of 071 the day of 




.186 








Names. 


< 

a. 


< 

o 


REOI.MKNT. 


O 


Injury. 


Treatmp;nt. 

i 
1 


ItKSl-l.T 
AMI UaTK. 


Rkmarks 

1 


Surname. 


Christian 
name. 


Missilo or 
Weapon. 


Nature of 
Scat of. (slight 
or severe.) 










1 
t 

i 










1 
j 



Note I. — This List will he made with the strictest accuracy, and will he 
transmitted by the Medical Directors of Corps to the Medical I>irector of the 
Anny, within seven flays after an enpip^ement. The names of all men treated 
in the Hospital will be entered np<m this List. When men are transferred to 
or from other Divisiim Ilospitiils, the fact of the transfer and the date will be 
noted in the "'Uemarks." 

NoTF. II. — It is enjoiTicd upon Meilical Otliccrs to state in the column 
" Nature of Injury," whether the wound is a Hesh-wound or a fracture or a 
penetrating wound bi a cavit}-. 



Surgeon in Chief Division, Corps. 



The pocket field register, five and one-half by eight and one-fourth inches, referred 
to by the Surgeon General on page IV of his prefatory remarks, as issued to regimental 
surgeons, answered a like useful purpose. It was ruled as below. Only about five 
hundred were transmitted to the Surgeon General's Office at the close of the war 

Segister and Prescription Book of Regiment 



No. 



Name. 



Rank. Keg't. I Comp. 



DlSKASE. 



In Hnsi'iTAi, 

OK QlAKTEliS. 



I'UKSOIIIPTION AND REMARKS. 



*See flENEItAl. (luliKll.^ -No. :i.').i, Will- IJiiHirtmrid, Adjutant (ieni'ral's OIHce, Novcniljur llh, Ifll:! . 



INTRODXTOTION . 



XV 



It was founil, as tlio troo]»s were massed in a IVw large armies, lliat it was rcqiiisito 
to ol)(ain more jirompt inl'drmatiou of the aggregate of easualties than was alforded by tlie 
nominal returns Hence the following form was employed, it appears to have been 
filled out with great fidelity: 

Classified lietnrn of Woumh and Injuries recciied in nctiou on the dnii uf , li^ , 

at Division Vorpt, Army of 



UEOION OF DODY WOINDEU. ' B 



FI.KSII 

WOI'NIIS, 



Ilwul 

Knee 

Nock 

'Ili()nioie I'jiriolos 

Ab<luiiiin:il Purietos .... 

.Slidulder 

Unf'k and Hips 

Periiipuin, (ienital, and i 
Urinary Urf;faut* [ 

Cranial BoncH 

Bones of Face 



Pene- 

tiiating 
Wounds. 

A KM. 



Foueakm. 



Thorax... 
Ab<lonien . 



^Fr 

81] 

El 

C FI< 

^Fr, 



Leg. 



n 



lesh Wound 

racture 

Shoulder Joint 

Elbow Joint 

lesh Wound 

Fracture 

Wrist Joint 

Metacarpus 

Finders 

Hip Joint 

Flesh Wound 

Fracture, upper 3d... 
Fracture, niiddlr 3d . 
Fracture, lower :Jd... 

Knee Joint 

Flesh Wound 

racture 

Ankle Joint 

Metiitarsus 

Toes 



Wounds with direct injury of larg'e 
arteries, not beinjf at the same time 
cases of compoun(l fracture 



Wounds with direct injury of large 
nerves, not heinfi" at the same time 
cases of comiwund fracture 



Total. 



Natiiik of Missile i 
Weapon. 



<)rKU.\TIONfi AND DKaTIIS. 



K C 






5 o 



E 
I " 



Un.MAl.KS, 



Sur;/ton, 
Dirition, 



Corpi, 



A rmy of 



Note.— This statement will Ik- transmitted, in dupUcalr. hy the Medical Directom of Army Corps tn ihc Medical Dinsrtar of the Army within 
five davs after an enirairement. No excuse will l>e received for fniinre in its tran.«mi(tal within the time here directed. 

* JflSEPH K. nAKNES. 

Arling Surgfim Ofnfrat. 



XVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



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REMAtlKS. 1 

Here state name and rank of Operat or. 1 
Post-mortem Observations, etc., etc. 






Hi 
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a: a 
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Constitutional 
State of Patient at 
Time oe Oi'ehation. 






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Operation. 

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•aaaKaK ivxusoH 





INTRODUCTION. 



XVII 



That a continuous record might be kept, the names and military descriptions of all 
surgical patients remaining under treatment at tlie conclusion of the quarter, were copied, 
at the Surgeon General's Office, from the quarterly reports of wounds and of operations, 
upon folio blanks of the form following. These lists were mailed to the hospitals, where 
the progress or result of each case was recorded, and the paper thence returned with the 
succeeding quarterly reports : 

List of Wounded remaining under treatment at ; _ U. 8. A. Hospital, at 

the beginning of the quarter which ends .., 186 

fNoTK. — This form, with the column "Result and Date" properly filled up, will be returned by the Medical Officer in charge to the Surg^n General, IT.S. A. | 



Hospital 

NlIMllER. 


NAME. 


CO. 


REGIMENT. 


DIAGNOSIS. 


RESULT AND DATE. 















Prior to the adoption of the quarterly reports of wounded and of operations, patients 
were supplied with descriptive lists, on foolscap, ruled and lettered in tbe following form. 
Except in cases of transfer, these were not filled out with much fidelity, but occasionally 
they furnished important facts and even histories of grave cases that would otherwise 
have escaped notice: 



MEDICAL DESCRIPTIVE LIST. 



Ward , Bed _.. 

Name , Age 



Disease or Injury, 
Result, 



( Name of attending Medical Officer.) 



General Hospital at 

, Bank _ , Co. 

' Admission, 
Return to duty, cured. 
Furlough, 

Discharge from service, 

Transfer to another Hospital, 

Death, 



, Regiment . 



Date of < 



Note. — When a patient is first received into a General Hospital, the entries on this Descriptive List will be commenced. All important chancres 
in his condition will be noted on it (in ink), from time to time, by the Surjfcon in charge of the Ward. When the patient has been wound<Hi, the date 
and character of the wound will be stated, the nature of the 0|>enltion (if any), and, above all, the result. In case of transfer, this list will be sent, 
throtiith the officer in clmrjre of the transjiortation, or failing one, by mail, to the .Surgeon in charjje of the Hospital receiving the patient. When this 
medical history shall have been completed, by the cure, discharge, furlough, or death of the patient, it will, with the treatment and result carefully 
noted, be transmitted directly to the Surgeon General. 



Date. 


Tkeatment. 


Diet. 


Remarks as to condition op rATnxr, tc. 











There was the following endorsement: 

Name of Hospital, 

Name of Patient, 

Disease or Injury, 

Result, 

Date of Transmission, 

3* == 



XVIII INTRODUCTION. 

Tho entries on bed-cards sometimes supplied missing links, in tracing the cliain of 
evidence of important cases. These cards were printed on tliick paper or card-board, hve 
and one-half by three and one-half inches, and were classified and transmitted to the 
Surgeon General's Office when the liospital closed. The form of the cards used (face and 
back) may be seen lielow : 

Form of Bed-card nsed in the United States General Hospitals. 

HOSPITAL NUMBER 



Same 

A'je , Xativity 

Married or Single 

liesidence 



PiiSt-OiKce address of 
wife or ii'arest relat 

Rank 

ll'hen admitted 
Fr{tm tchat source . 



Iff, ) 



, Co. , Begiment 



Diagnosis :— (In surgical easemtate explicitly seat and cliaracter of wound 
or injury.) 



On what occasioji wounded ... 
Date 

Xature of missile or weapon 



TREATMENT. 

[ HEltK NOTE IMl'OUTANT COMI'UCATIOSS. AND ALL Ol'Elt.V TIOXS,] 



RESULT AND DATE. 



It was anticipated that much information would be derived from the discharge papers 
for physical disability, but, after a laborious examination it was found that the surgical 
certificates were generally brief and vague, and comparatively useless for statistical 
purposes. The rolls of soldiers transferred to the Invalid Corps were searched with nearly 
the same result, the surgical memoranda being practically worthless. The objects m view 
in the formation of this corps were perverted, many sound, healthy soldiers being trans- 
ferred to suit the convenience of officers who took them from the ranks to serve as clerks, 
cooks, nurses, or other attendants, and it became necessary that the corps should be 
reorganized. This was effected by discharging and pensioning the utterly disabled men, 
and dividing the remainder, according to the extent of their disabilities, into two battalions 
of " Veteran Keserve Corps," the second battalion being compo.sed largely of men maimed 
by the loss of a limb. The entries were useless in a surgical point of view, being as 
concise as: "amputation." or "amputated leg," or "excised elbow." When, in 18^6, four 
re^^imonts* of Veteran Reserves were incorporated with the Regular Army, the Surgeon 
General instructed the examining surgeons, at the recruiting stations, to take careful notes 
of all extraordinary cases ot injury or mutilation presented to them. Through this channel 
much valuable material was obtnined. 

Tlio numerous survivors of grave wounds ami mutilations who have visited Wash- 
ington to prosecute their pension claims, or to solicit places under Government, or to 
obtain orders for artificial limbs, generally visit the Army Medical Museum, and the writer 
has thus had the opportunity of personally examining such cases, and of preparing six 
quarto volumes of photographs of the more remarkable examples f The Museum also 

• Th.' 42<I. 4^.1. 44tli. and 45tli I'nitrd .'-tatcs Infantry. 

I Sets of those volumes have been distributed, by the Surgeon Clencrars direction, to the i>riBcipal medical colleges and learned societies of the 
country. . . 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

possesses fourteen quarto volumes of contributed photographs, and a vast number of card- 
size pictures, indexed and chissified, but not bound. 

The formal reports of medical directors of armies give a general view of the operations 
of tlie Medical Department, for the Army of the Potomac, the reports of Medical 
Directors King, Tripler, Letterman, and McParlin furni.sh a connected narrative of the 
services rendered by the medical staff For tKe western armies, the reports of Medical 
Directors McDougall, Murray, Mills, Cooper, Swift, Perin, Moore, J. H. Brinton, and 
Hewit afford similar information. These papers depict an outline of the surgery of the 
war, and place in evidence tlio immensity of the task that devolved on the Medical 
Department, and vindicate its achievements, in showing the extent of the succor given to 
the wounded in despite of almost incredible obstacles. Besides these authoritative docu- 
ments, there are on fde in the office, to serve as supplementary reports, individual narratives 
of observations in active service from each member of the regular or volunteer medical 
staff. Such portions of these reports as appeared to possess historical interest are printed 
in the Appendix to Part I of this work. 

Much important and otherwise unattainable information regarding the ulterior conse- 
quences of the more important and rare injuries has been collected by })rivate correspond- 
ence with invalided soldiers and their surgical advisers. ]\tore than fiftoon hundred cases 
have been examined in this way.^ 

Several interesting cases and valuable pathological specimens have been contributed 
Dy officers of the medical staff of the United States Navy.^ 

Many of the former medical officers 'of the Confederate army have aided in the 
prosecution of the work by contributing histories of cases, pathological specimens, statis- 
tical data, and facts concerning the terminations of the major injuries and operations. It 
may be permitted to express the hope that the claims of these gentlemen, with those of all 
others who have contributed largely to the materials available for their preparation, will 
be favorably considered by Congress, in the distribution of these volumes/* 

But the principal sources from which the remote results of wounds, injuries, and 
operations were ascertained, were the reports of pension examiners, and communications 
from the surgeons general and adjutants general of States. The cordiality and zeal with 
which all of these officials have responded to every enquiry of this office, and facilitated 
its researches in many ways, have been acknowledged, but cannot be too highly appreciated.'' 

' Not iiifroquc'jitly the addresses of Burvivors of rare injuries or operations were unknown, and resource was hail to various expedients by advertisinjf 
in the secular jiress and elsewhere. Thus the ultimate results of Dr. Head's case of successful excision af the knee-joint and Dr. Con'pfon's primary 
amputation at the hip-joint were determined. 

*.See Specs. 5884 and 2'273, Sect. I, Army Medical Museum, for cases of coxo-femoral exarticulations by Surgeon W. E. Taylor, U. .S. N., and 
Surpfeon A. C. Oorpas, IT. .S. N., and Spec. SCti-J, presented by Tassed Assistant Surpeon R. J. Tryon, U. S. N., for a fracture of the leg produced by a 
torpedo explosion. Dr. Tryon also communicated a numlier of surgical memoranda from his private case-book. 

^ Amoiijr the larg^e number who have tlius contributed, 1 may enumerate tlio followin(^, with whom 1 had the pleasure of p^'r^onnl correspondence : 
Dr. Tno.M.vs Williams, formerly medical director of the Army of Northern Virginia; Professor HfSTEIl MctfriKE, late medical director of ("leneral 
Jiicksou's Corps ; Dr. J. F. (tlLMORE, late chief medical officer of (leneral Mcl.aws's Division of f leneral Loncstreet's Corjis ; Dr. JOHN D. .IA<"K8C»N, 
late surgeon P. A. C. .S.; Dr. W. W. CoMl'TO.N, of Holly Springs. Mississippi ; Dr. ClaUIiE H. Mastis, late medical insjiect<ir C. S. A ; D. J. F. ttluXT, 
of Pulaski, Tennessee; Dr. \V. L. ItAYl.ou, of Petersburg, Virginia; Pn)fe8sor J. J. ClIIslIOLM, of IJaltimorc, Maryland; Professor MILES, of Baltimore, 
Maryland; Dr. H. L. TllOMAS, of nichmond, Virginia; Dr. T. O. RlcllAIlUKON, of New Orleans; Dr. J. R. BUIST, qf NonhTille, TenneMee; Dr. A. 
C CUVJIKS, Fort Browder, Alabama; Dr. A. M. FaiNTLEUOV, of Iluuton, Virginia. 

^ Where all cooperated cheerfully, according to the opportunities at their command, it is hoj^ed that it may not be deemed invidious to advert 
particularly to the i)ains taken by the successive adjutants general of New York and Pennsylvania to trace the histories of invalids unaccounted for on 
the national records, and to the kind and const.tnt interest shown in the work by Surgeon (ieneral W. J. Dale, of Massachusetts. Surgeon fJeneral James 
E. Pomfret, of New V<)rk, formerly surgeon of the 7th New York Artfllery, and Surgeon (Jeneral 11. H. .Smith, of I*ennsylvania. Among the i>ension 
examiners, of whom many, fortunately for all concerned, were formerly military surgeons, cordial and discriminating assistance has been received from 
Drs. F. .Salter and T. B. flood, late staff-surgeons of volunteers, and Dr. A. L. Lowell ; from Dr. A. N. Dougherty, late niedical director of the .Second 
Corps ; from Drs. <J. Derby and .S. A. Tireen, of Boston", Drs. H. S. Hewit and (leorge .Suckley. of New York, late medical directora of the Annies of 
the Ohio and of the James ; from Drs. tJeorge C. Harlun and H. K. Goodman, of Philadelphia, Prof. F. Bacon, of New Haven, Dr. D. W. Maull. of 
\Vilniingt<m, Drs. T. W. Wishart, and G. McCook, of Pittsburg, Dr. H. M. Dean, of I.itehfield. Dr. J. M. Woodworth, late medical insiK-elor of the 
Army of the Teanes.see, Dr. C. S. Vi^iKnl, of New York, Dr. T. H. .Sijuire, of Elmiru, and many others. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

It is unnecessary to enlarge on the great facilities aflbrtled by the unrivalled collec- 
tions of the Army j\[edical Museum.-' It is sufficient to say that it possesses over six 
thousand surgical preparations, affording illustrations of the primary, intermediary, and 
remote effects of most of the injuries incident to war, and of the morbid processes, which 
characterize the different stages of most surgical diseases. It contains, also, a collection 
of weapons and projectiles, a good series of dissections and studies in topographical 
anatomy, many wax, phister, leather, and papier-mache casts of the results of operations, 
and a large number of specimens, models, and drawings illustrating the materia chirurgica 
and methods of transport for the wounded. 

The various manuals and systematic treatises on military surgery and the numerous 
contributions on the subject publislied in periodicals during the war, or since its conclusion, 
have Ijeen carefully and often advantageously consulted." 

Another and a very valuable store of information was added, at the close of the war, 
in the shape of portions of the Confederate Hospital Records. These comprised the 
consolidated monthly reports of sick and wounded of the Army of Northern Virginia 
from July 21st, 1861, to May 3d, 1863 ; tw^o hundred and thirty-three hospital registers ; 
one hundred and sixty case books ; fifty-two diet and prescription books ; seventy-eight 
order and letter books, and a number of records of clothing issues and other administra- 
tive matters. There were also many books of miscellaneous memoranda,'^' and a large 
collection of monthly and quarterly sick reports, discharge papers, muster and pay-rolls, 
reports of boards of survey, and the like. 

I Of oj>teo]ogioal preparations of the results of injuries of the head there are 422 specimens ; of wet preparations of lesions of the soft parts, casts 
of plastic operations, etc., 72 specimen.-; ; of specimens of injuries and diseases of the spine, 128 ; of preparations of all kinds illustratingr wounds and 
injuries of the chest, there are 210 specimens, and of similar preparations belonpfinp: to the abdomen, 82 ; 1,340 specimens illustrate the amputations and 
1,200 specimens the excisions, and there are l.-'iTO preparations of the different deprees of destruction or repair in the injuries of the bones of the extremities. 
*Amon)|r them an exceedinf^ly interesting; volume eontaininfj the correspondence between a benevolent society, entitled the " Association for the 
Relief of Maimed Soldiers," of which Dr. W. A. Oarrington, C. S. A., was secretary, and a cooperative association in England, presided over by Lord 
Wharncliffe. From this volume the details of many cases of amputations and excisions have been gleaned, which will appear in their proper places in 
this History. 

- Among the American books and papers on military surgery, that have been consulted, the following mny be enumerated. The foreign medico- 
military bibliography will 1m3 referred to further on : JOXKS, J., Phiin, Concise, l*racticnl Remarks on tht: Trratmeut of Wounds and Fractures, with 
an Apptjulix on Camp an-l MHitnry Uospittds, Frincipnlly designed for the use of young Military and Naval Siirgtons in North America/, Philadelphia, 
177(>; UfrtM, Medical lo'iuiriis and Obsrrrations, Philadelphia, 171t^I)4, Vol. I of his works; IJ.VItTON, A Treatise on Marine, Flying, and Miiitary 
Hospitals, Philadelphia. 1HI7 ; Mann, J.. Midical Sketrhes of Campaigns, 1812-lHH, Deilham, 181() ; Pauso.N'S, V., Prize Dissertations on Inflanimalion 
of the Periosteum, Eneuresis Irritnta, Ciitaneous Di,^eases, Cancer of the Briast, Malaria, 2tl ed.. Providence, 1849; I*OKTKR, J. B., Medical and 
Surgical Notes of Campaigtis in the War with Mexico, during the years 184;'), 184fi, 1847, and 1848, Am. Jour. Med. Kei., Vols. X.XIII, XXIV, XXV, 
and .\.\VI, Januar}-, 1852, to January, 1853; WliIcHT, J. J. H., On a. (iunxhot Perforation of the Chest (in Dr. F. H.Hamilton's Pract. Treat, on Mil. 
Surg., 18lil, ]). 1.57); jAltvis, .\. S.. Am. Jour. Med. Sri,: HuLSK, (!. W.. Gunshot Wound of the Heud, New York Jour, of Med. and Surg., January, 
1841 ; Heni>kk.so.\, T., Topography ef Madison Barracks, Am. Jour. Med. Sei., April, 1841 ; Vol. I, N. .S. p. 337; Lawso.n. T., Meteetrological Jiegistcr 
for the years 1826 to IH30. inclusive. From observations made by the surgeons of the army and others nt the military post of the If. .V. Army, To which is 
appended the Meteorological JKegi.tter for the years 1 822 ^o 1 82.'), inclvsire, by Joseph Lovell, I'hiladelpbia, 1840; FORItT, S., Statistical Jiesearches on 
Pulmonary and Rheumatic Diseases, based on the Records of the Medical Departinent, U. S. Army, Am. Jour. Med. fici., Vol I, N, .S., 1841, p. 13; 
TKlI'I.Ell, C. S., Manual of the Medical OJUeer of the Army of the United States, Part I, Cincinnati, 1858 ; Tnil'LER, C. S., and Bt.ACKMAX, C. V.,, 
Handbook for the Military Surgeon, Cincinnati, 18tjl ; CHISIKiL.M, J. ./., A Manual of Militiiry Surgery, for the use of Surgeons in the Confederate 
States Army, '.U\ ed., Columbia, 18f)4 ; Hamilton, F. H., A Practical Treatise on Military Surgery, New York, 18f>4 ; and A Treatise on Military 
Snrfiery and Hygiene, New York, I8ii5; (jKO.-iS, .S. D., A Manual of Military Surgery, Philailelphia, 1861 ; 'Wahren, K., An Epitome of Practical 
Surgery for Field and Hospital, Tlicbiuond, 18t;.'J : Manual of Military Surgery, Prepared for the nse of the Confederate States Army, by order of the 
Surgeon flenrral, nichmond, 1863: .SJIITII, .S., Handbixik if Surgical Operations, M ed., New York, 1862; .Smith, S., Statistics of the Operation of 
Amputation at the Hip-Joint, in Nciv York Journal of Medicine, .Sept., 185-2, p. '13; COOI.IDGE, R. H., Statistical Report on the Sickness and Mortality 
in the Army of the f'nitiel Steites, Compiled from the Jtccords of the Surgeon General's OJJice, Embracing a period of sixteen years, from January, 
183!l-5.'), Washington, 18.')»i; the same. Embracing a perioil if fire years, from January, 1855-60, Washington, 1860; \Vakukn. J. M., Surgical Obser- 
vations, with Cases and Operation.^, Boston, 1867; NOTT, J. C. Contributions to Bone and Nerve Surgery. Philadelphia. 1866; SciIlirrF.nT, M., A 
Treatise on Gun.ihot Wounds, Written for and dedicated to the Surgions nf the Confederate States Army, New Orleans. 1861 ; ASDKKWS, E.. Complete 
Reiiird of the battles fought near Vicksburg, December, 1862. Chicago. 1863; liAllTlliii.ow, U., A Manual of Instruction for enlisting and discharging 
sohiitrs, Philadelphia, I8G4 ; BowiHTcH, H. I., .1 brief plea ,for an Ambulance System for the Army of the United States, Boston, 1863; and On 
Pleuritic Effusions, and the necessity of Paracentesis ,for tifir removal. Am. Jour. .Wed. Sci., Vol. .\X1II, 1852, |i. 320 ; IllllNTO.v, J. H., Consolidated 
Statement of Gunshot Wounds, Washington, 1863; IJKCKER. A. R., Gunshot Wounds, Particularly those caused by newly inventul missiles, 1865; 
BL'ck, G., History of a Case of Partial Reconstruction of the Face, Albany, 1864 ; and. Case of destruction of the body of the Lower Jaw and extensire 
disfiguration of the Face from a Shell Wound, Albany, 1866 ; and. Description of an Improved Extinsion Apparatus for the treatment of Fracture ef 
the Thigh, New York. 18S7 ; DkrhV G., The Lessons of the War to the Medical Profession, Mass. Med. Hoc. Pub. Vol. 2, Boston, 18t)7 ; El,I.I8, T. T.. 
Leaves from the Diary of an Army Surgeon, New York, 186;l; OKEES, J., On .Amputation of the Thij/h. Boston Med. and Surg, Jour., June. 18(i3; 
Eve, I*. F., A Contribution io the History of the Hip-Joint Operations Performed during the late Civil War, iu Transactions Am. Med. Association, 



INTRODUCTION. >;XI 

Tlic bulk of tlieso documents wore received from the officer entrusted with turning 
over puLlic property under tlie convention between General Pherman and General John- 
ston, April 26th, 1865. Other fragmentary portions were obtained from defeated and 
retreating forces, or from captured places. It is greatly to be deplored that many more of 
these precious documents were destroyed than were preserved, — being burned or scattered 
to tlie winds wantonly, or in ignorance of their value. It must be admitted further, that 
a few of the volunteer medical ofHcers retained, for their private use, medical documents 
and pathological preparations tliat came into their possession. It is difficult to understand 
such dei'eliction of duty, in view of the certainty of detection, since the publication or the 
exhibition of such data alone would involve an admission of disobedience of orders. 

The Confederate medical records in the possession of this Office appear, as a general 
rule, to have been kept witli commendable exactness, and it is remarkable that physicians 
called suddenly from civil practice should have so speedily mastered the intricacies of 
military routine. The forms were, in nearly all instances, identical with those employed 
j^rior to the war in the United Htates Army, and the medical regulations were almost 
literally the same, with the exception, in both cases, of the substitution of the words 
Confederate States for United Slates, wherever the latter occurred. The organization of 
the medical hierarchy was very similar to that of the Union Army. There was a Surgeon 
General, assisted by Medical Directors and Medical Inspectors, assigned to military de]>art- 
ments or to armies in the field; a regular staff, composed chiefly of officers who had 
withdrawn from the old army or navy, who signed as Surgeons or Assistant Surgeons, 
C. S. A., a corps analogous to the Stall' Surgeons of Volunteers of the Union Army, its 
members being addressed as Surgeons or Assistant Surgeons P. A. C. S.;* regimental 
surgeons and assistant surgeons, and physicians employed by contract. The inspections 
appear to have been frequent and thorough, and special commissions were sometimes 
instituted to enquire into the prevalence of hospital gangrene, erysipelas, tetanus, scurvy, 
and various epidemics.")' 

Among the means adopted in the Confederate array for collecting information on 
special subjects in inilitary medicine, surgery, and hygiene, was the organization of a 
society of surgeons of the army and of the navy at Richmond. The following circulars 

Vol. XVIII, pp. 25C, 2R3; Oay, G. H., A few Remarks on the Primary Treatment nf Wounds received in battle, BoBton, IPfiS; OnLnHMTTn, M., A 
Report on Hospital Ganijrene, Enjsipchis, and Pyemia, as iihsfrvnt in the Dipartments of the (th.'o and Cambrrlantl, liimisvillc, 1H*)3; HnlKlEN. J. T.. 
VPotmd of Brain, St. Louis Med. anil Siir. Jour., Vol. V, 18ti8, p. 40.^; Surgeons Reel and Artery Forceps, St. Louis Mod. ftnd .Siirp. J»nir.. Vol. IV, 
18fi7, p. 151 ; and On Fractures, .St. Louis Mod. and .Surp:- Jour., Vol. VII, 1870; Hunso.N, E. D., .^art the Arm, Remarks on Ersection, etc.. New Vork, 
1861; and Mechanical Surgery, New Vork, 1871; IIakwitz, P. T., Report nf Casualties from Gunshot Wounds in the V. S. Kavy, from April t'd, 
18()1, to Juno aoth, 18C5, Washington, 1866; LETTEllMAN, J., Medical Recollections of the Army of the Potomac, New York, 186C ; LlDKLI., J. A., .4 
Memoir on. Osten-myelitis, New York, 1866; and, On the Wounds of Blood- Vessels, ete.; On the Secondary Traumatic Lesions if Bone, etc.; and, On 
Pyiemia, New York, 1870; MOTT, V,, Ifieaiorrhage from Woamls and the best means of Arresting it. New York, 186.3; MlTCTIKLI.. .S. W,, Injur iis of 
Nen^cs and Their Consequences, Philadelphia, 1872; SIOSKS, I., Surgical Notes of Gunshot Injuries occurring during the adeance of the Army if the 
Cumberland, 1863, Am. Jour. Med. Sci., Vol., XLVII, p. K4,18C).l; Mcfill.L, O. M., Obsercation Bmli, Ifatioaal and Ilicks U. S. A. Genrral Hospitals. 
Baltimore, Maryland, Baltimore, 1865-66; OuDUONAlIX, J., Manual of Instructions ffjr Military Surgeons, on the Examination of Rfcruils aiui 
Discharge of Soldiers, New York, 1863 ; (ITIS, O. A., Surpi<'al Part of tlie Reports on the Nature and Extent of the Materials available for the Pnj>a- 
ration of a Medical and Surgical History of the Ribellion, Iwing I*art I, of Circidar 6, S. (t. (>., 1865; and A Rejtort on Amputation at the Hip-Joint in 
Military Surgery, Circular 7, .S. G. ()., 1867; and A Report on Excision of the Head of the Femur for Gunshot Injury, Circular No. 2, S. (;. <t., 1869; 
and A Report of Surgical Cases treated in the Army of the Vnited States from 18()5 to 1871, Circular No. 3. .S. G. ()., 1871 ; Packarp, J. II., A Handbook 
of Operative Surgery, Philadelphia, 1870; .Smttm, II. H.. Princlphs and Practice of Surgery. Philadelj'hiu, 1863; 8.MITH, N. K.; Treatment of Frac- 
tures of the lower extremity by the use of the Anterior Saspeusory .Apparatus. 8vo., Baltimore. 1867 ; .SMITH, I>.. Experiences in the Practice of Military 
Surgery, Am. Med. Times, 1862, Vol. IV, p. 331 ; .SMITH, G. K, The Insertion of the Capsular Ligament of the Hip-Joint, and its Relation to Intra- 
capsular Fracture, New Vork, 1862; TnOMSO.V, W., Report of Cases of Hospital Gangrene treated in Douglas Hospital. IVaehington, IK C, Am. 
Jour. Jled. Sci., Vol., XLVII, 1864, p. 378 ; Waoneu, C, Report of Interesting Surgical Operations, Performed at the U. S. Army Geoeial Ho«pitaJ, 
Beverly, New Jersey, 1864 ; Wooiiwahd, Report on the Causes and Pathology of Pysrmia, Trans. Am. Med. Assoc., VoL, p. 172, 1866; READ, J. B., 
Report on Wounds of the large Joints. Soutlieni Med. and .Surg. .lournal. July and October. 18(>6. 

* Provisional Army of the Confederate .States. 

t .Some of these reports, on gangrene, typhoid fever, and the niort.'ility of prisoners at Aiidersouviile. have l)cen published by the .Sanitary Com- 
mission : Memoirs of the War of the Rebellion, Vol. I, 1867, Vol. II, I87I, New York, llnrd and Hoiightun, 8 vo. pp. (Ili7, :fll, with eolonvl plates. 



XXII INTRODUCTION. 

will indicate the general scope of their inquiries. Keference is frequently made in this 
work to the printed and unpublished proceedings of this society : 

"Sir: With the view of roachinp; the individual exiterience and opinions of snrsoons and 
assistant surgeons on dohataijk^ points in surjiical patlioloyy, based upon their observations in this 
war, an '■'■Ai^Hociation of Army and Nary Surgeons'" has been organized, and your cot>t)eration 
in carrying out the successful fulfilment of its purpose is solicited. 

(Questions ])ropose<l by the jiresident will be forwarded, and as early a rei)ly as practicable 
will be necessary in order that a majority vote may be taken in the decision. 

The following are the questions: 

I. In punsliot wouiuli", do eiieli (liffi»renoes exist between the orifices oi entrance and exit as to indicate them with certainty ? 

II. Have gunshot wound^*, in your experience, ever assumed the appeai'auee of incised wounils and healed by first intention i 

III. When suppurating, uliich orifice seems to heal first? 

SAM'L PPESTON MOORE, 

Pres't Ass'n A. cj'' A'. Sunjcons. 

Sir: In rejilyiiig to questions, and in essa,\s or pai)ers sent to tlie association, a rcHiimeis, 
requested, coming to some conclu.sion, in order to faeilitatc talcing tiie vote in the decision on tlic 
subj'ect. 

The I'ollowing (juestions are proposed: 

I. Any iiKATH from chloroform in YOUU practice? give particulars of the case, if .iny. Is this agent ahv.avs used? 

II. 1st. Does ' .SHOCK ' postpone YOUU wn-gicil iiiterference ? At what period of time, .after injury, are YOU usually 
able to operate ? 2il. Any relation between the ('IIAkac'Tku of the injury and the GRAVITY of the slioclc ? 3d. Any death, in your 
practice, from shock alone? 

III. Do ciCATlilC'KS from gunshot wounds furnish YOU information as to the nature of the missile which caused the injury, 
and the |)rohable entrance and E.XIT of the same ? 

Furtlier i)arti('idars on the.sc subjects, witli ac<;ounts of any remarkable course which balls may 
Lave taken in transit tlirougli tiie body, in your own i)ractice, are solicited. 
Third series of questions : 

V. What Ni:.MHKR of cases have been followed by secondary liEemorrhage after ligation of artery above the wound ? 
Mention vessel, part of .artery wounded, and the point ligated. 

VI. In .arresting hn?morrhage, has local delig.ation, or ligature ABOVE the wound proved tlie safer method in YOUR hands? 
In how many cases have you resorted to the one or the other ? mention vessels injured. 

VII. Have hemostatics proved of .any av,ail in YOITR experience ? How h.ave they been used? 

VIII. How many cases of ganorene have followed ligation for pri.mary hremorrhage and how many for .secondary 
hsemorrhage ? " i 

The replies to these enquiries, and the discussions on the subjects to which they relate, 
furnished much interesting material, which has been partly compiled and published in the 
first volume of the Confederate States Medical and Surgical Journal, and as the fourteen 
numbers of that work that were published are now very rare, no hesitation lias been felt 
in reproducing, with due acknowledgment, the reports of cases, clinical records, debates, 
and discussions, in which the surgical experience acquired by the Confederate medical 
officers is partially set forth. The general conclusions will be found to corroborate, in 
most instances, those accepted by the surgeons of the Union Army. This is conspicuously 
true in regard to the relinquishment of depleting measures in the treatment of gunshot 
wounds of the chest, in the sound practice that gradually came to prevail in the treatment 
of wounds of arteries, and in the estimates formed of the applicability of the special 
excisions, and the limits to be assigned to conservative measures. On one point, the 
closing of gunshot Hesli wounds after their conversion into incised wounds, with the hope 
of healing by first intention, a procedure warmly advocated by the Confederate surgeons 
Chisholm and Michel, the theory and practice were alike rejected by the Union surgeons. 
The plan was tried in the New Zealand war, by instructions of tlie English Director- 
General, but the reports of Inspector Ceneral Mouat, uikI of Stafi'- surgeon A. D. Hoine, 
though not decisive, were unfavorable. 



INTRODUCTION. XXIII 

Since tlie conclusion of our own struggle, two great wars have convulsed Europe, — 
the Austro-Prusso-Italian, or "Six Weeks War" of 1866, and the German-Frencli War of 
1870-71. It-has been souglit to compare our results with those set fortli in the already 
numerous publications of the German and French military surgeons.^ I have also contin- 
ually referred to the reports of the antecedent or contemporaneous or subsequent wars in 
Algeria,Mn Schleswig-Holstein (1848-50),Mn the Crimea (1854-56)," in Italy (1859),'^ 
in the Prusso-Danish War of 1864,*' in the Sepoy ]\rutiny,'' and the English and French 
expeditions to China, ^ the New Zealand War (ISOS-GS),** and the Abyssinian invasion 
(1868).^° 

IDOVON, A., Notes ct Souvrnirs d'un Chiritrgien D'Avihvlnncr, Piiris, 1P72 ; GltF.LLOls, E., Jlistoirc Mrdicah dii Blocus De Mttz, Metz, !P72; 
CniPAULT, A., Fractures par Armrs d. Fc.u, Expectation, Resection suits- I'trioster, Eviiievimt-Amputation, Armee tie la Loire, Piiris. IHTil ; VaslIN, L., 
Etude sur les I'laies par Amies a Feu, Paris, 1872; P^ISCHEU, H.. Kriegsch'rnrgische. Eifahnmgen, Krlanpon, 1872; Le FOUT, L., La Chirurgie 
Militnirc et les Societes de. Secours en Franec ft a VEfrangtr, I'aris, 1S72; MAC(U>ttMAC, W., Notes and JiicolLctions of an Amhuliincc Surgeon, 
London, 1871 ; MAfDOWALL, C. J. F. S., On a Neiv MiOiod of Treating Wounds (0< idiy's Si/stan) and the Mrdicnl and Surgical Asperts <f the Siege 
of l*aris, London, 3871; IJlLI.iiOTH, T., Chirvrgische Hriefe. eius den Kriegs-Lmareihen in W'eiascnburg und Mnnnheim, 1870, IJorlin, 1872; I)EsritI^:rt, 
A,, Rapport si/r les Travanx dt- la Ihme Ambulance a VArmic (In Rhin it ti VArmer de la Loire, Paris, 1871 ; SazaHIS, M. (.'., Cliniq-ic i'hirurgicnlr de 
I'llopital Militnirc dt Strasbourg, Strasbourg, 187U ; SdlATZ, J., J^tude sur hs Ilopitaiix sous Tentes, Paris, 1870 ; BonnafoNT, J. P., J>u Foncti'mnt- 
ment dcs Ambtdnnce.s Ctvils ft lute/ national cs sur Ic Champ de Bataille, Paris, 1870 ; LANT.FNni'.CK, 11., Ueber dtr Schusswunden der Gchnke utid ihre. 
Behtindlung, Berlin, 18(;8; PasSAVANT, G., Btmerkungen aus dem Ccbiete der Krirgxchvrgie, Bi'rlin, 1871 ; IWANOFK, Jiiricht uebrr die Ilisichtigung 
dcr MHitdr-SnnitiitanstaUiu in Deutschland, Lothi-ingin vnd Ehass in Jahre 1870, von N. Pirnpoff, Lelpsip, 1871; RurrilKClIT, L., Militiiriirztlichc 
Erfahrungen wdhrcnd des Franzochm Krieges in Jabre 1S70-71, WUrzburp:, 1871 ; Eckhakt, Gfsrhichte rles k. b. Aiifnams-Fdi/spifnls MI, im Kriigc 
gegcn Frankreieh 1870-71, Wiirzhurgf, 1871 ; Beck, Kritgs-Chirurgischc Erfarhiingen wUhrend der Fddzuges 18fifi in Silddeutsch eland, Krcibnrjf. 1807 ; 
Simon, G., Mittheihmgen aus der Chirurgischcn filinik, Prag, 181)8 ; UOAl.DKS, A. W. l>K, Dcs fractures compli(/ii?,es de la cuisse par Artnes de guerre, 
I'aris, 1871 ; COUYUA, I>es Troubles trophiques consrcatifs aiix Li'sions trainnatiqius de la Moelle ct des Nerfs; C'limsT^iT, F., Du J>rainagc dans let 
Plaits par Amies dc Guerre, Paris, 1871 ; QUESNOY, F., C'mnpagnc dr 1H70, Armee dii Rhin, Camp de. Chalons, Horny, RezonvUlr ou Gravilotti, Tilorut 
de Metz, Paris, 1871 ; Latour, A., Journal du bombardnnent dc Chdlitlon, Paris, 1871 ; JOULIN, L(S caravanes d'un chirurgi(n d'ambulnnces, I'aris, 1871. 

2 Bertheuand, A., Campagnes de Kabylic, Paris, 1862; BaitdENS, CUnique dis PI lies d'Armcs d Feu, Paris, 183(1; Baidens, Relation 
ITistorique de VExpedition dc Tagdempt, Paris, 1841 ; AltMAXD, A., L'Algi'rie M&dicale, Paris, 1854 ; VINCENT, Expose clinique dcs Maladies des Kabylei, 
Paris, 18n2; Skium.ot, C, Campagnes dc Constantinc (ic 1837, Paris, 1838 ; MakIT, Hygilncde VAlgcrie, Paris, 1862; LECKUC, Une Mission MidicaU 
en Kabylic, Paris, 18G4. 

3 StkoMEYEK, Ij., Maxivicn der Kriigshiilkinist, Hannover, 1855 ; EsMAltcH, F., Besehreihuvg ciner Resect ionffckicnc. Ein Beitretg zur Conarr* 
vativen Kriegshtilkunsl, Mit Funf Uohsrhniitcn, Kiel, 1859, and Ueber Rcsectionen nach Schussivunden, Kiel. 1851; SCHWARTZ, H., Bcitrdge zur Lrkre 
von den Schh!<striniden : Gesnmmdt in den Feldiiigcn der Jahrc 1848-50, Schleswig. 1854; Gl'ULT, E., MiVdiir-Chiruraisrhe Fra^mcntc, Berlin, 1864; 
LoHMEYEU, I>ifi Schusswunden nnd i/i;-e b(7i«»(//»r?5f, (loottinpon. 18lj'.» ; LfEFLEit, Grundsiirtzc and R-gelnfur die B<handUing der Schussvnnden in 
Kriege, Berlin, 1859; BECK, Die Schusswunehn, HeidelburK", 1850; SXUOSIEYKK, Ueber die bd Schusstviinien rorkommendcn Knochin-VtrlUzungen, 
Freiburg, 1850. 

■•The prineiiml authorities on the Surgery of the Crimean "War are : MATTHEW, T. P., Surgical Part of the Medical and Surgical IHflory of the 
British Army in the Crimea, during the War against Russia, in the years lt^55 and 1856, London, 1858, Vol. II, p. 2515; ClIENU, J. C, Rappurl au 
Conseil cle Santc dcs Armecs snr les Resullnts du Scrricr Mi'diro-Chirurgical aux Ambulances dc Crimec ct aux Hopitaur Miliiairrs Fran^ais en Turquie 
pendant la Cavipagne D' Orient en 1854-1856, Paris, 1865; PlUOdOFF, N., Grundziigc der Allgemcincn Krirgschirnrgic nach Rendu iseenzen nu:t den 
Kriegcn in der Krivi nnd in dem Kaukasus, Leipzig-, 1864; SCUIVE, G., Relation M<'u}ico-Chiriirgii'nl dc la Campagnc d' Orient, Paris. 1857 ; BaI'IUCNS, L. 
La Guerre de Crimec, hs Campements, les Abris, les Ambulances, les Hojiitaux., i tc, etc., et<!., Ueuxit^me edition, Paris, 1858 ; FHAfiElt, 1*., A Trcatin 
vpon l*enetradng Wounds of the Chest, London, 1859 ; Lkgoi'KST, L., Traitr dc Chirurgie d'Arm'-e. l*aris, 186;J ; Salleiio*:, M., /// Recut il dc Mem. de 
Med. et dc Chir. Mil., 2d Keriu, T. 21, 1858, p. 320; LaWSON, On Gu}}shot Wounds of the Thorar, Ix)ndon ; AllMASD, A., Jlistoire Midico-Chirumiralc, 
dc la Guerre dc Crimie, Paris, 1858; Ki.ENKINS, On Gunshot Wounds, in 8th ed. of Cooper's Dictionary, London, 1869; BAUl>EN'ti, L., Saurenirs d'une 
Mission Mcdirule a VArynec d' Orient, Paris, 1857 ; MACLEOD, G. H. B., Notes on the Surgery of the War in the Crimea, London, ]P.^8 ; (JAZaI.AS, L., 
Maladies dcV Armee d" Orient, Paris, 1860; POKTA. Delia Disarticulazionc del CoUle, Milano, 1860; U\li\iOi}i, IJistoire Medicate dc la FloUe Fran^in 
dans le Mcr Noire pendant le Guerre de. Crimd, Paris, 1861. 

fiCHEM', J. C, S'atistique Mediro-Chirurgicalc dc la Cimpagnc d'ltalic en 1859 cf 1860, Paris, 1869; RODOLFI, K., Campngna Chirurgica del 
1866, Osserrazioni Cliniche, Milano, 1867; GlIEKIM, A,, T'ade Mccnm per le Fcrite D'Arma da Fuoco, Milano, 1866; GRITTI, K., Ddl Frail ure del 
Feniore per Arma da Fuoco, Milano, 1866; KOLX, J., De V Oste amy elite et des Amputations Scaindaircs ii la Suite dcs Coups dc Feu, Paris, 18f>0; Appia, 
P. L., The Ambulance Surgeon, Edinburgh, 1862; Dkm.ME. H., Sfudien Allgemcinc Chirurgie drr Kricgswundcn, Wlirzburg, 1861; STKOMKYKrt, 
ErfahrungeJt ueber Srhusswujidcn in Jahtr 1865, Hannover, 1866; LOHMEY'ER, C. F,, Die Schussu^undcn. nnd ihre Jithandlung, Kurz bcarbdtet, Gottin- 
gen, 1859; BILLROTH, T., Historische 6iudicn iiber die Bcurthcilung and Bchandlung der Schussirundcn rorn 15 Jahrhundcrt bis aiif die ncneste Zdi, 
Berlin, 1859; Bertuerand, Campagnc d' Italic, Paris, 1660 ; Bulge, A., Obserraions in the Military Hospitals of Dresden, Lonrion, 1866 ; Maas, H., 
KriegschirurgiscJte Jicitrdgeaus dem Jahrc l&C)fi, Breslau, 1870 ; GURLT, E., Der Internationale Sr.huiz der im Fcldc Vcrwnndeten und Erkrankten Krieger, 
etc., Berlin, 1869 ; BoUDlN, J. C. M., Souvenirs dc la Campagnc d'ltalic, Paris, 1861 ; EvaN8, T. W., Les histitutions Sanitnires pendant le Confiit 
Anslro-Pnissit n-Italini, Paris, 1867; NeUdOhKEK, Handbuch der Kriegschirurgie, Leij-sig, 1864; CaZalas, Maladies dc VArmees d'ltalic, Paris, 1864. 

'>HanN0VKR, a., Das Kndresnltat der Resec'ionen im Kriege 1864, in den i'nterklassen der Ddnischen Armee, nnd Die Ddnischcn Inraliden aug 
dim Kriege 1864, Berlin, 1870 (from von Langenbeck's Arch. f. k. ch. B. XII, II. 2); La:FLKR, F., Gincral-ltericht iiber din Gisvndheitsdienst im Fdd- 
zuge gegcn Ddnemark, 1864, Berlin, 1867; Heine, C, Die Schussvrrlctzungen der untercn Extremitdten, Berlin, 1866; OchwaDT, Kriegschirurgische 
Erfahning< n, Berlin, 1865 ; llESdEL, J., Die Kriegshospitdhr des St. Johannitrr-ordens im Ddnischen Fehtzugc von 1864, Breslau, 1866. 

7 Williamson, G., Military Surgi^y, London, 1863; Fayker, J., Clinical Surgcy in India, London. 186;j ; COLE, J. J., Military Surgery or 
Ecprrii ncc of a Field Practice in India during the years 1848 and 1849, London, 1852; GORDON, C. A., Experiences of an Army Surgeon in India, 
London, 1872. 

« CastaNO, F., VErpidition de Chine, Paris, 1864 ; DiDlOT, fldntton Midico-Chirurgicale de i: Expedition de Cochinchine, Pwia, 1865; LAUEB, 
Hisloire medicate dc la Marine Frangaisc, pendant les Exp dition de Chine et de Cochinchine, Paris, 18*J4. 

'."MOUAT, J., Special Report on Wounds and Injuries Received in Battle, Extracted ixora the Medical and Surgical Historj- of the New Zealand 
War, London, 1867. 

H' General NAPlEU'ti Official Report, ImiuXou, 1869; Papers coiintctcdwiththeAbystiniaii Expedition, jtmeaied to hoth Houses of Parliamenti 1667. 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

In aiTuno-ino; the surgical data of the American war, it lias been tliouyht wisest to 
proceed from particulars to generals, and to begin with an account of the special wounds 
and injuries. Several advantai>;es are secured bv this arrantrement. Tlius the returns to 
the Adjutant General, Quartermaster General, and Surgeon General ditl'er in their 
aggregates of killed in battle, and there are discrepancies in the reports of wounded in 
action made to the Adjutant General and to the Surgeon General. These statistics are 
still undergoing revision, and it may reasonably be anticipated that near approximations 
will be ultimately attained. Althougli the memoranda of 205,235 cases of wounds and 
injuries, including 39,163 operations, have been examined and compared and placed upon 
the permanent registers, yet many thousands of cases, belonging chiefly to classes not 
considered in the first volume, remain to be investigated and entered. Hence general- 
izations on the relative frequency of wounds according to regions, would be premature. 
The influence of climate and other hygienic conditions on the state of health of the troops, 
and consequently on the results of ivounds, can be more readily appreciated when the 
Tables in the ]\rodical Volume of Part I, shall have been discussed. Deductions derived 
from the vital statistics of the Provost Marshal General's Bureau, from the Census returns, 
and from the reports of the Commissioner of Pensions, will afford further data for general 
conclusions. From these and other considerations, it has been decided to postpone the 
general observations to a later portion of the work. 

A chronological table of engagements and battles, compiled from official sources where 
practicable, but often from popular estimates that appeared to be honest attempts at fair 
approximations, and sometimes from almost any statement available that was not 
obviously false — such a table, in which completeness rather than unattainable accuracy is 
sought, is introduced to indicate the actions that were fought during the period of four years 
during which the war was protracted, from April, 1861, to April, 1865. The surgical 
history proper follows, and is continued through five chapters, the first chapter being 
devoted to wounds and injuries of the head, the second to those of the face, the third to 
those of the neck, the fourth to those in which injury of the spinal column was the most 
prominent feature, and the fifth to wounds and injuries of the chest. The operations 
performed are considered in connection with the injuries of ef\cli region, an arrangement 
much more difficult than a distinct classification, but affording many advantages, in 
avoiding repetitions and in presenting each subject as a whole. In the second volume, 
now nearly ready for the press, the wounds and injuries of the abdomen, pelvis, and genito- 
urinary organs, the upper and lower extremities with the amputations and excisions, are 
discussed ; and in the third volume, gunshot wounds in general, with the complications of 
pyajmia, gangrene, tetanus, and secondary haemorrhage will be considered, and also the 
materia chirurgica, the transportation and field supplies of the wounded. 

It has been mentioned that the cases belonging to the regions which will come first 
under consideration, have been examined with especial care, and there are here probably 
few omissions, the aggregates being even larger than called for by the returns on the 
monthly reports, doubtless because of the number of Confederate cases included. Yet 
among these few omissions, it must be anticipated that some cases of especial interest 
may be included. Wounded ofiicers, for cxam])le, were often treated in private quarters, 
and in many or most instances, it has been difficult to procure precise narratives of 
their cases. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXV 



The preliminary reports and tlu^ prot'atory and introductory matter in tlie medical 
volume and in this, sufficiently place in evidence the impossibility of compiling a satisfac- 
torv surgical history of the war by the simple consolidation of data derived from any 
consecutive series of reports in existence. The inadequacy of the entries in the class 
thanatici of the monthly report of sick and wounded was early acknowledged, and it was 
officially declared tliat previous to September, 1862, "the surgical statistics of the war 
were absolutely worthless," and that "the only information procuraljle is such as can be 
derived from the examination of a mass of reports, all of which present merely certain 
figures under the vague and unsatisfactory heading, Vulnus sclopeticum:^ After the 
revision of the forms of reports and the addition in June, 1862, of the "tabular statement 
of gunshot wounds and operations," the consolidations for the first two quarters of 1863 
were found to abound in errors to such an extent that it was deemed inexpedient to print 
them. The quarterly reports of wounded and of surgical operations {ante p. xvi) and 
the nominal lists of casualties in battle were required in September and November, 
1863; the classified return of wounds and injuries received in action was instituted in 
March, 1864. 

The following is a consolidation of the aggregates of entries in Class V, of the 
monthly reports of sick and wounded, from May 1st, 1861, to June 30th, 1865, as printed 
in tables of the Medical Volume of Part I : 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 



CLASSIFICATION. 



White Troopb. 



Cases. Beatbs. 



Punctured Wounds 

Poisoning 

Other Accidents and Injuries. 



Aggregates - 



COLOIIED Tboops. 



TOTAL. 



Bums 1 9,487 

Contusions 44,323 

Concussion of Brain , 873 

Compression of Braint 61 

r 

Drowning ' 

Sprains: ' I 38,387 

Dislociitions ' ; 2,908 

Fractures I 1,287 

Simple Fractures 1 4,215 

Compound Fractures ! 1 ,316 

Gunshot Wounds 229,119 32,731 

Incised AVouudg 21,444 186 

li 

Lacerated Wounds '. ! 14,153, 459 



94 
161 
193 

17 

672 

3 

9 

53 

61 
378 



5,285 1 191 

3,087 I 93 

13,099 ; 1,003 



389,044 36,304 



Cases. 



613 

2,649 
49 



4,317 
108 



Deaths. 

4 

11 
22 



131 

55 

6,466 

1,305 

595 

499 

67 

2,174 



19,028 



125 



15 

19 

922 

3 

8 

8 

17 

72 



1,227 



Cases. 



10,100 

40,972 

922 

61 



42,704 
3,016 
1,287 
4,340 
1,371 
235,585 

22,749 

14,748 
5,784 
3,154 

15,273 



Deaths. 



98 

172 

215 

17 

797 

3 

10 

53 

76 

397 

33,653 

189 

467 

199 

110 

1,075 



408,072 37,531 



* CiTcular iVb. 9, S. O. 0., July 1st, 1863. Consolidated Statement of Gunshot Wounds. By Surgeon J. H. BniNTON. U. .S. V. 
t After June 30th, 1863, tliis clasH was omitted, as it was found that depressed fractures of the skull were sometimes entered. 



^^^'' INTRODUCTION. 

T]ie aggregate of 235,583 gunshot wounds here given, with the resulting mortahty of 
3o,653, or 14.2 per cent., is explained, in the introduction to the medical volume, to repre- 
sent the total returned from about nine-tenths of the mean strength of the Union Army, 
and to be exclusive of the injuries of those killed in action. The latter category embraces, 
according to the Adjutant General, not less than 44,238 ; according to the alphabetical regis- 
ters of the Surgeon General's Office, 35,408 ; according to the Chronological Summary, 
59,860/^^ 

However useful these approximations may be for many purposes, any anticipation 
that they may afford reliable guidance, or much assistance in framing a surgical history of 
the war, must evidently prove illusory. But the consolidation of the data of the detailed 
quarterly surgical reports might be justly expected to furnish a very complete record of 
the surgical practice in the Union Army during the latter two years of the war; and for 
the last year, tlie classified return of wounds received in action should serve as a nearly- 
accurate check-list. 

The clinical histories contained in the quarterly "surgical reports were provisionally 
classified in the order specified on page G of the Introduction to the surgical report in 
Circxdar No. fi, S. G. , 1805. It has been severely criticised.'!* and would be open to 
graver objections than liave been offered, had it been designed as a nosological system. It 
was simply a nonu^nclaturc for a series of blank books, in w]iif,'h surgical facts derived from 
a variety of sources miglit be entered for facility of reference, and lias been modified as 
frequently as convenience dictated. It lias been found to answer the purpose for which it 
was intended reasonably well. As the presentation of the naked statistics of the monthly 
reports of sick and wounded, as consolidated on the preceding page, would have been 

* The Chronolopicnl Snmmnry, pompiled by the faitliful mirt iiidefat!prfibIo ehiof clerk of tlie Siirs-ical Division, Mr. FltEDEKICK E. SrAIlKS, 
indicfttfs the followitiff lotoses: ITuinn Troops, killed 51t.8fI0, wounded Sf^O.IMO. niissiiio- 181, 701 ; Confederate Troops, killed 51,41)."), wounded 227.871, 
missing :i84,i;81. The last nfrgrpi^ato includes the annies surrendered. Allowinfr for many cxa^g-erations and omissions, the errors apjiear to balance 
remarkably, and the results to eorrespond with statistics derived from entirely dUrerent sources. 

t In the fifty fourth volume of the MfiUcn-Chirnrgical Tra>isartious is an article of fifty-two I'ag-es, by Deputy Inspector-General T. Long-more, 
C B., on the classificatiun and tabulation of injuries and surjjieal operations in time of war, in which ho claims that some of the best established rules of 
field surgery, especially as n^uards t;unshnt injuries, have been attained by the collection of the statistioiil results of expectant and operative treatment; 
describes the clnssifieation adopted in the Hritisli army and those of other countries; considers how far those statistics are comparable ; discusses whicU 
Bj-stcm ensures the greatest accuracy and completeness, with the greatest economy of labor and cost in compilation ; advocates an international congress 
f<»r the adoptiitn of a uniform system, and concludes that the Uritish system is the best. I cannot follow htm through this discussion^ hut must corr(*ct 
severnl serious errors in his description of the "collection and classification of surgical statistics of war injuries in the I'nited States." After premising 
that the figures of our tabular statements are "alnuist practically worthless." Dr. Ijongnmre remarks that *' the vast amount of labor and time '' expended 
ill their compilation was such that " as the documents successively arrived at the Surgeon (leneral's Offiee in Washington, a large number of medical 
officers and clerks were occupii'd in classifying and tran.scribing their contents" (p. \i'2'.i} ; and elsewhere, more specifically (p. 24'i), "tlie labor on the 
American system is so creat that an American friend once informed me that when he was in Washington there were two hundred intelligent chTks 
cmpleyed at the Surgeon f Jeneral's Otlicc in collecting and arranging the surgicid statistics of the war. for the preparation and juiblication of which a 
very large sum of money hnd been liberally granted by Congress." I am sure tJmt Dr. Longmoro will wish to correct these misrepresentations. The 
maxiinum force employed, at any tijne. at the Surgeon CJeneral's OflQce, upon the surgical .statistics of the war, has been one medical officer, one clerk, 
and sixteen hospital stewards, ncc.:sionally aided bj* one acting assistant surgeon ; and the "very large sum of money " (.£(!, 00(1), voted for the iireparation 
of five thousand cojues of the medical and surgical volumes of the First Part of the Medical and Surgical History of the War, only sub.served its purpose 
beenuse nearly all those occupied witli the work were already in Government employ. I will not complain of the unfairness of contrasting the results of 
the preliminary report in Circular No. 6 with the perfected histories uf Dr. Matthew and M. Chenu ; but I do complain of an " American System " bein^ 
described and unfavorably contrasted with the classification of Inspector-fleneral Taylor, when, as I have shown, there was no complete series of surgical 
reports in the Army of the I'nited States, and information was of necessity to be derived from heterogeneous data. " The surgetms in the field on the 
American system * * make no distinction between the various kinds of cranial fractures. * * Where all .sucli injuries are tabulated togctlu-r, astliey 
are in the primary American returns, what useful information can be obtained from a tjible showing, for exnmi>le, the results of the operation of trephining i" 
(p. 2-10). I cordially concur in the warm praise accorded to the histories of the Crimean and Italian campaigns by M. Chenu. I will observe that in his 
latter work he verj- mnterinlly modifies the classification employed in the former. In the history of the surgery of the Italian War, he reports nine cases 
of trephining; in his Crimean histori,- Dr. Matthew reports twentj'-six cases. I shall record two hundred and twenty cases, and shall be disapyiointed if 
their results afford no n.seful information. Dr. Taylor's classification may be excellent fi)r the British army, witli its corps of trained medical officers ; it 
could not have been Jtdvant;itreously introduced in our service, chiefly attended by surgeons hastily called from civil life. Dr. nongrnore says (p. 2^3) 
that in (iermany " no fixed classification exists." This is quite true, yet the statistical work of (Jcneral-Artz I>r. Loefller is a marvel of accuracy and 
completeness to those whooccnpy themselves with these studies; and the extended treatises of Drs. II. Fischer, Soein, and Klebs, following so soon tipon 
the conclusion of the Franco-rierman war, are monuments of well-directed industry. I thiuk that in war " systems " must be made to conform to tlio 
exigencies of the occasion and to national habits and organizations. There are certain great niles to which all nations will conform ; the details must be 
adapted to varying circunisfances. The British system maybe best for Britain ; but not necessarily for all other countries. On peut etreplus sage qu'un 
gens, mais \yo\nX que tous les gens. 



INTROnUOTION. XXVII 

barren, — as tliere was no otlier consecutive series of reports, — and a^ it was undesirable to 
sacrifice tlie information collected in the earlier period of tbc war, a plan was adopted 
which permitted the endeavor to group togetlier data froni any quarter, from case books, 
from field registers, from nominal casualty lists, from numerical classified returns, from the 
memoranda accompanying pathological specimens, from tlie careful clinical records of 
hospitals, and the hasty pocket-book memoranda of field surgeons. From a surgical point of 
view, there was no motive to exclude information that could be obtained of the Confederate 
wounded, — le vrai chirurgien ne regarde pas Vuniforvie. Estimates of the ratio of wounded 
to the forces engaged, and other attempts at approximations to unattainable numerical 
precision, were held to be very subordinate to the accumulation of the greatest possible 
number of practical surgical facts. 

In dealing with these large bodies of facts, I have thought best, commonly, to 
imitate the practice of the legal profession, and to set forth all the evidence regarded as 
important, on each particular subject, with as little interruption as j)ossible, and to append 
the argument or discussion. As nearly as practicable, the wounds and injuries and surgical 
diseases of each region of the body have been arranged together, as the simplest and most 
natural order that could be adopted. The most interesting clinical histories have been 
printed in full, or in abstracts including the attainable essential details, and the remaining 
cases, or sometimes the whole number of cases of the class, are set forth in tabular 
statements. In many cases the result could not be ascertained, yet the proportion of 
undetermined cases, as indicated by the aggregates in the tables, was much smaller than 
could have reasonably been anticipated.''' In the earlier part of the work, the number of 
histories, and especially of very brief histories, that are printed, may appear unnecessarily 
large ; but it was desired to give some insight into the method by which cases were traced 
and followed to their termination, with the hope that the reader, on being assured that 
many of these brief memoranda presented a digest of the results of a search through half 
a dozen reports, perhaps, and that the cases represented numerically only had undergone 
precisely similar investigation, would entertain a reasonable confidence in the accuracy of 
the statistical conclusions. In the later portions of the work, the typical cases are more 
elaborated and fewer are selected to be printed in full. In stating in the abstracts that a 
case is reported by a medical officer wdiose name is given, it is not designed to intimate 
that he is responsible for the language employed. Very possibly some details are taken 
from several field or hospital reports or registers, each supplying some facts omitted in the 
others. It is simply designed to ascribe whatever merit belongs to the abstract to the 
surgeon giving the fullest account, or to give the history the authority of his name. 
Wherever the surgeon's own language is employed quotation marks are used, and whenever 
complete histories have been furnished by a single observer, they have been preferred, and 
printed in the reporter's own words. The classification adopted has rendered it necessary 
to encounter first in order the most obscure and complicated subjects, and the writer has 
been keenly sensible of the difficulties involved in this arrangement. On wounds of the 
extremities, on amputations, excisions, and conservative measures in fractures and wounds 
of joints, and almost all matters demanding prompt active interference, the materials at 
his disposition have been very extensive, and the means of illustration almost unlimited; 
for the army surgeons showed great diligence in preserving statistical details on these 

* In computing percentages, the UDdetennined catet are not iocladcd. 



XXVIII INTRODUCTION. 

subjects, and freely exj)ressc(.I their opinions on tlie relative merits of different methods of 

treatment; while admirable drawings and specimens of recent injuries were early secured, 

and preparations showing their progress and results were largely accumulated. On wounds 

of the trunk, the materials were also abundant ; but the obstacles to satisfactory analysis 

and exposition were great. Generally, the medical officers were very concise in reporting 

on wounds, of the head, of the chest, and of the abdomen, often failing to record all 

important points of professional interest, and commonly refraining from critical discussion 

or comment. It was not easy to obtain good pictorial representations of tliese injuries, 

their progress and results.'-' Whether the obscurity attending them, or the comparative 

inadequacy of therapeutical resources against them, renders them less attractive to surgeons, 

it is certain that less real reliable information relating to them is to be found than in 

regard to those in which brilliant operative dexterity may be displayed. In regard to 

injuries of the head.f it may be that writers are deterred from enlarging on them by doubt 

of their ability to add to the knowledge imparted by the great teachers of the past ; but 

the conditions the elder authors had in view were not identical with those observed by the 

moderns, and the latter cannot be exonerated from the duty of collecting facts with which 

to judge tlie conflicting views of their predecessors, or of applying to tliese difficult problems 

the more refined means of investigation that the advances of science have placed at their 

command. The obscurity which attends wounds of the head, and renders their pathology 

so ambiguous, does not, as Hennen observes, exist in an equal degree in those of the 

thorax; yet Dr. Fraser, inpreparing his Jiionograph on the subject, was able to find but one 

treatise especially devoted to penetrating wounds of the chest, that by Dr. Mayer, of 

St. Petersburg.^ As to wounds of the abdomen, it may be that their extreme fatality and 

brevity of the period through which, commonly, they remain under observation, deprive 

them of the interest with which they would otherwise be regarded ; for, as Sir Charles 

Bell has remarked, although wounds of the belly are common enough immediately after a 

battle, bearing a fair relative proportion to other wounds, yet a few days sufiice to remove 

them, so that, by the end of the first week, there is scarcely one to be seen. 

That the experience acquired during the war should have added largely to every 

subject connected with military surgery was not to be anticipated. But it may be safely 

_ asserted that, in many directions, it has advanced the boundaries of our knowledge. Even 

in the very difiicult field of investigation presented by the wounds and injuries of the 

* The frifterl artist, Mr. STAITH, whose services Siirg-eon Brinton had fortunately securod,'after preparing many water-color drawings of recent 
injuries, at the tield hospitals, died from pernicious fever contracted before I'etersburff. without completing the exquisite studies of embolism, cranial 
abscess, false aneurism, osteomyelitis, and panp^rene, which he had drawn from dissections made at tlic Sluseum. 

" Injuries of the head aflfectinffthe brain are difficult of distinction, doubtful in character, treacherous in their course, and, for the most part, fat.ll 
in their results. The symptoms which appear especiallj* to indicate one kind of accident are frequently prevalent in another. It may be even said that 
there is no one symptom which is presumed to demonstrate a particidar le'sion of the brain, which has not been shown to have taken place in another of 
n diflerent kind. Kxamination after death has often proved the existence of a most serious injury, which had not been suspected ; and death has not 
unfrequently ensued immediately, or shortly after the most marked and alarniinff symptoms, without any adequate cause for the event being discovered 
on dissection, .^uch are the deficiences in our knowledge of the complicated functions of the brain, that although we think wo can occasi<jnally point 
out where the deraiiKement of structure will be found, which has R-ivcn rise to a particular symptom during life, the very next case may probably show 
an apparently sound structure with the same derangement of function. One man shall lose a considerable portion of his brain without its being productive 
at the moment, or even after his restoration to health, of the slightest apparent functional inconvenience; whilst another shall fall and shortly dio 
without an effort at recovery, in spite of any treatment which may be bestowed upon him, after a very much slighter injury inflicted apparently on the 
same part." — ril'TIIltlF, on Injuries of the Hiad ajficling the lirain, 4to, London, 184:3. " Of all the accidents met with in field ]iractiee, these arc, 
beyond doubt, the most serious, both directly and remotelj- — the most confusing in their manifestions, and the least determined in their treatment, 
although they h.ive engaged the attention of the master minds ot ail ages and countries from the time of the old surgeon of Cos down to the present 
day." — Maci.eoi), Notes, etc. {np. cit., p. 17")). 

I Dr. Fraser justly remarks {rrp. rit., p. 2) tRat " while Army surgeons have displayed great care and attention on matters relating to statistics ; 
while they have laboriousl}- discussed the rehitive merits of e.vcisions and disarticulations, and have displayed consummate skill in the treatment ()f 
wounds of the joints and extremities, — in a w«<rd. on all matters which demand active, and 'truth must out' showj' manual ability, the less attractive, 
because more obscure, but not tli*' less ini|tortant subject of wounds of the head, chest, and abdomen, appears to have elicited only fmBsing and imperfect 
notice." 



INTRODUCTION. XXIX 

head, we liave learned something. Surgeons have been schooled to deal with the most 
ghastly injuries of the face without dismay, to obtain unexpected results, and to accomplish 
favorably repa^'ative operations from which, formerly, they would have recoiled ; and 
they have been taught the futility of tying the great arterial trunks of the neck for 
hsemorrhage from face-wounds. The true principles of treatment of wounded arteries in 
the neck is now generally understood; and while, before the war, there were few surgeons 
who chose to undertake operations on the great vessels, there are now thousands who know 
well when and how a great artery shall be tied. Our information respecting injuries of the 
vertebral column has been augmented; and, passing to the wounds of the chest, we find a 
complete revolution in theory and practice. Without further illustration, we may claim 
that the additions to surgical knowledge acquired in the war are of realand practical value. 
On those topics in which the materials at his disposition merely corroborated or confirmed 
views already generally entertained, tlie editor has sought to be concise, and to enlarge 
on those subjects to which some material addition to our knowledge has been brought 
by the observations made during the war, either because of novelties in nature or in 
treatment, or through the largo number of rare or of analogous cases permitting tlie 
occasional presentation of crucial instances, and the more frequent application of the 
theories of averages and of probabilities.'-' Thougli the labor upon matters of detail, 
inseparable from carrying out instructions to regard the "preservation of the great mass 
of facts collected, in a form for convenient study," as the chief object in view, lias 
generally confined the editor's attention to the arrangement and grouping and illustration 
of the observations, he has sought, whenever time and opportunity permitted, to facilitate 
the student's enquiries by analyses, and summaries, and references to the surgical results 
of other wars, without abstaining from critical comments; but censuring bad practice, 
intending no discourtesy to individuals, nor violation of the homines amare, errores immolare 
precept of St. Augustine. The learned historian of the inductive sciences has not included 
pathology and therapeutics in his outline, and we must perhaps be content to wait until 
some genius as sublime as Newton's shall explain the laws of life by a generalization as 
simpde and perfect as the law of gravitation, before the physiological sciences shall be 
recognized among the strictly exact sciences. But, meanwhile, the tendency among 
surgeons to seek to establish, by inductive- methods, at least those less general and more 
complicated rules to which the name of " empirical laws " has been given, cannot be 
gainsayed.f Though unable yet .to aim at establishing laws of cause and effect, they are 
constantly seeking to determine by statistical calculation the inlluence exerted by different 
modes of practice, and thus to open the way for framing inductions ; and as these less 
general relations require a very much larger number of cases than are needed to establish 
laws of causation, they continually resort to the numerical method. This is peculiarly 
applicable to military surgery; for some of the variable circumstances which contribute to 

*La Place, Essai philosophique surh calcul des itrohahilites, pag"e220, gays that tlic mathematical thpon- of prol)abilities is, fundamentally, only 
" le bon sens rMiiit an calcuh It lias so often been misai>[>licd in medioal enquiries, thot Prissk (Lrj M^dtcine et les M^dectns. Paris. 18rj7. Vol. I, p. 
17;")) profanely su^p-ests that the inverse ojierution nii^lit often be profitably instituted, and "oypherinp i>ut in necord with common sense." 

t Ars iota in observationibiis, said an ancient master. Those who deride the nuii;erical method as an absurd caricature of the induetiveor experi- 
mental method in jihilosoi.ih}-, say that in observatioue would be better, and censure the unfortunate i»Iural. as having!- promoted the intrmluction of th« 
8tatir.tie.al system into the medical enquiries. AIOur..v(:.Nrs famous A'o'( numrrnnda: sed pcrpendendir sunt ohsfrvatioups is often cited apainst thenumer- 
isls; but those who do not relish so formidable an a<lversarj- may, with Bouillaud (Kfsai sur la philosnphie mcdiraU. Pari:,. 18.%, p. 18(i), write the 
aphorism : Non solum numeratidtf SEP Etiam perpendfinda' sunt observationts. F<>r more serious obser\-ations on this most important subject, cunsalt : 
ClAVAKHKT, Prhiriprs gencralcs de Slatistiqite Mcdicair; Laycock, Medical Observation and Besearch ; OfV, On the beM Mithnd of enllecting and 
arranging Facts, in Jour, of Stat. .See. of London, Vol. Ill; Bahclav, Medical Errors, London, 1864; ToUD, The Book of Analysis! QLETETET, 
,^ur Vhomme. 



XXX INTKODUCTION. 

the production or modification of the result, and wliicli cannot well be eliminated from 
ordinary statistics, are here excludetl — for example, sex, age, and bodily vigor, within 
certain limits — while there is comparative uniforniity in the external circumstances of food, 
air, nursing, and attendance. The simple rehearsal of cases would be a very profitless 
addition to our knowledge, unless, through their agency, we sought for analogies and 
relations that may establish rules of practice. 

The surgical lessons of the war, like its other good results, were only obtained at the 
expense of great sacrifices. The army surgeon is not only exposed to the dangers arising 
from excessive fatigue, and constant contact with disease, but to the fatalities directly 
incident to war. I have not the names of the numerous Confederate medical officers 
whose devotion to duty cost their lives, nor space for the long list of Union surgeons who 
perished from diseases strictly consequent upon the nature of their avocations, but will, at 
least, record the names of the latter wlio fell in battle. The following oflicers of the 
medical statf of the regular and volunteer forces of the Union Army were killed in action: 

SurRt'oii S.VMl'Ei. TOvKKETT, U. S. V., at Sliiloli, Ajtril 0th, 1S(!2. 

Hiir^coii W. J. ir. AVjiitk, I'. iS. A., at Autii'taiii, S('i)t('inl)or 17th, 1S02, \\ln\o phicing the fiehl 
hospitals of the yixtli Corps, ui' wliich h(A wiis nu'tlical director. (iS're AiU'ENUlX, p. 1(»().) 

Assistant Sinjicoii A. A. Kkadai.i., 12th JNIassachiisetts Yohnitccrs, at Aiitictaiii, Heptomber 
17tli, l.S(i2. (.SVr Ai'it:nj>ix, ]). 100.) 

Assistant Sin-.i^coii Kdwakm) II. U. L'evehe, L'Oth Massaeluisetts Volunteers, at Antietain, 
SeptoiiiluT ITtli, ISOi'. {Scr .\i'im;m)IX, ]). 100.) 

Biir^i'con ,J. J). S. HAsmoTT. ."iOtli Illinois \'olaiitO('rs, nt I'erryvillo, October 8th, 1802. 

Sini;eon J. Fosteu Haviox, L'tlh Massachusetts Volunteers, at Fredericksburg-, December 
13th, isi;2. {Src .Vl'PEXDix, p. IM.) 

Assistant Siui;eou JuiiN FlruLEY, (iOtli Xew York Volunteers, April 15th, 1803. 

Surgeon (,'iiakles A. llAUTiiAX, 107th Ohio Volunteers, at Cliancellorsville, May 2d, 1863. 

Acting- Assistant Surgeon A. Hichuoun, at Chancellorsville, May 3d, 1803. 

Surgeon E. L. Watson, 1st California N'olunteers, near Fort Craig, New Mexico, July 19th, 18G3. 

Surgeon J. S. \V]usi:n, 1st Minnesota Cavalry, near Eig IMound, Dakota Territory, in a fight 
with Sionx Indians, July 24tli, 1S();5. 

Surgeon Thoaias Jones, 8th Pennsylvania Reserves, at Spottsylvania, May 14th, 1804. 

Surgeon II. S. roTTEif, lOr^th Illinois Volunteers, near Ackworth, Georgia, June 2d, 1804. {See 
Appenimx, p. 308.) 

Assistant Surgeon A. S. French, 114th Illinois Volunteers, at Gnntown, June 10th, 1804. 

Surgeon L. 15. Smitii, 7th Alinnesota Volunteers, at Tupelo, ]\Iississip|)i, July 13th, 18(J4. 

Surgeon J. C. StciBDAIM), oOth U. S. Colored Troops, "Wallace's Ferry, ArkaTisas, July 2(ith, 1804. 

Surgeon Chaiji.es J. Lee, 11th United States Colored Troops, near Fort Smith, Arkansas, 
August 24th, 1804. 

Surgeon W. II. Kulison, Otli New York Cavalry, medical director of the cavalry of the Middle 
Military Division, at Sniithlield, Virginia, .Vugust 20th, 1804. {See Appendix, p. 220.) 

Assistant Surgeon Fi;i;i)Ei;u'ic Wagnek, 3(1 Tennessee Cavalrj-, at Sulphur Branch Trestle, 
Alabanui, September 25th, 1804. 

The following oflficers of the medical staff, while in the discharge of their duty, were 
killed by partizan troops or assassinated by guerrillas or rioters : 

Surgeon 11. N. (Hiiegoky, 1st Wisconsin Cavalry, June 0th, 1802. 

Assistant Sin-geon F. L. IltNT, 27th Massachusetts Volunteers, November ISth, 1862. 

Assistant Siugeon .Tai;i;i) I'i:i;e, 83d Pennsylvania Volunteers, Deciember 10th, 1803. 

Surgeon SlUiiAEL YcnjK, 54th Illinois Volunteers, Charleston, Illinois, March 28th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon S. A. FAiucnrLD, Otli Kansas Cavalry, Stone's Farm, April 0th, 1804. 

Assistant Surgeon J. A. Jones, 115t]i Illinois Volunteers, July 0th, 18()4. 

A.ssistant Surgeon Fli M. IlEwrrx, 15th U. S. Colored Trooi)s, Jnly 24th, 1864. 

Surgeon J. 1>. .MooiiE, 5th Tennessee Cavalry, September 5tli, 1804. 

Acting A.ssistant Surgeon F. M. OsnoKNE, .Sei)tember 22(1, 1804. 

Surgeon J. 15. CoovER, (Uh Peinisyhania Cavalry, September27, 1864. (-SVe Appendix, p. 226.) 

Assistant Surgeon JoiiN I>. Porter, 80th Indiana V^ohuiteers, November 1st, 18()4. 

Surgeon J. L. Suekk, 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry, at r>ar(lsto\vn, Kentucky, December 29th, 1864. 

Acting- Assistant Surgeon Saml EL Faunestock, April 13th, 1804. 



INTROBUCTION. XXXI 

The followiiiG; medical officers died of wounds received in action : 

Assistant Surjicon S. At.kkaxdkk, 1st I'emisvlviuiia Cavalry, died November 20tli, of wounds 
received at Drainesville, \'irf;inia, on Xoveinlier L'dtli, 1801. 

Assistant Snrjieon J. K. Hii-i>, l!>tli Massachusetts Volunteers, died of wounds received at 
Fairfax, Yirainiii, on Sei)teinber lltli, lS(i2. 

Assistai'it Surj>eon ^A'. S. ]\Iooi!E, Gist Ohio Volunteers, died of wounds received at Gettysburg 
ou July L'd, iSd.i. 

Aetins' Assistant Stirtjeon AV. B. Caijy, died of wounds on January 20th, 18G4. 

Assishmt Snr<;eon JlKZinv'TAii Fisii, l.")th Iowa Volunteers, died August lUtli, of wounds 
received ne:ir Atlanta on Anjiiist 17th, 1804. 

Surgeon Otto S(,'iik>;k, 4(Jth Xcnv York Volunteers, died on Au,;^iist 21st, 1804, of wounds 
received'^near Petersburg-, August 2()th, 1804. {Sec Ai>1'kndix. p. 17.").) 

Acting Assistant Surgeon F.Mir. Oiilknsciilagkt;, died October Sth, of wounds received in 
action on October 8th, 1804. (AVr Aitkkdix, p. 22().) 

Surgeon Tiioma.s J. Shannon, 110th Ohio Vohinteers, died October 20tb, of wounds received 
at Cedar Creek ou October H>th, 1804. (Sir Appendix, p. 220.) 

The followinff medical officers died through accidents occurring in the line of duty : 

Snro-eon Frf.pktjick S. Wells, 9th New Jersey Volunteers, drowned at Ilatteras Inlet, 
January l.")th, 1802, in the courageous and perilous atteni])t to land tti ))ro(uire food and water for 
the faniinestricken regiment, its trans])ort being driven otV shore in a terrili(' storm. 

Assistant Surgeon W. M. Knox, 78tb i'ennsylvaniii NOlunteers, A])ril 27th. 1802. 

Assistant Surgeon Jesse J. Thomas, KHli New Jersey N'olnnteeis, May, 1802. 

Assistant Surgeon CiiahlES Johnson, KItb Tennessee Volunteers, killed by a fall, April ."), 18((,'{. 

Surgeon (1eoij(;e Hammond, V. S. A., drowned in the Mississippi Kiver, August Iltli. i80,i. 

AssTstant Surgeon W. ]>. Witt, tiiHh Indiana Volunteers, drowned at Saluria Ilayou, Texas, 
March TMh, 1S()4. 

Assistant Surgeon S. C. Ferson, 74th Illinois Volunteers, at Varnell, October 7, 1804. 

Surgeon William K. Sadler, l!»th Kentucky Volunteers, shot by a soldier, J^ecember 2d. 18C4. 

Assistant Surgeon A. F. Marsh, 50th Illinois Volunteer.s, lost at sea, on the steamer General 
Lyon, March .'31st, 1805. 

If the above sad mortuary record, proportionately larger than that of any other staff 
corps, is insufficient to correct the popular fallacy that, in time of battle, the post of the 
medical officer is one of comparative safety, that false impression may be removed by the 
following list of medical officers wounded in action : 

Surgeon J. Maucus Rice, 2oth Jlassiidmsi'tts Volunteers, at Roanoke Island. February 7tli, 1S62. 
Acting Assistant Surgeon W. A. Kittkkdge, Fort Fillmore, New Mexico. ,Tune Sotli. 18G2. (Sec Appendix, p. 353.) 
Surgeon A. A. Edmkston, 9'2(1 New York Volunteei-s, at Savage's Station. .Iniie 27tli, 1802. 
Assistant Surgeon G. M. McGilj,, U. S. A., at lieverlv Ford, Virginia, October 22d, 1863. 
Assistiint Surgeon W. M. Notson. U. S. A., .at Gettysburg, .Tuly M. ISO:!. 
Surgeon J. >L Stevknson, 3d Maryland Cavalry, at Ciettysburg. .luly 3d. 1S03. 
Surgeon CllAEi.ES Al.EXAXDEli, 16tli Maine Volunteers, at (iettysburg. .July 2d, ]8()3. 
Assistant Surgeon E. 15. Heckei,, 27tli I'ennsylvania Volunteers, at Gettysburg, ,Iuly 3<1, 1863. 
Assistiuit Surgeon Joseph I). Stewaut, 74th New York Volunteers. Gettysburg, .luly 2d. I8t)3. 
Surgeon F. it. Gross, U. S. V., at Gliicknmanga, September 19th, 1863. '{See Aitendix, p. 270.) 
Surgeon ,T. K. Welst, -Itb Ohio Cavalry, wounded in 186.3. 

Assi.sfant Surgeon A. H. Landis, 35tb Ohio A'olunteers, at Cliickamauga, September lOtli, 1863. 

Surgeon E. A. MehrO'IELD, 44th Illinois Vohniteers. at Cliickamauga, September 19th, 1863, (Sec ArPEKDrx. p. 277.) 
Assistant Surgeon W, H. FoiiWOOD, U. S. A., at Brundy Station. October Sth. 1803. 

Surgeon N. K. DERBY, II. S. V., on Cane River, Louisiana, Ajiril 21st, 18G4. Permanently maimed and pensioiieti 
Assistant Surgeon Robert Fenwick, 14fith New York Volunteers, by a shell fragment, at tlie Wildcriu'ss, May 8th, 1864. 
Surgeon T, E. MrrcilEi,!., at Winchester, May 25th, 18(11, {See .•\pi"'kxi>ix, )>. 230,) 
Assistant .Surgeon W. A. Barry, 98tli Pennsylvjinia Volunteers, Wilderness, May 6th, 1864, 
Assistant Surgeon R, >S. Vickery, 2(1 Michigan Volunteers, Petersburg, July 30th, 1864. Femora] artery ngate<l. 
Assistant Surgeon Isaac Smith, 26th Massachusetts Volunteers, at Opequan, September 19th, 1864. He Js a pensioner. 
(SeeAppExnix. ]i, 226,) 

Surgeon .ToHN T. Scearce, 11th Indiana Volunteers, at Cedar Creek, October 19th, 1864. (See AppExnix, p, 226, 

Assistant Surgeon PRE.STON B. Rose, 5\.h Michigan Volunteers, Hatchei^'s Run, October 27th, 1864 He is a pensioner. 

Assistant Surgeon C, C, V. A. Crawforh, 102d Pentisylvania Volunteers, Petersburg', July 12th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon Thomas Helm. 148th New York Vdlunteers, Petersburg. September, 18i)4. 

Assistant Surgeon Au.sTix Mandevii.i.e. l()9th New York V^iluuteers, Dutidi Gap, .\ugust 13th, 1864. He is a pensioner. 

Assistant .Surgeon D. \V. RiCHAKDs. 145tli Pennsylvania Volunteers, June 2d, 1864, 

Surgeon W. A. Smith. 103<1 New York Volunteers, Suffolk. May 3d, 1863, He is a pensioner. 

Assistant Surgeon Samcbi, B. Shepard, 7th Connecticut Volunteers, captured. Jime 2d, 1864. 

Surgeon Isaac Wai.bcrn, 17th I'ennsylvania Cavalry, at Beverly Ford, June 9th, 1863. 

Assiet.ant Surgeon H. T, Whitmax, .")th Pennsylvania Volunteers, at Bethesda Church, Virginia, May 30th. 1864. 

Assist.ant .Surgeon L, Baijxes, 6th United States Colored Troops, explosion of magazine at ■•"ort Fisher, January 16th, 1865. 

Surgeon M. M, Manly, 2d United States Colored Troops, .at Fort Darling. Virgnnia. May 14th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon G. V, R, Mei.'RILl, 6th United States Colore<l Troops, at Petersburg, June, 1864. 



XXXII INTKODUCTION. 

Acting Assistant Surepou R.VIHT.T, TT. Uooxf, .Tniniarv 17tli. l^T)."). 

Surf.^c(iii .!. 'I'. Sri-.WAEM-. tlltli Illinois VoluntcLi's. Athiiitii. July I'.ltli. 1RGJ. 

Assistant Sm-t.M'(in A. (i. PlcKK.r. "jOtli Illiiidis N'uluntiMTs. at Allatoona, October 5tli, 1^04. 

Snrpeon A. X. DofclllCHiV, IT. .S. V.. Wildcrn.-ss, May Citli, 18()4. 

ARsistant SnriToii Jamv.s Ai.li:\. 8fltli N'l'w Ymk Vulimtopi-s. I'oti'rsbnrir, Srptombcr. 18G4. 

Assistant Sm^'con O. 11. Al>.VMs. f^tli Xfw Ym-k < 'avalry. at Lary's .S|ii-in-s, DfCfinbcr .'Ist, ISfU. (fe Suitr,. IlrST. p. 2.) 

Assistant Siii-f.'c(in J.vcnii ('. R.vni!. 1st l>liii) VdbuitccVs, Waiibatcliiis TonncssiH'. October 29tli, 18t)4. 

Assistant Snrircon .Jci.U's ]!i;av. •i^>t\t Missouri Volinitcors. at Sbiloli, April Otli, lSCt2. 

Assistant Surj.'.-on .rAMi:s liliowx. 4th Tcnncssci' ('avalry. l''i',inklin. 'r<'niipssP(\ September '2'Ai\. 18f)4. 

A.ssistant Surtreoii <i, 1!. ISaii.ky. 'Jtii West \'iri;inia Cavalry, at (Juyandotte, November lOtli, IrfOl. 

Assist.ant Surircon CilAia.i'.s liiNfE, .5'Jtli Illinois Vohnitei'rs, July. 1864. 

Assi-stant Suro-con A. T. C. {.'oN.vr.l!. ittli New York Cavalry. Woi'idville. Virginia, Slay. 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon 1). O. CiMircii. i:itb Pennsylvania Reserves, Freilevickshnrg. December 13tli, 1862. 

Surgeon ,J. \V'. (Irkk.v, tl.")tli Illinois \'obinteers. Spani.sb Fort, Alabama. April 8tb, 1865. 

A.ssistant Surtreon T. Orr.FlI.I. \N. r,'Jtli Massacliuselts \'obnitei>rs. Petersburg. July Ptli. 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon ,JosKi'li (iAUDNKl!. •>M\ K<'ntiicky Volunteers, near Atlanta, August ."jtb, 1864. He is a pensioner. 

A.ssistant Suigeon C. E. (•<nA>>ij\(>}u>\i;ii. Mi .Maiy'laiul Volunteers, Petersburg, August 5th, 1864. 

Acting .Vssislant Sui-geon Pai.I'II C. Hi'sk, .Fanuary Kitli, 1865. 

Assistant Suigeon lA.vi .rKWKTT. 14th Conrieclicut'Volunteers. Keams Station, August 'JS, 18S4. (.S'c-'.Vpr'ENnix, p. 173,) 

Assistant Sin'geon David D. Kk.nnkdv, .">7th Pennsylvania Volunteers, Frederickslmrg, December 13tli, 1862. 

Surgeon ,Iami:s A, MoRiils. 117th \e\v York Volunteers, Foil Fislier. .January Kith, 18ti5. 

Assistant Sin'gcon I^dwin W. Makax.v. ittli Indiana, (Javalry. Sulphur Branch Trestle, Alabama, September 25th, 1864. 

Assist.int Surgeon Thomas L. MoUUA.N". lutli Missouri \'<dunteers. April. 18f)4. 

Assistant Suivcon I'KTi;!! .M. .Mllil'liv. l;!4tli New York Volunteers, Kesaca, (ieorgia. Jfay 15tli, 1864. 

Assistant Suiveon (iKoiicir. A. Mi'XUdi:. 3d liboih' Island Cavalry, on a scout, November 29tli, 1864. 

Surgeon CiiAKi.KS XiavilAfs, iJ'Jtli New York N'olunteers, .si'cond' P.ull Run, August 2'Mh, 18()2. He is a pensioner. 

Surgeon \Vii,i.ia.m I). Nr.WF.r.l.. 'J8th New .Jersey Volunteers. I'rederiidcsburg, December 13th, 1862. 

Surgeon FoWi.Ki; Pi;r..\rici:, 73d New York Volunteers, August, 1864. 

Surgeon lli',.\i:v Root. .")8th X'ew Y'ork Volunteers, May, 18(1:?. 

Surgeon Pi;ii",K F,. .SicKi.KP, 8ili Xew York Cavalry. Petersburg. April, 1805. 

Assistant Siirgi'on (il'.oliCi: R. Sri. i, IVAN, 15tli Xi'W .Jersey Volunteers. Fredericksburg, Jlay 9th, 1863. 

Assistant Surgeon Thomas S. SiANWAV, li>-M Illinois \'<iluiiteers, Nasliville, December 22(1, 1863. 

Siirireon Wii.i.iam P. Tihuston. 1st K'hode Island Artillery. I'airtiix. June 28th, 1862. 

Surgeon Jamks \Vii.sox. IXIth Xew York \'oluntecrs. .Sntt'olk. April 24tli, 1863. 

Surgeon A. A. C. WlI.I.IAMS. Secoml Ciiired Slates Sharpshooters. Cbaucellorsville, M.ay .3d, 1863. 

Surgeon Alivix F. Wur.l.AX, 1st Michigan .sharpshooters. I'etersbiirg, August 3d, 18()4. 

Assistant .Surg-eoii Ciiahi.ks .A. Whkki.hh. 12th Massachusetts Volunteers, Wilderness, May 6th, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeon T. W. C, Wll.l.rAMSox, 24th Indiana Vcduiiteers, Champion Hills, May 16th, 1863. 

Assistant Surgeon .1. S. WA(ii:o.Ni;i!. 84th Pennsylvania Volunteers, in May, 1863. 

Surgeon Joiix Dickson, 111th United States Colored Troops, at Sulphur Branch Trestle, Alabama, September 25th, 1864. 

I had hoped to complete, in this first part of the Surgical History of the War, the 
discussion of the Wounds and Injuries of the Head and Trunk. But the preliminary 
matter that has been included occupies so much space, that it is necessary to reserve many 
of the general observations upon the Injuries of the Head, Spine, and Blood-vessels, and 
the consideration of Wounds and Injuries of the Abdomen and of the Pelvis, and to place 
the latter at the commencement of the succeeding surgical volume. 

GEORGE A. OTIS. 



A. M. M. 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY 



OF 



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CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



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CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



z 

a 

Bi 
Q 

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.6 •" a .2 a 



b 

V 
SO = 



^ C "^ — di ■" 



CI CI "^Z: ^ 

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I- fc- i- u t. 

OJ i, « o i. 
c = c c = 
Qj V V V c< 

tl ■.. I. kl fc. 

o o p p c 



; 3 cj 
i = 2-0 
;"= X a 
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5 s g 
h* — 

S S a 






feiiS - 5 ? 



•^ = i ^- = 

E-S -i-2-s 
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= X o . r — Ss 

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o n 



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m QO 00 CO C* ■«■ ^ 

CI ^ r-H CC CI 



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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LI 



.= » 

c- ^ 

CSS 
cc'Srg 

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<.i . , 

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s_ as 



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t 



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a p . 

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m SB « 



H 

ea 

n 



K -f Cu 
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s e 






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■s -s 



5 S 



g s s 



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B 

e 

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E! 

Si 



LII 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



H 

Ell 

o 

<1 






.a 05 

Op" 



^ =i 






> I 2 

8. « g 



to g- 
a, S5 



""a 

w .-a' 

•5 2 = 

o 



c: > 



§ < 



n-. "1 






3S 



< g 

til 



c 



S CO 





2 


_2 








•a 






:= 


< 


n a 




o 


c: 


V) o 


a 




l- 


s^a 


o 


O 


1^ 


o 



■Saissjn j 



O 

a 

O 



•popnno^*^ 



•psiUH ' 



•Sai^sjiS 



O 

is 
o 

S 

B 



"papanoAV 



■' s 



•P^IIIH 



a 

a 
-t 

CO 

P. 
O 



o 

s 

s 



n 



r-fi 


»> 




'§ 




*5 « 


« 


- F= 


s 


c = 


^ 


rt :s 




^ 




c ^' 


-rJ 






" o 








.-J 


S 



■3 









b 5 



^ i 



s 
E 

o 



■£-- 



a s 



i^ 2 g 5 

= 5 a 0- J « 

"'- -3 5 S -o 

C» CD rH CI 



3 E 



d 



i=> 2 



U K 













M rj 








o 


.ii< 


Si; 




K "' 




as 


SS 


Cj-^i 


« ^ 


9^ 


S ^ 


^Cl 


S o 


H 


fc- 






o -^ 






a 



f- = 



o 

bo 



.13 

a 



Pi 



a 
O 

o 

B 






O ci 



< b a 



t" 0, !a fci 



« CE 



t^ h 




















as 


rt 


tt 


rr. 


^' 






*i 


w 



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X -3 



^. !-. >. 



.£■"= i? 



^.-3 X" A* A* '^ 



ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LIII 



§< 






a 
o 






a« 
o 



O 



1: 

o 
a 

< 
2 



le S 



g = 

2 > 






-*3 



1=^ 

5 2" 



o 



•3 



9 



''in 5 S . 






« I 



i^ i - . 

£ o o o 



a 

o 



a a 
c o 



■-- c •= « 

tc a e- T •- 

•5 S-3". 6 



ill 



lis- 

lllo 






o 









< a 






c = 



8^ 



to o to 



= s 



R -" 



FH W -(f 









5 w 



> i: 



_ 1 
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B S S E 



b - 



t J T-4 






s. 3 o 

^ u; ^ 



J=.= 



«: r-i .-' 



r 




CJ 


S^l 




Ki ji: 


§ 




CD 






O-a 


>, 




k 








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G 

n 


pgcpq 

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c'^ 


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S'^-^-a 




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vs . 






rr 


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■2 






(£ 




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K 




c ".H e 




■H»a. 


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t= 


5^>o 


a 


rSS 


5. 




Cm 


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y 


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|§ = 


A 




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1 
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DBS 
< < -< 



5 " 



j3 5 fi a 
5 (rt (^ .-^ 

3 



3 
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tc 

B 

■0! 



LIV 



CnRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



a 

a 

a 
a 

ft. 
» 

c 
•< 

cc 

» 

a 



IS 






.Si i C 3 .' o » 
^9^^ 7- ^ K 






> 



^1< 

■a I^ o 

2:5 £. 



■5 a 

O 



— .5 .= 



K K 



a 
o 



!»- S § S S = i o 

Soco So 5«>:a 



OS 

o ^ 
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O ^ 



On; 
o ?- > 



o 












O 



c 


^ 


=^ = J ss 




z 


u 2 S S 5 








fc£ 


K 




55 


>~i 


tfS£ g-O 


J5 C 


s 




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a; 


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5 




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5 


p 


_6c 




a r- 1: ■" is 


H 

















' a; 




^. tf £ g c 


if 


ap 


a«£2S.& 












'jjatsstK 



■papunoAt 



•PSIIIH 



'JSaissti^ 



■p9puno^\V *^* 



T»inH 















5^ s. p ■ = 



£ M 'i 



■ o-a 



■3 S.3 



E" 

O 

O 

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p 

B 
O 
"55 



■B ^ 



H ,5 






s . 






1^ 






Q 


i'i 



< 
o 
o 



<: 

Q 



6 



3 S 

5 -^ 



•a 

I i 



3 

a 
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O 



Pi 






03 

3 

o 
O 
to 



S 3 



3 S. 



■a 



3 



(■^ r* QD m c. 

tc ti' ti til tc 

D 3 3 3 3 

< ■»! 1! <1 ■< 



" n -H — 



— 5 ^ 



£5 ~ Si 






s 



tt 

3 






a a 
S 



a 



EKOAGEMEKTS AND nATTLES. 



LV 




LVI 



CHROKOLOGTCAL SUMMARY OF 



CO 

a 
o 

z 



a 

■A 
< 

M 
H 
•< 

a 






ti = -a tx g 

X 2i . £ — 



.5 ^ c c 

— —CO 

c ^ C C 

<, O " c 



c^ = « 



1^"^ 



5 



e 
o 



•Saissire 



— sa -/ ■ ^ 

|- = «| 

*- tc lJ - 

u a _ . o 



-2i E3 o £ 



ci « i ^• 



™ c o -- 






5 o> ^ 



5 ^D^ 



c a 



^ S 



so 

O 



<;-,■ 


J" 5 


^31 


CS !^ 




^ 


■w o 


rt O 


g.^ 


1^ 


K 


o 



o 









fco 



I'M § 



-5 1 



o 






•papanoAV 



•paiUH 



'J9ui85IJC 



o 






•popanoAV 



•pailJH 




H 
O 
■«! 
O 

« 

o 

§ 



(D IT? w" c 



.3 ^ 



e-N 


■H?21E-5- 










S 


^o-^«- 






i 






o 


fee .2 ^ - 


fe 


r:^si2 


a 






yC-^Q « 








Kill 




I. ^ ? ~ 



.^ > -p .2 a 
rt = to V -^ 

o'-S -i 3 2 
Z 5 ." "=> S 



: o = .2 



B •? 



>— O = "" O w 



■cO -n .=■ 












Eh 






** '? 5 c o 53 

E 'n K O, O C 









5 = 






Ld " !2 

55 a 



i-pt 



"-Oh 









<M 


IS 


ga 




o 








§ 


"1" 


■t- ^ 




s^ 


11 




£1 


««s 






>»» 






























■S-3 


>^ ^ 




rtq 


«i^ 


ip-3 






S ti* 


t~- 


rn 


§^ 


cS 


= -= 


P< 


^ o 




>-.^ 


O 


oif 


■sa 


C 


O 


> » 






i 5 


:e O 


-^ s 


o 


'x 


lib 


af 


5 


§3 
■5=0 


S.= a 




"5 


■'T 


w 




5 


■5| 


f:<'?^ 




^ 




C3 


<i 




<: 



S 

o 



'^ 



> 






= y 






a 
S 



K s 






>> fa 



H 

■<■ 
O 



S gi 



yi 


t/i 


be 


^■2 


n 


3 






< 


< 


< 


< "^ 









ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LVII 






-: g, 

> s 



s. 



P^ 






o o 



K Ui 



O >5 





t1 


^.a 


a 


















!^ n 






c 


S-^ 


w 










f^ 


f5 


< 


3 




< 






f; a 





t.9 


c 






bs i 



OB J= O B 5 





"S 










•l§» 




a 














"o 




W 






1^"; 




U 










*- o 




Oft 




> 






o 03 




r-S 




d 






t O (M 




l3 




o 






11 














KgS 




n.2 










-.2 g 










































e 


^^ 


6 


'" 


B 


m 


E = 8 


O 


O 


O 


c 




o 


o 



s s 



00 « Oi TI •<»• 






P3 r-^ tT 



O 



« OD -H « 



>• o 

5 X 



3 W 



^ -^ 



CI ? 

■a S 









^b I 5 o 



5:;; i "^ 5 2 



ii 2 






5 P- 






1^ a <y 



his 



l^lfls 




s 


=-=i"r- 




1 


-ii^i^ 








■^ 


^'^ ==•=■- 




rs 


S S -5 a ?- b ? 


g 
s 




2 


® ." .= in >" i T '' 






3 






-; 















< s 



o 
S5 



S ? 



.a 
n 



b 

s 



b .2 

3 '5) 



I- I I 






§• H 1-1 

EC CC GC 



S S 



5.2 



S 5: <o 













t: 




_d 


s 

B 









n 


!^ 




S 


H 


c 
















tj, 


2 






a 






^ 


3 


& 


ca 
5 


^ 


^ 




A 










« 


■0 


(- 


t- 



b > 



■o »^. 



= fe 



> J 



■I s 



^ p 



a 
S 
m 



o *- a 



a 






U2 CC CC U2 



CO CO tc 



O CI CI 



CO EC CC CQ 



bo 

QQ 



§•3 



•a 



LVTII 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



Bi 



O 
S3 
■«! 
m 

PS 





i^ X i 3 






S,b-"'i' 










^3 =z:-^ 




aj 


<7.-= c-3 












.:::u- S rt-3 




P 


C__^ ^ :ii 










^ 


c-H^i-:^ 


■tS 


ca 


=« Si's > 


■ ^ 


7^ 


^;^..5 i^ • 






R-==-3^'^ 


H 


© 


6 = -2 i 5 iJ 


■-s 


o 


!<_:^-bo 






- s = =».•-■ = 










'rt" 




'r! 


*<) 


=^ki:jj 


O 



!i :£ < .;e J t:d i = 



S .s > s 



■I 



i-^iiiiii:iy 

P :i n ^5 < ■-■- ~ ° ■^ B " •? 



■2 si 

~ 3 









"' ^ a 

fc£i= 



="11^1^5^11? PI 



o-^ 



■O oJ y = ■ 
c: . - u _" S 



~ =f i -^ J 




O 

c 

Eh 

O 

is 







^ o ~ 3 


33 




^-53 












i-^is 


^ 










>; C2=2a 












1-5=^^ 


c 


aJ 






















„ 


o 


— - 4. (U 



oj •;:: 



t^-5' 

SSJ.5: 



la = 



tw " ^ : 



; .i; ^ .^ 3 >. 









5 S'S S n 



^ z 



S S -J 2 = S 

7; o :3 . s t: = 



I 3 

is 



a (2 " 



E-i 

>-* 

< 
o 

O 



EJ3 






g 



X! 2 



»:= .2 



i4 ■=■ 
3 .2 

o 5 






be 



i-i — o >-<o 

-.1 CI 



CC tD tH 



EKGAGEMENT3 AND BATTLES. 



LIX 



■a 



■"• c =-3 
t. t :: o 



o: c - 2 
si £.3 



a a 
o o 



K K 






~v. t 



o ■! 






O « K 



O 13 « 



.= ■--: 



o 



I .£ C S O 



V5 H.Sn 

< __ tH 3 

xt 2.;3 
12 SO 

o 



CIQD 

ctar 



o c* w 



•a 



E 



fc: l£ 



e s 



3 5 -S 5 















s S 

K 5 



<.3'Ha 

5 o 



4* ■; s 









Ci w 



S5 















r^ T-, P 



o 


"S 


c 


c 






it 




% 


bp 


3 




n 


< 


B 


x; 



« C- o ^ 



c '^ si:* 

o c — 

£ c f^ J 






■<x 



H 51 



^ u: 



s- 3 3 
s o a 
C S « 



i £f 



c a 
S & 



13 3 



3 a 



CI CJ Ci 



O O O O 



LX 



CnRONOLOQICAL SUMMARY OF 



H 






u 






S5 




i 


H 






» 




d 


W 




"* 


b 




*; 


H 




^ 


« 




s 


a 




s 


2 




,- 


< 




"^ 


an 


ti 


5 


b: 


s 




■< 




■0 

< 


u 


$ 


*^ ~ 


« 


g. 


??. 






&£- 




v; 





•-» C C ^ rz . 



V. *- a; -c -^ 



3 



1^ 



tJ 



U — i; 



ill" 



i. •=. = 



*' ^ 



■^ a ;= 






■*"i"!re 



•papiMi.iw 



•|'-'1I!M 



•aiii»«in 



•popuno.w 



■patliH 






•Ji S 

I i 



1^ I 

^ Cm "J 





r- 


, - 3 




,; 






^ 






• 


o 




^ 


V: = 






> 










^ 


> 




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LXI 



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LXII 



CHROKOLOGTCAL SUMMARY OF 





REMARKS AND REFERENCES. 


Official. 

Official Report of Major General J. G. Foster, 
commanding. Also c.dled Little Creek. 

Report of Adjutant General of Indiana, Vol. II, 
page 21)8. 

Official. 

Official, 

Oluoial Report of Major General McClellan. 

Official. Also called .Markham. 

Offici.il. 

Official Rei.ort of Brigadier General James S. 

Ncgley, commanding. 

Rebellion Record, Vol. VI, pago 12. 

Offloial. 

Rebellion Record, Vol. VI, page 12. 

Report of Adjutant General of Illinois, Vol. Ill, 
page i)G. Also called La Grange. 

Rebellion Record. Vol, VI, Doc. 39, page 189. 
Also known as Cold Water. 

Official Report of Captain Ulric Dahlgren. 

Official Report of Brigadier General B. P. Kelley. 
Also called South Tork, Potomac. 

Robellion Record, Vol. VI, pago 14. 

Robellion Record, Vol, VI, page 14, 

Newspaper report. Also known as Bachelor's 
Creek. 

Report of Adjutant General of Kentucky. Also 
designated La G range. 




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Cavnlry advance of the Army of the Potomac, com- 
manded by General Pleasonton. 

'24th and 44th Massachusetts and 9th New Jersey Vol- 
unteers, and New York and Marine Batteries, 

Union punboats Kinsman. Estello. St. Mary, Calhoun, 
and Diana, and i.'Ut Jndiaua Volunteers. 

5lh and Cth Missouri C:ivalry 


Cavalry Biigadc, advance of the Army of the Potomac, 
commanded by General Averill. 

Cavalry Brigade, Army of the Potomac, commanded 
by General Ple.isonton. 

8th Kentucky Cavalrv 


Cavalry Biig;.de. advance of the Army of the Potomac, 
commanded by Goneral Bayard. 

Itth and 51st Illinois, fiilth Ohio.Hlh Michigan, and 78th 
Pennsylvania Volimteors, and jtli Tennessee and 7th 
Pennsylvania Cavalry. 

Captain Ambrose Powell's command 


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Cavalry Brigade, Army of tho Potomac, commanded 
by liencral Bayurd. 

7th Kansas and 2d Iowa Cavalrv 


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1st New Y'ork, Ringgohl, and Washington Cavalry, and 
23a Illinois Volunteers. 

14th Kentucky Cavalrv 




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lina. 

Bayou Techo (14 miles from Brashear 
City), Louisiana. 

llarrisonville, Cass County, Missouri 

Lamar, Missouri 


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Barbce's Cress Roads and Chester Gap, 
A'irginia. 

Greenville Road, Kentucky 


New Baltimore, Ttalem, and Thorough- 
fare tjaj), Virginia. 

Nashville, Tennessee 

Loatherwood. Kentucky 


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Rhea's Mills, Arkansas 

Big Beiiver Creek, Missouri 


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Perry County, near Kentucky River, 
Kentucky. 

Huntsville, Tennessee 


New Berne, North Carolina 

Lebanon, Tennessee 








Nov. 3d... 

Nov. nd... 

Nov. 3d... 

Nov. 3d... 
Nov. 5th... 
Nov. 5th... 

Nov. 5th... 

Nov. 5th... 
Nov.,™!... 

Nov. 5th . . . 

Nov.Glh... 
Nov. Clh... 
Nov. 7th... 
Nov. 7th... 
Nov. 7th... 

Nov. 8th... 

Nov. 8th... 

Nov. 9th-.. 

Nov.iUh... 

Nov. 9th... 

Nov. lllh.. 
Nov. lith.. 

Nov. nth.. 





ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXIII 






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ENOAGEMENTS AND BATTLES 



LXVII 









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LXVIII 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 




ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXIX 



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LXX 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



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CI 51 ff* FH O '.H 



a 
a 

o 

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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXXI 



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CCS 

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<2 



LXXTI 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 






CO 

H 
O 

» 

&< 

SI 

g 

as 
Ui 



o 








c 


iJ 






■J 





a 
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fctc 

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1 



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a 




«; 


u 


u 


c 


p 


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o 
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D 



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•painH 



§ 



o 

c 
« 

p 



SS o 

n 5- "^ 
<u c t. 

o ga 

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=* ° ^ 

g c B (£ 

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s - = s 

■^ Z 5 ^ 






ci -' <y ^ 






-2-33 



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o 
O 



;; 



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2-5 •0 



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rt 
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s 


bi 












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Xi 
















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111 

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s s s 



M 


hr 










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> 


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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



LXXIII 






I 

iff 

"S 
r 



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c n 



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o-55sil~l|g.a£|1 



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Q 








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te is a^ 


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o, 51st 
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Indian 


= S 


alls 


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li^'H 


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H S 






nr 


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LXXIV 



CIIROXOLOOICAL SUMMARY OF 



3-4 2 £ i =-i = =■ ""S 



o 
as 

H 

a. 
cs 
Q 
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"2 S i - ■? 5 s. >.". s ? i = .5 5 s I s 5 



l.ii~l^A I'&ia^^j 



■" x .i 



'~ (Ti — j; I- 
1-* . ~. ^t 



< nr = 



liZ"'^'^~' S .- '■'^ w 'x ^ = - f- 1 ? = ~ ^ 



=3 _ ^ ■— ., 






- Si it 






■5 c — . 



o S- S 
a 5 5 ^ 



3 ti 



" 



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o 



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fi m 



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O 
u 
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CO 

c 
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"C £ ^ ^ 

3 aCa 






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tor 



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e 

a 
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3 

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3 s 



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b ii 



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Ed '.Jl OQ ^ 

3 d CS K 

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5 - - S 

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;^ S S ^ S !i^ 



ENOAQEMEKTS AND BATTLES. 



LXXV 



o 



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5 - or; 

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fr. ^- 2 « 0) 






r"?.? 



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c X r; 7 IB 



„ *- "S « Q) c3 

— S o = = 3 

B S c — - •;; 

" .s .= to E 

ec = - P.." X 
„-=<" = 

"c » S S' 2 

b 'i - — fee 

i. c w :^ "^ .p 
CO ^—1: 

fs;s .-jcj^ 



■i 






O GO o 



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tl. 

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s o 



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5 5 5j: 

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LXXVT 



CIIRONOLOQKiAL SUMMARY OF 



o 

a 

!?: 
o 
w 



o 

o 
p 



u 

Q 
< 

CO 

a 



■•, s = 



1 =x = 



: p c "5 cr _- i -s 
K rS 5 '= = f' -i ~ S ■■§ I = ° 



^ o 






'. 2-^^' 



•Saiasij^i 



•papanoAV 



•p»iira 



= i tt ..= S i s = 5.=,-= o^ X 

'^■'s~ s •= * = ? s ^ ■* •-« it"! .2 

3 5 '-' :; "9 'f-.s ^ i £ 2- 'S i «' 3 

O 



S Q 



0-3 

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SZi 
H 

h 
O 

§ 

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3 
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o 
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£ 5 o = : 



:.se 



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'"°-J 



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S £ 



'-^ O -S 2 "" l-.T a. 
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EC' 
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= o 



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V QJ 




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ENGAGEMENTS AND J5ATTLER. 



LXXVII 



o o 



f Q u 
^ = O 



§•-.5 c 

C^ « 
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S "' .E g 

15 at 'S 
I* C r« 

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^ 2 ^ =5 

* O o tfi 
Cm c 

r:: i: != o 



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C c c i 5 - 






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o 



C3 ^ 

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W V, O ^ r- 

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ui c c <u n 

C3 S C J2 O 

£ o -^ 5 I 

S £ S J3 i= 

"^' ii - o 5 

'■> ™ = '-^ "^ _ 

- C C »- j; "^ 



? 5_; 

■c.i i; = 
pis ^ 

£ C3 OJ 

- .a.s 



'- i - b 

1 - E - ."^ 

■^ & a:- -5 ja 

on -gin 

55h 0.0 



< < 



a t. 
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6 

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JO" «3 "^ g 

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Ct 



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Pi 



■c 



55 



Ea 
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85 



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C 7i 

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gS-s-Sc 

li a o r- o 
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t^ -^ .fl ^j « 

>■" = If 

- •= «- s 2 
c- ^ o 

= £ S a"_ 
^ 5 ■£ = S 
M S 3 * 2i 
_ 5 "o -r S 



^ o 



c « 



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i (SCO 



ou cs 
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£ a ci 'S 

s.. i = K 
^ •- - 

— js'E'^ 
t -^ .^ ^ 

« fr. J. ^ . ■ 

S ■ a c " 13 — 
"o K ^ « "^ "^ 

o 5 o S 5 S 

(£j ^ J C 41 o 






= £'3 ■= 

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3 =•= 13 

x*- - o 

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LXXVIII 



CnROIs'OLOQICAL SUMMARY OP 



O 
'A 

BS 

Q 
65 

< 

s: 
<! 



s 






























n 






























1 










g . 










s® 


« 








2=i 


n 








SaJ 


(U 




« 














c-s 










t.hJ 














V 




.Si ^ 











n 






5 
























r. 

0- i* 






=4-1 






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K 




? 


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P-'O 


















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■- 




'S 


td 


€ 


H= 






•^ 


c 





\^ 



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•J^ixjsstjij 



■poi>mio^\Y 



■paillH 



Q 

E£l 
O 

c 
o 

P5 
H 

!?! 
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'D ^-r -^ 

^ S S ^ = ■= 



-Eta . c3 

.iS X «= 1^ 



'"','5 o 

1 .11 

gS'S 

"So 
?'-^ , 



g & 3 



r^ ? .* = ^ 

^•"^ Ui. 1., 






ss 'Si 





00 


Sh 


!>. 


H 


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c ctj "^ 

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IB ^ 



Q ■ I-: ^ ^ 
o ;j i^ o 






fi w af "S &* 
3 i.agK 






"C r-. (^ 






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■ §3 





r, 


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£-3 a g 



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r; C3 S 

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t3.SO 
S =3 ;., 

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o 

S 
o 

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E- I 



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EKGAGEMKKTS AJvD BATTl.ES. 



LXXIX 



EC 
"A 



a 



« 3 



o 



a a 



t6 



C J 



c 



o 



C^ 




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r- tc 




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S o 


O 


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S ? 2 d" . 


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5 a -S -J 3 


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c * c 22 c 




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t. p 



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c 
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1st Maine, 2d, 4th, and 10th New York, 4th and ICth 
Pennsylvania, and Bth Ohio Cavahy. 

9th Illinois Mounted Infantry and 5th Ohio Cavalry 


1* 

c 
C 

c 
.S: 
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a 

a 
V 

c. 

c 
c 
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t. 
r 
t* 

C 
0: 

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<L 
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5 

a 

c 
c 

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a 

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Delaohments of the fith and 7th Illinois and 2d Khode 
Island Cavalry, TiSd Massachusetts Votuuteers, and 
a section of artillery, 

Stb Ohio. 2d Illinois nnd Isf Miaannri Pnt-nlrrr 


Detachments of the 23d Connecticut, ITfith Now York, 
2tith, 42d, and 47tl; Massachusetts, and 21st Indiana 
Volunteers, coinninndcd by Colonel A. Stickney, 
47th Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Cfivfilrv Corns. Armv of tli*> Potrtmne. _ _ _ . _ 


■» 


Portions of three companies of the 4th Iowa Cavalry, 
commanded by Major Parkell. 


b 

c 
is 

t 
c 
c: 

I' 

c 



c 
a; 

1 




vance of Major General Uosecrans's army. 

17th and 72d Indiana. 123<1 and !)8th Illinois Mounted 
Infantry, and IPth Indiana Battery, Wildt-r's Brig- 
ade. — advance of the Fourteenth Corps, Major Gen, 
G. H. Thomas. 

12th Pennsylvania Cavalry 

Five companies of the 9th Connecticut Volunteers 

Twentieth Corps, Major General A. McD. McCook, of 
the Army of the Cumberhuid. 


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CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



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REMARKS AND REFERENCES. 


Report of Adjutant General of MasBachusetts, 1863, 
page 935. 

Unofficial. 

Unofficial. 

Report of Adjutant General of Kentucky, Vol. II, 
page 4;25. 

Official Rejiorf of Major General Rosecrans. 

Oltlcinl Reports of M.ajor General Banks, U. .S. A., 
and (ieneral lireene, C. S. A. Report of Adju- 
tant General of Maine, 18G3, page 104. 

See Vicksburg, May 28th. 

UnofHcinl. 


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Casualty List, .S. G. 0. OfScial Report of Major 

General Meade. 




Official reports, Union and Confcdorate. Appendix 
to Part I, Mertical and Surgical History of tlie 
War, pafre 14U. Casualty List, S. (1. O. In- 
cludes the cavalry skirmish at Hunterstown. 
Among- the casualties in the national lumy were 
Major (ieneral John F. Kej'nolds, IJiif^". (ionerals 
.Stephen H. Weed. Kosciusko Zook, and Eion J, 
Farnsworth, killed; Major (ienerals IJ. E. Sick- 
les and \y. S. Hancock, and Brigadier (ienerals 
Paul, T. A. Kowley, J. Gibbons, and F. V. Har- 
low, wounded. In the Confederate army. Major 
(Ieneral Pender, liri<radier (ienerals 11. IJ. (iiir- 
nett, W. Barksdale. and Seninies. killed: Major 
Generals Hood, Trimble, and Heth, and Hri«-- 
adier (ienerals Keinpor, Scales, (!. T, Anderson. 
Hampton, J. M. Jones, Jenkins, Petti^rew, and 
Posey, wounded. 


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LXXXVIII 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



REMARKS AND REFERENCES. 


Rejwrt of Adjutant General of Michigan, ^1863. 
Also called Haguewood l*rairie. 

Keports of the Adjutant Generals of Iowa and In- 
diana. 

Official. 

Report of Adjutant General of Kentucky, Vol. II, 
paj^'o 9(1. 

Report of .\djutuut General of Wisconsin, 18C5, 
page Odll. 

Report of Adjutant General of Tennessee, 18CC, 
page 98. 

Unofficial. 

Report of Adjutant General of Missouri, l!^G5, 

Report of Adjutant General of Micliigau, 1863, 
page 97. Confederate official reports. 

Ohio in the War, Vol. 2, page 55t^. 

Official. 

Itepi.rt of Adjutant General of Iowa, 1864, p. 993. 

Official report!*. The prisoners were robbed and 
niurdercil by the rebels, who were coninianded 
\iy (^uantrell. 


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CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



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EKQAQEMEKTS AND BATTLES. 



XCVII 



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XCVIII 



CHROKOLOOICAL SUMMARY OF 



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Piltenant General U. S. G rant 
G. 0. Appendix to Pan I 
rail History of the War, p. 141) 
ties in the Union army were 
s James S. Wadsworth, Alex 
ebb, killed, and lirig. Generals 
, wounded ; in the ConCeder 
Is J. M. Jones and Pickett 
lis I.ongstreet, Pegraiu, Staf 
enoings, wounded. 


at Tunnel Hill, Mil 
t, Snake Creek (iap 
Report of Major Gen 
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REFERENCES. 


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CSEONOLOQICAL SUMMARY OP 






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sa i 



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H-: 


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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



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o 
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K.5 


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CXIV 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



03 
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a 
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c to 


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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



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CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



rxvii 







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c I-* e ■* £ 

t; 0^22 2 

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g y :.> s o • 



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g a ■= !: ^ 

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S .t c 2 _ 

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CHRONOLOaiCAL STJMMAEY OF 







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Is 








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ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXIX 



= c-° a c 3 

- ^ C G M 



o 
6 



s s 



fc 
>4 







o 



a 
o 



O 6. 



^ ^ f— ;r ^ "■ 

c -r y ^ E « ? 
• £ S 4 1 o I = 

4i 1^ i""? E g-ci 

- -e a S = g £ ' 
S c = «Sb 21 

•5 C g 2 TJ g 1 



o — 
P<3 



3 

D 



OS 



o 
6 



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« *..- 



.= bo 

@ EX 

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^^d 


so 


= --: 


■30 


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E.1S 


e-2 


£3 


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S 2 



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"•0" = ■ej' 

ost;&? 



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1? 


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M C 


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fct = 


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5« 


5§o 


5= 



CO C3 

go 

c 5 



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•a -t: ' 

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t» s 



a 



go 






^ = r. 



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i:; o 



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31 



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eq 


X 


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3 2 3 P 



to ho 

=: 3 
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'S-2 



it 



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cxx 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



a 

o 

55 
» 

H 
&. 
H 
IS 

Q 

< 
M 
















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hJ 






=11 


Z.O 


5 














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t: 
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as 


















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Crt^'Aj 




1 


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to 

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15 



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= £ 0) 


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K 


J3 


cc 






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t*- = ^- = 


>> 


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o 




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"d 


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3 




ci 


;3 


C3 


OS 


< i=S 



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■P911!H 



'ijaissij^ 



•popanoAV 



psina: 



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to "c ^ »r 
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EKGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES, 



CXXI 






S-a 
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b£-- 












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1-— 


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to 

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ml 

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i:- K at i o 



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t. 


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■E "^ > .s ^a 



r J* a -^ 



■■61'' £3 






ja «'C. 



«£ = 



S< £. 



£ - a,;, J, 



- k. p a 



•2 C 



s: c-.-so 

— — — ' S ti 

" ?-=,;§ 

c a C c i; 

,c ^_, o a "3 

1 1-? ■it 

"c a ^ -^ f^ 

•0 



•r r- « 



^ c 



5 a 



Ui £ 



O » 



fH O 



:3 ^ 



la o 






■c 

o 
P4 



b 

a 
B 



<— /^ 



CXXVIII 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 






o 



^ ?^ . _r 



a 
la 

<; 



.- ? £ 2 



tH 






.E i; . . ? 










^, s 


J 




^^"Bg 


W-=S 


O 


'c 




r J- 


t: 


ti 


■Et-iS? 



^ . p:; p^ 



P= "^ -■' ^ S "2= 



o 






I o ^ .— ~ - 



'JSUISSIJ^ 2 



•popanoAV 



e a 



«£ ^ 7^ < ec g y 
O O 



c 



•pains 



"JdlllBSJI^ 



o 

j5 •[>.)puii().vv 

O ' 

2 
s 

•P»U!H 



a 
pa 
o 
-<! 



o 
c 

o 



SI S i: t: • 

e => oS - 

a *^ ?: « 

— ^ ^ O 

« « ™ _. p 

.-^ -- 00 =j 

5 a-'- I -g 



."5-3 " 






_ S -0 





C T. S-Z 


w 


S -% ■= 5 


Q 




--1 






C cS <a 







f S i >> 




^■>.3-^ 


V. 


= -.5'a 


< 






-=^•3^1 


-" 


""3 E a 












5Sb| 









t;;c rt u 








■= ". = s 




Sir's 


"?? 






O k. C3 .fr 
"— Jc J- g 

5 o c 3 



I III- 2 



.•i K (1, <: 



1^ 



s '£ 



if c;-* 



ta g .2-. s c3 
"a 



(H cS L< 

Si t, 

= 2. 



C N a' 



£■="1 

Eh 






O 5 



a . 



a 



^23 



^ H 



ti -^ 



g 
5 






c 



< 



e S 



o ^ 



ca 
O 






* t; 5 



■S a 5 s S 
■i - E S " 



to sa : 
"3 - = 












K 


3 


S 


IS 




« 


rt 


a 


5: 


-s 


a 


<u 


fc 


0) 


S 




fc< 




















?; 


tM 


a 


Eb 


s 


M 


s 


H^ 


!«=i 




^ 


JZ 


J 


_: 


^ 


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j= 








































C/ 




c* 




'71 


CO 







ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXXIX 



S 



I 

a 

B 
o 

u 



1 

* . 



2 ji 



3 



c 
6 



e 
I 



a 
o 



E 
C 



S, 
« 
■3 

e 
o 






g. 
2 

o 

S 
O 



® -J lis 

1^ ^^1 



E 3 






g 


Im 








U 






■S 


n 






3 






r 


*c 3 


K 




'5 


fcj 


P3 


O 



5 <; 



B J" 

1 = 



CO 






o 






5: s 



w c» o 



£ • I 

•f I ^ 

EH ^ i^ 

4) aC rr "C 

* >» "^ ^ 



b-S I 






-=> r3 






> a 

eC = . 

'»■ Q to 

gi^ 

.2 c "" 
>. c3 O 

Sis' 

•§25 
.Hi's o 



e-d 

. a 






Si c 



pS ^ 



b 



= i5 









Ul 



J 
S 






oa 



» »- ^ 









S|3 






6. > 

a 



"3 

3's 



X 



5 = 
'C 5 



"•^.2 



O 3" 









OSS 



r a 2 u 






. . . 0) 

• . • ■ in . 

■ ® i ! S 

o • a» a 09 

3 S • o = '5 



o 

o 



I 



i! H 



.t V 



« b 



I 



n 



o 
5 



■K 

o 



^1 

c bo 



o 

o 



'.i^ o 



« O 



* . 5 • 



la" 



5^3 t! 



is K" 



is is 



17* 



ex XX 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



50 

o 

fi 



a 

< 

a 

S 






^ o _ 
■— -^ o 



£-1 



•auis«iiv 



o 



Q ; -pspanoAV 



o o 



o o 






a ». 
o o 






II 

I a 
S-2 

O 



Si 


?: 


g 






'4'4i<^t^k-^^ 


S 


<3 


K 
2 


H 

c 






s^i-^S -15 = 1 

-.= ^•1 -III 1 = 1 




.¥ 
■J. 




111 

m 




C 






•g5iS£;KSfe;S3 


< 


g 

0) 




"3 






d 

d 


en 


iJ 


e« 






c^'s.ii g'^-^^lij 


x 




o 




o 




-/.s-e-; "p:'" « «s" 


E 


N5 


c 








.'s.^s « - i 1 .; = '-^ » 




«ss 


ps< 


C^ 


s 




i-l-^^^S-.s-itel 


t^> 




1^ 


"5 
FF! 


^« 


"5 




"3 = 


o 


O 


O 




O 





Q 



Si 



•P»[I!H 



•SinsgjiS 



■p^punn^V 



iPsinH r 



H 

o 

HI 

. o 

s 

o 

B 



£ 5 
%-5 



I'll 

£>•= = 



>■ o 










£i:l 



e '5- 






= 2 
= 5 S 






£ i5 



a, 



r c- 



«d 
|o 

t. - 5 « 

- - go 



fe 
« 
X 






•r .^ a 

ca-S 2. 

= 12 ■" . 



6 S 



§•3 
'■J 



6 » 
< g 












£U1 






O = 



»- t- >, 

oS-3 

1 5 -2 



O 5 tfH3 

o o o ■" "**'- 

•? '3 ■S'5 = = 



•^^ ,::; < 3 



O =3 g 
t = S g 



13 -O O j3 
c3 A V 



— ? P 



•3 s2 1~ 2 



S 
•< 
o 
o 



5 

g 



M 3 



S 



ff 
? 



® ^ 



s I >; 5 



^ E- 



02 S 



tt-j 



to 

3 






I 






s 



F- 
1; 





^ 




■^ 








fr 




-^ 




5* 










> 


,=? 


>'3 


> 


> 


> 


> 
















z 




z 




i5 


la 


^: 


i5 



.s 



8 

I 



ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXXXI 



6^* 



c 








-= ^.2 




^ =-) 




■g=^>> 






g £ a 

g = s 




C- a 




^S-^ 


Q 






S £" 


c 


«S#^ 






tc 


r:"?p 






.2 


i'.^ 


hJ 


&i. i.- 




«o2 


e3 




S 


O 


o 



g 



5 fff J; 

tf ^ .s, 

't- "o .* 

B5 > S 



a 
o 



SI'S (v; 

o 



o o 



e 

o 



o =3 



o 






-'^ o 

3 O © y 

"E.£r=-3 

rt j- n 75 

o 



C 

c 



o 
d 



^11 






o 
d 

a:' 



? 






c .° a) c^ 



C 3 



E-l!-l 



££5 






Q s « o ' " 
5 5 M ■« < i 



"St 

II 

I a 

^< 



5 c £ F S 
p V-":; o 

o' j3 - a 
■o - S z-n 
> " 5 



c — <- : 



a' 3 -3 b s 






u -C. -^ c: 







S 


C^ t; ■= A 






,•- ,5r ■- t: « 


p 


|i3§s£ 


E- 


CI 



•t't 

is ^ 



2„a 



ill 



C'> S 

•So.:-!, 

e! « -' ^ 









-3 u 






•f-2 



c 

. s 
- o 

■fcs 



.S ** 



;5;:p isj 



5 ^a 



Q.2 









Si 5 

P o o 



S Fe 



be 



3 
O 



c J 
55 0) 






H O « 



•i ^ 



is w 



tc 

O 






>5 O 



^ . £ 



So 

Q 



C 3 
« 31 
P 



^ W 



a O Q 



^- J3 3S5 



§2 

C 



p 



p p 



is 
c 



00^ 



p = p 



CXXXII 



CHKONOLOGICAL STJMMAKY OF 



H 




U 




'A 




ta 




ai 




w 




fc. - 




u 




cs 




Q 




1^ 




•< 


o 


CO 


n 


bii 




PS 


^ 


< 


*j- 


S 


'hJ 


P< 


i^ 



,S o 



p 

d 



2-b ■ 



I S-- 







§ 


2if'3 
























5= 5 « 










»y 




^0 


%r 


4; 




2 


T0. 










tM 




tr) 


=-& 


,jj 


J 




■c^ 5 










c- 


£ 


r2 


Kl 


fc 


a 


_C 


1^5 



■-J3 

— ' ^ IS 






c -2 " 

^ s a 

p c ^ 

^<; 5 



to 



i= "c C ^' g 



■? " o ■? 



r= 32 


^M 


^ CJ 




















.£-1 







ST 


.^ t3 




K 


" i^ 












i5 




13 


12 









A 

H 


i3 


tr^i!^ 




S 


p|:5i 








Q 



a 





C? 




S«-»E^. 






_ fcc 5 £ "^ 












t: 












s 


fficial 1? 
dix TO 

Also de 
Lieutei 
Kullier 





u 






•Suisstp[ 



•paponoM 



•Satssjn 



*papatio_\V 



•paillH 



Cl Cl C( 



Q 




H 









<l 


ci 







!!5 




H 







„ 


b 


2 







C 




tf 




H 


3 


S! 


-^ 











i5 


■:3 




iJ 




— 












^^M 



o 
o 



-a «« V 



a •-< 



*= u 



F 


■H< 


<1 


>^ 




^ 





1 






g . 


a .2 



it 




11 


03 


■ca 




^0 


S« 


e-A 



'I 

6 



C ^ 4) Qj J- S 

= ^SO a> 
■r I w f- . «M 

£^ - 5.0:2 I 

0^ Hi ~ S '^' -' S 

c : c r. •= "r ^ 

o ^ 5j is "^ Q i 

? --: aS P ^ >.2 



£ 

o 



S ffi 



3 a: ^ .-e '^ 

3 " _ "^^ ~ kj 

F* «H "^ " V «^ "3 
o .i,3 c I £ g 

ja a ^ g: S H; o 
£ W3 ^ '^ >, t- 






£ s 

o !y 
EO 
< 1 

■J3 to 

Z. to 

= 3 



E = 

1 2 












s 5 « 

N "-I X! 

g=^ 






.2 ^ „ 



^ t_ ^ =3 






E .5 



o-i-s^j g 



o . 

15 

fc- .• o 
O >i . 

■5'S ? 
a.' ^ 



S O ^ 



» o I T 

'^ " c c 
"" o o 

■ o 3; g p H 
S « £ feS 

si. -as 

^ = S bJS 
-^'E-' & =c i^ 
I - .2 a -1= 

«*-£•=•? 

'OC O « 3: ^ 



I 



I 



a 



Go a 



£2 
a 



a a 



10 r-i i;o 

<-< r-l 

a a o 



ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



CXXXIII 



■- o 




fa 


K 


o'5 
OS 




r" 
















c 




• a 




o 




.02 


d 


O 

S 


E a 


«- M 


c 


s 


II 










-c 


^1 


«| 


1^ 


c^ 




.^■a 




c:! 


















&.:;: 


ca '^ 


'i 


SS 


^.s 


u 


o 


o 


H 



io 






c . 






£3 






^•» 






?g 


«• 




'C 3 


c 


« 


= ■3 


a 


H 




















■E.-^ 


H 


H 


e'^ 






R 


pi 








3i> 




c 
u 



g .s 



Sli 

"d — ■*^ 

c . 
BOX. 



Wii 



•3 a 

ca'fl 
•S g 

o 



•p 


O 








O 








rr 










i^ 


.£ 


01 


hJ 


K 





.-a a) 

.Si £ " 

.so a 



K 

n 
2 



o o 



s 
o 



< . 






« £ O . 



■c 
3 



1 

to 

g 

o 



2. 



o o 



Kg « 

-el I 

r- t C 

►-^ = 

8>a . 6 

A .'S 5" 

« tia S 

lid I 



.H O 



«1 --> j^ 



*; c3 \^ 



=3 Ph 



O 3 





Q 


aO 














o 


t^ 



> g "J 
Si & 





o 
5» 


O 

O 

1 

.a 
H 


2 
a 

Q 

O 






d 




K 3 

la 


^•:: 


0-3 




o 




!3 


c 


^ 


-•3 


11 

•so 






•3 




Q 


P 


1 


s 


o 


t< 


o 


O 




c^ 




s 



B 






5-2 



'I 

j= a 






= =a 
E." ■ 

c o . 
".= » 

1^2 



I Q 



•eS 









1 3 

c o 



CS Q 






o 



IS « H 



£.f| 

■■ii5x 



=■=1 

kK e 



c c O' 
t. . S 



£ 'E •£^'^ 11^ 



■s 






g 



a £ 



■a 






1^ 



■3 < 

»*5 !■ 



g- s 






i 



n Q 



o 2 



Q Q a 



Q a a 



O Q * C 



CXXXIV 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY Ot 






o S 

© c 






■2 = 1 2 
U -3 CJ 



O '^ :^ 



>. 



O 3 



*J9aiS3T}^ 



S 5 S 

o 



< 2 

'c Sj 

c a 
P3 









3^.2 






g 










5— "C 






s 




iH 






^^'3 . 






^ 




















e 

C 
.5? 


d 


o 

■X) 




S 


c 


i 










i 


o 


c 


^ 


.1 








.2. 


t. 

V 

'•i^ 


.2, 


K^ 


"o 




iT 




V- 


a 


cd 


■5 




3 

s 

^ 


if 




1 


'Z 




ci 
















.s 


'S 


o 


a a = — 


.2 


5 


.3 >. 


'S 


in 


ftd 


.a 


SgO-/ o 


sa 




e a 


^ 


O 


o 


O 


O 


o 


U 


o 


o 



22 


lA 


t^ 


1 


<■• 


'^^s 
















^' 


■^ a^:= 


t,-) 


p 






O 

c 

i 










^ ^ 


C2 


^S3 


*- ~ 


^ 


K &V. 














t: « 




.i«:'S 


■— .^ 


a 


£fli 






o o 



•popano^ 



•pailiH 



'SUTSSIJ^ 



■papanOjW 



■pnim 



a 
» 

a 
■< 
c 

H 
03 

o 

o 






o 

o 



SS 



03 o 



o 3 

" .3 






cs c= ■:: 






.a a 



^ o 






i i^ 



E O 



■i § 



> 


s 


o 


C3 


;^ 


s 










r) 


s 


O 


«^ 




>» 

^ 


O 


^ 


c 
c 


:S 


■t^ 


^ 


-d 


>i 


^ 


B 


-3 


> 


O 




-c 


CJ 


fi 


is 


e: 








(T" 


c: 


m 


o 


^ 


- 




O 




















a 




V 






£ 








-fl 
















-4 


^ 







•5 " = 



I •^^a^ 



.g U -^ _ c -= 



— - © 

•a 



=5= ^ 
© £ a 
a — 5 



c 

o 
&5 



a ^ 
? a 
tf a 



£ a 
ha 






- s © 



e g 






§g £• 

t' © 
© - © 

a. — ^ 

-E-g S 
a< gl 



■§, £ -^ .2 

<i 0) 3. >. 

£■2=1 b 



1 iSg a; 






K a 



t; 

o 
!5 

E 



■& w s 



S a ;■= 



c-.g 

M — 

b3 






a c 



.a J3 -r - 



-=2 



ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



cxxxv 



III 

5s ^ 



asf5 
£■5^0 

III*. 

— a s H 
■*j - ^^ 

K— =^ 
S>2 3 
■3 = S ^ 

IPS 

•o rt 3 a 
3 o 6: g 
v^vi a 



."•< = = .1=^ 

^ -. _- ^s c s , « - 
o .• 5 rt * a .-S '^ 

^ U .2- te 5 <U re « fc. 

= ■/; t3 2^-§ = 
ea g.¥<qcaa5 a 

o 



5. sa 



C.2 c i 

2=> =' 



nr 






O 



— « o 

lis 



e 

o 










c » 




c 













w 












t. 
















«'—• 




£3 


•-J 


SJ 









-^ 






f 


~« 




r-r 


£. 


r3 


£. 


9_S 


c: 


"3 


C. 


C C 










i >. 






a 


£a 




e 


V 3 















I 

. Cm 

c ^ 









e 
o 



o o 






1 



Kj 



^ 3 

o 



•2 
i2 



1 

1 






■§1 

I - 

O ttt 

5s 






12 g 

III 

"2.5 . 

V.ti 

.-^3 - g 

^S-o - 
>--H. = « 
a =*« rt 
C = ..? 



.i 2?^ 



E 



^ 2 






= > . 

* ** t 

; =.2. 






1-=. c 






;.i &24 






.. 'z 



C.5 



.a o 
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t- £ 



a H; 






b «• 



^ 1 I 



O ^^ 



E 3 



c >■ 

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C ■ — 






; ^ rr 
I i 



el •; 



I I 

I it 

- ,2 






1^ 



r.i 

c t ,9 

lit. 

t:^ b- 

e — *- ■■ 





Ic 









1 


■ES 


:< 


£-< 








>-.a 








fe-; 




k- 




i-i 




S2 




•s- 




^ c 




i = 





s 

E 

« 



? E 



^ o 



^ o 



= .9 a 
■3 -o u 

> M -S 



a a J« .S 






^ j: C 



ei 






b •? < 



? 1 



i i 



a a ? c 



® "o 



r 

o 



S Jl ^ 






■°5 



•S5 



o 
u 
b. 



g g 






CXXXVI 



CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF 



H 


•d 




c 


S5 


ta 








J3 






w 






__ 


Ui 


g 






a 






a> 


K 


a 




o 


Q 


O 




O 


2; 


fe 




o 


■< 






«' 




so 




S 


« 

K 


S3 




o 


s 
a 




a 

o 

M 




.2 >. 
















e3 


&! 


a 




o 


O 








S<i 





'S 




(3 










2 






»- 5"^ 


S 




c 




C 


o 


O 










rt 












(. 


QJ 












c 




o 

So 


o 
■5" . 

So 




c 










CO 




od 


"3d 


'o 


■§ 






kij 

ill 


a 
1 


f3 


1=1 

S3 

1 B 


3 
ffi 


S C3 


e =3 


i. 

is 


< 

II 


15 

1 


"5 


o 


» 




o 


O 


o 


o 


O 


p^ 




O 



E 



O O C 



o E 
O O 



05 
O 

d 

o 
o 



•JBuissij^ 



•pspnnoM. I 



•p»n!H 



O 

o 
S 



•Sinssire 



O — ( 



■p3pnno^\^ 



•psmn 



O 
Ed 

■< 

o 
z 
a 

aj 

c 
o 

BS 

H 

S5 
O 



S-.C «- 

£•=2 






c . 

H 2 o 
2 go 

= ^ = £ 



j— ^ j_^ « 
C^ ® D ti 

B •" •" a" 
c: e^ (H< M 



1 



§5 



c o a 



«M o 



E 
< 

& 

o 



> S 

C3 o 

O-S 



Ov. 
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IS"" 
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IIS^DEX 



•m 



CimONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF ENGAGEMENTS AND BATTLES. 



Aberdeen, Ark 1,1 

Alierdeen. Ala CXXIX 

Ahbeville. Miss CXX, CXXI 

Abb's Valley, Va CVII 

Abinpdon, Va CXXXII 

Aeton, Miun LVII 

Ackworth, Ga CXI 

Adainsville, Tenn XLVl 

Adair County, Mo LIII 

Adairsville, (la CIX 

A'Aaa, Mo XXXV 

Aikcn.S.C CXXXV 

Alimosa, N. Mex XXXVII 

Alpine Station, Va XFj 

Alpine Gap, Ga LXXX VI 

Algiers, La XLIX 

Allen's Farm, Va L 

Aldie, Va LX, LXI, LXX VIII 

Alexandria, La. CIV 

Alexandria, near. La CV 

Alabama, Rebel Steamer LXVI, CXIII 

Alabama, raid in CXVI 

Albemarle, Ram, N.C CV 

Albemarle, Ram, destruction of CXXVIII 

AUatoona Hills, Ga CX 

ALL.\TOONA, Ga CXX VI 

Amelia Springs, Va CXXXIX 

Amite River, La XLIX, LXX 

Ammunition, explosion of, at City Point, Va CXIX 

Anandale, Va XXXIX 

Antietam, Ml) LVIII 

Anxvois River, 5Io LX 

Antioeh Station. Tenn LXXI 

Anderson's (tap, Tenn LXXX VIII 

Anderson's Cross Roads, Trnn LXXXVIII 

Antoine, Ark CII 

Anthony's Hill, Tenn CXXXUI 

Apache Cailon, N. Mex XLIII 

Apache Pass, Ariz LII 

Apalachieola River, Fla LX 

Appomattox River, Va CXXXIX 

Al'I'OMATTOX COUET-IIOUSE, VA CXXXIX 

Aquia Creek Batteries, Va XLIII 

Aranzas Pass, Tex XCIII 

Armstrong Ferry, Tenn XCVI 

Arrow Rock, Mo LXXXIX 

Arrowflold Church, Va CVII 

Arkansas Post, Ark LXVI 

Arkansas River, Ark CXVI 

Arkansas, Rebel Ram, attempt to destroy LI 

Arkndelphia, Ark LXVIII.CI 

Arthur's Swamp, Va CXXII, CXXV 

Assault on Fort Wagner LXXX If 

Ashland, La LXX VII 

Ashland, Va C VU, CX, CXXX VII 

Ash Bayou, La CXXIX 

Ashwowl Landing, La C V 

Ashepoo River. S. C CVllI 

1Q» 



Page. 

Ashley's Mills, Ark LX X X VI 

Ashley .Station, Ark CXXI 

Ashby'sOap. Va LIX, I.XXXII, CXVII, CXXXV 

Attack bj' guerrillas on transport Crescent City LX X VI 

Atehafalaya Diver, La LXXXVI 

Atlee's, Va (' 

Athens, Mo XXXVI 

Athens, Ala XLVl, XCVI, CXXIV, CXXV 

Athens, Ky I, XVI II 

Atlanta, capture of (he LX XI X 

Atlanta Railroad, raid on CXXI 

Atlanta, (ia CXXIX 

Atlanta, Ga.. Hood's fir..it sortie CXVII 

Atlanta, Ga., Hood's second sortie CXVIII 

Atlanta, Ga., campaign to, from Chattanooga CXXII 

Atlanta, Ga., siege of CXVIII 

Atlant.a, Ga.. occupation of CXXII 

Austin, Miss LIII, LXXVI 

Austin, Ark LXXXV 

Auburn, Vn XC 

Auburn, Ga CXVII 

Augusta, Ky LIX 

Augusta, Ark ('I 

Averill s Raid, W. Va LXXXV 

Averill's Raid, .Suuthwestem Va XCIV 

Avoyellc's Prairie, La ('VIII 

AVKKTSBOIIO', N. C CXXXVII 

Baltimore, streets of XXXIV 

Baltimore Cross Roads, Va LXXX, LXX XI 

Baj'ou Cache, Ark I^I 

Bayou l>e View, Ark LI 

Bayou Barnard, C. N LII 

Baj'ou Tee.he, La 1. XII, LXVI 

Bayou Bontccou, La I.XIII 

Bayou Vermilion, La LXXI 

Bayou Pierre, Sliss LXXIV 

Bayou Tensas, La LXXX 

Bayou Melee, Ark : LXXXV 

Bayou Borbeaux, La XCI 

Bayon Sara, Miss XCII 

Bayou Rapidgs, La CI 

Bayou La Mourie, La C VI 

Bayou Dk Glaize, La CIX 

Bayou Biddell, La CXXVII 

Bayou La Fouche, La CXXIX 

Ball's Cross Roads, Va XXXVI 

Ball's Buff, Va XXXVIII 

Balls Ferry, Ga '. CXXX 

Barboursville, W. Va XXXV, XXXVII 

Bayles' Cross Roads, Ijj XXXVIII 

Bagdad, Ky XL 

Bath, Va XL, LX XX VI 

Barry County, Mo XLII 

Bates County. Mo XLVl 

Baxk.s'.s Retkkat, Va XLVU 

Battle Creek, 'rcnn XLIX 

B.ltc.sville, Ark LI, LXVH, XCIX 

Baton RoUfiE, La LIII, LXXI, LXXX VI, CV 



ex LI I 



INDEX. 



rago. 

UiirrUtown. Ky LIX 

I!nrl>oos Cross Ho:i<ls, Va LXII.LXXXVI 

Haihflor s C'ri'ik, N. C LXII, I, XXVI, XC VII, CX 

Bftpon Creok, Ky LXV 

Haxlor Spriiips, Ark LXXXVIII 

Hakpr .Sjirings, Ark XCVI 

Haker's Crick. Miss LXX V, XC VII 

Barton Station. Miss XC 

Bay Spring's. Miss XCI 

Barnwell's Island. .S. C XCIll 

Barron Fork, I. T XC;V 

Harnett's Ford, Va XCVIII 

Barber's Place, Fla XCVIII 

Baylor's Farm, Va CXIII 

Baldwin, Miss XLVIII, LIX 

Bald win, Fla I,XX 

Elattery Huger, Va LXXII 

liattery (irefffr, S. C LXXXVI 

liealinfrton, \V. Va XXXV 

Bcalton, Va XCI, XCVI 

Beau's Station, Teiia XCIV, XCV, CXXXII 

Biavcr (reek, Mo LXIII 

Beaver Creek, Ky LXXX 

Beaver Dam Lake, Miss LXX VI 

Beaver Dam .Station. "Va CVll 

Hear Wallow, Ky I-XV 

Bear Uiver, W. T LXVII 

Hear Creek, Mo LX\I I 

BearCreek. Ala LXXI.XCI 

Hear Creek .Station, (ia CXXIX 

Bear Skin Lake, Mo LXXXVI 

Beverly, W. Va XX.W, LXXII, LXXXI, CXXVIII, CXXXI V 

BEVKliI.V Fiilll), Va LXXVin, XC 

Hennet's Mills, Va XXXVI 

Boher's Mills, Va XXXVII 

Beck will Farm, Mo XXXVIII 

BKL.MONT, Mo XXXIX 

Bertrand, Mo XL 

Beech Creek, W. Va LIII 

Beech Grove, Ky XLI 

Beech Grove, Tenn LXXIX 

Bentonville, Ark XLII 

BENTONVII.I.E, N. C CXXXVII 

Berryville, Va LXIII, LXXVII, LXXVIH, XC, CXXUI, CX XXIX 

Berryville Pike, Va CXIX 

Berry's Farm, Va LXXV 

Berwick City, La LXIX 

Beersheba .Springs, Tenn XCIlI, CI 

Benton, Miss CYI 

Bent's Old Fork. Tex CXXX 

Bclclier's Mills, Vn CIX, CX XIII 

Behmiida lIuxDitEn, Va CVIII, CXI, CXXI, CXXIX, CXXXI 

Belleflold, Va CXXXII 

Bip: Hurricane Creek, Mo XXX\'I1I 

Bijr I'reek ( iap. Tenn XLII, LVII 

BiR Creek, Ark LX XXII, CX VII 

Big Indian Creek. Ark XLVII 

Bi(f Beaver Creek, Mo LXII 

Bijc River Bridge, Mo XXXVIll 

Biu Black Uiver, Mi.s.s LXXV, LXXXI, LXXXIX, XCVII 

Big Black Kiver Bridge, Miss CXXX 

Big Ilatchio Uiver, Miss LIX 

Big Sandy River, Ky I XIII 

Big Sandy, C. T CXXX 

Big Pigeon Uiver, Tenn CXXIX 

Big I'iney, Mo LII 

Big Hill, Ky LV 

Big Hill Head, Ky LXI 

Big Mound, I). T LXXXIV 

Big Sewcll, \V. Va XCV 

Big Shanty, Ga CXI, CXXIII 

Big Blue. JIo CXXVIII 

Birds Point, Mo XXXVI, XXXVIII 

Birch Coolie, ^linn LVII 

Bisland, La LXXI 

Bidnella's (.'ross Road.s. Va (' 



Page. 

Binnaker's Bridge. S. C C'XXXV 

Blue .Springs, Mo LXIX 

Blue Springs, Tenn I,XXXVIII, LXXXIX 

Blue Mount, Ala CXL 

Blue Mills, Mo X XX V, X XX\II 

Blue Gap, Vn XL 

Blue Island, Ind LXXIX 

Black River, Mo XXXVII, LI, CXXIII 

Black River, Miss LXXXI, LXXXII 

Black Uiver, La CXXIX 

Blaekwater, Mo XL, LXX XIX, CX XI V 

Blaekwator, Va LIX, LX I, LXIV, LXIX 

Blaekwater. Fla CXXVII, CXXVIII 

Black f :reek, Fla C XV 111 

Black Warrior Creek, Ala LXX III 

Black Walnut Creek, Mo XXXIX 

Blackford's Ford, Va LVIII 

Black Bayou Expedition, Miss LXXI 

Blackliuni's Ford, Va XXXV, XC 

Black Jack Forest, Tenn XI.III 

Blackland, Miss XLVIII 

Blaokville, S.C CXXXV 

Blooming Gap. Va XLI 

Bloonifield, Va LXI 

Bloonitield, Jlo XLVI, LV, LVII, LXXUI 

Blount's Mills, N. C LX XI 

Blount's Farm, Ala LXXI V 

Blountsville, Tenn LXXX VII, LX X XI X 

Blain's L'ross Roads, Tenn 'XCV 

BUickllouso No. 2, Tenn CXXXI 

Block House No. 4, Tenn CXX 

Bloek-Ilouse No. 5, Tenn CXXII 

Bloek-House No. 7, Tenn CXXXI 

Blockade Runners in Tampa Bay, Florida, destruction of. . . XC 

Bluflton, .S. C LXXVII 

Booneville, Mo XXXIV, X XXVII, CXX VI 

Boonville, Miss XLVII, LI 

Boone Court-house, W. Va XXX VI 

Bolivar Heights, Va XXX VIH, LXXXIII, CXV 

Bolivar, Tenn LVI, LXVIH, LXIX, XCV, XCVIII, CI, C V 

BoliviU-, Miss LIX 

Bowling Green, Ky XLI, XLII 

Boles Farm, Miss LII 

Botis' Farm, Mo LII 

Bollinger's Mills, Mo LIII 

Bo<msboro', Md LVIII, LXXXII 

Boonsboro', Ark LXIII 

Boston Mountain, Ark 1^X111 

Bone Yard, Tenn LX VU 

Bombardment of Fort Sumter, S. C LXXI 

Boston, Ky LXX V 1 H 

Boone, N. C CXXXVIII 

Boyd's Station, Ala CXXXVII 

Bogler's Creek, Ala CXXXVIII 

Boykin's Mills, S.C CIV, CXXXIX 

Bottoms Bridge, Va LXXXI, LXXXV 

Bolton Depot, Miss XCVII 

Bolton and Birdsong Ferry, Miss LX.XXI 

Boafoucn, La XCIII 

BOYDTinVX PLANK UOAD, VA CXXVI, CXXVIII, CXXXVIII 

Bogg's Mill, N. C CXXXIV 

Brunswick, Mo XXXVI 

Briar, Mo XLIII 

Bridgeport, Ala XLV 

Brownsville, Tenn LII, LIII 

Brownsville, Ark LXXXV, LXXXVn, CXXVIII 

Brownsville, Misa XC 

Brown Springs, Mo LII 

Brown's Ferry, Tenn XCI 

Brown's Gap, Va CXXI V 

Browne's Cross Roads CXXX 

Brandy Station, Va LV, LXXVIII, LXXXIV, LXXXVI 

BitisTOE Station, Va XC, CIII 

Britton's Lane, Tenn LVI 

Bristol, Tenn LXXXVII, CXXXII 

Brashear City, La LX 11, LXIX, LXXIX 



TNDKX. 



CXLIir 



Broiitsvillc Tcnii LX I V 

Broiitsvillp, Vii LX VIII, XCIX 

Bradyville, Tenn LX VIII, LXX V 

nnimrliville, Ark XC VI 

lirentHodd, Tciin LXX, CXXXII 

liniiul Kun, Va LXX 

liiiiad liivcr, S. C LXXI,t'XXX 

Brailfiiilmrp;, Ky LXXXII 

Biaiidoii. Miss LXXXIII- 

BriinsloMC Creek, Teim LXXXVI 

BrazHis Santiiif^o, Tex XCI 

lirook Turnpike, Va C 

Brice's Cross Roads, Miss CXII 

Brier Creek, Ga CXXXI 

Bradford Springs, S.C CXXXIX 

Buchanan, Va LII, CXII 

Buckhannon, W. Va XXXV 

Bunker Hill, \V. Va XXXV 

BULL Rl N, Va XXXV, LVI 

Bushy Creek, Ark XL 

Bushy Creek, Mo LXXVII 

Burke's Station, Va XLII 

Butler, Mo XL VI, LXI 

Butler Creek, Ala CX XIX 

Burnt Ordinary, Va I-X Vn 

Bute La Rose, La LXXII 

Burkesville, Ky LXXXi 

Bufflng-ton Island, Ohio LXXXIII 

Buford's Oap, Va CXIII 

Buford's Station, Tenn CXXXIII 

Bull Pastuuk Mountain, Va XLVI 

Bull Run Bhidge, Va LV 

Bulltown, Braxton County, Va LXXXIX 

Bull Bayou, Ark CXXI 

Bull's Gap, Tenn CXXIV, CXXIX 

Buffalo Hill, Ky XXXVII 

Buffalo Mills, Mo XXXVIII 

Buffalo, W. Va LIX 

Buffalo Creek, I. T LXXXVII 

Buffalo Creek, «a CXXX 

Buffalo (inp, W. Va CXI 

BuniiuR; of Royal Yacht, Galveston Harbor, Tex XXXIX 

Buckton Station, Va XLVII 

Buckland'9 Mills, Va XC 

Buck Head C reck CXXX 

Buzzard Roost, Ga C 

Buzzard Uoost Gaj), Ga CVII 

Buzzard Roost Block-House, Ga CXXVII 

Burton's Ford, Va C 

Burned Hickory, Ga CX 

Burned Church, Ga CX 

Burger's Farm, Va CXXVIII 

Butler's Bridge, N. C CXXXII 

Byhalia, Miss LXXXIX 

Camp Jackson, Mo XXXIV 

Camp Cole, Mo XXXIV 

Camp CuUendcn, Mo XXXVII 

Camp Advance, Va XXXVII 

Camp Alleghany, W. Va XL 

Camp Babcock, Ark LXIII 

Camp Moore, La LXXV 

Cape Hatteras Inlet, N. C XXXVI 

Cape Fear River, N. C LX 

Cape Girardeau, Mo LXXIII, XCVIU 

Carthage, Mo XXXIV, XLIII, LXXV 

Carthage, Ark LXIII 

Cameron, Mo XXXVIII 

Cameron, Va XCVI 

Calhoun, Mo XL 

Calhoim, Tenn LXXXVIII 

Calhoun Station, La CIX 

Canton, N. C XLVI 

Canton, Miss LXXXIH, XC, C 

Canton, Ky CXXI 

Cache Kiver, Ark CUV 



Cache River Hrid^e, Ark. 

CassviUe, Mo 

Cassville, Ga 

CassviUe Station, Ga 

Cass County, Mo 

Cane liivcr. La 

Cunc Hill, Ark 



I'nge. 

XLv;i 

LIX 

CIX 

CX 

LXII 

CIV 

LXIII 

Cane Crock, Ala XCI, CXII 

Carsville, Va LX, LX VII, LXXV, LXXVI 

Cainsville, Tenn LXVIII 

Carter's Station, Tenn LX^', LXXXVII 

Carter's Station, Ark CXXV 

Carter's Raid in East Tennessee LXV 

Carter's Farm, Va CXVII 

Carroll County, Ark LXX, CIII 

Carrolton Store, Va CI 

Carrolton Landing, Miss CXVII 

Caroline Bend, Miss CXVII 

Capture of Rebel Steanier Fair Play LV 

Cai)turo of Steanitug Colinnbinc, Flu CIX 

Capture of Fort Hell, Va CX XI II 

Campbell County, Tenn LXV 

Campbell Station, Tknn XCIII 

CampbellviUe, Tenn CXXIII, CX XX 

Campbelltown, (Ja CX VIII 

Cabin Creek, I. T LXXXI, CXXIII 

Cabin Point, Va CXIX 

Cambridge, Mo LIX 

Cainpti, La CII 

Camden, Ark CIII 

Carrick's Ford, W. Va XXXV 

Carnifei Ferry, W. Va XX XVII 

Catlett's Station, Va LV, LXI, LX VI 

Cacapon Bridge, Va LVII 

Castor River, Mo LXXIII 

Carrion Crow Bayou, La XCI, XCIII 

Caddo Gap, Ark XCVI, XCVIU 

Canon de ChelWy XCVII 

Calf Killer Creek, Tenn C, CI 

Cabletown, Va C 

Cavalry Raid (Kautz's), Va CV, CVII 

California, Mo CXX VI 

Catawba River, N.C CXL 

Ckdau Mointaix, Va LIV 

Cedar Run, Va LIV 

Cedar Run Church, Va CXXVII 

Cedati CiiKF.K, Va CX XVII 

Cedar Springs, Va CXXIX 

Cedar Bluffs, C. T CV 

Cedar Keys, Fla CXXX V 

Celina. Ky LXXII 

Celina, Tenn XCIV 

Centreville, La LXXI 

Centreville, Tenn ' XCI, CXXV 

Centreville, Ala CXXXVIII 

Central Railroad, Va CXH 

Centralia, Mo., Massacre at CXXV 

Charlcstown, Mo XXXVI, XLI 

Charlcstown, W. Va XLVII, LVII, LX, LXIII, LXXXIX, XC, CXIV 

Charleston, Tenn XC V 

Charleston, Ills CI 

Charleston, S.C CXXXV 

Charleston Bar, S.C LXVII 

Charleston Harbor, S.C LXXI, XCIX 

Chariton Bridge, Mo LIU 

Cheat Mountain, W. Va XXXVH 

Cheat River, \V. Va XLI 

Chalk Bluffs, Mo XLVI, LXXIII 

Chalk Bluffs, Ark LXX, CXL 

Chester Gap, Va LXII, LXXXIV 

Chester Station, Va C VI, CXXIX 

Chesterfield, S.C CXXX VI 

Chapmansville, W. Va XXXVH 

Chapel Hill, Tenn LXVIII 



CXLIV 



indp:.x;. 



I'ngo. 

CiiAMrTON Hills, Miss LXXV, XCVII 

Cliapin's Farm, Va CXW 

Chamborsburpf, Ya CX^'III 

Charles City Cross Roads, Va I^, XCIII, CXII, CX XV 

Chantilly, Va lA'l 

Chanckllohsville, V a I^XXI V 

Chackahoola Station, La LXXIX 

CHATTANOOGA, TKNN LXXXV, XCIH, CXXXI, CX X X VI 

Chattahoochie River, (ia CXVI 

Cheese Cake Chureh, Va XL 

Cherokee Station, Ala XC, XCI 

Cheek's Cross Roads, Tenn CI 

Cherry Grove, Va CIII 

Chewa Station, Ga CXVII 

Cheraw, S. C CXXXVI 

Chickamieomico, N. C XXXVIII 

Chickahominy, Va XLVII, L, C VIII 

Chickasaw Bayou, Miss LX V 

Chickamaiga, Ga LXXXVII 

Childshuri^, Va CVII 

Chickasaw, Ala., to Macoii, Ga., Wilson's Raid CXXXVII 

Church in the Woods, Mo UII 

Chuekatuck, Va LX XII 

Chunky Station, Miss XCVIII 

City Belle Transport, La CV 

City I'oint, Va C VI, C X I X 

Civiqnes Ferry, La LXXIV 

Clark's Hollow, W. Va XLVI 

Clarendon, Ark LIV, CI, CXIV 

Clarendon Road, Ark li.XA'I 

ClarksviUe, Tenn LV, L^'II 

Clarksville, A rk XCI, XCII, CX X V 

Clarkson, Mo LXI 

Clark's Neck, Ky LXXXV 

Clara Bell transport, Miss CXVII 

Clay County, Mo LXX VI, CX V 

Clear Creek, Mo LIII, CVIII 

Clear Springs, Mo C.XVIII 

Clear Lake, Ark CXXXVI 

Clendenin's Raid below Fredericksburg, Va LXXVI 

Cleveland, Tenn XCIV, XCV, ClI, CIII, CXX 

CUnton, Miss XC, XCVII, CX V, CXVI 

Clinton, La LXV, LXXVII, CV, CXXI, CXX X VI 

Clinton, N. C XLVI 

Clinton, Ga CXXIX 

Clinton, Mo LI 

Clinton County, Mo XXXIX 

Clinton Creek, La CXXIX 

Clinch River, W. Va XCIV 

Cliuch Mountain, Tenn ^ XCIV 

Cloutersville, La CIV 

Cloyd's Mountain, Va CVII 

Columbus, Mo XLI, LII 

Columbus, Ky CXX XI V 

Columbus, Ga CXXXIX 

Columbia, S. C CXXX V 

Columbia, Tenn LVII, CXX X 

Columbia, Ky LXXXI 

Columbia Bayou, La CXI 

Cobb's Point, N. C XLI 

Cochran's Cross Koads, Miss LVll 

Coffeeville, Miss LXVIII 

Cop-^in's Point, Va , LIII 

COLIl IlAIlHOK, Va L, CXI 

Coldwater, Miss LII, 

LVII, LXII, LXIII, LXVIII, LXXII.LXXXIV, LXXXV 

Coldwator Grove. Mo CXX VIII 

Cold Knob Mountain, Va LXIII 

Collesre Hill, Miss CXXI 

Colman's, Miss C, CX V 

CollierSTillo, Tenn LXXXIX, XCI, XCV 

CoUiersville, Miss CXJ V 

Comfort, N. C LXXXI 

Como, Miss LAX XIX 



Pil^re. 

Conibahee River, S. C CXXXIV 

Construction train near Murfreesboro', Tenn LX VII 

Convalescent Corml, Miss IjXXXII 

Concha's Spring, N. Me.\: LXXXIV 

Conee Creek, La CXXI 

Cononrec Creek, S. C CXXXV 

Coosaw River, S. C XL, CXXXI 

Co<)homo County, Miss LIII 

Coon Creek, Mo LV 

Coosa Uiver, Ala CXVI 

Corinth Road, reconnoisance on, Miss XLV 

Corinth, Miss X LVI, LIX, LXXXn, CXII 

Corinth, Miss., evacuation of XLVII 

Corydon, La LXX XII 

Courlland, Tenn LV 

Courtland, Ala CXVII 

Courtland Bridge, Ala LII 

Courtland Road, Ala CX 

Cosby Creek, Tenn XCVI 

Cotton Plantation, Ark LI, CIV 

Cotton Hill, W. Va LVII 

Cotton Gap, Ark LXXXVI 

Cottage Groove, Tenn LXIX 

Cove Creek, N. C LXIII 

Cove Mountain, Va CVII 

Covington, Tenn LXIX 

Cow Skin, Mo CXIX 

Cow Crook. Kas CXXIX 

Coylo Tavern, Va LXXXV 

Coxe's Bridge, N. C CXXXVII 

Cross Lanes, W. Va XXXVI 

CiiOKS Kkv.s, Va XLVIII 

Cross Hollows, Ark LXI 

Cross Timbers, Mo XC 

Cnunp's Landing, Tenn XLIII 

Crump's Hill, La CII 

Crab Orchard, Ky LV 

Crawford County, Mo LXIII 

Crawford County, Ark CXIX 

C!raig'8 Meeting-House, Va C V 

Crew's Farm, Va LI 

Creek Agency, I. T XCI 

Creelsboro', Ky XCIV 

Crooked Creek, Ala LXXIII 

Crooked Run, Ohio CIX 

Crooked Run, Va CXX 

Cripple Creek, Tenn LXXV 

Culpoper, Va LI, LXXXVU, LXXXIX, XCII 

Culpa House, Ga CXIV 

Cumberland, Md CXIX 

Cumberland River, Ky XLI 

Cumberland Mountains, Tenn XLIII, XLVI 

Cumberland Mountain, W. Va XLVI 

Cumberiand Gap, Tenn XLIX, LXXXVI, XCVII, XCIX 

Cumberland Iron Works, Tenn LV, LXVII 

Cuylcr's Plantation, Ga CXXXII 

CjTfess Bridge, Ky XXXIX 

Cypress Bend, Miss. River LXXIX 

Cypress Swamp, Ga CXXXI 

Cynthiana, Ky LII, CXII 

Dabney's Mills, Va CXXXV 

Dallas, Mo XXXVI, LV 

Dallas, Ga CX 

Dallas, N. C CXXXIX 

Dalton, Ga XCVI, CVII, CXX, CXX VII 

Dam No. 4, Potomac, Va XL 

Dandridge, Tenn XCVI 

Danville, Ky LXIX 

Danville, Ark •. CI 

Darbytown Roads, Va CXXVI, CXXVII 

Dardanelle, Ark LXXXVI, CVII, CXXXIV 

Darkesville, Va CXVII, CXXIII 

Damestown, Md XXXVII 

Davis's Farm, Va CXIV 



INDEX. 



CXLV 



Davis s Mill's, Miss LXV 

Uavis's Cross Uouds, Oa LXXXVI 

Day'sGuji, Ala LXXIII 

Decatur, fia CX VII, CXIX 

Doc:itur, Tenn,, near LIl 

Decatur, Miss XCVIII 

Decatur, Fla C, CIV, CX, CXX, CXXVIII, CXXXIIl 

Deer Creeli. Miss LX VIII, LXIX 

Deumarlt, Tenn LVI 

Dent County, Mo XXXIX 

Des AlleinQTuls, La LVII 

Dos Arcs, Arlv LXVI, CXVII 

Deail Buffalo Lake, D. T LXXXIV 

Deatonsville, Va CXX XIX 

Denver, C. T CIII 

DKKl- BOTTOM, VA CXVII, CXVIII 

Deep Bottom Run, Va CXX 

Deep River Bridge, N. C CXXXIX 

Deserted House, Va LXVII 

Devil's Backbone, Ark LXXXVI 

Devaux's Neck, S. C CXXXI 

Diamond Grove, Mo XLV 

Dinwiddie Court-house, Va CXXX V'llI 

Ditch Bayou, Ark CXI 

Dobbin's Ferry, Tenn LXIV 

Dodge County, Mo LIIl 

Dog Walk, Ky LX 

Donuldsonvilie, La LXXX, LXXXIII, XCVIII, CXIX 

DouajAan, Mo XLIII, CXXIII 

Doubtful Caijon, A. T CV 

Douglas Landing, Ark CXXXVI 

Dover, Tenn XLI 

Dover Road, N. C LXXIII 

Downer's Bridge, Va CIX 

Draft Riot, New York City LXXXIII 

Drainesville, Va XXXIX, XL, XCIX 

Dresden, Ky XLVl 

Dripi>iiig Springs, Ark LXV 

Drivers Cap, Ala LXXIII 

Droop Mountain, Va XCII 

Drury s Bluff, Va CVH 

Dry Forks, Mo XXXIV 

Dry Forks, W.\a XLI 

Dry Wood, Mo XXXVII 

Dry Creek, Ala LXXXV 

Dutch (lap, Va LXXXIV, CXIll, CXXIII 

Dutch Mills, Ark CHI 

Dug Springs, Mo XXXVI 

Dug Gap, Ga LXXXVI, CVI 

Duck River Shoals, Tenn LXXII 

I>uck Run, Tenn CXXX 

Dukedom, Ky C 

Dunbar's Plantation, La LXXI 

Dumfries, Va LXV 

Dunkst)urg, Mo XL 

Dunn's Bayou, La CV 

Dunns Lake, Fla CXXXV 

Durhamville, Tenn LVIII 

Dutton's Hill, Ky LXX 

Duval's Blufl-, Ark LXVI, XCIV, CXXI 

Duvall's Mills, Va CXXXI 

Dycrsburg, Tenn LXVII 

Eaglcville, Tenn LXVIII 

East Pascagoula, Miss LX XI 

East Point. Miss CXXVI 

Ebenezer Church, Ala CXXXVIII 

Ebenezer Creek, Go CXXXI 

Eden Station, Ga CXXXI 

Edgefield Junction, Tenn IjV 

Ertisfo Island, S. C XLVI 

Edwards's Ferry, Va XXXIV, XXX VIII 

Edwards's Station, Miss LXXV 

Egypt Station, Miss CXXXIIl 

Elkwater, W. Va XXXVII 



Page. 

Elk River. W. Va LVII 

Elk River, Tenn LX X XI, LXXXIII 

Elk Fork, Tonn LXV 

Elk Shutc, Mo CXIX 

Elkton, Ky CXXXII 

Elkton Station, Ala XLVI 

Elkhoni Tavern, Ark XLU 

Elkin's Ford, Ark CII 

Elizahethtown, Ky LXV, CXXX HI 

Elliott Mills, Mo XXXVII 

Ellison's Mills, Va XLIX 

Elthatn's Landing, Va XLVI 

Estill County, Ky LXXXIV 

Evliiigton Heights, Va * LI 

Ezra Chapel. Ga ._. C X VH I 

Fairflix CourtHouse, Va .". X XXIV, LI, LXIX, LX X X 

Fairfax Station, Va OXXHI 

Fairfield, Penn LX X X I 

Fairbur.i, C.a CXX 

Fair Gardens, Tenn XCVM 

Fainnount, W. Va LXX HI 

Fair Oaks, Va XLVIH, CXXVIII 

Falling Waters, Va XXXIV, LXXXHI 

Falmouth , Va X li V I 

Farniington, Miss XLVI 

Farjnington. Tenn LXXXI.X 

Farniville, Va CXXXIX 

Farrs Mills, Ark CX VI 

Fayette, Mo CX X I V 

Fayettevillc, Ark LII, LXI, LXIV, LXXII, i;lX, CXXVIII 

Fayetleville, W. Va LVII, LXIII, LXXV 

Fayetteville, Teun XCI 

Fayetteville, N. C CXXXVI 

Federal Point, N. C CXXXV 

Fishing Creek, Ky XLI LXXVI 

Fish Springs, Tenn LXVII 

Fish Bay, Ark CXI 

Fishers Hil!.Va CXX, CXXIV, CXXVI 

Fitzhugli's Crossing, Va LXXIII 

Fitzhugh's Woods, Ark CI 

Five Points, Va XCV 

FiVK FOHKS, Va CXXXVIII 

Flat Lick Ford, Ky XLI 

Flat Shoals, Ga CXVIII 

Flint Creek, Ark C 

Flock's Mills, Md CXIX 

Florida, Monroe County, Mo XLV 1 1, LII 

Florence, S. C CXXXVI 

Fhtrence, Ky LVIII 

Florence, Ala....'. LXXVH, XCVl, CIII, CXXVI 

Floyd's Fork. Ky l.IX 

Floj-d County, Ky LXX.X 

Fort Ahercrombie, D. T LVII 

Fort Adams, La CXXVI 

Fort Anderson, Ky CI 

Fort Anderson, N. C CXXXV 

Fort Blair, Ark LXXXIX 

Fort Blakely, Ala CXXXIX 

Fort Blunt, I. T LX.XVI 

Fort Brady, Va CXXXIV 

Fort Burnham, Va CXXXIV 

Fort Cobh, I. T LXI 

Fort Craig, N. Mex XXX VH, XLII, XLVII 

Fort Cottonwood, Nev CXX II, CXXUI 

Fort Darling, Va XLVI,CVII 

Port Davidson. Mo CXXIV 

Fort De Russy, La ... CI 

FOIIT DONELSOX, Tknn XLI, LV, LXVII, CXXVI 

Fort Esperanza. Tex XCIV 

Fort Fillmore. N. Mex XXXV, LIV 

Fort Fisher, N. C CXXXUI, CXXXIV 

Fort Gaines, Mobile Harbor, Ala CXIX 

Fort Gibson, I. T LXXVI, CXXIII 

Fort Gilmore, Va C XX V 



CXLVI 



INDEX. 



PilKO. 

FortHalleck, I. T LX.XXII 

Fort Harrison, Va CXXV 

Fort Ilutterus, N. C XXXVI 

Fort Ileinmn, Tenn CXXVllI 

FOKT Henuv, Tenn XLI 

Fort H ill. Vioksburg. Miss LX XIX, LXX X 

Fort Iliiidman, Ark LXVI 

Fort Jackson and .St. Philip, La XLVI 

Fort Johnson, .S. C XLIX,CXV 

Fort Jones, N. C CXXXV 

Fort Kelly, W. Va CXXX 

Fort Leavenworth, Kans CXXV^II 

Fort Lyon, I. T CXXXII 

Fort Lyons, Va LXXVII 

Fort McAllister, ( ia LX VII, LXVIII, CXXXII 

FortMcCook, Ala LV 

Fort McRae, N. Mex LXXIX 

Fort Mucon, N. C XLVI 

Fort Morgan, Ala CXIX, CXXI 

Fort Myers, Fla CXXXV 

Fort Pomberton, Miss IjXIX 

Fort Pickens, Fla XXXIX 

Fort Pike, La LXIII 

Fort Pillow, Tenn XLV, XLVI, XL VIII, CI, ClII 

Fort Pulaski. Oa XLV 

Fort Rico, D. T CXXV 

Fort RidRiey, Minn LV 

Fort .Sanders, Tenn XCIV 

Fort .Scott, Mo XXXVII 

Fort Scott, Ark LXX XVIII 

Fort .Sedpwick, Va CXXV, CXXIX 

Fort Smith, Ark LXXXVI, CXVnl, CXXI 

Fort Steadman, Va CXXXVII 

Fort Stevens, D. C CXVI 

Fort Sumner, N. Mei XCV 

Fort Sumter, S. C XXXIV, LXXI, LXXXVI 

Fort Taylor, Ga CXXXIX 

Fort Wagner, S. C LXXXU, LXXXIU, LXXXVI 

Fort Wright, Tenn XLVIII 

Fort Brown Road, Tex LXIV 

Forsyth, Mo XXXV, LIII 

Forty Hills, Miss LXXIV 

Foster's Bridge, N.C CXXXII 

Foster's Expedition, N. C LXIV 

Fourteen Mile Creek, Miss LXXV 

Fox Creek, Mo XLII 

Frankfort, Va LXIII 

Frankfort, Ky CXI 

FBANKLrs, Tenn LXIV, 

LXVIT, LXIX, LXX, LXXIII, LXXVII, CXXII, CXXX, CXXXIII 

Franklin, Mo CXXV 

Franklin, Miss CXXXIV 

Franklin, Vn LIX, LXI, LXIII 

Franklin, La LXXVI 

Franklin's Crossing, Va LXXVII 

Franklin County, Ark LXXXVIII 

Franklin Creek, Miss CXXXIII 

Frazier's Farm, Va L 

Frederick, Md LVII, CXVI 

Friderioksburg, Mo CXVII 

FREDEUICKSBURG, Va XLVI, LXU, LXIV, LXXVI 

Fredericksburg Road, Va CVIII 

Freilericktown, Mo XXXVIII 

Freeman's Ford, Va LV 

Fremont's Orchard, C. T C'lII 

French Broad, Va XCVIl 

Front Royal, Va XLVII, CX X 

Front Royal Pike, Va CXXIV 

Frj-ing Pan, Va LXXVII 

Fulton, Mo XXXV 

Fulton County, Mo LIII 

Fnnkstown, Md LXX XII 

Gaines'8 Mills, Va L,CXI 

Gainesville, Va LVI 



Page. 

(iaiiiesvillc, Fla XCIX, C'XX 

Gallatin, Tenn LIV, LIX 

Galveston, Texas : LXVI 

Garrettsburg. Ky L.\ II 

Gaulcy Bridge, W. Va XXXIX 

Gciger Lake, Ky LVII 

Genesis Point, Ga LXVII, LXVIII 

Georgia I..andiug, La LXI 

(ieorgia. Raid in (!XVI 

Gerniantown, Tenn XLVIII, XC VIII 

GETTYsnuilG, Pa LXXX 

Ghent, Ky CXXII 

Glade Springs CXXXII 

Gladesville, Va CXXV 

Glasgow, Ky LX, LXV, LXXXVIU 

Glasgow, Mo CXXVII 

Glondale, Miss XLVI 

Glendale, Va L 

Glorietta, N. Mex XLIII 

(iloucester, Va LXIII 

Gloucester Point, Va LXVII 

Golding's Farm, Va L 

Goldsboro', N. C .' LXIV, CXXXVU 

Golgotha, Ga CXIII 

Goose Creek, Va LVIII 

Gordon's Landing, La LXVIII 

Gordonsville, Va CX .VXI, CXXXIII 

Gov. Moore's Plantation, La CV 

Grafton, W. Va XXXVI 

(irahamsvillc, S. C CXXX 

Grand Lake, Ark XCIX 

Grand Haze, Ark LI 

Grand Prairie, Ark LI 

Grand Prairie, Mo LXI 

GrandRiver, Mo LIV 

Grand Gulf, Miss LXXIII, XCVI, CXVI 

Grand I'ass, I. T LXXXII 

Grand Coteau, La i XCI 

Grant's Creek, N. C CXXXIX 

Grass Lick, W. Va XLVI, CVn 

Gravel Hill, Ya CXX 

Gravelly Run, Va CXXX VII 

Graysville, Ga LXXXVI, XCIV 

Great Bethel, Va XXXIV, XLHI 

Great Falls, Va XXXV 

Great Cacapon Bridge, Va XLI 

Greasy Creek, Ky LXXV 

Greenville, Mo LII 

Greenville, N. C XCIII, XCV 

Greenville, Miss LXVIII 

Grennville, Tenn CXXIII, CXXVII 

Green Bridge, W. Va XXXVII 

Green's Chapel, Ky LXV 

Greenville Road, Ky LXII 

Greenville Road, N. C XLVIII 

Greenland Gap, W. Va LXXU 

Greenland Gap Road, W. Va CXI 

Green Springs Depot, Md CXIX 

Greenwich, Va LXXVII 

Greencastle, Pa LXXIX 

Green River Bridge, Ky LXXXI 

Gregory's Farm, S. C CXXXI 

Grenada, Miss LXXXV 

Gri.swoldville, Ga CXXIX 

Grosse Tetc Bayou. La XCIX, CI 

Ground Squirrel Church and Bridge, Va CVII 

Groveton, Va LVI 

Gaerrilla Campaign in Missouri LTV 

Gum Swamp, N.C LXXVI 

Guntcr's Bridge, S. C CXXXV 

Guyandotte, W. Va XXXIX 

Guy's Gup, Tenn LXXX 

Hampton, Va XXXVI 

Hampton Roads, Va XXXII 



INDEX. 



CXLVII 



Page. 

Ilnriior's Ferry, Va XXXIV, XLVII, I. VII, I.XXX VIIl 

Hiirper's Ferry Bridge, Va LXXXII 

Hurpcr'H Farm, Va CXXIX 

Ilarpeth IJiver, Tenn LXVIII, LX XI 

Ilarrisonville, llo XXXV, LXIl 

Harrison's Island, Va. XXXVIII 

Harrison's Ivandin^f, Va LIII 

Harrisonburg, Va XLVIII 

Harrisonburg, La C 

Harrison, Mo CXXV 

Harrisburg, I'a LX XX 

Harrodsburg, Ky , LX, CXXVII 

Harlsville, Tenn LXIV 

1 lartville, Mo LXVI 

Hartwood Church, Va LXIII, LXVIII 

Hartford, Ky LXXVI 

Hamilton, N. C LI, CXXXII 

Hamilton, Va CXXX VH 

Hanover, Pa LXX .X 

Hanover Court-house, Va XlyVII, LXX.X, CX 

Hanoverton, Va C.X 

Hancock, \^a XL 

Hanging Rock, W. Va XXXVII 

Hankinson's Ferry, Mi.ss LXXIV 

Hawks Nest, W. Va XXXVI 

Halchie Kiver, Tenn LII 

Hatcheu's Kus, Va cxxvm, CXXXI, CXXXV 

Hall's Ferry, Miss LX,\V 

Hallton n, Va LXXXIII, CXXI, CXXU 

Ilager's Jlountain, Md C.XVI 

Hngeratonn, Md LXXXI, LXXXH, CXV 

Ilagiiewood Prairie, Tenn L.XXXVIII 

Half Mount. Ky CHI 

Hanimaet's Mills, W. Va CXV 

Half Moon Battery, N. C CXXXIV 

Hardy County, W. Va LXVI 

Harney Lake Valley, Oreg CII 

Hatteras, U. S. Steamer LXVI 

Hawe's Shop, Va CX, CXI 

Haxal's, Va LI 

Haymarket, Va LX 

Hayne.sville, Va XX XIV 

Hazel Bottom, Mo LX 

Hertgeville, Va LXI, XC 

Helena, Ark LIV, L VIII, LX, LXIH, LXVI, LXX'VI, LXXXI 

Henderson Hills, La CI 

Henderson's Mill, Tenn LXXXIX 

Henderson, Ky CX VII, CX XI V 

Hendricks, Miss LXXXVII 

Hernando, Miss LXXII, LX XIX 

Henrytown. Mo XXXVIII 

Hicksford, Va... CXXXII 

Hickory Grove, Mo LVHI 

Hickman, Ky L\^ 

High Bridge, Va CXXXIX 

Hillslwro', Ky XXXVIII 

HiUslioro', Ga CXIX 

Hillsborough, Ala LXXI 

Hill*8 Plantation, Ark I.1I 

Hill's Plantation, Miss LXX IX 

Hill's Point, Va LXXII 

Hodgeville, Ky XXXVIII 

Holly River, W. Va XLVI 

Holly Springs, Miss LXIII, LXV, CIX, CXXH 

Hollow Tree Gap, Tenn CXXXIII 

Holland House, Va LXXV 

riolston River, Tenn XCIII, XCIX 

Honey Spring, L T LXXXIII 

Honey Hill, S. C CXXX 

Hoover's Gap, Tenn LXXIX 

Hopkinsville, Ky CXXXII 

Horse-shoe Bend, Ky LXXV 

Horton's Mills, N. C XLVI 

Hot Springs, Ark XCVH 



Page. 

Howard County, Mo L\'I, C.X.XII 

Howe's Ford, Ky LX X III 

Housatonic, loss of, S. C XCIX 

Hudnot's Plantation, La CV 

Hudson, Mo , XL 

Hudsonville, Miss LXII 

HnfTs Ferry, Tenn XCII 

Hunncwell, Mo XL 

Humonsville, Mo XLIH, XC 

Hunters ville, Va XL 

Huntsville, Ala XLV, CXXV 

Huntsville, Tenn LXII 

Hurricane Bridge, W. Va LXX 

Hurricane Creek, Miss CXX, CXXI, CXXVIII 

Hutchinson, Minn LVII 

Illinois Creek, Ark LX I V. 

Independence, Mo XXXIV, 

XXXIX, XLII.XLIIl, LIV, LX VII, CXXVIII 

Indian Bay, Ark CI II 

Indian Vi Inge, La LX VII 

Indian City Village, La CXIX 

Indian Ri.lge, La LXXI 

Indiantown, N. C XC V 

Ingraham's Plantation, Miss XXXIX 

Ingham's Mills, Miss LXXXI.X 

Ironton, Mo XXXVII, XXX VIIl, CXX IV 

Irish Bend, La LXXI 

Irwinsville, G« C.\L 

Irvine, Ky LX X X I V 

Isle of \Vight Court-house, Va LXV 

Island No. 10. Te4in XLV 

Island No. 7(;, Miss XCVI 

Island Ford, Va CXVII 

luka, Miss LVIII, LXXXII 

Ivy Ford, Ark XCVI 

I v y Ford, K y CXXXIV 

Ivy Hills, Miss XCI-\ 

Jackson, Tenn LXIV, LXXXIII 

J.\CKS0N, MISS LXXV, LXXXII, LXX XII I, CXV 

Jackson, La CXXVI, CXXIX 

Jackson Cross Roads, La lAXIX 

Jacksonville, Fla LX X, CV 

Jackson^iort, Ark XCV, CIV 

Jacksboro', Tenn XI.II 

Jack's Shop, Tenn LXXXVII 

Jack's Shop, Va CXXXIII 

James City, Va LXXXIX 

James River, Va XLVI, LXXXIV,CVI, CXIII, CXXVIII 

James Island, S. C XLVIII, XLIX, LXXXIII, CXV, CXX XV 

Jarrett's Station, Va CVII 

Jefferson, Tenn LXV 

JelTcrson City. Mo > CXXVI 

Jeffcrsonton, Va LX X X I.X 

Jeffersonville, Va CVII 

Jenkins's Ferry, Ark CV 

Jenk's Bridge, Ga CXXXI 

Jennie's Creek, Ky XLI 

Jerusalem Plank Road, Va CXIV, CXX HI 

Johnstown, Mo X XXIX 

Johnson Depot, Tenn LXXXVII 

Johnson's Mills, Tenn XCIX 

Jolm.sonville. Tenn CXXIV, CXXIX 

John's Island, S. O CXV 

John Day's River, Oreg CXXXIX 

Jonesboro', Mo XXXVI, LXXXIX 

Joncsboro', Ark LIII 

J0NE.SI1OH0', Ga CXXI,CXXII, CXXIX 

Jones's Bridge, Va CX IV 

Jones's Ford. Miss LXX.X 11 

Jones's Hay Station, Ark C.X XI 

Jonesville. Va ' — XCV 

Jornado Del Muerto, N. Mex LXXVIII 

Jlidah, Rebel Privateer XX.XVI 

Julesbilrg, I. T CXXXIV 



CXLVIII 



INDEX. 



Keamstown, Va XLII, CXVII 

Koarneysville, Va CXXI 

Kearsarjfe and Alaljama, off France CXIII 

Kolly's Ifland, Va XXXIV 

Kelly's Ford, Va LV, LXIX, LXXXIV, XCIl, XCVH 

Kelly's Store, Va LXVII 

Kellars Bridge, Ky CXII 

KENKSAW Mountain, Ga CXI.CXIV 

Kentucky River, Ky LXII 

Kettle Uun, Va LV 

Keycttsville, Mo XLII 

Kincnels, Teiin XCII 

Kilpatrick's raid in Virf^inia C 

Kilpat rick's raid in fleorj^'ia CXXI 

Kiiiderhook, Tonn LIV 

KiliRstuu, N. e LXIV, CXXXVI 

Kinpston, Tcnn XCIII 

Kingston, ('.a ^ CIX 

King (leorgo County, Va LXXXV 

King Cieorge Court-House, Va I^XIII 

King's Pcliool House, Va XLIX 

King s River, Ark CIII 

Kingsport, Tenn CXXXII 

Kingsville, Mo CXII 

Kirksville. Mo LHI 

Knob Noster, JIo XLI 

Knoxville. Tenn LXXXVI, XCIII, XCIV, XCVII 

Koeks Plantation, La LX XXIII 

Lnvcrgne, Tenn LX, LXIII, LXIV, I,X VI, CXXII 

I<id)adiesville, La LXI 

I^acey's Springs, Va CXXXIII 

Ladi.ja. AUi CXXVIII 

l.afnyette County, Mo X LII I, CXII 

Lafayette, Tenn XCV, CXI, CXIV, CXV 

La Fourehe Crossing, La LXXIX 

La Crange, Ark LVII, LX, LXII, LXVI, LXXIV 

La Grange, Tenn LXII, LXXI, CXV 

Lake I'rovidence, La LXVII, LXXVII, LXXVIII, LX XX 

Lake City, Fla XCVIII 

LakeChicot, Ark CXI 

Lainar. Mo LXII 

1-amar, Miss LXIII 

Lamb's Ferry, Tcnn CXXXIII 

Lamine Crossing, Mo LXXXIX 

Lancaster, Mo XXXIX 

Lancaster, Ky LX 

Lane's Prairie, Mo XXXV, CX 

Lanquellc Ferry, Ark LIII 

Lauderdale Springs, Miss XCIX 

Lnnrcl Hill, W. Va XXXV, CXXV 

Lattemorc's Mills, C.a CXIII 

Lawrence, Kans LXXXV 

I^anrence County, Ky LXXXV 

Ijawrenceburg, Ky LX 

Lawrenceburg, Ohio LXXXIII 

Lawrenceburg, Tenn XCI, CXXX 

Leatherwood, Ky LXII 

Leavenworth, Ind I^XXIX 

Lebanon, Mo XLIII 

Lebanon, Tenn XLVI, LXII, LXITI, LXVII 

Lebanon, Ky LI, LXXXI, CXVin 

Lebanon, Ala XCVII 

Leesbnrg, Va XXXVIII 

Leesburg, Mo CXXV 

Leesburg Road, Va LVllI 

Leetown, Ark XLII 

Ijcetown, Va CXV 

I-EK's Mills, Va XLV, CXVI, CX VIII 

Leo. Surrender of CXX XIX 

Legarc's Point. S. C X LVIII 

Lcgarcsville. S. C XCV 

Leiper's Ferry, Tenn XCI 

Lcwisburg, Va X LVII 

I.ewishurgli, A rk XC VI 



Page. 

Lewinsville, Va XXXVII 

Lett's Tan Yard, Cia LX X XVII 

Lexington, Mo XXXVI, XXXVII, XLIII, CXII, CX XVII 

Lexington, Ky LX, LX X XIV, CXII 

Lexington, Tenn LXIV 

Lexington, W. Va CXI, CXII 

Ley's Ferry, da CVIII 

Liberty, Mo LX 

Liberty, Va CXIII 

Liberty, La CXXIX 

Liberty f !np, Tcnn LXXIX 

Liberty Mills, Va XC 

Liberty Post Office, Ark CIII 

Liberty Creek, La CXXIX 

Licking, Mo XLVI 

Licking River, Ky CXII 

Lick Creek, Ark LXVI 

Limestone Station Tcnn LXXXVI 

Linden, Va XLVI 

Linden, Tenn LXXV 

Linn Creek, Ya XLI 

Linn Creek, Mo XXXVIII 

Little Brar Creek, Ala LX III, LXIV 

Little Black River, Mo LXXVII 

Little Blue, Mo XXXIX, XLV, CXV, CXXVII 

Little Blue, D. T CXX 

I-ittle Cacapon, Va CIII 

Little Creek, N. C LXII 

Littlo Harpeth, Tenn LXX 

I^ittlc Missouri River, Ark CII 

Little Missouri River, D. T CXIX 

Little Osage River, Kans CXXVIII 

Little Pond, Tenn LVI 

Little Red River, Ark XLIX 

Little River, Tenn CXXVII 

Little Rock, Ark LXXXVI, CX 

Little Rock Road, Ark LXX 

Little Rock Landing, Tenn LXXII 

Little Santa F6, Mo X XXIX, XLHI 

Little Tennessee River XCI 

Little Washington, Va LXIII 

Liverpool Heights, Jliss XCVII 

Lock's Ford, Va CXXIII 

Lockridge Mills, Ky XLVI 

Lohpeach Farm, Mo LI 

Logan County, Va XLI 

Logan Cross Koads, Ky X LI 

Lone Jack, Mo LV 

Long Prairie, Ark CXXI 

Longview, Ark CI 

Lookout Station, Mo XXXVI 

Lookout Mountain, Tenn XCIII 

Lost Mountain, Ga CXI 

Loudoun County, Va LXI 

Loundon Heights, Va XCVI 

Louisa Court-House, Va LXXIV 

Louisville, Tenn XCIV 

Love.ioy Station, Ga CX'VIII, CXXI, CXXH, CXXIX 

Lovettsville, Va XXXVI, LXI 

Low Creek, W. Va LXXIX 

Lowndesboro', Ala CXXXIX 

LucnsBend,Ky XXVII 

Lumkin's Mills, Miss LXIII 

Luna Landing, Ark XCIX 

Lundy's Lane, Ala LXXI 

Luray, Va L, CX XIV 

Ijynchburg, Va CXIII 

Lynch Creek. S. C CX X X VI 

Lynnville, Tcnn CX X X, CXX XIII 

McAfee's Cross Roads, Ga CXII 

McConnellsburg, Tenn LXXIX, LXXX 

McCook's Raid in Geotgia CXVII 

McDowell. Va XLVI 

McLean's Ford, Va XC 



INDKX. 



OXLIX 



Pape. 

MeMlnnville, Tenn I.VI, I,XXT1, LXXXVIII 

Macon, Ga CXVII, CXVUI, CXXIX, CXL 

Macon County, Tenn CXIV 

Madison, Ark LXX 

Madison Court-house, Tenn LXX XVII 

Madison Court-house, Va CXXXIII 

Madison Station, Ala CIX.CXXX 

Madison County, Ky LV 

Madisonville, Ky LV, LX 

Madisonville, La XC\T 

Magoflin County, Ky CIII 

Magnolia Hills, Miss LXXIV 

Malvkun Hill, Va LI, LIII, CXin, CXVUI 

Manassas. Va XXXV, LVI 

Manassas Junction, Va LXI 

Manassas Gap, Va LXil.LXXXrv 

Munohosler, Tenn LVI, CI 

Mansfield, La CII 

Mansura, La CVIII 

Markham, Va LXII 

Marksville, La CVIII 

Mark's Mills, Ark CIV 

Maria Dcs Cygnes, Kan CX XVIII 

. Maryland Heights, Va CXV 

Marietta, Oa CXI 

Marianna, Ark LXII 

Marinnna, Fla .. CXXV 

Marrowhone, Ky LXX XI 

Marshall, Mo LXXXIV, LXXXIX 

Marj-sville, Tenn XCII 

Marion County, W. Va XXXVI 

Marion, Miss XCIX 

Marion, Va CXXXIII 

Marshfield, Mo XLI, LXI 

Mason's Neck, Va XLII 

Mason's Bridge, S. C CXXXI 

Matapony, Va LIII 

Maysville, Ark LXI 

Maysville, Ala LXXXV, LXXXIX 

Mayfield, Ky XCVI 

Maplesville, Ala CXXXVIII 

Matagorda Bay, Tex XCV 

Muzzard Prairie, Ark CXVIII 

Martinsburg, Va XXXJV, LVn, LXXVIII, CXX, CXXIII 

Martinsburg, Mo XXXV 

Martin's Creek, Ark XCV 

Mathow's Point, Va XXXIV 

Me:nphi8, Tenn XLVIH, LIX, CV, CXXI, CXXXII 

Memphis, Mo LIT 

Merriweather's Ferry, Tenn LIV 

Mesila, N. Mex XXXVI 

MFX'IIAMCSVILLE, VA XLIX 

Mcchanicsvillo, Miss LXX VII 

Medon .Station, Tenn LXVIII 

Meadow Bridge, Va CVIII 

Meadow Bluff, W. Va XCV 

Medalia, Miss LXXI 

Mechanicsburg, Jlisa LXXVII 

Medley, W. Va XCVII 

Meridian, Miss, Expedition to XCVII 

Meridian, Miss XCIX 

MerrilVs Crossing, Mo LXXXIX 

Messenger's Ferry, Miss LXXXI 

Metleys Ford, Tenn XCI 

Mctamora, Miss LIX 

Middle Creek Ford, W. Va XXXV 

Middle Creek, Ky XLI 

Middleburg, Va XLHI.LXXIX 

Middleburg, Miss LXV 

Middletown, Va XLVII, LXXVIII, CXX VII 

Middletown, Tenn LX VI, LX VII, LX X VI, LXXIX, XC VI 

Middleton, Md CXVI 

Millsville, Mo XXXV 

Mill Creek Mills, W. Va XXX VIII 

Mill Creek Valley, W. Vu XCII 

Mill Springs, Ky ' XLI 

20* 



Mill Point, W. Vo. 
Mill Creek, Ga. . . . 
Mill Creek, Tenn.. 
Millen Grove, Ga.. 



Pane. 

XCII 

CVI 

CXXXI 

CXXXI 

Millwood, Va CX.VXIII 

Milton, Tenn LXVIII, LXIX 

Milton, Fla CXXVlil 

Millikcn's Bend, La LV, LXXVII 

Milford, Mo XL 

Milford, Va LI 

Milford Station, Va CIX 

Blitigo f5wamp, Mo LXVII 

Mine Run, Va., Operations at XCIII 

MinoCreok, Kas CXXVIIl 

Mississippi Uiver, Miss LXVIII 

Mississippi Citj', Miss XLII 

Mississippi Central Railroad LVI, LX V, CX XX 

Missouri Itiver, D. T LXXXIV 

Missionary Uidge, Tenn XCIII 

Mitchell's Station, Va LIV 

Mitchells Creek, Fla CXXXIII 

Moorefield, Va LXII, 

LXVI, LXXXVI, LXXX VII, XCVII, CXI, CXIX 

Moore's Mills, Mo LUI 

Moresburg, Toun XCI V 

Monroe .Station, Mo X X X V 

Monroe County, Mo XLVII 

Monroe's Cross Roads, N. C CXX XVI 

Morristown, Mo XX.W'II 

Morristown, Tenn XXXIX, XCIV, CXXVIIl, CXXIX 

Morris Island, S. C LXXXII, LXXXV, LXXXVI 

Morris County, Mo CX 

Morgan's Mills. Ark XCVIII 

Morgantowu, Ky XXXIX, LXI 

Morgan County, Tenn XLI 

Morgans^ille, Ky LVI 

Morgan's Raid in Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio LXXXI 

Morganzia. La LXXXVIII 

Monday's Hollow, Mo XXXVIII 

Monocacy, Md CXVI 

Monocacy River, Md LX 

Moffat's Station, Ark CIII 

Mosby's Raid in Virginia LXIX 

Moscow, Tenn XCI, CXIII 

Moscow, Ark CIH 

Moscow Station, Miss XCIV 

Mosquito Inlot, Fla XI.III 

Mount Zion, Mo XL 

Blount Zion Church. Va..- CXV 

Mount Sterling, Ky LIII, LXIX, CXI 

Mount 'Washington, Ky LIX 

Mount Vernon, Ark LXXV 

Mount Tabor Church, N. C LXX XIV 

Mount Jackson, Va XCIII 

Mount ivy. Miss XCIX 

Mount Elba, Ark CI 

Mount Pleasant Landing, La CVIII 

Mount Clio, S. C CXXXVI 

Mount Pleasant, Miss CIX 

Mount Pleasant, Ala CXXXVIII 

Mount Crawford, Va CXI, CXXXVI 

Mount Carmel, Tenn CXXX 

MobUe Harbor, Ala CXIX 

Mossy Creek, Tex XCV 

MossyCreek, Tenn XCVI 

Morton's Ford, Va XCVIII 

Morton, Miss XCVIII 

Monetir's Bluff, La CIV 

Morrow Creek, Ark CIV 

Morrcausville, La CVIII 

Moulton, Ala CX 

Montgomery County, Ark CXVI 

Montgomery and West Point Railroad, Ga CXVII 

Montgomery', Ala CXXX IX 

Moreau Bottom, Mo CXXVI 

Monteith .Swamp, (ia CXX. Ml 



CL 



INDEX. 



Mocassin Gap, Va CXXXIIl 

llountain Orove, Mo XLII 

Moinitiiin Store, Mo TJI 

Monterey, Ivy XLIX 

Monterey, Va XLV 

Monterey, Tenn XLVI 

Monterey Gar, M<1 LXXXI 

Mo-.itavnllo, Mo XLV, LIII 

Moiitavallo, Ala CXXXVni 

Morning Siin, Tenn LI 

Mobile, Ala CX X X VII 

Monticello, Ky LXXIV, LXXVII 

Monticello, Ark , CI 

Munsona Hill, Va XXXVI, XXXVII 

Mumf.ird '8 .Station, Ala CXL 

Mumfor Jsville, Ky XL, LVII, LIX 

Murfreeaboro', Tenn LI, LXV, 

LXIX, LXXVII, LXXIX, CXXIII, CXXXI, CXXXIT, CXXXIlI 

Mnrfrcesboro' Hoad, Tenn LXXXVIII 

Molilrauph's Hill, Ky _ LXV 

MiKlJy Kun. Va XCII 

Mud Springs, I. T CXXXV 

Mussel .Shoals, Ala CXXVIII 

Mulberry Gap, Tenn XCIX 

MustanR Island, Tex XCIH 

Myirstown, Va CXXIX 

Kanseniond, Va _- LXXI 

Nanscinond River, Va LXXIV 

Namozin Cliurcb, Va CXXX VIII 

lsurrn\y8, Ga CXXVI 

Nashville, Tenn XLII, LII, LX, LXII, CIX, CXXXI, CXXXII 

Nashville and Chattanoog^a Railroad, Tenn CXX, CXXII 

Natches, Miss LXXXIV, XCII, XCIV 

Natchifoehes, La CI, CFV 

Natural Ilridgc, Fla CXXXVl 

Nauvoo, Ala CXXXIV 

Nelson's Farm, Va L 

Neosho, Mo _ XLVI, XLVIII, LXXXVni 

Ncnses River, N. C CXXXIX 

Newark, Mo Lin 

Newnan, Ga CXVOI 

New Heme, N. C XLIII, 

XLVI, XLVII, LXII, LXVni, LXIX, XCVII, c 

Now Market. Va CVin,CXVIII, CXXVI 

New Market Bridge, Va XL 

New Market Cross Roads, Va L 

New Market Heights, Va CXXV, CXXVI 

Newport News, Va XXXIV, XL, XLII 

Newport Barracks, N. C XCVH 

Newtonia, Mo LVH, CX XVIII 

Newton, La : LXXXVIII 

Newtown, Va XLVII, CXXIX 

New Creek, W. Va XXXIV, CXIX, CXXX 

New Creek Valley, W. Va XCVII 

New Albany, Miss LXXII, LXXXVIII 

Now Baltimore, Va LXII 

New Bridge, Va XIA'U 

New Hope, Ky LI 

Now I loi* Church, Ga CX 

New Lisbon, Ohio LXXXIV 

New Madrid, Mo XLH, XLIH, LXXXV 

New Madrid Bend, Tenn XCI 

New Orleans, La XLVI 

New River Bridge, Va CVII 

New Ulm, Minn LV 

Nickajack Trace, Ga CIV 

Nicknlack Creek, Ga CXV 

Ninevah, Va CXXIX 

Niobrara, Neb XCIV 

Nnlansville, Md LVII 

Nolansvillc, Tenn LX V, LX VIII 

Noonday Creek, Ga CXIII 

Norfolk, Va XLVI 

Northeast River, N. C LXVI 



Page. 

Northport, Ala CXXXVIII 

North Anna River, Va LII, CVII, CIX 

North Edisto River, S. C CXXXV 

North Fork, Va CXXXVl 

North Mountain, Va CXV 

North Missouri Railroad CXXV 

North River, W. Va CXV 

North .Shenandoah, Va CX.XVI 

Nose'sCreek, Ga CXI, CXIII, CXXV 

Nottaway Creek, Va CVII 

Nottaway Court-house, Va CXIV 

Nuecc's River, Tex LIV 

Oak Grove, Va XLIX 

Oakland, Miss LXIII 

Obion River, Tenn LIV 

Oocoquan, Va XLII, LXV 

Occoquan Creek, Va XXXIX 

Occoquan Bridge, Va XLI 

Ocean Pond, Fla XCIX 

Oconee River, Ga CXXX 

Offett'a Knob, Mo CIV 

Ogcechee River, Ga CXXXI 

Okalona, Miss XCIX 

Okalona, Ark CII 

Okltown, Md CXI.X 

Old Church, Va CX, CXII 

Old Fort Wayne, Ark LXI 

Old Oaks, La CIX 

Old River, La LXVIX, CIX 

Old River Lake, Ark CXI 

Olive Branch, La CXXXVl 

Olive Hill, Ky LIX 

Olustee, Fla XCIX 

Oosteu.aula, Ga CVIIi 

Opelousas, La XG 

OrKQiiAN, Va CXXIII 

Orangeburg, S. C CXXXV 

Orange Cotirt-hoiise, Va LII,LIII 

Orclulrds, Va XLIX 

Orchard Knob, Tenn XCIII 

Oregon Mountains XCVII 

Orleans, Ind LXXVIII 

Osage, Mo LXI 

Osceola, Mo XXXVH, XLVII 

Osceola, Ark CII, CXIX 

Otter Creek, Va CXIII 

Overalls Creek, Tenn CXXXI 

Oveiton's Hill, Tenn CXXXII 

Owens Valley, Tenn LXVIII 

Owens River, Cal XLV 

Owens County, Ky XLIX 

Owensburg, Ky LVIII 

Owensboro' Ky CXXII 

O-tford Hill, Miss CXXI 

Oxford Bend, Ark LXI 

Ox Hill, Va LVI 

Ozark, Mo LIH, LXIH, CXVI 

Paint Rock Railroad Bridge XLVI 

Paintsville, Ky XLI, X CIII 

Palo Alto, Miss , LXXn 

Palmyra, Mo XXXIX 

Palmyra, Tenn XCII 

Palmetto Ranch, Tex • CXL 

I'nducah, Ky CI 

Pamunkey River, Va CX 

Panther Creek, Mo LIV 

Panther Springs, Tenn C 

Panther Gap, \V. Va CXI 

Papinsvillo, Mo XXXVII 

Paris, Ky LIII, LXIX, LXXXIV 

Paris, Tenn XLII, LXXXVII 

l»arker8ville. Mo XXXV 

Parker's Cross Roads, Tenn LXV 

Pasquotank, Mo , LXXXV 



INDEX. 



CLI 



rage. 

Pass Christian, Miss XIjIII 

Pattaciissoy Croek, N. C LXXXIV 

I'ntton, Mo LU 

Patterson, Mo LX XII 

PatturdonviUe, La LXX 

Patterson Croek, Va XXXIV, XCVII 

I'awnoo Kesor\'ation LXXIX 

Pawnee Forks, Kas CXXX 

Peach Orchard, Va L 

Poach Tree Creek, Ga CXVII 

PeaPvidffO, Ark XLTI 

Pea Vino Creek, Oa XCIV 

Pechacho Pass, D. T XLV 

Pembiscott Bayou, Ark CII 

Penaacola, Fla XXXIX, CII 

Peralto, N.Mox XLV 

Perry County, Ky LXII 

PEltliYVILI.E, Kr LX 

Perry villo. Ark LXXXV 

I'etcrsburgh, W. Va XXXVII, XCVI 

PKTElisllUKO, Va LIIl.CXII 

cxiii, cxv, cxviii, cxix, cxxji, cxxxi, cxxxvii, cxxxviii 

Petersburfjf, Tenn LX Vlll 

Petit Jean, Ark CXVI 

Philadelphia, Tenn XC, XCI 

Philip's Creek, Miss XLVII 

Phillirpi, W.Va XXXIV 

Philomont, Va liX I 

Piedi^ont, Va CXI 

Piedmont Station, Va LXXV 

Pierce's Point, Fla CXXVH 

Pierson's Farm, Va CXIII 

Pike County, Ky XXXIX 

Pikotown, Ky XXXIX 

Pike Creek, Ky i CVIII 

Pikeville, Ky LXXI 

PikesviUe, Ark CXFV 

Pilot Knob, Mo CXXVIII 

Pinckney Island, S. C LV 

Pine Bluff, Ark XCI, XCVI, CXIII, CXV, CXXIII, CXXVI 

Pino Bluff, Tenn CXXI 

Pine Barren Creek, Ala CXXXUI, CXXXVII 

Pine Knol), Ga CXIII 

Pino Mountain, Ga CXII 

Pineville, Mo LXXXV 

Pinoy Factory, Tenn XCI 

Pincy Woods, La CII 

Pinos Altos, Ariz LX VII 

Pittman's Ferry, Ark LII 

Pittuian'a Ferrj', Mo LXI 

Pittsburg Landing, Tenn XLII, XLV 

Plaquemine Bayou, La LXVII 

Phiqucmine, La LXXIX,CXIX 

Plain Stores, La LXXVI, CII 

Phittsburff, Mo XXXIX 

PlatteCity, Mo CXV 

Pleasant Hill, Mo LI,CX 

Pleasant Hill, La CIII 

Pleasant Hill Landing, La. CIII 

Pleasant Grove, La CII 

Pleasant Valley, Md CXV 

Plymouth, N.C LVII, CIII, CXXIX 

PlaatersviUe CXXXVIII 

Pooataligo, S. C XLVII, LXI, CXXXIV 

Pocahontas County, W. Va XCII 

Point Lookout, Va CVIII 

Point of Rocks, Md XXXVI, CXI, CXV 

Point Lick, Ky LXI 

Point Pleasant, W. Va LXX 

Point Pleasant, La CXIV 

Point Washington, Fla XCVUI 

Poison Springs, Ark CIII 

Polk's Plantation, Ark LX XVI 

Poptar Springs Church, Va CXX V 



Page. . 

PoUocksvillo, N. C XLV, LX VI 

Polk County, Mo XLIII 

Pond County, Ky CVIII 

Pond Spring, Ala C XX X III 

Pontotoc, Miss CXVI 

Ponchatoula, La LVIII, LXX, LXXV 

Poolesvillc, Md '. LVII 

Pope's Campaign in Virginia LVI 

Portltoyal, S. C XXXIX, XL 

Port Republic, Va XLVIII 

Port Gibson, Miss LXXIV, XCV, CXV, (;XVI 

Port Hudson, La LXIX 

Port Hudson, La LXXVIF, LXXVIII, LXXXll, CII 

Port Hudson Plains, La LXXVI 

Port Walthal, Va CVI 

Poole's Station, Ga CXXXI 

Potosi, Mo XXXVI, XXXVIII 

Pound Gap, Va C X X V 

Pound Gap, Teiin X LIII, L X X X 1 

Pmnid Gap, Ky CIII 

Powel'B River Bridge, Tenn Xt'IX 

Powdir Springs, Oa CXII I, CX X V 

Powhattan, Va CXXXIV 

Pruirie b'Ann, Ark ('.Ill 

Prairie Station, Mo LX VI II 

Pniirie Station, Mit-a Xt'IX 

Pmiric Grove, Ark I.XIV 

I'nblea Farm, Va CXXV 

Prentis, Miss LIX 

Price's Invasion of Missouri CXXIV 

Princeton, W. Va XLVII, CVI 

Princeton, Ky CXII 

Princeton, Ark XCIV, CIU, CXX VIU 

Princes Place, Mo CXXVI 

Pritchard's Mill, Md X X XVII 

Pueblo Colorado, Mo LXXXV 

Pulaski, Ala LXXXIII 

Pulaski, Tenn LXXXIX, CXXV, CXXXIII 

Puhiski, Ga CVIII 

Pumpkin Vine Creek, Ga CX 

Putnam's Ferry, Mo XLIII 

Quaker Bridge, N. C LXXXI 

QuakerKoad, Va CVII 

Qmdltowu, N. C XCVIII 

Quicksand Creek, Ky CII 

Raccoon Ford, Va LX XXVII 

Raccoon Ford, Ala CXXVIII 

Raccland, La X LI X 

Randolph County, Mo XXXIX 

Raiiidan, Va LXXXIX, XC,C 

Rnpidun Station, Va LXXIV, LXXXVII 

Rapidan Railroad Bridge, Va LI 

Rappahannock, Va LXXXIX, CI 

Rappahannock River, Va LV, LXXIII 

Rappahannock Bridge, Va LXn, XCI 

Rappahannock Crossing, Va XC 

Rappahannock Station, Va LXXXIV, XCII 

Eawlc's Mills, N.C LXH 

Ray County, Mo XXXVUI 

Raymond, Miss LXXV, XCVII 

Rnytown, Mo XLIX 

Readyville, Tenn :. LVI 

Re.am's Station, Va CXIV, CXVI, OXXI 

Rectortown, Va XCV 

Red Hone, Miss CIV 

Red Bone Church, Mo LXXXVUI 

Red Clay, Ga CV 

Red Hill, Ala CXXXIV 

Red House, W. Va XXXV 

Rod Moimd, "Tenn LXV 

Red Oak, Ga CXXI 

Red River, La LXVIII, CIV, CV 

Rcdn-ood Creek, Cal LXXXII 

Bedvrood, Miw LV 



CLII 



TNDEX. 



rafre. 

Rcpil's Moimtiiins, Ark LXIII 

Rccrty Crotk, W. Vu XLVI 

Kcni.*, Mo XXXIX 

Ecrock, Ariz CXXXVII 

Resaca, Ca CVIII, CXXVH 

Rpj-noliVs Planlation CXXX 

Rhcas Mills, Ark LXIT 

Rhcatown, Tenn LXXXIX 

RirhflcliI, Mo LXX VI 

Riohland, Ark C V 

Richland, Tenn CXXIV 

Rich Mountain, AV. Va , XXXV 

Richmond, Ky I.VI, I.XXXIV 

Richmond, La TjXX, IjXXVIII 

Richmond, Va C, CVII, CXXVIII, OXXXVIII 

Richmond & Petersburg Railroad, Va CVII 

Ricket fs Hill, Tenn LVII 

Riddle's Shor, Va '. C XII 

Rienzi, Miss LV 

Rinfffrold, (la LXXX VI, XCI V 

Ripley, Tenn LXVI 

Ripley, Miss XCIV, CXI, CXII, CXVI 

River's Rridjro, S. C CXXXV 

R<ibertsnn's Kim, Va L?vXXIX 

Roan's Tan Yard • XLI 

Roanoke Island, N. C XLI 

Roanoke River, N. C CV 

Roach's I'lanfation, Sliss CI 

Roeheport, JIo LX X VII 

Rockford, Tenn XCIl 

Roikinpham, N. C CXXX VI 

Rockport, Mo CXXIV 

Hockville, Md LXXXVII 

Rocky Creek Church, Gn CXXXI 

Rocky Crossing, Jliss LXXIX 

Rocky Face Ridge, Ga C, CVI 

Rocky Gap, Ky LXXVII 

Rocky Gap, Va LXXXV 

Rocky House, W. Va XCVIII 

Reeky Mount Raid, N. C LXXXIII 

Rodgersville, Ala XLVI 

Rodgersville, Term CXXI 

Rodney, Miss XCV, C 

Rogersville, Tenn XCII 

RoUa, Mo XXXV, CXIX 

Rolling Fork, Miss CXXIX 

Rolling Prairie, Ark XC VI 

Rolling Prairie, Mo XCVH 

Rome, Ga LXXIII, CVIII, CIX 

Romncy, W. Va XXXIV, XXXVIII, LXVIII 

Rood's Hill, Va CVIII, CXXX 

Rosecr.tns' Campaign in Tennessee LXXIX 

Ro«!evillo, Ark XCII, CII 

Rousseau's Raid in Alabama and Georgia.-- CXVI 

Rousseau's Pursuit of "Wheeler, Tenn CXXII 

Rotmd Away IJayou, La LXX 

Roundllill, Ark LI 

RoundHill, Tenn LVI 

Rover, Tenn LXVII 

Rowanty Creek, Va C-XX.XV 

Rowlelt's Station, Ky XL 

Rimning Vicksburg Batteries LX XT 

Rural Hills, Tenn LXIII 

Rush Creek, LT CXXXV 

Kussel's House, 3Iiss XLVI 

Ranselville, Tenn LI 

Russelville, Ky LIU, LIX 

Rntherford's Creek, Tenn LXIX, C.KXXIII 

Sabine I'uss, Tex LXXU 

Sabine I'uss, La LXX.XVI 

Sai)ino Cross Roads, La CII 

Sacramento, Ky XL 

Sacramento Mountain, Va CXXI 

Salem, N. C CXXX VIII 



I'nge. 

Salem, Miss LXXXIX 

Siilcm, Va LXII, C XIII 

Salem, Mo X X X 1 X 

Salem, Ark XI,1 II 

Salem Cemetery, Tenn LXIV 

Salem I'ike, Tenn LXIX 

Salem Church, Va CXI 

Siilkahatchie, S. C CXX XV 

Salisbury, Tenn LIV, XCIV 

Salisbury, N. C CXXX IX 

Saline County, JIo LXXXIV 

Saline River, Ark CV 

Salt Lick, Va XC 

Saltvillo, Va CXXV, CXXXII, CXXXIII 

SalycrsviUo, Ky XCIV 

Sailor's Creek CXX XIX 

Saint Charles River, Ark CXIV 

Samaria Church, Va CXIII, C X IV 

Sam Gaty, Massacre on .Steamer LXX 

San Carlos River, Cal C.X 

Sand Creek, L T CXXXII 

Sand Jlountain, Ala LXXIII 

Sandcrsville, Ga CXX.v 

Sangster's Station, Tenn - - XCV 

Santa Fc, N. JI XLI 1 1 

Santa Fe, JIo - LII 

Santa Rosa, Fla XXXVl II 

Saratiign; Ky X X X VIII 

Sartoria, Miss LXXVII 

Saunders, Fla CIX 

Snulsbury, Miss CXV 

S AV.1G K Station, Va L 

Savannah, Tenn XI^V 

Savannah, Ga., Siege of. CX.XXII 

Seattcrvillo, Ark H 

Scott's Mills Road, Tenn XCVII 

Scott's Farm, Ark XCVIII 

Scottsboro', Ala CX XXIV 

Seottsville, Ala CXX-XVin 

Snrougcsville, Tenn LXIII 

Scullyville, LT ClII 

Seabrook's Point, S. C XLVIII 

Searcy, Ark CXI, CXV, CXXIII 

Searcj^ Landing, Ark XLVI 

Scnrytown, W. Va XXXIV 

Seccssionville, S. C XLIX, LXXXIII 

Sedalia, Mo XXXIX, CXX VII 

Sclma, Ala CXXX VIII 

Sen.atohia, Miss LXXVI 

Seneca, Md LXX VIII 

Seneca Station, L T LX XXVII 

Seven Daj's' Retreat, Va L 

Sk VEN Fixes, Va X LVIII 

Seviersville, Tenn XCVII 

•Shady Springs, Va LVI, LXXXIII 

Shanghai, Mo XXXVII, XXXVIII 

.Shannon Hill, Va LXXIV 

Sharp.sburg, Jld LVIII 

Shawnee Mound, Mo XL 

Shawnee Town, Kas LXXVII 

Shelby Depot, Tenn IjXI 

Shelby County, Ky XL 

Shelby ville, Tenn LXXX 

ShelbjTillo Pike, Tenn LXXVII, LXXIX, LXXXIX 

.Shclhina, Mo XXXVII 

Shelburne, Mo LVIII 

Shenandoah, Va CXXXVI 

Shenandoah River, Va CXVII 

.Shephcrdstown, Va LIX, CXXI 

Sheppardstown, Va LVm, LXX XIII 

Shepherdsville, Ky LI.X 

Sheridan's Cavalry Raid. Va CVII, CXXXVI 

Shenvood, Mo LXXV 

SiiiLoii, Tenn XLV 



[NDEX. 



CLIir 



Page. 

Rhiii'B Onp, Ga CXXVII 

Sbirlpy'a Ford, Mo LVIII 

Shoal Creek, Ala CXXIX 

Sibley's Laiidinjf, Mo LX.LXX 

Silver Creek, Mo XLI 

Silver Lake, Fla XCIX 

Silver Kiui, N. C CXXXVI 

Simmsport, La CIX 

Siinpsonville, Ky CXXXIV 

Sinking Creek, Va LXIII 

Sipsoy Swamp, Ala CXXXIX 

Six Mile House, Va CXX 

Six Mile Creek, Ala CXXXVIII 

Skeet, N. C LXVIII 

Slatersville, Va XLVI 

Slaughter Jlountain, Va LIV 

Slaughtcrville, Ky LVII 

Smithfielii, Va LXVII, LXXXVII, XCVII, CIII, CXXI, CXXII 

Smithfield, Ky CXXXIV 

Smithsbur^, Md LXXX I 

Smith's Fiirm, N. C CXXXVII 

Smith's Kaid in Tennessee XCVIII,OXV 

Smith's Station, LT CVII 

SmithvUle, Ark XLIX 

Smoky Hill, C. T CVIII 

Smoky Ilill Crossing, Kas CXX 

Snijrna, Ga CXV 

Snaggy l*oint, La C V 

Snake Creek Gap, Ga CVII, CXXVII 

Snia Hills, Mo CIV, CIX 

Snicker's Gap, Va LXI, CXVI 

Snicker's Gap Pike, Va CXXI 

Snickers Ferry, Va LXIII, CXVH 

Snow Hill, Tonn LXX 

Snyder's nUiff, Miss LXXIII 

Snydersville, Miss CI 

Solomon's Gap, Md CXVI 

Somerset, Ky XLT,LSX 

Somerville Heights, Va XLVI 

Bomerville, Tenn LXX 

SoundingOap, Tenn XLIII 

South Anna, Va LXXX, C, CVII, CXXXVI 

South IJranch of Watonwan, Minn LXX I 

South Edisto River, S. C CXXXV 

South Fork, Potomac, Va LXII 

South Fork, Greg CXXXIX 

South Mills, N.C XLVI 

South Mountain, Mu LVIII 

South Quay, Va LXXX 

South Quay Bridge, Va LXXIV 

Southsiilo Railroad, Va CXXVIII 

South Tunnel, Tenn CXXVI 

South Union, Ky LXXV 

Southwest Mountain, Va LIV 

Southwe.rt Creek, N.C LXIV 

Spanish Fort, Ala CXXXVII 

Spanish Fort Canon, U. T LXXI 

Sparta, Tenn LIII, LXXXV, XCHI 

Sperry ville, Va LI 

Spoonville, Ark CII 

Sporting Hill, Pa LXXX 

SrOTTSYLV.\SIA COURT HOUSE, VA LXXin,CVI 

Springfield, Mo XXXVIII, XXXIX, LXVI 

Springfield, W. Va XCVII 

Springfield Landing, La LXX XI 

Spring Hill, Tenn LXIX,CXXX 

Spring River, Ark XLIII, XCVHI 

Spring River, Mo LVIU, LXVIII 

Stanardsville, Va C 

State Creek, Kas LXXVHI 

Stateshoro', Ga CXXXI 

Stamford, Ky LX 

StahcVs Reconnoissance, Va LXIII 

Staunton Bridge, Va CXIV 



Page. 

Stanton Road, Va XLVIII 

St. Augustine, Fla XCV 

St. Catharine's Creek, Miss LXXXIV 

St. Francois River, Mo LX.XIII 

St. George's Creek, Ohio LXX.MU 

StCharles, Ark XLIX 

St. Francis County, Mo LXXI 

St. John's River, Fla CIX 

St. Mary's River, Fla XCVIII 

St, Mary's Trestle, Fla CXVII 

St. Louis, Mo XXXIV 

St. Vrains Old Fort, N. Mex CXXX 

Steele's llnyou, Miss {jXIX 

Sterling's Farm, La LXXXVIII 

Sterling's Plantation, La LXXXVII 

Steamer Emi)ress, Miss CXIX 

Stevensburg, Va , XCII, C 

Stevens' Gap, Ga LXXX VI 

Stevenson, Ala LVI 

Stevenson's Depot, Va CXVII 

Stewart s l'lantati<>n. Ark L 

Stewart's Creek, Tenn LXV, LXVI 

Stone's Farm, Ark CII 

Stone's Ferry, Ala C.WI 

STONI: lilVKIt, 'I'K.NN LXVI 

Stony Lake, D. T LXX.XIV 

Stony Creek, Va CXIV 

Stony Creek Station, Va CVI, CXXVI, CXX X 

Stoho Inlet, S. C LXXI.XCV 

Stockton, Mo LIV 

Stockade at Stone River, Tenn LXXXVIII 

Stouemau's Raid in Va LXXIII 

Stoneuiau'a Raid to Macon, Ga C.WU 

Stonemau's Raid in Tenn. and Va CXXXII 

Stoneman's Raid in Southwest Va. and N. C CXX. V VII 

Strasburg, Va XLIII, XLVIII, CXX, CXXVI, CXXVII 

Strasburg Uoail, Va LXV11I,LXXII 

Strawberry Plains, Tenn .CVI 

Strj\w berry Plains, Va C.'^^X 

Streight's Raid in Georgia and Alabama LX.MII 

Sturgeon, Mo LI X 

Sugar Creek, Mo XLI, XLII 

Sugar Creek, Tenn LXXXIX, CXX.XlIi 

Sugar Loaf Mountain, Sid LVII 

Sugar Loaf Hill, N. C CXXXIV 

Sugar Loaf Itatlcry, N.C CX.XXV 

Sugar Valley, Ga CVHI 

Sulphur Dnmch Trestle, Ala CXXI V 

Sulphur Spring.i, Va LV 

Sulphur Springs Bridge, Va CXIX 

Suffolk, Va LXV, LXXI, LXXV, C 

Summerville, W. Va XXXVI, LXVII 

Summerville, Aliss LXIII 

Summerville, Teun XCV 

Summit Point, Va C.\ XI 

Sumpterville, S. C CXXXVII, CXXXIX 

Sunshine Church, Ga CXIX 

Surrender of Lee CXXXIX 

Surrender of Johnson CXL 

Surrender of Taylor CXL 

Surrender of Sam. Jones CXL 

Surrender of Jeff. Thompson CXL 

Surrender of Kirby Smith CXL 

Supply Train, Tenn XCI 

Sutton, Va LIX 

Suwano Gap, N. C CXL 

Swallow's Bluff, Tenn LXXXMIl 

Swan Lake, Ark CIV 

Sweden's Cove, Tenn XLVI il 

Sweetwater, Tenn XCI 

.Sweetwater Creek, Ga C,\XV 

SwiftCreek, Va '. CVII 

Swift(;reek, S. C CXXXIX 

Swift Creek Bridge, N. C L 



CLIV 



INDEX. 



Sycamore Church, Va LIU, CXXIII 

Sykestown, ilo XLII 

Rylamore, Ark XLII 

Sylvan CfiOTO, Ga CXXX 

Taberville, Mo LIU 

Taherville, Ark LFV 

Tah-Kaho-Kuty, D. T CXVm 

Tahliqnah, I. T LXX 

Talladega, Ala CXL 

Talbotfs Ferry, Ark XLVI 

Talbot's Station, Tenn XCV 

Tallahatchie, Fla XLIX 

Talli(Jiatchie, Miss LXXIX, LXXXIX, CXIX 

Tallahassee, Fla CXL 

Tallapoosa River, Ala CXVI 

Tanner's Bridge, Ga C VIII 

Tar River, N. C LXXXIII 

Taylor's Ford, Ky XXXIX 

Taylor's nidge, Ga XCIV, CXXVII 

Taylor's Hole Creek CXXXVII 

Taylorsville, Va C 

Tazewell, Tenn LIV, XCVI 

TebVs Bond, Ky LXXXI 

Telford, Tenn LXXXVI 

Ten Islands, Ala CXVI 

Ten Miles from Columbus, Ky CXXXIV 

Tennessee Tliver, Tenn CXXI 

Terrapin Creek, Ala CXXVIII 

Torre Noire Creek, Ark CH 

Terrisville, Tenn XCVI 

Texas County, Mo LXIII, LXXXVI 

The Island, Mo LXX 

Thibodcaui, La LXXIX 

TliibodeauxviUe, La ^XI 

Thomas Station, Ga CXXX,CXXXI 

Thompson Cove, Tenn LXXXVIII 

Thompson's Hill, Jliss LXXIV 

Thompson's Station, Tenn LXIX 

Thomburg, Va LIU 

ThornhiU, Ala CXXXIV 

Thoroughfare Gap, Va LX, LXII 



Tickfaw River, Bliss 

Tillafmney River, S. 

Tilton, Tenn 

Tilton, Ga 

Tishamingo County, Miss. 

Tobosof kee, Ga 

Todd's Tavern, Va 



LXXIV 

CXXXI 

CVIII 

CXXVII 

XCI 

CIV 

CVI 

Tompkinsvillo, Ky LI, LXXII 

c,xxvi 

LVI 

ex 

ex 

Lxxm 

cxxxv 

LXVII 

XCVI 

XLvm 



Tom's Brook, Va. 

Toon's Station, Tenn... 

Totopotomy, Va 

TotoiM)tomy Creek, Va. 

Town Creek, Ala 

Town Creek, N. C 

Township, Fla 

Tracy City, Tenn 

Trantner's Creek, N. C. 



Trenton, Tenn LIV, LXV 

Trenton, N. C LXIV 

Trenton Bridge, N. C XLVI 

Trevlllian Station, Vo. CXII 

Trinity, Ala LII 

Trinity River, Cal -XCII 

Trion, Ala. CXXXVIII 

Tripletfs Bridge, Ky LXXVIII 

Truine, Tenn LXXVIII 

Trj- Mountain, Ky XXXIX 

Tullahonna, Tenn LXXIX, LXXX, XCI 

Tunica County, Miss •. Lin 

Tunnel Hill, Ga XCVTI, C.CVI 

Tunnel Hill, Miss XCIX 

Tunstall Station, Va XLIX, LXXI\^ C 

Tupelo, Miss LX.XIV.CXV, CXVI 



Page. 

Turkey Bend, Vn L 

Turkey Island Bridge, Va LII 

Turnian's Ferrj', Ky XCVI 

Turnback Creek, Mo XLVI 

Turner's and Cranipton's Gaps, Md LVIII 

Tuacumbia, Ala LXVIII, LXXII, LXXIII, XCI 

Tuscumbia Creek, Miss XLVII 

Tuscaloosa, Ala CXXXIX 

Two Hills, Bad Lands, D.T CXIX 

Union, Va LXI 

Union City, Tenn XLIII, LXXXII, XCllI 

Union City, Ky CI 

Union Church, Va XLVIII 

Union Church, Miss LXXIII 

Union Mills, Mo I^V 

Unionvillo, Tenn LXIX 

Union Station, Tenn CXXIX 

University Place, Tenn LXXXI 

Upper Missouri River, Ark LX 

Ui'perville, Va LXI, LXXIX, LXXXVIII 

Upton Hill, Ky XXX VIII 

Utoy Creek, Ga XLIX 

Vaeho Orasse, Ark CXXIV 

Valvorde, N. Mox XLII 

Van Uuren, Ark LXV, CXIX 

Vamnll's Station, Oa CVII 

Vauglin, Miss CVII 

Vaughn l?oad, Va CXXVIII, CXXXV 

Vaughl's Hill, Tenn LXIX 

Vera Cruz, Ark , CXXIX 

VermiUion Bayou, La LX.XXI.X 

Vernon, Ind LXXXII 

Verona, Miss C-XXXIII 

Vicksburg, Miss XLIX, LXV 

LXVIII, LX.XXVI, LXXIX, LXXX, LXXXV, XCVII, XCVIIt, CXV 

Vidalia, La LXXXVII, XCVIII, CXVII 

Vienna, Va XXXIV, XXXIX, LVII 

Village Creek, Ark XLIX, L 

Vincent's Cross Roads, Miss XCI 

Vinegar Hill, S. LXXXV 

Viniug Station, Ga. CXV 

Volusia County, Fla CXXXV 

Wachita, Indian Agency, Tex LXVII 

Wadesburg, Mo XL 

Waddel's Fann, Ark XLIX.L 

Waldron, Ark L XXXVII, LXX.XIX, XCV, XCVII 

Wallace's Ferry, Ark CXVII 

Wall Bridge, Va CV 

Walkcrsvillo, Mo XLV 

Walkers Ford, W. Va XCIV 

Walkertown, Va C 

Walthal, Va CXIII 

Wappipg Heights, Va LXXXIV 

Wardensville, Va XLVII 

Warm Springs, N. Mei LXXIX 

Warm Springs, N. XCIII 

Warrenburg, Mo XLIII, XUX 

Warrenton Junction, Va LIX, LXXIV, LXXV 

Warrenton Springs, Va LXXXIX 

Warsaw, Mo XXXVIH, LXXXIX 

Wartraco, Tenn LXXXVIII 

Washington, N. G XLVIU, LVII, LXX, XCI 

Wasliington, D.C CXVI 

Watauga River, Ark CXXV 

Waterford, Miss LXIII 

Waterford, Va LXXXIV 

Waterloo Bridge, Va LV 

Waterproof, La XCIII, XCIX, CIV 

Water Valle y. Miss LXIII 

Waughs Farm, Ark XCIX 

Wauhatchie, Tenn XCI 

Wautauga River, Tenn XXXIX 

Wautauga Bridge, Tenn LXV.CIV 

Wavorly, Tenn : LXI, LXXI 



INDEX. 



CLV 



Page. 

Wayne County, W. Vo XCVIII 

Wiiyno Court Houso, W. Va XXXVl 

Wnyiicsville, Mo LXXXV 

Woyncsboro', Va CXXV.CXXXVI 

WayDOsboro', Ga CXXX.CXXXI 

Weaver's Store, Ky LXXIII 

Weber's Falls, I. T LXXXVI 

Wclaka, Kla. CIX 

Wei don Railroad, Va CVI, CVn, CXIV, CXX, CXXV, CXXXI 

Wentzvillo, Mo XXXV 

Western North Carolina, Expedition into CXXXII 

Westminster, Md LXXX 

Westport, Mo LXXVm, CXXVIII 

Weston, W.Va LVI 

West Branch, Va LXXI 

Wet Glaze, Mo XXXVIII 

West Liberty, Ky XXXVIII 

WestPoint, Va XLVI 

West Point, Ark LXXXV, CXHI, CXVIII 



West Point, Miss 

West Point, Ga 

West Virjfinia, Averlll's Raid . 

Weyer's Cave, Va 

Whistler's Station, Ala 

Whitemursh, Ga 

White's Bridge, Va 



XCIX 

CXXXIX 

LXXXV 

, CXXIV 

CXXXIX 

XLV 

evil 

White's Ford, Va LXXXVII 

Whiteside, Fla CXVIII 

Whittakers Mills, Va LXXI 

White County, Ark XCVIII 

White County, Tenn XCIX 

WhitehttU, N. C LXIV 

White House, Va CXni 

White Oak Swamp, Va L 

White Oak Swamp Bridge, Va LCI, CXII 

White Oak Bridge, Ky LV 

White Oak Road, Va CXXXVUI 

White Post, W.Va OXII, CXIX, CXXXI 

White River, Ark XLIX, LXXXV, CXIV, CXXVIII 

Whits Stone HUl, D. T LXXXVI 

White Sulphur Springs, Va LXIII, LXXXV, LXXXIX 

White Water, Mo , LXXII 

Wier Bottom Church, Va CXIII 

Wilcox's Bridge, N. C CXXXVI 

Wildcat, Ky XXXVIII 

Wilderness, Va CVI 

Wiliston, S.C CXXXV 

Willis' Church, Va, L 

Williamsburg, Va XLVI, LI, LVn, LXVH, LXX, LX.XI 

Williamsburg, Ky LXI 

Williamsburg Road, Va XLIX 

Williams' Bridge, La XLIX 



Pa^e. 

Williams' Farm, Va CXIV 

Williamsport, Tenn LI V 

Williamsport, Md LIX.LXXXI 

Williamsport, W.Va XCVII 

Williamston, N. C LXII 

Willicomack, Va CXXXVUI 

Willmarsh Ishind, S.C XCIX 

Willow Creek, Cal ;tCIII 

Wilmington Island, Ga .- XLV 

Wilmington, N.C CXXXVI 

Wilson's Creek, Mo XXXVI 

Wilson's Creek, Ky LXXVUI 

Wilson's Fjirm, La CIl 

Wilson's Landing, Va CXII 

Wilson's Wharf Landing, Va CIX 

Wilson's Raid on Wcldon R. R., Va CXIV 

Wilson's Raid in Alabama and Georgia CXXXVII 

Winchester, Va. XLIII, XLVII, LXXVI, LXXVIH, CXVII, CXX, CXXIII 

Wiroman's Shoals, Ky '.. LXIII 

Wirt Court House, W.Va XXXIX 

Wise's Pork, N.C CXXXVI 

Wolf Creek Bridge, Miss LIX 

Wolf River, Tenn CII 

Wolf River, Miss LXV 

Wolf River Bridge, Miss XCIV 

Woodbury, Ky XXXIX 

Woodbury, Tenn ; LXVII, LXX 

Wood Lake, Minn LIX 

Wood's Fork, Mo LXVI 

Woodsonville, Ky XL 

Woodstock, Va CXXIV, CXXVl 

Woodville, Tenn LXI 

Wooilville, Miss CXXVI 

Wormley's Gap, Va CXXII 

Worthington, W.Va XXXVI 

Wyatts, Miss LXXXIX, XCVIII 

Wyerman'8 Mills, Tenn XCIX 

Wyoming Court House, W.Va LIV 

Wythevillo, Va LXXXIU, CVH, CXXXIH, CXXXVUI 

Tates'Ford, Ky LVI 

Yazoo Pass, Miss LXVIH 

Yazoo City, Miss LXXXII,C,CV, CXXXI 

Yazoo River, Expedition np. Miss XCVII 

Yellow Bayou, La CIX 

Yellow Medicine, Minn LIX 

Yellow Tavern, Va CVH, CXXV 

Yemassee, S. C LXI 

Yorktown, Va XLHI, XLV, XLVI 

Young's Cross Roads, N. C LII 

Zagonyis Charge XXXVIII 

ZoUicolTer, Tenn LXXXVIII 

Zuni, Va LXIV 



ON SPECIAL WOUNDS AND INJURIES. 



CHAPTER I. 

WOUNDS AND INJURIES OP THE HEAD. 

The wounds and injuries of the head will be described in three categories: incised and 
punctured wounds, comprising, mainly, the sabre-cuts, bayonet stabs, and sword thrusts; 
miscellaneous injuries, resulting from falls, blows from blunt weapons, and various acci- 
dents; and lastly, and principally, gunshot wounds. 

Section I. 

INCISED AND PUNCTUKED WOUNDS. 

The cases of incised and punctured wounds of the head are subdivided into those in 
which the lesions involved the integuments only, and those in which the bones of the 
skiiU, and, in some instances, its contents, were injured. Brief abstracts, arranged in 
alphabetical order, are given of all the examples of incised and punctured wounds of the 
head, recorded in the Surgeon General's Office. The names of the wounded of the United 
States Armies are printed in small capitals; those of the Confederate Armies are distin- 
guished by italics. 

Incised Scalp Wounds. — The returns furnish memoranda of two hundred and 
eighty-two cases of incised wounds of the head which a2:)peared to involve the integuments 
only, as follows : 



2 WOUKDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Adams, Oscar H., Assistant Surgeon 8th New York Cavalry, ajfed 32 years. Wounded at Lacey's Springs, Virginia, 
December 21st, 1864, by a sabre-cut five inches in length over the right parietal and temporal regions. Admitted to Officers' 
General Hospital, Annapolis. Maryland. January 4th, 1865. On leave January 18th. Ee-admitted February .5th. Suffers 
from frequent attacks of vertigo, incipient amaurosis, loss of memory, partial paralysis of right eyelid, and imperfect vision. 
Resigned February 17th, 1865. 

Adams, J. F., Private, Co. I, 21st Virginia Cavalry. Incised wound of the scalp. Opequan, Virginia, September 19th, 
1864. Admitted to Sheridan Field Hospital, September 24th. Recovered and transferred for exchange, November 15th, 1664. 

Arjee, John, Private, Co. G, 2lBt Virginia Cavalry. Incised wound of the scalp. NeM'town, Virginia, November 9th, 
1864. C.iptured and admitted to Sheridan Field Hospital, November 14th. Transferred for exchange November 15th, 1864, 
well. 

Akins, CnAiiLES, Sergeant, Co. A, 3d New .Jersey Cavalry, aged 24 years, received at Appomattox Court House, Vir- 
ginia, April 8th, 1865, a slight cut over the forehead, implicating the scalp only, and a gunsliot wound, for which the middle 
toes of ihe right foot were amputated. Admitted to .Tarvis Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, on April 22d, and transferred, .July 
24th, to Hicks Hospital, from whence he was transferred, well, September 6th, 1865, to New York, to be mustered out of service. 

Anderson, Ransom A. D., Private, Co. B, 6th U. S. Colored Artillery, aged 22 years. Three sabre-cuts of the scalp 
and one of the right hand. Fort Pillow, Tennessee, April 12th, 1864. Admitted to Mound City Hospital, Illinois, April 17th. 
Returned to duty June 2l8t, 1864. (See Report No. 55, House of Itepresentatives, 1st Session 33th Conrjress.) 

Austin, George \V., Private, Co. B, Ist Vermont Cavalry, aged 23 years. Incised wound of scalp over left parietal 
region. Wilderness, May 5tli. 1804. Admitted to Douglas Hospital, Washington, D. C, May lltii. Transferred May 14th 
to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia. Returned to duty September 4th, 1801. 

B.\iLEy, Simon Z., Priv.ate, Co. B, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 28 years, received a sabre-cut of the scalp at Han- 
over, Pennsylvania, .June 30th, 1863. Admitted to Cuyler Hospital, Gerniantown, Pennsylvania, October 2d, 1863. Transferred 
to Christian Street Hospital, Philadelphia, December 21st. Deserted February 17th, 1864. 

Baker, Ezekiel, Private, Co. K, 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Middleburg, Virginia, June 19th, 
1863. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, .June 21st. Returned to duty August 13tli, 1863. 

Beal.S, D. a., Private, Co. A, Ist Michigan Cav.alry, aged 23 ye.irs. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st. 
1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphiii, July 10th. Returned to duty October 23d, 1863. 

Bates, George L., Private, Co. B, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the head. Mount .Jackson, Virginia, October 
7th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Brattleboro, Vermont, April 2d, 1805. Returned to duty June 23d, 1805. 

Baugh, J. F., Private, Co. A, 1st Georgia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the head. Admitted to hospital, Petersburg, Virginia, 
November 18th, 1862. Returned to duty December 2(1, 1862. 

Beckner, Abner, Private, Co. G, 21st Virginia Cavalry, aged 45 years. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region. Front Royal, 
Virginia, November 12tb, 1864. Admitted to West's Buildings Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, November 16th. Transferred 
to Fort McHenry, January 8th, 1865, and thence to Point Lookout, and exchanged June 28th, 1865. 

Belcher, A. F., Lieutenant, 4th Massachusetts Cavalry, received a sabre-cut an inch and a half long over the \e{t super- 
ciliary ridge, and a fracture of the left clavicle by a fall from his horse. High Bridge, Virginia, April 8th, 1865. Admitted to 
OflBcers' Hospital, Point of Rocks, Virginia, April 14th. Loss of vision of the left eye resulted, but whether from division of 
the supra-orbital nerve, or derangement of the optical apparatus caused by the concussion, was not determined. The fractured 
clavicle united and the wounds healed. He was discharged from service June 6th, 1865, and placed on the Pension List. 
On September 4tli, 1807, he was reported as suffering from the permanent loss of the lefl eye ; but without other disability. 

Bennett, Edward H., Corporal, Co. F, 2d New York Cavalry, received a slight sabre-cut on the right side of the 
scalp, at New Market, Virjjinia, October 19th, 1863. Admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, October 2l8t, and transferred 
October 31st. 

Bennett, Thomas F., Private, Co. K, 10th Virginia Cavalry, received a sabre-cut of the scalp at Gettysburg, July 2d, 
1863. Admitted to Seminary Hospital, Gettysburg, .July 3d, and transferred thence to David's Island, New York Harbor, on 
July 17th, and on August 24th, being entirely well, he was paroled and sent to Fort Monroe for exchange. 

Benton, H. L., Private, Co. G, Ist Massachusetts Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Aldie, Virginia, June 17th, 1863. 
Returned to duty September 25th, 1863. 

Bertram, Haury, Corporal, Co. K, 6th Ohio Cavalry, aged 30 years Sabre-cut of the lefl occipital region two inches 
in length. Sheridan's Raid, May 12th, 1864. Admitted to Hammond Hospital, Point Lookout, Maryland, May 16th. Returned 
to duty June 28th, 1864. 

Best, Thomas W., I'rivate, Co. A, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the right occipital region. Admitted to 
Second Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th, 1863. Deserted July 7tli, 1803. His name was on the Pension 
List September 4th, 1867, his disability being rated as "'total and temporary." 

Bigger, Samuel T., Private, Co. C, 1st Delaware Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July Ist, 1863 
Admitted to Tilton Hospital, Wilmington. Delaware, July 4th. Returned to duty, well, August 22d, 1863. 



INCISED AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. 3 

BliviNS, John, Private, Co. K, Ist Alabama Cavalry, received a slight sabre-cut ol the scalp at Moore's Cross Roads, 
North Carolina, March 10th, 1865. Mustered out of service July 19th, 1865. 

BoiiNE, CnARLE.s, Bugler, Co. I, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region, and a wound of 
the arm. Hagei-stown, Maryland, July 6th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, August 3d. 
Deserted October 15th, 1863. 

Boir.EAU, James P., Private, Co. A, 1st Delaware Volunteers, aged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Weldon Rail- 
road, Virginia, August 25th, 1864. Admitted to Tilton Hospital, Wilmington, Delaware, November Ist, from Harewood Hos- 
pital, Washington. Returned to duty November 14th, 1864. 

Bolton, Mauvin, Corporal, Co. G, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July Ist, 1863. Admitted 
to Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, July 20th. Transferred to Carver Hospital, Washington, July 23d. Returned to duty November 
17 th, 1863. 

BoULSON, Edward F., Sergeant, Co. B, 5th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the occipital region. Trevilliau Station, 
Virginia, June 12th, 1864. Missing in action. Died at Andersonville, Georgia, August 15th, 1864. 

Bourne, L., Pinvate, Co. K, Slst Virginia Infantry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Opoquan Creek, Virginia, September 19th, 
1864. Admitted to Field Hospital, Winchester, Virginia, on the same day. Recovered and transferred for exchange December 
20th, 1864. 

BOYEU, Joseph C, Captain, Co. L, 12th Tennessee Cavalry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of the forehead, received in a 
hand to hand fight with a rebel officer of General Forrest's command. Nashville, December 16th, 1864. Mustered out of service 
October 7th, 1865. 

Bradford, James, Private, Co. B, 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. 
Admitted to Field Hospital July 7th. Transfen-ed to Satteilee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 0th. Returned to duty Jidy 27th, 
1863. 

Brees, Theodore J., Private, Co. L, 2d United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and gunshot wound of left 
hand. Culpepper, Virginia, August 1st, 1863. Admitted to Douglas Hospital, Washington, August 3d. Transferred to Carlisle 
Barracks September 11th, 1863, and returned to duty. 

Brenage, Lafayette, Sergeant, Co. D, 21st Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and face. Jettersville, 
Virginia, April 5th, 1865. Admitted to Cavalry Corps Hospital April 12th. Returned to duty April 18th, 1865. 

Briggs, William H., Private, Co. M, 5th Michigan Cavalry, aged 17 years. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and right ear. 
Lynchburg, Virginia, June Uth, 1864. Admitted to Mount Pleasant Hospital, Washington, June 20th. Returned to duty 
July 26tli, 1864. 

Brill, William, Private, Co. H, 15th New York Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cuts of the scalp. Winchester, Vir- 
ginia, November 15th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Annapolis Junction, Maryland, January 4th, from Patterson Park Jlospi- 
tal, Baltimore. Returned to duty March 25th, 1865. 

Brooks, J. K., Sergeant, Co. C, Ist Maine Cavalry. Sabre-cut of right side of scalp. Middleburg, Virginia, June 
19th, 1863. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 21st. Returned to duty July 3d, 1863. 

Brown, James, Private, Co. H, 1st Maryland Volunteers, aged 34 yeai-s. Sabre-cut of the scalp, while on picket at 
Hatcher's Run, Virginia, March 20tli, 1865. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, April 7th, from Lincoln Hospital, 
Washington. Furloughed April 25th, 1865. Discliarged from service Jtily 10th, 1865. . 

Brown, Jasper, Private, Co. D, 5th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and neck. Hanover, Pennsylvania, 
June 30th, 18i53. Admitted to hospital at Gettysburg July 3d. Transferred to Patterson Park Hospital, Baltimore, November 
11th. Returned to duty February 24th, 1864. 

Brown, R. H., Private, Co. K, Ist Arkansas Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Osage, Missouri, October 
25th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Fort Scott, Kansas, October 23th. Returned to confinement November 30th, 1864, and 
subsequently exchanged. 

Bryan, George P., 1st Lieutenant, Co. G, 2d North Carolina Regiment. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virginia, 
June Slst, 1863. Admitted to Stanton Hospital, Washington, June 23d. Sent to Old Capitol Prison August 1st, 1863, and 
subsequently exchanged. 

Buck, Dennis M., Sergeant, Co. D, 2d United States Cavalry, aged 32 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Trevillian 
Station, Virginia, June 11th, 1864. Admitted to Finley Hospital, Washington, June 21st. Returned to duty, well, August 
22d, 1864. 

Burroughs, Harmon, Commissary Sei'geant, 8th New York Cavalry, aged 17 years. Sabre-cut, four inches in length, 
over the left parietal region. Beverly Ford, Virginia, June 9tli, 1863. Admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, June lOtli. 
Returned to duty July 4th, 1863. 

Butcher, Robert A., Private, Co. H, 82d Pennsylvania Volunteers, of the 3d Brigade, 1st Division, 6th Corps, aged 
21 years, received, in an encounter with the enemy's cavalry near Burke's Station, Virginia, on April 6th, ISiSS, two sabre-cuts 
over the vertex, parallel to each other, and at right angles to the sagittal suture. The wounds appeared to implicate the scalp 
only, and were approximated by adhesive plaster, after the hair had been shaven away. The patient was conveyed to 



4 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THK HEAD, 

Wasliingtdii, mid enteitd Ilarewood Ilotijiitul on Apiil lOtli. The wounds Iieiilt'd i'aj)i<lly, and no unpleasant symptoms 
occurred until May 29tli, when he com])]ainid of severe lieadache, acconijjanied by iutolerance of Hght and sensitiveness to 
noise. A day or two suhsequently the anterior wound n'opcned, and discliarged thin unhealthy pus. An exfoliation was 
suspected, hut no denuded bone could be detected, and under a mild evacuant treatment the headache subsided, and the wound 
again assumed an healthy aspect. On June 8th, 1865, it had almost entirely healed, and, at his own request, the patient was 
discharged from the lios))ital and from the service of the I'nifed States. Soon after his admission to Ilarewood, a jdiotogmph 
of liis wounds had been taken, by direction of the surgeon in charge. Brevet Lieut. Col. 11. B. Bontecou, U. S. Vols. This is 
preserved as No. 30 of the first volume of Photographs of Smgical Cases, Army Medical Museum, and is very faithfully cojjied 
in the figure on the left of the group of heads in the accomj)anying plate. • 

Cain, P.vtuick, Private. Co. G, 62d New York Volunteers, aged 38 years. Sahre-cut of the scalp. Cold Harbor, 
Virginia, June 3d, 1864. Admitted to McKim's Mansion Hospital, Baltimore, .June 11th. Eeturned to duty August 3d, 1864. 

Campbell, H.^hrlson G., Private of Co. F, 5th United States Cavalry, aged 25 years, was ■wounded in action near 
Louisa C^ourt House, Virginia, on May 4th, 1863, and fell into the hands of the enemy. He was exchanged, and sent to 
Annapolis on the liospital transport State of Maine, and was adnntted to the general hospital at that place on May 17th, with 
two sup])in-ating sabre wounds of the scalp, one over the right parietal eminence, the other behind the left ear. He had head- 
ache, with frequent pulse, constipated bowels, and appeared to be very feeble. He was purged, and then ordered good diet, 
and " wliiskey and (piinine freely." On May 2(itli erysipelas attacked the left leg, which !i,ad received no injury. Tincture of 
iodine locally and tincture of the sesqnichhnide of iron internally were employed to combat this com])lication. On May 21st 
there was epistaxis; tlie jnilse was small, at 11(1; the tongue heavily coated. On the 23d there was diarrhoea, which was 
controlled by pills of opium and camphor. The next day tlie pulse had risen to 120, and was soft. The abdomen was 
tympanitic. Stimulants were freely given. The catheter was resorted to, on account of retention of urine, which was scanty 
and high colored, and oil of turpentine, in doses of ten drops, thrice daily, was ordered. On the 28th the erysipelatous infiam- 
mation had extended up the back and over the right leg. The teeth were covered with sordes. Turpentine, with carbonate of 
ammonia and whi.skey and concentr.ated nutriment, and tincture of iodine locally, constituted the treatment. On ,Iune 6th the 
erysipelas had extended to the face and throat, and the ])atient became delirious. He continued in an unconscious state until 
Jime 14th, 1863, when he died. Acting Assistant Surgeon ,T. M. Matlock, who reports the case, ascribes the fatal event to 
"exhaustion following typhoid erysipelas," and as unconnected with the scalp wounds, which maintained an healthy appearance 
to the last. 

Capron, James P., Sergeant, Co. F, 3d United States Artillery. Sabre-cut of the forehead, and a shell wound of the 
left side of the neck. Bisland, Louisiana, April 14th, 1863. Dischai'ged from service July 2Gth, 1864. 

CAiUioi'Gn, Daniki,, Private, Co. E, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 46 years. Sabre-cut of the right parietal region, 
in a skirmish on the Eapidan, Virginia, November 17th, 1863. Admitted to Douglas Hospital, Washington, November 23d. 
Transferred to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, November 28th. Eeturned to duty March 24th, 1864. 

Cahey, Wil.l.lA.^i H., Private, Co. G, 15th New York Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Newmarket, 
Virginia, December 2lBt, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, December 23d. Discharged from service 
May aoth, 1865. 

Cahnev, Wil.l.iAM, Private, Co. L, 2d New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and a shell and gunshot wound of 
the upper third of the right thigh. Aldie, Virginia, June 17tb, 1863. Admitted to Hospit.al No. 1, Annapolis, Maryland, June 
22d. Died June 22d, 1863, from the efl'ects of the gimshot injury. 

Carjier, I'/iilip Tf'., Private, Co. A. 35th Virginia Cavahy. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region ; also a woiuid of the 
right arm and left hand. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1803. Admitted to Second Division Hospital, Alexandria, 
Virginia, June ICtli. Transferred to Old Capitol Prison June 17th, 1863, for exchange. 

Cahson, \V. L., Private, Co. B, Kith New York Cavalry, aged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Admitted to Second 
Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 22d, 1863. Discharged from service September 17th, 1864. 

Cebltt, Geopge, Piivate, Co. F, 11th United Staff s Infantry, aged 19 j-eara. Sabre-cut of the right parietal region. 
Petersburg, Virginia, August 17th, 1864. Admitted to First Division Ho.spital, Annapolis, Maryland, August 24th. Deserted 
November 10th, 1864. 

Ciiambeks, Jame.s M., Private, Co. K, 14tli Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Millwood, 
Virginia, December 17th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Annapolis Junction, Maryland, January 4th, 18G5. Discharged from 
service May 30th, 1865. 

CuAMBF-i:.'!, JoilN', Private, Co. I, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left side of the head. Gettysburg, July 1st, 

1863. Admitted to Fort Schuyler Hospital, New York Harbor, July 15. Returned to duty August 28, 1863. 

C/inn, II., Private, Co. F, 2d Georgia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the he,ad. Admitted to hospital, Petersburg, Virginia, 
December lOth, 1862. Furloughed December 19th, 1862. 

C'llA>;'ri!»:i.L, Octaae, Private, Co. M, 4th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp and of the right arm. Upper- 
ville, Virginia, June 21st, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, .Inly 9th, 1863. 

Chapman, Samuel, Chaplain, Mosby's command. Sabrecut of the head. Dranesville, Virginia, April 1st, 1863. 

Clemens, A., Private, Co. C, 51st Virginia Infantry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Opequan Creek, Virginia, September 19th 

1864. Admitted to Field Hospital, Winchester, Virginia, September 2Cth. Transferred for exchange, well, November, 1864. 



"t* . - •Y.>-iR^r'rT ■ 




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INCISED AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. 

Clf.kmkns, IjAWHexck, Diigler, Co. I, 1st Massacliiist'tts Cavalry, agerl 27 years. Sabrc-ciit. nf thi> hc:i]\>. Admitted 
to Judiciary Square Hospital, Washington, February 20t}i, 18G4. Deserted Jlarcli 21th. 18li4. 

Corhrill, Q. J., Private, Co. G, .5th Alabama. Sabre-cnt of the head. Petersburg, Virginia. .\]iril 2d, 1HG5. Admitted to 
Lincoln Ilosjiital, Washington, April 10th. Sent to Old Capitol I'rison, April 25th, ISoo, for exchange, 

Cf<Lu:Y, John, Private, Co. E, 2d West Virginia Cavalry, aged 20 years. Sabre-cut of the ](>ft parietal region. Five 
Forks, Virginia, Api'il 2d, 1865. Admitted to Slough Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, June 7th. Discharged from service 
June 211th, 1865. 

CoLLVKii, Ei)\VAi!D A., Private, Co. B, 2d New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of tlie left ooci))ital region, two and a half 
inches in length. Brandy Station, Virginia, .June 9th, 18(5)!. Admitted to Fu'st Division Hospital, Annapoli.", Maryland, .Tune 
14th. Eeturned to duty August 10th, 1864. 

Connelly, Tiiom.vs, Sergeant, Co. I, 1st United States Cavalry, aged 47 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and fracture of 
lower third of the left arm. Waynesboro', North Carolina, September 28th, 1884, Adriiitted to Chestnut Hill Hospital, I'hila- 
delphia, October 9th, and,.after several transfers, was admitted to hospital at Carlisle Barracks, Peinisylvania, and discharged 
from service June 3d, 1865. 

CONNKli, CiT.vRi.K.s, Pnvate, Co. I, 5th Ohio Cavali-y, aged 45 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Fayetteville. North 
Carolina, March 10th, 18U5. Admitted to Dennison Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, April loth. Discliarged from service July 
19th, 1865. 

CONOVKU, K.vi.rn, Private, Co. H, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the hea<l and nock. Hanover, I'eniisyl- 
vania, June 30tli, 1863, Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 4th. Returned to duty September 23d, 1863. 

CORI^Y, Le.vndeu a,, Musiciaii, Co. K. 2d New York Cavalry, aged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the se;ilp. .Admitted to 
Judiciary Square Hospital, Washington, February 8th, 1864. Retin-ned to duty March 14th, 1864. 

CORSTION, EOBKET, Private, Co. H, let Miibigan Cavalry, aged 19 years, .'jabre-cut of the right iiarictal region. 
Smitlifield, Virginia, Augu.st 29th, 1864. Admitted to .Jarvis Hosiiital. Baltimon', -Maryland, Se]iteniber 4tli, Kcturned to duty 
Octolier 1st, 1864. 

Couch, Daniel, Private, Co. F, 1st Massavihusetts Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and pistol wound of the abdomen. 
Aldie, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Armory Square Hospital, W^ashington, .July 3d. TransfeiTed to LovcU Hospital, 
Portsmouth Grove, Rhode Island, July 8th. Returned to duty September 21st, 1863. 

Ct)WLEV, FiiANK, Corpora], Co. G, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Fairfield, Pennsylvania, July 
3d, 1863. Admitted to hospital at Gettysburg July 22d. Returned to duty September 11, 1863. 

Coyne, Thomas, Corporal, Co. B, 10th New York Cavalry. Salire-cut, two ami a half inches in length, over the 
left occi})ital region; also a wound of right side efface. ]$randy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to First Division 
Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th. Returned to duty October 19th, 1863. 

Craft, J. II., Private, Co. H, 60th Virginia Infantry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Opeqnan Creek, ^'lrginia, September 19th, 
1864. -Admitted to Field Hospital at Winchester, Virginia, the same day. Transferred for exchange December ItJth, 18G4, 
well. 

Ckane, J.iMES, Private, Co. A, Cth Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st, 18G3. Admitted 
to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 10th. Returned to duty September 2:id, 1863. 

CnociiElt, Jay, Private, Co. D, 10th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region, two and a half inches in 
length, directly over the parietal eminence Brandy Station, Virginia, .luim 9th, 1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Annapolis. 
Maryland, June 14tli. Returned to duty August 15tli, 1863. 

Chodon, .John, Private, Co. C, 23d Illinois Volunteers. Sabre-cut of the forehead. Annapolis, Maryland, May 21st, 
1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital the same day. Returned to duty June 12th. 1863. 

CuSACK, WiLLi.VM. Captain, Co. I, 96th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 31 years. Sabre-cut of the forehead over the 
left eye. Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 8th, 1864. Admitted to Seminary Hospital^ Georgetown, District of Columbia, May 
12tli. Dischai-ged from service July 28th, 1864. 

Cutter, William, Private, Co. H, 4th Vermont Infantry, aged 38 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Strasburg. Virginia, 
August 16th, 1804. Admitted to Field Hospital at Sandy Hook, Maryland. August 19th, and transferred to Brattleboro', Ver- 
mont, February 6th, 1865, for muster out of service. 

DanceI!, George W., Private, Co. A, 6th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
July 1st, 1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital Philadelphia, July 10th. Returned to duty August 6th, 1863. 

1)E GitAW, Isaac, Private, Co. A, 6th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, .Inly 1st, 18:j3. Admitted 
to Satterlee Hospital, I'hiladelphia, Jul^' lOth. Returned to duty Sei)teraber 23d, 1863. 

De Gi.'oot, Henry, Private, Co. A, 17th Connecticut Volunteers. Sabre-cut on the left side <if the scalp. .Vdmitted to 
Knight Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, January 23d, 1834. Transferred to Fort Trumbull Felu-uary 27th, 18)4, for duty. 

Delamater, H., Corporal, Co. M, 15tli New York Cavalry, aged 24 yeans. S.abre-cut of the scalp. Newmarket, 
Virginia, December 21st, 1864. Admitted to hospital .at Frederick, Maryland. December 23d. Returned to duty J.anuary 
31st. 1865. 



G WOUNDS AND IN.TUETES OF THE HEAD, 

Dr.NliunsT, H., Private, Co. D, 17tli Connecticut Volunteers. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July lat, IS63. 
Admitted to Seminary Hospital, Gettysburg, same day. Transferred to South Street Hospital, Philadelphia; thence to Knight 
Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, on March 24th, 18C4. Returned to duty April 21st, 1864. 

DoDD, TuD.M.vs, Seri;eant, Co. B, Gth United St.ates Cavalry. Sabre-cut over the anterior and posterior regions of the 
scalp. Funktown, Maryland, .July 7th, 1803. Admitted to First Divison Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, August 3d. Returned 
to duty, well, October 12tli, 18G3. 

DoxLix, Jonx, Private, Co. K, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of right parietal region. Admitted to First 
Division Hospital, Annapalis, Maryland, June 14th, 18G3. Returned to duty June 17th, 1863. 

DoroilHRTV, P.\TI!ICK, Private. Co. A, 6tli United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left forehead, two inches above 
the eye. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, .1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, .June 14th. 
Discharged from service October 12th, 1864. 

DouGl..\.«, JOSICPII, Private, Co. A, Otli Michigan Cav.alry. Sabre-cut of the scalp and left shoulder. Gettj-shurg, July 
3d, 1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Annapolis, Marylaii<l, .July 16th. Returned to duty July 31st, 1863. 

Do\VN.«, AD.\ir, Private, Co. G, 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. New Hope Church, Virginia, Novem- 
ber 27th, 1863. Admitted to Regimental Hospital the same day, and returned to duty December 5th, 1863. 

DoYi.K, .To.SEPii C, Private, Co. A, 1st Alabama Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, received on Sherman's campaign 
thriiugli the C'arolinas, 18(55. Mustered out of service with regiment October 20th, 1865. 

DoYKA, Joii.N', Private. Co. K, 1st Maine Cavalry, aged 22 years. Sabre-cut of the occipital region. Brandy Station, 
Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Marjdand, June 14th. Returned to duty August 
1st, 18G3. 

1)I!KW, Hoii.vc'E W., Sergeant. Co. A, 6tli Ohio Cavalry, aged 25 years. Sabrecut, two inches in length, of the right 
frontal region. Ashland .Station, Jlay 12th. 1864. Admitted to Hauunond Hospital, Point Lookout, Maryland, May 16th. 
Traust'eri-ed ti> the Veteran Reserve Corjis, May Itli, 1865. Mustered out of service August 24tli, 1865. 

Jh-eir, ,/. II., Private, Co. F, 4.5tli North Carolina. Sabre-cut of the head. Gettysburg, .July Ist, 1863, Admitted to 
Hospital No. 1, Frederick, Maiyland, July 6th. Transferred to Annapolis July 7th, 1863, for e.xchange. 

Dunn, Willis, Private, Co. F, 35tli Virginia Infantry. Sabre-cut of the right parietal region. Brandy Station, Virginia, 
June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Second Division Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, June 10th. Transferred to Old Capitol Prison, 
AVashington, June 12th, 1863, for exchange. 

Ducket, J., Private, Co. E, Thomas's Legion. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Opequan Creek, Virginia, September 19th, 1864. 
Admitted to Field Hospital, Winchester, Virginia, September 20th. Transferred for exchange December 20th, 1864, entirely 
well. 

Dudley, C. T'., 1st Lieutenant, Co. K, 15th Virginia Cavalry, aged 25 years, received several sabre-cuts of the scalp, and 
one of the right side, at Culpepjier, Virginia, September 13lh, 1863. Admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, September 
17th. Recovered, and was transferred to the Old Capitol Prison October lUth, 1863, for excliauge. 

DuRSTEX, Thomas, Quartermaster Sergeant, 15th New York Cavalry, aged 20 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. New- 
market, Virginia, December 21st, 1864. A<lmitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, December 23d. Returned to duty 
February 1st, 1865. 

Di\sTAX, GEOKfilc L., Private, Co. G, 1st Maine Cavalry, aged 25 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp over the occi]iital 
region. Brandy Station, Virginia, .June 9ih, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, .June 14th. 
Returned to duty October 25tli, 1864. 

EDMl'ND.'i, HoWAUl), Captain, Co. L, 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and gunshot wound of the 
shoulder. Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. Discharged from service August 24th, 1864. His name is not on the Pension List. 

Ei)WAi!i)S, David, Corpoial, Co. H, 5th Ohio Cavalry. Sabre-cut ol the scalp. Sherman's campaign through the 
Carolinas, 1865. Mustered out of service October 30th, 1865. 

EnwARDS, William A., Private, Co. B, 5th United States Cav.alry. Sabre-cut of th(! left parietal region. Chancellors- 
ville, Virginia, May 4th, 1863. Admitted to Second Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, May lUth. Deserted August 7th, 
1863. 

Ell-S, Williaji S., Private. Co. K, 9th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp and right arm. Culpepper, Virginia, 
August Ist, 1863. Admitted to Douglas Hosjiital, Washington, August 3d. Returned to duty October lllth, 1863. 

Eyx.\ttex, Fraxcis, Sergeant, Co. I, 198th New York Volunteers. Sabre-cut of the face extending from the angle of 
the mouth to the superior portion of the forehead. Pleasant Hill, Louisiana, April 9tli, 1864. He was taken prisoner and 
admitted to a rebel hosjiital, and the wound closed with sutures. Discharged from service April 20th, 1866. 

Fagle, F|!EI)EI!ICK, Private, Co. C. loth New York Cavalry. Two sabre-cuts on the vertex of the scalp, one of the 
left cheek, and one of the left .shoulder. Brandy Station. Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, 
Anna])olis, Maryland, -Tune 14th. Returned to duty May 2d, 1864. 

FiLLEi!, Jo.sKrii, Private, Co. A, 4th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and wrist. Upperville, Virginia, 
June 21st, 1863. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 23d. Returned to duty July 25th, 1863. 



INCISED AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. 7 

Fink, Anthony, Private, Co. G, 15th New York Cavalry, agfd 35 years. Sabre-ciit of the soalj). Newmarket, Virginia, 
December 21st, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, December 23d. Returned to duty January 3d, 1865. 

FixsiGAN, W., Private, Co. L, 4th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the seal]). Aldie Gap, Virginia, .June 17th, 1863. 
Admitted to Tliird Division Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, June 18th. Furloughed July 22d. Keturned to duty August 22d, 
1863. 

FiSHElt, CiiAlii.ES W., Pi-ivate, Co. C, 3d Pennsylvania Cav.alry. Sabre-cut of the right occipital region while attempt- 
ing to escape from the patrol guard at Annapolis, Maryland, March 29lh, 1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, at Annapolis, tlie 
same day. Returned to duty April 13th, 1863. 

FoLKY, Milks, Sergeant, Co. B, 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and arm. Gettysburg, July 1st, 
18S3. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 9th. Returned to duty July 13th, 1863. 

FoL.soM, William M., Private, Co. E, 5th Wisconsin Volunteers, aged 31 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp and hand. 
July 20tli, 1864. Admitted to Harvey Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin, August 1st. Keturned to duty August 7tli, 1864. 

Fox, Eliar, Private, Co. G, 15th New York Cavalry, aged 26 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Newmarket, Virginia, 
December 21st, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, December 23d. Returned to duty January 21»t, 1865. 

Fox, .Jasper C, Private, Co. L, 14th Pennsylvania Cav.alry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Millwood, Virginia, 
December 17th, 1864. Admitted to McKim's Hospital, Baltimore, January 15th, 1865. Returned to duty M.arch 2(ltli, 1865. 

Foster, Joshua E., Private, Co. M, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the right parietal region. Admitted to 
Second Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, August 21st, 1863. Returned to duty October 14tli, 1863. 

Frisbik, Samuel, Private, Co. E, Ringgold's Battalion, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of three inches in length extending 
" diagonally acrcss the parietal region. September 16th, 1863. Admitted to hospital at Cumberland. Maryland, Sejitember 16th. 
Deserted October 16th, 1863. 

Frontman, Philip, Private, Co. L, 14th Pennsylvania Cav.alry, .aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the sial]i. Millwood, 
Virginia, December 17th, 1864. Admitted to Field Hosjiital, Winchester, Virginia, December 2llth. Returned to duty January- 
17tl), 1865. 

Gardner, George, Private, Co. K, 17th Veteran Reserve Corps, aged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the head. Indianapolis, 
Indiana, January 5th, 1865. Admitted to City Hospital, in that place, January 12th, from Soldiers' Home. ■ Returned to duty 
January 23d, 1865. 

Gardner, William, Private, Co. H, 15tli New Y'ork Heavy Artillery, aged 26 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. South 
Side Raih-oad, Virginia, March Slst, 1865. Admitted to White Hall Hospital, Pennsylvania, May 27th, from Lincoln Ho.«pital, 
Washington. Discharged from service July 22d, 1865. 

Gatewood, C. T., Private, Co. F, 9th Virginia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, Peimsylvania, .July Ist, 
1863. Admitted to hospital at David's Island, New York Harbor, July 17tli. Transferred fur exchange, well, August 24th, 1863. 

Gehrett, James W., Private, Co. D, 1st Louisiana Artillery, aged 33 years. Saore-cut of the scalp. Cedar Creek, 
Virginia, October 19th, 1864. Admitted to McClellan Hospital, Philadelphia, October 24th. Returned to duty November 24th, 
1864. 

GiDDlNGS, Benjamin, Private, Co. G, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabi-e-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. 
Admitted to Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, July 19th. Transferred to Carver Hospital, Washington, .July 23d. Keturned to duty 
October 20th, 1863. 

Gilbert, Naiium, Sergeant, Co. I, 1st Michigan Cavalry, .aged 24 years. Sabre-cut of the head, and a ])enelrating 
gunshot wound of the abdomen bj- a conoidal b.all which entered at the umbilicus. Gettysburg, Julj- 1st, 1863. Admilted to 
Camp Letterman Hospital, Gettysburg, .July 6th. Faecal discharges took place from the wound in the abdomen. Much pain 
and difficulty in mictuiition. July 7th, paralysis of lower extremities. August 23th, wounds healed. September 1st, 
paralysis of lower extremities continues, together with partial paralysis of the rectum. The treatment consisted of com- 
presses and bandage to the abdomen, witli diuretics and enemata. Transferred to Mulberry Street Hospital, Harrisburg, Sep- 
tember 15th. Discharged from service October 31st, 1863. 

Good, Martin, Private, Co. N, 2d United States Cavalry, aged 22 yeare. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Beverly Ford, Vir- 
ginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, June 23d. Deserted October 1st, 1863. 

Goodall, Charles, Private, Co. B, 5th Georgia Cavalry, aged 42 years. Sabre-cut of the lefl frontal region. Woodbury, 
Tennessee. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Sejitember 6th, and transferred for exchange, well, Septem- 
ber 12th, 1864. 

Goodman, George N., Private, Co. E, 21st Virginia Cavalry, aged 19 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Front Royal, 
Virginia, November 12th, 1864. Admitted to West's Building Hospital, Baltimore, November 17tli. Transferred to Fort 
McHenry, Baltimore, December 9th, 1864, for exchange. 

Graves, William, Private, Co. G, 46th Virginia Infantry, aged 42 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Petei-sburg, Virginia, 
June 17th, 1864. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, .June 24th. Tran.sferred to Lincoln Hospital June 26th, and 
thence to the Old Capitol Prison for exchange, October 26th, 1864. 



8 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OK THE HEAD, 

Gray. Elijah G., Private, Co. F, 1st Slicliigan Cavalry, aged 25 years. Sabre-cut of the head, and wound of breast by 
pistol ball. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. Admitted to Satterlen Hospital, Philadelphia, July 9th. Keturned to duty December 
'23d, 18G3. 

GUEKX, John, Sergeant, Co. 1), 18th New York Cavalry, aged 20 years. Salire-cut of the seal]). Alexandria, Louisiana, 
April 21st, 1864. Admitted to Marine Hospital, New Oilean.s, Louisiana, Jlay 2:-!d. Furloughed June 18th, 18134. Deserted 
August 31st, 186.5. 

GRirrix, Stkphen, Pi-ivate, Co. B, 2d Massachusetts Cavalry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and left ear. 
Eockville, Maryland. July 18th, 18C4. Admitted to Camiibell Hospital, Washington. July 21st. Transferred tlience to Lovell 
Hos]iital, Port.sniouth Grove, Khode Island, July 28th. Keturned to duty August 23d, 1864. 

■ Griffith, G. W., Private, Co. G, 2d United States Cavalry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut. an inch ami a half long, of the 
left frontal region. Culpepper, Virginia, August 1st. 1863. Admitted to Douglas Hospital, A\'ashington, August 2il. Keturned 
to duty August 14th, 1863. 

H.\Nn, CnAia.ES F., Private. Co. F, 2d United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut, two inches in length, of the occipital region. 
Brandy Station. Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital. Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th. Returned 
to duty October 26th, 1863. 

Hanxa, John, Private, Co. I, 6th Jlichigan Cavalry, aged 25 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 2d, 
1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, I'liiladelphia, July 9th, Returned to duty Jidy 31st, 1863, 

Harmon, Martin, Sergeant, Co. I, 9th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of scalp. Rapidan, Virginia, October 11th, 
1863. Admitted to Regimental Hospital, and returned to duty October 11th, 1863. 

Harvey, Joshiin, Sergi-ant, Co. I, 6(lth Virginia Infantry, aged 40 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Winchester, Virginia, 
September 19th, 1864, Admitted to West's Building Hospital, Baltimore, October 19tli, 'J'ransferred for exchange, well, 
October 25th, 1864, 

Ha,sIv1':i.i,, David E,, Sergeant, Co. F, 8tli New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Beverly Ford, Virginia, Juno 
9th, 1863. Admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, June 11th. Keturned to duty June 17th, 1853, 

Hazflkt, Lf;wis, Private, Co, L, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 38 y<'ars. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and arm. Mill- 
wood, Virginia, December 17th, 1864. Admitted to McKim's Mansion Hos])ital, Baltimore, January 15th, 186,5, from Field 
Hospital, Transferred to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia, February lUth. Keturned to duty February 23d, 1865. 

HiGdiNSON, Henry Lke, Major, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of tlie scalp and neck. Aldie Gap, Virginia, 
June 17th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, June 24th. Discharged from service, well, 
August 9th, 1864. 

HoBBS, J, F,, Private, Co, M, 1st Rhode Island Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp and right shoulder. Kelley's Ford, 
Virginia, March 17th, 1863, Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, April 6th, Returned to duty October 
5th, 1863, 

Hood, Thomas, Sergeant, Co, E, 6th United States Cavalry, Sabre-cut of the scalp, Upperville, Virginia, June 21st, 
1863, Discharged July 28th, 1864, on expiration of term of service. 

IIoR.sEFiF.l.n, James, Private, Co. K, 73d Indiana Volunteers, aged 49 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp, Jlay 11th, 1864. 
Admitted to Second Division Hospital, Madis<m, Indiana, November 28th, Returned to duty March 17th, 1865. 

HonxoN, L. P., Private, Co. L, 10th New Y'ork Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Virginia, May lltb, 1864. 

HoSEY, William, Private, Co. A, 8th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 34 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Chancellorsville, 
Virginia, Jl.ay 3d, 1863. Admitted to Mower Hos|iital, Philadelphia, April 27tli, 1864, from Tilton Hospital, Wilmington, Dela- 
ware. Transferred to Trenton, New Jersey, for muster out, August 26th, 1864. 

Hoi'SE, Wesley L., Corporal, Co. A, 1st United St.at<'S Cavalry. Sabre-cut, one inch in length, of the left occipital 
region. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863, Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14th, 
RetuiTied to duty December 2d, 1863. 

ITurhlnj, Rohert A., Private, Co, I. 53d Georgia Infantry, aged 27 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Cedar Creek, Virghiia, 
October 19th, 1864, Admitted to West's Buildii;g Hospital, Baltimore, October 24th, Died October 26th, 1864, of "chronic 
diarrhcea," 

Iluntlci/, Ji-tt, Private, Co, C, 2d Kentucky Cavalry, aged 23 years. Three sabre-cuts of the scalp. Cyntliiana, Ken- 
tucky, .Tune 12tli, 1864. Admitted to Seminary Hospital, Covington, Kentucky, Jinu' 13th, Meningitis, with serous effusion, 
supervened, and death resulted on June 2lBt, 1864. 

Inoraham, CllAfNCKY, Private. Co. K, 4th New York Cavalry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of the seal]). Upperville, 
Virginia. June 21st. Returned to duty September 28th, 1863. Received a similar wound at Front Royal, A'irginia, August 
16tli, 1864. Admitted to Camp Parole Hosfiital, Annapolis. Maryland, October 7th. Deserted, while on furlough, November 
18th, 1864. 

Jacobs, A. B,, Private, Co, H, 6tli I'nited States Cavalry, Sabre-cut of the scalji, Fairfield, Peimsylvania, July 3d, 
1863, Admitted to Camden Street Hospital, ISaltimorc, August 20th, Transferred to Cuyler Hospital, Germantown, Pennsyl- 
vania, October 27th. I{etuined to dutv December 3d, 1863. 



INOISKD AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. ^ y 

Jones, William, Private, Co. L, 6tli United States Cavalry. Sabre-eut of the scalp and arm. Fairfield, Penns.vlvania, 
.Inly IW, 18(51!. Ailniitted to West's Building Hospital, lialtiinore, ,Iiily ^Otlj. Transt'erreil to Carver ll(i.<iiital, Wii.sliington, 
July ".^Itli. Rctiu'neil to duty September lltb, 1863. 

Ki'.LLEY, jEKFHitsON, Corporal, Co. K, Gtb Micbigan Cavalry, .iged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the seal]) and face. Yellow 
Tavern, Virginia, June lltb, 1861. Admitted to Mt. Pleasant Hospital, Washington, June '.ilst. Returned to duty .September 
13tli, 1864. 

Kklly, Joseph, Sergeant, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Beverly Ford, Virginia, June 9th, 18G3. 
As no further record can be found of this case, the injury was probably trivial. Mustered out September 16th, 1864. 

Kfmp, Alkukd, Sergeant, Co. II, 7th Michigan Cav.alry. Sabre-cut of the scalp and neck. Gettysburg, July 3d, 18f)3. 
Admitted to Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, July I'Jth. Transferred to Detroit, Michigan, October lilth. Discharged May Sid, 1864. 

Kkn'LY, Willum, Private, Co. F, 4tli New York Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the head and band. Aldie Gap, Virginia, 
June 17th, 1863. Admitted to Third Division Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, June 2Utli. Discharged from service February 
lUth, 1864. 

Keij.v, FiiEDEHiCK, Private, Co. D, 4th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp and chest. Front Ivoy.al, Virginia, 
August 16tli, 1864. Discharged from service .June 1st, 1865. 

KiDWELL, PniLiP, Priv.ate, Co. C, 3d Virginia Mounted Infantry, aged 23 years. Salire-cut of the scalp. Cumberland, 
Maryland. July lltb, 1833. Admitted to liospital at Cumberland the same day, and returned to duty November 18th, 1803. 

KiEKXAN, Michael, Priv.ate, Co. A, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virginia, .June 21st, 
18G3. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 24th. Furloughed July 12th. Ketunied to duty August 13th, 1863. 

King, Samuel, Private, Co. H, 119th Penn.sylvania Volunteers, aged 33 years. Sabre-cnt of the scalp. Cold H.arbor, 
Virginia. June 1st, 1864. Admitted to Convalescent Hospital, Philadelphia, June 11th. Transferred to Harrisburg, I'eiuisyl- 
vania, September 23d, and returned to duty October 6th, 1864. 

Kirhy, Andrew H., Priv.ate, Beckham's Battalion. S.abre-cut of the scalp. Admitted to Lincoln Hospital, W'ashington, 
September I7th, 1863. Transferred for exchange October 19th, 1863. 

KiiiKPATKiciv. William, Private, Co. M, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 4,') years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Mill- 
wood, Virginia, December 17tli, 1834. Admitted to Camden Street Hospital, Baltimore, December 22d. Transferred to Phil.a- 
delphia March 12th, 1865. Discharged from service May 16th, 1865, 

Ki.iM, William J., Private, Co. L, 1st Maryland Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left frontal region. Chamber.sburg, 
Pennsylvania, .July 23th, 1864. Admitted to York Hospital, Pennsylvania, August 3d. Keturned to duty September 15tb, 1864. 

Knox, Ben.Iamin E., SergeanI, Co. B, 2d New York Cav.alry. .Sabre-cut, an inch and a half long, over occipital pro- 
tuberance. Brandy Station, Virginia, Jane 9tli, 1333. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, June 14th. Returned 
to duty October 19th, 1863. 

Laco, Willia:m, Private, Co. L, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, .aged 22 ye.ars. Sabre-cut of the right side of the scalp. 
Millwood, Virginia, December 17tli, 1861. Admitted to Patterson Park Hospital, Baltimore, March 3d. Returned to duty 
March 8th. 1865 

Leahy, .John, Sergeant, Co. D, 13th Pennsylv.ania Cav.alry. Sabre-cut of the left side of the bead. Admitted to Hos- 
pital No. 1, Annapolis, Maryland, March 8th, 1833. Deserted April 7th, 1333. Retiu-neil from desertion April 3Uth, 1863, and 
ordered to report to Colonel Waite, Military Commander at Annapolis. 

Leavitt, Fit.VNK W., Private, Co. E, 1st Maine Cavalry, aged 25 years. Three sabre-cuts on left, centre, and back of 
the lii'ad, .and pistol wound through left side of upper lip. Brandy .Station, Virgini.a, .June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Hospital 
No. 1, Ann.apolis, June loth. Returned to duty .September l'3tli, 1863. 

Lice, Jkuemiah, Private, Co. K, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of right occi|)ital region. Cnlpe])or. Virginia, 
.Jinie 9th, 1833. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Amiapolis, Maryland, June 14th. Trjinsferred to Philadelphia October 
3d, 1863. He was discharged, and his application for a pension was rejected May 13th, 1861, liis wound having produced no 
disability. 

Lek, Thoma.s, Private, Co. C, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 22 ye.ars. Sabre-cut of the left side of the scalp. Five 
Forks, Virginia. April 2d, 1835. Admitted to Slough Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, June 6tli. Discharged from service June 
29th, 1865. a. O. Xo. 77, A. G. O., April 2Sth, 1865. 

Little, .Je.sse H , Private Co. B, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Saliro-cuts of the head and shoulder. Hanover, Penn- 
sylvania, June ;$Oth, 1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 9th. Returned to duty January 22d, 1364. 

LocKWOon, S., Private, Co. K, 1st United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virgini.a, June 21st, 
1863. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 23d. Returned to duty July 13th, 1863. 

Logan, M. M., Sergeant, Co. M, 16th Pennsylv.ania Cavalry, aged 21 ye.ars. Seven sabre-cuts of the scalp, one of the 
right shoulder, one of the left fore.arm. anil a pistol-shot wound of the right hip. Aldie. Virginia. June 13th, 1363. Admitted 
to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, .June 2l3t. Returned to duty .J.annary 17th, 1364. 

LOTZ. WiLLtAJI L., Private, Co. L, 1st Pennsylvania Cav.alry, aged 17 years. Sabre-cut of the right side of the scalp 

2 



10 WOUNDS AND INJURIKS OF THE HEAP, 

Near Riclinioiul. Virginia, May Dtli, ln()l. Admitted to Haiiinioiid Hospital, Point Lookout, Maryland, M.ay IGtli. Returnod 
to duty July IDth, 18G4. 

Loury, Isaar, Private, Co. C, 11th Gciirpia Infantry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Fisher's Hilt, Virginia, 
October lt>tli, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Point Lookout, Maryland, January 3d, 18G5. Transferred for exclmnge, well, 
February 11th, 1865. 

Lucas, Wiixahi) H., Private, Co. B, 1st Maine Cavalry, aged 28 years. Sabre-cut of scalp. Yellow Tavern, Virginia, 
May 12th, 1864. Transferred to United States Navy July 4th, 18G4. 

LUXT, Al.nKUT C, Private, Co. I, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region, two inches above the 
ear; also one of the vertex. Drainesville, Virgini.i, Api-il 1st, 18()3. Admitted to Hospital No. 1. Annapolis, April 8th. Trans- 
ferred to Brattleboro', Vermont, July 2yth; thence to Bedloe's Island, New York Harbor, November 8th. Returned to duty 
November 16th, 1863. 

LuTK-S, James W., Private, Co. F, 1st Micliigan Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of forehead and vertex of scalp. Gettysburg 
July 3d, 18G3. Admitted to First Division Hosjiital, Annapolis, Maryland, July IGtli. Returned to duty August IStli, 18G3. 

LuTiiEH, James. Private, Co. G, 8th Illinois Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virginia, June 2l8t, 1863. 
Recovered, and re-enlisted in the Veteran Reserve Corps. Mustered out of service July 17th, 1865. 

LuTHEn, Nicholas, Private, Co. B, 21st Veteran Reserve Corps, aged 49 years. Sabre-cut of forehead. Troy, New 
York, while on guard. Admitted to hospital at Albany, New Yoik, August 24th. Returned to duty September 26tli, 1864. 

I,Y()NS, James, Private, Co. E, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sal)re-cut of the scalp. Hanover, Pennsylvania, June 
30th, 1863. Admitted to Jarvis Hospital. ]5altiniore, .July 14th, and transferred to First Division Hospital, AiinapoHs, Mary- 
land, July 16th. Retunied to duty August Utli, 1863. 

Mack, .Ioiin, Pi-ivate, ('o. E, 1st Connecticut Cavalry, aged 2G years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Cedar Creek, Virginia, 
October 17tli, ISOt. Admitted to Field Hospital at Sandy Hook. Maryland, October 21st. Transferred to Satterlee Hospital, 
Philadelphia, (Jctober 27th. Ketiiiiied to duty Decenilier 1st, 18G4. 

Mann, Neiiemiaii 11.. Captain, Co. M, 4th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of tlie scilp. and gunshot flesh wound of 
chest. Upperville, Virginia. .Tune 21st, 18G3. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 23d. Returned to duty Sep- 
tember 29th, 18G3. 

McAlcxamler, D., Private, Co. G, 2l8t Virginia Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Front Royal, Virginia, 
November 9th, 1864. Admitted to W^est's Building IIosi)ital, Baltimore, November 16th. Transferred for exchange, well, 
December 9th, 1864. 

McCahe, Geonje, Private, Co. C, 2d Maryland Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region. Monocacy, Maryland, 
July 9th, 1864. Admitted to West's Building Hospital, Baltimore, September 3d. Transferred to Fort Mc Henry, Baltimore, 
for exchange, well, September 24tli, 1864. 

MoClellan, William T., Private, Co. B, 12th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 24 years. Sabre cut of the scalp. Raid 
on Hamilton, Virginia, March 21st, 1865. Admitted to hospital at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, March 25tli. Transferred to 
Cumberland, Maryland, April 6th. Returned to duty April 24th, 1865. 

McCooT,, Michael H., Sergeant, Co. B, 71st New York Volunteers, aged 30 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Chan- 
cellorsville, Virginia, May 3d, 18G3. Admitted to Turner's Lane Hospital, Philadelphia, March 14tli. Discharged from service 
May 17th, 1864. 

McCoy, John, Private, Co. K, 9th Indi.ana Cavah-y, aged 29 years. Incised wound of the scalp. In an afl'ray. Admitted 
to hospital at Indianapolis, Indiana, April 13th. Returned to duty May 6th, 1864. 

McDowell, James, Private. Co. H, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Fairfield, Pennsylvania, July 
3d, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospit.il. Annapolis, Maryland, August 3d. Returned to duty August 15th, 1863. 

McFai.l, Jonathan, Private. Co. A, Gth Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and shoulder. Gettysburg, July 
1st, 1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hosjiital, Philad.'lphia, July 10th. Retunied to duty December 4th, 1863. 

McKenna, Davenport, Private, Co. G, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Mill- 
wood, Virginia, December 17th, 1864. Admitted to Camden Street Hospital, Pliiladelidiia, December 21st. Returned to duty 
February 23d, 1865. 

McKowes, Wii.IJAM. Corporal, Co. G, 1st Maryland Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the forehead, and one on the back of the 
neck. Culpeper, Virginia, September 3d, le63. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, September 24th. 
Returned to duty November 9th, 1863. 

McLean, William, Cajitain, Co. H, ,^,th United States Cavalry. Two or three sabre-cuts of the posterior portion of 
the scalp. Hanover, Virginia. .lune 13lh, 18G2. Taken prisoner, and confined in Libby Prison, Richmond, for a few weeks, 
when he was released. Died of inflammation of the brain April 13tli, 1863. 

McVeigh. T. E., Corporal, Co. F, 15th A'irginia Cavalry. Sabre-cut, three inches in length, of the superior occij)ital 
region. Brandy Station, Virginia, ,June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Prince Street Hospital, Alexandria, June lUth. Transferred 
to provost marshal June 12th, 1863. for exchange. 



INCISED AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. 11' 

MeaoiieI!, EDWAlin, Trivatc, Co. M, Gth Uniteil States Cavalry. Sabre-ciit of the seal]). Fairfield, Pennsylvania 
July 3(1, 18G3. Dischargeil September ',J6tli, 1864, on expiration of term of service. 

Merkdith, D. H., Private, Co. C, Ist Delaware Cavalry, aged 28 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp ; also gunshot wound 
of the left leg. Westminster, Maryland, June 29th, 18G3. Admitted to Tilton Hospital, Wilmington, Delaware, July 4th 
Transferred to Mower Hosjiital, PhiladeliWiia, April ii7tli, 18(54. Returned to duty July 11th, 18G4. 

Might, John, Private, Co. E, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virginia, June 21st, 
1863. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 24th. Returned to duty August 13th, 1863. 

Mii.LKis, Fkank E., Sergeant, Co. H, 1st New York Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and ear. Dinwiddle Court House, 
Virginia, March Slst, 1865. Recovered, and mustered out with his regiment June 27tli, 1865. 

MiLi.Ei;, John W., Private, Co. L, 14tl] Penn.sylvania Cavalry, aged 22 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Asl.by's Gap, 
Virginia, February 9th, 1865. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, March 1st, 1865. Discharged from service July 
10th, 1865. 

Mills, W. S., Private, Co. F, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp anil shoulder. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. 
Admitted to Broad and Cherry Streets Hospital, Philadelphia, July 15th. Returned to duty August 12tli, 1663. 

MoNTGOMEliY, Jon.N, Private, Co. F, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 20 years. Sabre-cut of the occipital region. 
Hanover Junction, Pennsylvania, June 3t)th, 1863. Admitted to Cuyler llosi>ital, Gennantown, Penn.sylvania, July 5tli. 
Returned to duty December Kith, 1863. 

Morris, J., Private, Co. H, 1st Virginia Artillery, aged 20 years. Sabre wound of the seal]). Lynchburg, Virginia, 
June 13th, 1864. Admitted to Post Hospital, New Creek, West Virginia. June SOtli. Returned to duty July 6th, 1864. 

MORTSOLF, Martin, Corporal, Co. C, 10th New York Cavalry. Three sabre-cuts — one of forehead, one of right arm, 
and one of back, extending from left shoulder to right hip. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Prince 
Street Hospital, Alexandria, June lOth. Returned to duty July 6tli, 1863. 

Nellis, John, Corporal, Co. A. 6th Ohio Cavalry. Sabre-cut of tlie seal]). Upperville, Virginia, June 21st, 18(!3. 

Nelman, , Private, Co. B, Irish Dr.agoons. Frenuiiit's Body Guard. Subre-cut of the seal]) and several bruises. 

Springfield, Missouri, October 25th, 1861. As no further record can be found of this case, the injuries were ])robably trivial. 

Newkirk, James C, Private, Co. C, Ist Delaware Cavalry, Sabre-cut of the scalp. Westminster, Marj-land, June 
29th, 1863. Admitted to Tilton Hospital, Wilmington, Delaware, July 4th. Returned to duty August 25tli, 1863. 

O'Connell, C, Private, Co. C, 5th Illinois Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Ellisville, Mississi])]ii, June 23d, 1863. 
Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, July 15th. Returned to duty September 17th, 1863. 

Odell, Charles L., Private, Co. B, 86th New York Volunteers. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Beverly Ford, Virginia, 
JuiU! 9th, 1663. Admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, June lltli. Returned to duty June 24th, 1863. 

O'Neil, Thomas, Private, Co. I, 1st Maryland Cavalry, aged 24 years. Accidental incised wound of the scalp. Admitted 
to Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, March 11th, 1864. Returned to duty April 14th, 1864. 

Overton, George P., Private, Co. E. l.')th New York Cavalry, aged 41 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Newmarket, 
Virginia, December 21st, 1864. Admitted to hosjiital at Frederick, Maryland, December 23d. Returned to duty January 2l8t, 
1865. 

Palmer, David, Private, Co.' K, 6th Ohio Cavalry, aged 19 years Sabre-cut of right occiintal region. Yellow Tavern, 
Virginia, May 12th, 1864. Admitted to hosi)ital at Point Lookout, Marj'land, May 16th. Returned to duty June 28th, 1864. 

Parcells, Joseph A., Private, Co. F, 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry, ag(,'d 22 years. Sabre-cut of the head, and also over 
the right clavicle. Gettysburg, July 2d, 1863. Admitte<l to Chester Hospital, Pennsj'lvania, July Utli, 1863. Returned to 
duty December 23d, 1863. 

Parris, George W., Private, Co. D, 5th New York Cav.alry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. September 13lh, 1863. Admitted 
to Armory Square Hospital, Washington, September 14th. Returneil to duty December 4th, 1863. 

Patterson, John, Private, Co. B, 1st United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the right side of the scalp. Upperville, 
Virginia, June 21st, 1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Annapolis, .July 15tli. Returned to duty August 15th, 1863. 

Phetticplace, Madison, Private, Co. I, 23d Ohio Volunteers, aged 35 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Cedar Creek, 
Virginia, October 19th, 1864. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital. Philadelphia, October 23d. Transferred to Trijjler Hospital, 
Columbus, Ohio, June 28th. Mustered out of service Jul^' 7th, 1865. 

Pickktt, Thomas, Private, Co. I, 2d Maine Cavalry. Sabre-cut of left side of scalp. Pine Barrens, Florida, October, 
1864. Admitted to Regimental Hospital, and returned to duty the same day. 

Pool, George S., Private, Co. F, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the head and right wrist. Gettysburg, July 1st, 
1863. Admitted to Broad and Cherry Streets Hospital, Philadelphia, July 15th. Discharged from service October 3d, 1863. 

Portell, Patrick, Private, Co. B, 10th Massachusetts Volunteers. Sabre-cut of the right side of the head, one inch 
above the frontal protuberance. Gettysburg, Jidy 3d, 1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, July 5th. Returned 
to duty April 22d, 1864. 

Pullen, T. E., Lieutenant, Co. G, 15th Virginia Cavalry, aged 30 years. Sabre-cut of the occipital region. Admitted 
to Chimboraxo Hospital, Richmond, Virginia, May 17th. Returned to duty June 20th, 1864. 



12 WOUNDS AND IN.IUKIKS OF THE IIKAD, 

I'rTNAM. OuiJlx .!., Corporal. Co. I, 1st Vcriiiout Cavalry, aped '24 years. Sabre-Pnt of left .side of tlie scalp. Drains- 
villc. Virfrinia, April 1st, iJ^fi:!. Ailiiiitteil to First Division ITcispital, Annapolis, Maryland, .\prii Stii. Transferred to Invalid 
Coi'ps Maieli l.'uli, 18G4. and niiistered ont on ex|iiratioM of liis term of seivice. 

Pyk. Ol.tvr.i;, Private, Co. K. 1st New Ilamjisliire Cavali-y, aged 37 years. Sword wound of the scalp. Newtown, 
Virginiii, November 12tli, l.iC4. Admitted on the same day to the Cavalry Corps ITo.»pital, and transferred November tiOtli to 
McKim'a Mansion, Baltimore. Died December lOtli, 1664, of " effects of sabre womid." 

Quixx, Michael, Hugler, Co. D, 4th United States Cavalry, aged 19 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Franklin, Ten- 
nessee, November SOtb, 18G4. Admitted to No. 15 Hospital, Nashville, December rf3d. Returned to duty January 4tli, 18(i5. 

QriNN', Peter, Private, Co. B, 17th Veteran Reserve Coips, aged 43 years. Severe incised woinid of tlie scalp. Acci- 
dental. Admitted to hospital, Indianapolis, Indiana, June 23d, from Ekin Uarracks. Returned to duty October 27th, 1864. 

Remixijton, George W., Captain, Co. H, 2d New York Cavalry, aged 24 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Mount 
Jackson, Virginia, November 22d, 1864. Admitte<l to Field Hospital at Sandy Hook, Maryland, November SOtli. Mustered 
out on expiration of term of service, June 5tli, IrfRo. 

Rice, Horatio H., Sergeant, Co. A. 10th New York Cavalry, aged 24 years. Sabre-cnt of the scalp, and a gunshot 
flesh wound of the thigh. Trevillian Station, .June 11th, 1864. Admitted to Mount Pleasant Hospital, Washington, June 21st, 
1864. Transferred to Satterlee Hospital, I'biladelphia, June 29tli. Dischargcid December 7th, 1864, on account of expiration 
of term of enlistment. 

liirhardson, E., Pnvat<', Co. B, 2d Georgia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the bead. Admitted to rebel hospital, Petersburg, 
Virginia, December lOtb, 18G2. Returned to duty December 2:id, 1862. 

Ilichle, ./. H. I'., Private, Co. H, 12th Virginia Cavalry. Sabre wound of the head. Admitted to Chiniborazo Hospital, 
Richmond, Virginia, June 12tli, 1863. Furlouglied June 24th, 1803, for sixty days. 

Sohiuaon, Charles K.. Private, Co. C, 9th Virginia Cav.alry, aged 43 years. Sabre-cut of the parietal region three inches 
in length. Upperville, Virginia. June 21st, 1863. Admitted to Stanton Hospital, Washington, June 23d. Transferred to Old 
Capitol Prison August Ifitli, 1863, for exchange. 

Roisix.sox, William, Connnissary Sergeant, 2d Ohio Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. September, 1864. Mustered 
out of service Se]iteniber 11th, 1865. 

Ror.ER.s. George A., Private, Co. H, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Br.andy St.ation, Virginia, October 
lltb, 1863. Admitted to hospital at Annapolis, October 29th ; transferred to Brattleboro, Vermout, December 9th ; transferred 
to B.axter Hospital, Burlington, December ICth. Returned to duty February 25th, 1864. 

Eotcie, James H., Private, 5th Virginia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Aldie Gap, Virginia, June 17th, 18C3. 
Paroled. 

Huffin, Thomas, Major, 1st North Carolina Cav.alry. Sabre wound of the bead. Admitted to Hospital No. 4, Richmond, 
Virginia, July 22d, 1863. " Furl.>ughed July 29tli, 1863. 

Russell, George, Sergeant, Co. I, 1st Maine Cavalry, aged 21 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Sheridan's Raid in Vir- 
ginia, May, 1864. Discharged the service August 17th, 1864. 

Ryan, Jeremiah, Private, Co. H, 22d New York Cav.alry, aged 24 years. Sabro-cut of the scalp. Admitted to De 
Camp Hospital, David's Island, New York Harbor, June 3d, 1805. Discharged from service July 15th, 1865. 

Ryan, Saxey, Sergeant, Co. G, 13th Indiana Volunteers, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Bermuda Hundred, 
Virginia, June 19tb. 1804. Admitted to Filbert Street Hospital, Philadelphia, July 6th. Transferred to Satterlee Hospital July 
IGth. Returned to duty August Otb, 1864. 

SALLsnt'itv, Frederick, Private, Co. C, luth New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the Icfl pariet.al region. Beverly Ford, 
Virginia, June 9th, 18C3. Admitted to Second Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, June 14tli. Returned to duty July 
24th, 1863. 

Sacnder.s, Edward, Private. Co. M, 7tli Michigan Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the occipital region. Front 
Royal, Virginia, August IGth, 1864. Admitted to .Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, August 21st. Returned to duty Sep- 
tember 27tli, 1864. 

Saxtox, Edward P., Priv.ate, Co. D, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. S.abre-cut of the scalp. Beverly Ford, Virginia, 
June 9th, 18G3. Admitted to Second Division Hos])it.al, Annai)olis, Maryland, June 14th. Returned to duty June 18th, 1863. 

ScilAEFKR, Gu.'iTAVi'S. Private, Co. 15, 12th Pennsylvania Cav.alry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st, 
1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadeliihia, July 9tli. Retunu'd fo duty August 11th, 1863. 

Sciiki:r. William. Private, Co. M. 2d Fnited States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the right parietal region. Beverly Ford, 
Virginia, June 9tli, 1863. Admitted to Second Division Hos[iital, Annapolis, June 14th. Returned to duty July 27tb, 18()3. 

SCIIIEVILRIEX, Edw.^RD, Coi-poral, Co. F, 3d Indiana Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Admitted to Field Hospital, 
Hope's Landing. Virginia, ilarcli 23d, 1863. Discharged in consecjuence of aheratiou (jf mind, resulting from tlie injury, April 
12tli, 18G3. 

Secreu, J.vmes, Sergeant, Co. C, 1st United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virginia, June 21st, 
1863. Admitted to Tilton Hospital, Wilmington, Delaware, Aujfust 12th. Returned to duty October 2d, 1863. 



INCISED AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. 13 

Shaw, C. C, Private, 1st Virginia Cavalry, aged 18 years. Salire-cut of the left parietal region. Warrenton, ATrginia, 
May 3cl, 1863. Admitted to JIansion House Hos^pital, Alexandria, Virginia, May 3d, 18153. Transferred for excliunge. well, June 
15th, 1863. 

Siii;i'iii:iii>, Hkhbeht L., Private, Co. B, 1st Massacluisetts Cavalry. Sabre-cut, two inclies in length, of the right 
parietal region, and slight cut of the hand. Manassas Gap, Virginia, June 17th, 1863. Admitted to Fii-st Division Hospital, 
Annapolis, Maryland, July ICth. Returned to duty October Hth, 1803. 

SnOTWELL, John, Sergeant, 5th Kentucky Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Sherman's Campaign through the Caro- 
linas, 18G5. 

Sheffield, John, Private, Co. D, 1st Arkansas Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the foi'ehead. Osage, Missouri, 
October 2otli, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Fort Scott, Kansas, October '28th. Keturned to confinement November 17th, 1864. 
Subsequently exchanged. 

SiXGLETON, WiLLiAJr, Private, Co. B, 16th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Near Opelousas, Louisiana, 
October 22d, 1863. Admitted to hospital at New Orleans November 11th. Returned to duty December 3d, 1863. 

Skid, John, Private, Co. A, 6th Michigan Cavalry, aged 27 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July, 1803. 
Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Pbiladelphia, .July 9tli. Returned to duty November 27tli, 18i)3. 

Small, John F., Sergeant, Co. H, 1st United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the left parietal region. ITppei'ville, Vir- 
ginia, June 21st, 1803. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Anna])olis, Maryland, July 15th. Returned to diitv Sipteml)er 
26th, 1863. 

Smith, Gkorge W., Priv.afe, Co. D, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Ciettysburg, July 1st, 1803. 
Admitted to hospital at Getty-sburg July 2d. Returned to duty July 9th, 1863. 

Smith, IIkxhy M., Private, Co. C, llth Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged .34 years. Sabre-cut of the scalj). Wilderness, 
Virginia, May 5th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Pittsburg June 23d. Returned to duty March 1st, 18(55. 

Smith, John B., Private, Co. K, 6tli Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the sealji, lieverly Ford, Virginia, June Otli, 

1863. As no further record can be found of this case, the injury was probably trivial. 

Smith, PAXinCK, Private, Co. A, 8th New York Cavalry, aged 21 years. Sabrecut of the scalp. L.icey's Springs, 
Virginia, December 21st, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, December 23d. Returned to duty January 21st, 
1865. 

SoUTTiEPLANn, JOSEPH, Private, Co. D, 1st Illinois Artillery, aged 22 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. December 25th, 

1864. Admitted to hospital at Nashville, Tennessee, the same day. Returned to duty January 4th, 1865. 

Staff, I.saac, Private, Co, H., llth Pennsylvania Cavalry, Sabre-cut of the scalp, Millwood, Virginia, December 
17th, 1864, 

Stanton, C, S,, Private, Co, D, 2d United States Cavalry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp, Winchester, Virginia, 
September 19th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, October 12tli, Keturned to duty December 3cl, 1864, 

Steakem, M,, Private, Co, I, 16th Massachusetts Volunteers, Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July, 1803. Admitted 
to South Street Hospital, Philadelphia, July 8th. Returned to duty July 27th, 1863. 

Steinhauser, J., Private, Co. C, 1st United States Cav.alry, aged 22 years. Sabre-cut, two and a h;df iiK-li<>s lonir, of 
the right temporal region ; also a wound of the thoracic parioties, Culpeper, Virginia, August 1st, 1803, Adujilted to Douglas 
Hospital, Washington, August 2d, Returned to duty October 17th, 1803, 

Stellman, Charles, Private, Co, B, 6th Ohio Cavalry, Sabre-cut of the scalp, Beaver Dam, Virginia, May, 1854. 

Sterens, Daniel, Private, Co, I, 30th A'^irginia Infantry, aged 34 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp, AVinchestei", Virginia, 
September 19th, 1864. Admitted to West's Building Hospital, Baltimore, October 13th. Transferred for exchange, October 
17th, 1864. 

Sti.mpson, Robert E., Priviite, Co. G, 1st Michigan Cavalry, aged 20 years. Sabre-cut of the head. Gettysburg, .July 
2d, 1863. Admitted to Satterlie Hospital, Philadelphi.a, July 9th. Retunu'd to duty Sejitember 23d, 1863. 

Struble, L. G., Corporal, Co. A, 5th Michigan Cavalry. Sabrecut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863, Admitted 
to Fort Schuyler Hospitiil, New York Harbor, July 15th, Transferred to De Camp Hospital, David's Island, Februaiy 9th, 
1864. Returned to duty February 20lh, 1864. 

Suliiam, Jonas G,, Private, Co, I, 1st Vermont Cavalry, aged 40 years. Sabre-cut of the left side of head ; also gun- 
shot wound of right side of head, and two bruises of right side of scalp by a revolver barrel, DruinesviUe, Virginia, .\pril 1st 
1863, Admitted to Hos]iital No, 1, Annapolis, April Stli. Returned to duty May 1st, 1863. He was captured Jime 9tli, 1864, 
and died in a southern prison. 

Swain, D. P., Sergeant, Co. A, 6th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Hunterstowii, Pennsylvania, July 2d, 
1863. Recovered and returned to duty. Subsequently he was cajitured, and died in prison at Andei-sonville, Georgia. 

Tarsahi, ADOLrnu.S, Private, Co. B, 12tli New York Cavalry, aged 19 years. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and right hand ; 
September 29tli, 1864 ; for the latter, amputation of the index finger was performed. June 27tli, 1865. Admitted to McDougall 
Hospital, New Y'ork Harbor, July 9th. Deserted August 3d, 1865. 



14 WOUNDS AND INJUKIES OF THE HEAD, 

' Taylor, C. M., Private, Co. D, JeflF. Davis Legion. Sabre-cut of tlie occipital region; also a gunshot vvoinid of left arm. 
Upperville, Virginia, June 21st, 1863. Admitted to Stanton Hospital, Washington, June 23d. Transferred for exchange 
August 1st, 1863. 

Tewksbuuy, Benjamin P., Private, Co. E, 3d New York Cavalry, aged 46 years. Sabre-cut of the head, and contu- 
sion of the back by a fall from his horse. Ream's Station, Virginia, June 29th, 1864. Aduiitted to Balfour Hospital, Portsmouth, 
Virginia, from Kegiuiental Hospital, May 24th, 1865. Discharged July 20th, 1865. 

Thomas, J. TV., Sergeant, Co. A, Ist Georgia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the liead. Admitted to hospital at Petersburg, 
Virginia, November 18tli, 1862. Returned to duty December 2d, 1862. 

Thompson, C. S., Lieutenant, Co. E, 2d South Carolina Cavalry. Sabre wound of the head. Admitted to Hospital No. 
4, Richmond, Virginia, Augu.st 6th, 1863. Furloughed August 12th, 1863. 

TiiOMP.so.v, John, Private, Co. C. 7th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. Admitted 
to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, Jidy 16th. Returned to duty August 26th, 1863. 

Thompson, William 77., Private, Co. K, 18th Alabama Infantry, atred 24 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, December 15tli, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Nashville December 25tli, 1864. Transferred to Provost Marshal January 
3d, 1865, for exchange. 

TOMI.IN', Jonx F., Captain, Co. M., 3d New tJersey Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Sailor's Run, Virginia, April 
6th, 1865. Admitted to Cavalry Corps Hosi)ital April 11th. Furloughed April 18th. Mustered out of service August Ist, 1865. 

Tow.vE. Ki>WAi!n O., Corpural, Co. D, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry, aged 39 years. Sabre-cut, three inches in length, 
behind the right car. Aldie, Virginia, June 17th, 1863. Admitted to Third Division Hospital, Ah'xandria, Virginia, June 18tli. 
Furloughed July 18tli, 1863. Returned to duty and mustered out with legiuient October 3d, 1864. 

Tow.NM.RF,, Gir.K.«, Private, Co. A, 6th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the scalp and left arm. Hunterstown, Penn- 
sylvania, July 2d, 1863. Admitted to Sattorlee Hospital, I'hiladelphia, July 10th. Returned to duty September 23d, 1863. 

Trailer, It'illiam J)., Private, Alabama Reserves, aged 47 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Milton, Florida, December 
24(h, 1864. Admitted to St. Louis Hos]iital, New Orleans, Louisiana, December 28th. Translerred to Military Prison March 
11th, 1865, for exchange. 

Twi;edai:,e, T., Private, Co. I, 1st United States Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Upperville, Virginia, June 21st, 
1863. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, June 23d. Returned to duty September 11th, 1863. 

Updyke, Ev'EKETT C, Private, Co. D, 10th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the right occipital region, three inches 
in length. Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Annapolis, June 14th. Returned to duty 
August I5tli, 1803. 

Updyke, J. R., Private, Co. B, 5th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and ginishot wound of the hip. Han- 
over, Pennsylvania, June 30th, 1863. Admitted to Fort Schuyler Hospital, New York Harbor, July 15th. Returned to duty 
August 28tli, 1863. 

Walker John B., Private, Co. K, 36th Virginia Infantry, aged 38 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Winchester, Virginia, 
September 19th, 1861. Admitted to hospital at Winchester the following day. Transferred to Baltimore December 11th. 
Sent to Fort McHenry January 5th, 1865, for exchange. 

Watson, John, Private, Co. H, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July, 1863. 
Admitted to South Street Hospital, Philadelphia, July 8th. Returned to duty July 27th, 1863. 

Watts, W. ('., Private, Co. D, 14th Virginia Cavalry, aged 26 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Front Royal, Virginia, 
November 12th, 1864. Admitted to Field Hospital, Winchester, Virginia, November 14th. Transferred to Fort McHenry 
December 9th, 1864, for exchange. 

Weei>, William H., Private, Co. C, 2d West Virginia Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Five Forks, Virginia, April 
1st, 1865. Mustered out of service June 3d, 1865. 

Wegman, .jACf)n, Private, Co. I, 16th Illinois Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalj). Accident. Admitted to West End 
Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, October 26th. Returned to duty December 19th, 1863. 

Welch, Henry L., Private, Co. B, 6th Michigan Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Front Royal, Virginia, August 
16th, 1864. Deserted June 23d, 1865. 

Wentwoutil Gkokge a.. Private, Co. G, 2d Massachusetts Cavalry, aged 24 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Aldie, 
Virginia, July 6th, 1861. Admitted to Third Division Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, July 12th. Returned to duty September 
12th, 1864. 

WiL.soN, Dana S., Private, Co. K, 6th Michigan Cavalry, aged 32 ye.ars. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Front Royal. Vir- 
ginia, August 16th, 1864. Admitted to Field Hospital at Sandy Hook. Jlarylaiid, August 18th. Transferred August 20th, 
1864. Recovered and leturned to duty. Subsequently died of chronic dianhuja, November 13th, 1865. 

Wilson, M. D., Private, Co. H, 14th Virginia Cavalry, aged 20 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Front Royal, Virginia, 
November 12th, 18()4. A<lniitted to Field Hospital, Winchester. Virginia, November 14th. Transferred to Baltimore November 
16th, and thence to Fort McHenry, December 9th, 1864, for exchange. 

WiNGliOVE, Ge<ii;<;e, Private, Co. V, 9th New York Heavy Artillery. Sabre cut of the ri"h* parietal region. Shep- 



INCISED AND PUNCTURED WOUNDS. 15 

herdfitowii, Virginia, August 25th, 1864. Admitted to Patterson Park Ilo.spital, Bnltiinore, August 27tli. Transferred to Camp 
Parole August 29th. Keturned to duty October 5th, 1864. 

Winters, August, Private, Co. M, 5tli Ohio Cavalry, aged 23 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp, and ."hell wound of tlie 
arm. Near Fayetteville, North Carolina, March 10th, 1865. Admitted to Grant Hospital, New York Harbor, March 30th. 
Transferred to Camp Dennison, Ohio, April 16tli. Discharged from service June 23d, 1865. 

Wood, Samubl, Sergeant, Co. L, 2d New York Cavalry. Sabre-cuts of the occipital and parietal regions; also wound 
of neck. Culpepper Court House, Virginia, September 13th, 1863. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, 
September 24th. Transferred to De Camp Hospital, New York Harbor, October 29th. Furloughed October 31st. Keturned 
to duty November 2lBt, 1863. ■ 

Woodson, TV. R., Private, Co. I?, 15th Virginia Cavalry, aged 27 years. Sabre-cut of the occipital region, five inches in 
length. Brandy Station, Virginia, October lltb, 1803. Admitted to Hammond Hospital, Point Lookout, Maryland, November 
8th, from Campbell Hospital, Washington. Transferred for exchange, well, Slarch 3d, 1^64. 

Wright, John Private, Co. K, 1st Alabama Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Sherman's Campaign through the 
Carolinas, 1865. 

Wright, J. N., Private, Co. C, Ist Vermont Cavalry. Sabrecut of the scalp on median line, three inches above the 
forehead, and pistol-shot wound of the tbora-x. Drainesville, Virginia, April 1st, 1863. Admitted to Hospital No. 1, Annapolis, 
April 8th. Returned to duty May 6th, 1863. 

Yeagi.e, JoSEril, Private, Co. L, 5th New York Cavalry, aged 32 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp. Middleburg, Virginia, 
June 21st, 1863. Admitted to Stanton Hospital, Washington, June 25th. Returned to duty June 2i)th, 1863. 

Young, Setii, Priv.ate, Co. D, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry. S.abre-cut of tlie scalp, and gunshot wound of tlie left leg. 
Admitted to Lovell Hospital, Portsmouth Grove, Rhode Island, July 8th. Returned to duty November 18th, 1863, 

Of the two hundred and eighty-two cases of incised wounds of the scalp above 
recorded, six terminated fatally; one hundred and sixty of the officers and men thus 
wounded were returned to duty, or transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps for modified 
duty; one officer resigned; thirty-seven prisoners of war were placed in the custody of the 
Provost Marshal for exchange or parole; fifty-one United States enlisted men were dis- 
charged from service on account of physical disability in a few instances only, and com- 
monly because of the expiration of their terms of enlistment; twelve patients deserted; 
four were furloughed from Confederate hospitals and did not return, and eleven remain 
unaccounted for, but undoubtedly recovered witliout disability, since their names do not 
appear on the mortuary records or the lists of applications for pensions. 

An examination of the record in each individual case indicates that the deserters and 
furloughed men, and the great majority of the discharged men and exchanged prisoners 
fully recovered, and that of the whole number of two hundred and eighty-two wounded, 
three died from some form of encephalitis directly resulting from the injuries received, 
while in five other cases, chronic diarrhoea, intemperate habits, or intercurrent diseases 
contracted in hospitals or prisons, were the proximate causes of the fatal issue. Of those 
discharged for physical disability or invalided or pensioned, two suffered from mental 
aberration, others from vertigo, imperfect vision, headache, persistent pain at the seat of 
injury, ptosis, and amaurosis. Of those Avho recovered and were returned to duty, three 
were subsequently captured, and died from privation at Andersonville. In short, two 
hundred and sixty-three of tlie wounded recovered, eleven were temporarily or per- 
manently di3abled, three died from complications, and three from the direct results of the 
injury. 

The treatment of incised wounds of the scalp calls for few comments. Our surgeons 
commonly shaved a sufficient space about the wound, and after suppressing hajmorrhage, 
and, if necessary, cleansing the parts and removing foreign bodies, approximated the incised 



16 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

parts by adhesive plasters."' A compress dipped in cold water and a retentive bandage 
were usually applied. Some surgeons were not averse to sutures, silver-wire sutures 
especially, and employed tliem without disadvantage in cases in which slanting sword 
cuts had raised flaps of integument. Surgeon S. W. Gross, U. S. V., alludesf to a case 
which came under his care during the war, but which has not been reported in detail, in 
which a large semilunar flap, raised from the vertex and side of the head, presented a 
wound thirteen inches in length. He approximated the wound by nine points of silver 
suture. On the fourth day, union was perfect. There can be no doubt that exaggerated 
apprehensions have been entertained with respect to the employment of sutures in wounds 
of this class; but, as the scalp has but sliglit elasticity, and retracts but little after division, 
stitches are rarely indispensable. NeudorferJ makes the practical observation that when 
wounds of the scalp are approximated by adhesive strips the lips are inverted, and the 
healing of the wound is long delayed by the growth of the hair. On this account he 
greatly prefers to unite such wounds by points of suture. Hennen and Guthrie and 
Adams§ also sanction the employment of sutures in scalp wounds where there is much 
retraction of the edges. Whatever the mode of coaptation adopted, the importance of 
leaving sufficient intervals for the escape of discharges was generally recognized. 

There was not sufficient hfemorrhage in any of the cases above enumerated to require 
the cnn)loyment of ligatures. Pressure, which can be so conveniently applied over almost 
any part of the skull, was adequate to arrest bleeding in eveiy instance. 

It does not appear that rest in bed, spare diet, and an antiphlogistic regimen, were 
often enjoined in this class of cases. It is probable that the unfavoi'able issue of a certain 
proportion of the cases was due to the neglect of these precautions. While many military 
surgeons of the present day call in question the rigid rules of the older surgeons for the 
general treatment of scalp wounds, and contest the utility of purging, of antimonials, of 
cold lotions, and of strict diet, none have the hardihood to deny that quiet and abstinence 
from stimulating food and drink are imperatively demanded in such cases. 

Incised Fractures of the Cranium. — Forty-nine cases of incised wounds of the 
head are recorded on the registers. They furnish illustrations of all the varieties of such 
injuries: the superficial marking of the outer table, the division of the outer table and 
diploe, the section of both tables and more or less profound penetration of the cranial 
cavity, and the separation of an osseous flap.|| 

Adams, J. F., Private, Co. G, 21st Virginia Cavalry, aged 34 years. Sabro fracture of the left parietal bone. Front 
Eoyal, Virginia, November 12th, 18G4. Admitted to hospital at Point Lookout, Maryland, January 31st, 18(i5. Transferred 
for exchange, well, February 11th, 1805. 

AlXKN', EoiiF.liT, Private, Co. I, 4tli Kentucky Volunteers. Stibre fracture of the frontal bone over the e.xtenuil portion 
of the left orbital ridge. Chickamauga, Georgia, September 2flth, 1863. A<lmitted to hospital at Stevenson, Alabama, October 
4th, 1663. Retunied to duty October 22d, 1863. Mustered out August 21st, 1805. 

* Surgeons in the field were supplied with two kinds of " sticking plaster;" isinglass plaster (Emplastrum Icthyocollaj) 
and adhesive plaster (Emplastrum Resinao, U. S. P.) The first was readily detaclied if water dressings were applied over it ; the 
second was thought by many surgeons to be two irritating to be used in scalp wounds. French surgeons recommend strips of 
muslin spread with diachylon for the coaptation of these wounds. Strips of linen, secured at the ends by collodion, have also 
been employed. 

t Hi-rieii' of U'oi-ls nn MiVttarii Sur;/eri/, in .Im. Jmir. of .)ferl. Srienrrs. N. S. Vol. LVL, p. 4"27, October, 1837. 

t NKCnonFEli. IlawUiurh der Krir<iscliirur;iie. Leipzig, 1867. Zweite Halfte. 

{IHkxxex. MUilarij Surr/er;/, p. 2SG ; Guthrie, ('omuteitt'iries on the Siir;/c>-)/ of the If'ar, etc., Gtli London ed., p. 337 ; 
AdaM.S. Additions to Caliper's Dictionary, 8th London ed , p. 374. 

II The whimsical designations of these accidents by the older surgeons, as hedrn, (superficial cut;) errope, (perpendicular 
cut); diarop^, (obli(|Ue section); and apoakeparniamos, (detachment of portions of bone,) have become obsolete. 



INCISED FRACTURES OF THE CRANIUM. 



17 




Fio. 1. — Tnt(!rior view *<( n s<'i,^iii<'nt of tlio pnrio- 
tals inul opcii)!!!!!. (livided by u s:ibre-cut. — Spec. 
1678, Sect. 1, A. M. 51. 



Armstrong, Martix, Sergeant, Co. M, 6th United States Cavalry. Sabre fracture of the cranium. Fairfiild, Penn., 
July 3(1, 18615. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, MaryUmd, September Sdth. Died October 4th, ISCt'.i, of pyaemia. 

Ba.sser, Ad.wi, Private, Co. F, 6th United States Cavalry, aged 27 ycare, received a sabre wound of the scalj) at (Jcttys- 
burg, July 3d, 18C3. Admitted to hospital at Annapolis, Maiyland, August 4th. Transferred to Annapolis Junction. April 9th, 
1864; thence to Mower {lospital, Philadelphia, April 27th; thence to Pittsburg, June 7th, where it was found that tliere was a 
loosened exfoliation of the outer table of the skull. This was removed; the wound then healed, and the man returned to 
duty, cured, July 2'W, 1864. 

B , Jamics F., Private, Co. F, 7th Michigan Cavalry, was captured at Gettysburg July 3d, 1863, his horse being 

shot under him. He wa-s hurried to the rear with other jirisoners. In the subsequent retreat of the rebel army he was unable 
to keep up with the column, and, all efforts to goad him on being unavailing, a lieutenant in command of the provost guard cut 
liini down, and left him for ilead by the roadside. He was biouglit in by a scouting party, and was admitted to the Cavalry 
Corps Hospital. On the 25th of July he was sufficiently lational to give the above 
account to Surgeon Rulison, 9th New York Cavalry. He was in a very depressed 
state at this time. His pulse was weak, and beat from forty to fifty per minute. 
He was indisposed to mental exertion ; but when aroused and interested was 
quite rational. He lingered until August 15th, 1863, the tendency to stupor increas- 
ing towards the close. Tlie autopsy revealed a sabi'e-cut six inclies long, whicli 
had raised an osseous flap, adherent at its base, from tlie left |ianetal. and cloven 
the right parietal, with gieat splintering of the vitreous plate. The sabre had j)ene- 
trated the dura mater on the left side, and on the right side the meninges were 
injured by the depressed inner table. The posterior lobes of both henii8|)lieres of 
the brain were extensively disorganized. Tlie specimen, with the above history, 
was contributed by Surgeon W. H. Eulison, 9th New York Cavalry, since killed 
in battle. An external view of the specimen is i)resented in I'igure .55, page 
40, Circular No. 6, Surgeon General's Office, Washington, 1865. An internal view is given in the adjacent wood-cut. (Fig. 1.) 

Blood, A. N., Corporal, Co. C, 1st New Hampshire Cavalry. Sabre-fracture of the skull. Newtown, Virginia, November 
12th, 1864. Admitted to Field Hospital at Winchester, Virginia, on the same day. Inflammation of the brain supervened, and 
he died, November 30th, 1864. 

Bradley, Alexander, Private, Co. E, 5th New York Cavalry, aged 23 years. Compound comminuted fracture of the 
occipital bone by a sabre. Haimver, Pennsylvania, .June 30th, 1863. Admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, November 
17th. Seventeen spiculffi of bone were removed. Returned to duty November 28th, 1863. 

Brown, James W., Musician, Co. F, 13th Ohio Volunteers, aged 30 years. Sabre-fracture of the cranium. Atlanta, 
Ga., August 17tli, 1864. Admitted to Ho.spitalNo. 1, Nashville, Tenn., August 27th. Discharged from service May 18th, 1865. 

Brown, S. L., Private, Co. G, 8th New York Cavalry. Sabre-cut of the scalp, with fracture of the h'ft parietal bone. 
Gettysburg, July 1st, 18G3. A segment of bone removed prim.arily. In.sensibility lasted seven days. Admitted to hospital at 
Y'ork, Pennsylvania, July 19th. Returned to duty November 24ih, 1863. 

Canfield, J. N., Corporal, Co. G, 15th New York Cavalry, aged 55 years. Fracture of the cranium, with depression of 
the inner table by a blow from a sabre. Newmarket, Virginia, December 21st, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Mary- 
land, December 23d. Discharged from service May 20th, 1865. 

Clark, Richard, (colored,) officer's servant, aged 19 years. Sword fracture of tlie left side of cranium. Iceport, 
Mississippi, February 2d, 1865. Admitted to Strader Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky, March 23d, from Field Hospital. Trans- 
ferred March 26th, 1865, to New Albany, Indiana, Floating Hospital. Returned to duty June 27th, 1885. 

CoLViN, .loilN, Corporal, Co. B, 16th Pennsylvania Cavalry, being detached for service with the provost marshal of the 
brigade, while in the performance of his duty, received, on January 2d, 1864, a sabre-cut on the forehead. The riglit parietal 
bone was badly fractured near the sagittal and frontal sutures. About one square inch of the bone being loose, was removed, 
together with several spiculffi, and a sharp projection was removed by Hey's saw. The integuments were replaced over the 
opening in the skull by means of sutures, and the wound healed nearly by first intention. NO luipleasant symptom, save one 
delirious night, occurred after the injury, and the man was retunieil from the Cavalry Corps Hospital to his regiment on 
Jaiuiary 28th, 1864. The operation was performed by Dr. George W. Colby, surgeon in chief of the brigade, and the case was 
reported by Assistant Surgeon A. F. Herrmann. 

D , Thomas, Private, Co. G, 5th Connecticut Volunteei-s, aged 48 

years, was wounded at Chautilly, Virginia, on September 1st, 1862, by sev- 
eral sabre blows over the right ear. He was taken to Washington, and ad- 
mitted to Douglas Hospital on September 5tli. He was then suffering fioni 
partial hemiplegia, with mental hebetude. There w.as great tumefaction of 
the scalp. It was found that the right parietal was very extensively frac- 
tured, (Fig. 2,) one fissure rumiing near the teniporo-parietal suture, and 
otliei-s upwards and backwards from the ear. Near the parietal eminence 
there was a marked depression. It was determined to raise the depressed 
bone, and on September 6th, Acting Assistant Surgeon J. W. Williams 
applied the trephine, and, after removing a button and several fragments 
of bone, he excised a sharp depressed angle by a Hey's saw. It was ascer- 

3 




Fig. 2. — Vault of the cranium, showing- several sabre-outs 
of the right parietal. — Spec. 235, Sect. I, A. M. M. 



18 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HKAD, 



taiiK'd that tlie dura mater liad been injured l>y tlie sulirc-euts. After the elevation of the depressed fracture, the paralysis of the left 
side was relieved Tlie head was shaven, and cold applications were ])erseveringly employed. For ten days subsequently tlie case 
appeared to pro<;Tess favorably; but, on September 14tli, the patient began to be heavy and di-owsy, and the following day there 
were cUinic spasms of the left side and pleurostliotonos. At night the breathing was stertorous, the pupils were dilated, and tlie 
general symptoms of compression of the brain were very marked. Death took jilace on September Kith, 1S62. There was a 
large coagulum of extravasated blood under the scalp near the vertex, as though the man had faTlen upon his head after 
being wounded. A po t ranrti in examination was made on September 17th. On removiug the calvaria, whieli was remarkable 
for its extreme tbinmss, it was found that the dura mater was perforated beneatli the intersection of the wounds, and tliat, for 
a space of several inches, there was tliiekeiiing, with other evidences of intiamniatory action. The arachnoid and pia mater 
were disintegrated in this vicinity, and a space conijirisiiig nearly half of the right cerebral hemi.iphere was occupied by an 
abscess. Tlie calvaria was for\varded to the Army Medical iluseum by Assistant Surgeon Warren Webster, U. S. Arm}'. It 
is represented by Flo. 2, on the preceding Jiage. 

D , J. M.. Private, Co. M. 1st New Jersey Cavalry, aged 24 years, in a skirmish with the retreating enemy, 

near Burkesville, Virginia, on April 6tli. 18G5. received a sabre wound on the right side of the head. There w.as a cut through 
the scalp and pericranium tbree inches long, extending into the outer table of tlie skull and diploe, from the parietal eminence 
downwards and backwards. The woimdid man was conveyed t<i the Cavalry-Corjis Ilo.spital, and thence to the liase Ilos])ital 
at City Point, and thence by water to Baltimore, where he was admitted to West's Building Hospital, on Ma_v lltb, 1865. 
No rejiort of his s^-mptoms is given until his admission to the Baltimore hospital, when Acting Assistant Surgeon W. G. Knowles 

records that he suffered se- 
vere paroxysms of pain, re- 
curring freciuently, and an- 
nounced by loud screams. 
In the intervals, he answered 
questions readily and ration- 
ally. In tlie evening of May 
lltb, he became composed 
and slept tramiuilly. He 
manifested signs of intelli- 
gence until within half an 
hour of his death, which oc- 
curred on May 12tli, 18G5. 
On May l^tli, thirty-seven 
days after the reception of 
the injury, an autopsy was 
made by Acting Assistant 
Surgeon .1. H. Butler. The 
incised fracture of the outer 
table was two and a half 

inches in length. At one point it penetrated through the diploe. Its edges 
were necrosed and suppurating. On removing the vault of the cranium, a sjdinter of the internal table, one and three-fourths of 
an inch in length and one-(]uartor of an inch wide, was found under the cut, depressed about two lines. This fragment was 
covered by a thick dejxisit of lymph, which filled tiie angles of the depression, and adhered to the Jura mater. In this mem- 
brane there were two small perforation.^, dui^ to ulceration. These communicated with an abscess of the right hemisphere, 
filled with ofiFensive pus. Tlie dura mater was thickened and softened near the fracture, and discolored on its inner surface over 
a space an inch in dianTeter. The specimen is preserved at the Army Medical Museum as a wet preparation, and is numbered 
4206 of the Surgical Section. It is represented in the adjacent wood-cuts. (FiG. 3 and Fig. 4.) 

Dl'NN, Gi;oi!r,K, Corjioral, Co. E, 79tli Now York Volunteers. Fracture of the left side of the frontal bone, near the 
coronal suture, by a sabre. There was a depression of both tables of tlie skull one inch in extent. Admitted to Carver Hospital, 
Washington, November :;otli, 1862. Deserted March 2lst, 1803. 

ENCiLEKKK, Wii.i.i.vM, Private, Co. B, .')4tii Kentucky Volunfeers, aged 33 years. Three sabre wounds of the occijiital 
region, and one of the left superciliary ridge. The latter fractured the outer plate of the frontal bone, anil destroyed the vision 
of the left eye. There were also three cuts over tbe dorsum of the riglit hand. Saltville, Virginia, December 23d, 18G4. 
Admitted to hiwpital at Lexington, Kentucky, .lanuary 8th. 1865, anil discharged from service and pensioned. May 19th, 1865. 
On March 4th. 181)7, the examining surgeon of the Pension Oflice reported bis disaliilities as permanent. 

Fhkyhp:I!T. Adam, Private, Co. B, 1st Maryland Cavalry, aged :!4 years. Compound comminuted fracture of the left 
parietal bone by a blow from a sabre. Brandy Station. Virginia, June i)tli, 1863. Admitted to I'"irst Division Hospital, Annap- 
olis. Maryland. .June 21st. Ketiirned to duty April 21st, 1864. On the expir.ation of his term of service, be re-enlisted in the 
Ist Kegiinent, l>t Army Corps. (Hancock's ('orps.) in the siiring of l^tij. On July 18tli, 1865, he was treated at Stanton 
Hospital, Washington, for catarrh, was furlouglied, and then transferred to Douglas, and thence to Harewood Hospitals, and 
finally discharged on surgeon's certificate of disability, February 21st, 1866. From the hospital records it appears that he 
suffered little or no inconvenience from his head injury, ami that he was jirobahly an incorrigible nialiiigerer. 

G<)Ii.sm,\i;k, Geougk a.. Private, Co. F, 7th Michigan Cavalry, aged 19 years. Sabre-cut of the right parietal region, four 
iuclies in length, with partial fracture of the bone. Gettysburg, .July 3d, 18G3. Admitted to Harewood Hospital, Washington, July 





Fig. 3. — Rabre-cut of tlie riglit i»arietal 
Stct. I, A. M. M. 



-Spec. 4206, 



Flo. 4. — Interior view -^f the foregoing;: specimen. 



INOIRKD FRACTURES OB' THE CRANIUM. 



19 




24lh, where a spiculse of bune, one inch in length, was removed. Augv.Ht 18th, tlic patient was mucli improved, and the wound 
was nearly healed. The intvlloct at times was dull and impaired, with defective hearing. Returned to duty Novenjber 11th, 1863. 

Haines, Wai.teu F., Corporal, Co. K, 1st Maine Cavalry, aged 31 years. Sahre-cut of the pcalp, two and a half inches 
long, with fracture of the vertex of the cranium. Middlehurcr, Virginia, .June I'Jth. 186'1 Admitted to First Division Hospital, 
Annapolis, Maryland, July 9th. Kelunied to duty .September 13th, Ir^G'.'. 

Hai.i,, A.sa a., Private, Co. K, 1st New Hamp.'^hire Cavalry, aged 3^ years. Sabre-cut of the scalp, injuring the 
cranium. Lacey's Springs, Virginia, December 21st, l-'64. Taken prisoner by the enemy, and admitted to hospital December 
S.'jth. Exchanged, and admitted to Patterson Park lIos))ital. Paltimore, Febriuiry 213, 18l5.">, from Annapolis. On May 2'3d 
fragments of tlie outer table were removed. Transferred to Hicks Hospital, Baltimore, .June 14lli. Discharged the service 
June 25th, 1805. Surgeon T. Sim, U. S. V., reports tlie case. 

H , RoBi:i!T. Private, Co. C, 6th United States Heavy Artillery,* (colored,) aged 18 years, while sick in hospital at 

Fort Pillow, Tennessee, received, at the capture of that work, April 12th, 186-1, three sabre-cuts over the left parietal bone, and 
a blow from some blunt weapon, which produced a depressed fracture of the right 
parietal. One of the sabre wounds fissured the inner table, and drove a portion 
of it, an inch and a ipiarter in length, through the dura mater. As be raised bis 
arm to protect bis head, he received a sabre-cut on the left hand, nearly severing 
the index finger. Tlio patient was conveyed by water to the hosjiital at Slound 
City, Illinois, and was admitted there on the 14tb of April. The case book of the 
hospital describes him as very low, and at times irrational. On the 17th, the record 
states that he was weak and very restless, disposed to sleep in the day-tirae, and 
it is added that his appetite was tolerably good. On the 18tb, he was "very bad." 
On the lOtli, he was at times delirious. He died at half past ten in the morning of 
April 21st, 1864. At one in the afternoon an auto]>sy was made liy Acting .\ssistant 
Surgeon Melvin L. Rust, when a large extravasation of blood was founil over the 
left cerebral hemisphere, and a piece of the vitreous lamina, an inch and a li.alf 
long and an inch wide, detached frcmi tlie left parietal by the severest of the sabre- 
cuts, was driven tbrougb the din-a mater, into tlie substance of the brain. The 
c.alvaria, wliicli is dejiicted in the accomyianying wood-cut, (Fig. 5.) was fcu'warded 

to the Army Medical Museum by Surgeon Horace Wardner, U. S. V. The detached 

fi. . ■ , 1 1 • i i .■ 'i-i • i- ^ ii * 1 r'Ifi. .">. — Sabrp-rtits on the back of the skull. — 

•agment or bone was lost in transportation. I lie superior portions oi tne external g ^^■^^^■^ j^^j,, ] j^ j[ jj 

table of the parietals is discolored, as if from ecchymosis. 

H , Jame.s, Private, 27th Company. 2d Battalion, Veteran Reserve Corps, aged 22 years, a patient at Rirord Hospital, 

Washington, in an altercation with one of the hospital guards, on the 25tli of January, 1865, received a sabre wound, two and a 
half inches in length, on the left side of the forehead, a little within the left frontal protuberance. A cleft, an inch long, was 
made in the outer table of the bone. The patient was conveyed into the hospit.il, and the wound was closed by silver sutures, 
and simjde dressings were applied, and he was restricted to low diet. On the 25th, the man was feverish, and his bowels were 
constipated. He had a dose of salts, which was repeated on the 27tb. On the 28th, lu; comiilained of headache, and was 

ordered a mixture with bromide of potassium, lupulin, and hyoscyamns, and 
was allowed full diet. On the 31st, the rejiort says that his appetite was goed , 
but he, was ordered a drachm of tincture of gentian thrice daily. On February 
2d, he was reported as having passed a restless night, and was ordered eight 
grains of Dover's powder at bedtime. On February 6th. be was very comfort- 
able, and walked about the ward. On the next day, his bciwels lieing sluggish, 
he took three gr.ains of blue pill and six <if tlie coin])ound extract of colocynth, 
and was placed on light diet. On the afternoon of the 8tb, he complained of 
headache, which was aggravated at nigl'.t On the next morning be was par- 
tially insensible. He was roused with difliculty ; he answered questions slowly, 
but rationally. The pupils responded to light; the tongue when protruded, 
af^er great effort, did not deviate laU'rally. He had a dose of salts, a blister, 
three by five, to' the nucha, and, later in the day, a terebintbinate enema. He 
had several involuntary dejections, and bis urine dribbled away. In the evening 
he seemed brighter, and the control of the sphincters was re-established. On 
February llltli, he was perfectly rational. The urine and fjEces were discharged 
voluntarily; the t(mgue when protruded deviated slightly to the right; the 
pulse was weak at 70 ; slight eeiihalalgia. February 11th, he had passed a bad 
night, and he hail but little appetite. From the 12tb to the 15th. anorexia, weak pulse, regular bowels, no aggravation of the 
lie.id symptoms. On the 16tli, the patient complained of severe headache at 4 A. M., and soon after began to breathe stcr- 
torou.sly. At 7 o'clock he was perfectly unconscious; the pupils, were slightly but erpially contracted, and did not respond 




Fir.. 6. — C'avity of an llbscpsa in the oerebnim, 
resulting'- from a sabre wound. — Spi^c. 3fi8<"», Surg. Sect. 
A. M. M. 



* In the brief abstract of this case pivon nt pnpre '10 of Circular No. 11, S. f J. 0.. l>-i>r», it is stated that the patient was a private of the 7th Colored 
Hepinient, I^ R. Artillery. In the report of the ('on^-ri-ssiiuial Coniiuiltee on the ('onduct of Iho Wnr. ("Pth Confrress, 1st ses.=.ion, House of Itepresentn- 
tives, Report No. (i.5. p. .I.'i.) Uoljert Hiill U naine-l as of the l.st .Vlubaniii .VrlilliTV. The .Sdjulaiit General of the Army infnriiis the ronipiler that the 
organization in which tliis man enlisted was first known as the *' 1st Alab:iina Siepe Artiller\-." Its designation was afterwards changed to "6th IT. 8. 
Artillery, (colored"), aflerwnrds to "7ih V. ^. Meiivy .\rlillery." and finnlly to "11th l'. S. Colored TriM-ps.' 



20 WOUNDS AND INJUEIES OF THE HEAD, 

to light; tliere was stertor, with foam about the lips. Coma became more and more profound, and at lialf past twelve on the 
following day. February 17th, 186.'), the patient expired. At the autopsy, an incised fracture, an inch long, involving the 
outer table only, was found near the left frontal protuberance. The condition of the diploe beneath it is not mentioned. 
The left side of tlie os frontis was sent to the Army Medical Museum. It is numbered Specimen 3684 of the Surgical Section, 
and is figured by a wood-cut on page 34 of the Catalogue.* Two discolored spots on the specimen are stains from iron rust, acci- 
dentally made during the preparation of the specimen. An abscess was found in the left anterior lobe of the cerebruui, measuring 
two and one-half inches antero-posteriorly, and one and one-half inch laterally, the anterior and superior portions extending on 
the left nearly to the surface of the cerebral substance, and within six lines of the median line of the cerebrum. It contained two 
ounces of pus. Pus had also found its w.ay through all the ventricles, largely distending the left latei'al, and, from the fourth 
ventricle, had passed between the substance of the medulla oblongata and its membranes as low as the origin of the twelfth 
nerve. The boundaries of the upper and posterior portions of the abscess are indicated in FiG. 6. Specimen 3571 of the 
Surgical Section of the Army Medical Museum .shows the remaining portion of the abscess. 

HiNNAN, Henry, Private, Co. F, Ist New York Mounted Rifles. Sabre-cut of the scalp, with fracture of the external 
table of the craniimi. Suffolk, Virginia, May 17th, 1863. Admitted to Regimental Hospital, and returned to duty in the same 
month. 

HowAED, John A., Private, Co. G, 21st Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 24 years, was wounded in the engagement of the 
2d Cavalry Division with the enemy near Jettersville, Virginia, Ajjril .'>tli, 1865, by two sabre-cuts, one of the right side of the 
head, and the other on the back. He was admitted to the Field Hosijitat of the Cavalry Corps on the day of his injury, when 
it was ascertained that the wound in the back was not serious, but that the cut on the head, six inches in length, and nearly 
parallel to the coronal suture, had involved the external table of the parietal bone. The hair was shaven, the wound approxi- 
mated by adhesive strips, and cold water dressing applii'd. Tliere were no grave cerebral symptoms, and on April "irfth the 
wounded man was sent to the Base Hospital, at City Point, and thence, on April 30th, to Harewood Hospital, at Washington. 
A day or two after his lulmission, a photograph of his wound was made, by direction of Surgeon R. B. Bontecou, U. S. Vols., 
which is preserved as No. 16 of Volume I. Photographs of Surgical Cases, A.-M. M. The middle figure in the preceding litho- 
graph of "Sabre wounds of the head" is a faithful copy of this iiictiu'e. His case i)rogTe.<sing very favorably, Howard was 
transferred, on May 18th, to Mower Hospital, at Philadelphia. He was mustered out of service on July 18th, 18G5, with a 
pension of six dollars a month. In December, 1867, Howard was living at Shippensburg, Pennsylvania. He writes that he 
suifers greatly from dizziness, and that there liave been several exfoliations from the parietal bones since he went to his home. 

HoxEY, Mautin B., Private, Co. B, 11th Connecticut Volunteers. Fracture of the outer table of the left parietal bone 
by a sabre-cut. Antietam, Maryland, Septenjber 17th, 1862. Admitted to hospital at Frederick, Maryland, October Ist. 
Insanity was subsequently developed, and he was discharged Irom service December 23d, 1862. 

Huhtov, John A., Private, Co. H, Trestoe's Cavalry, aged 20 years, received a sabre fracture of the occipital bone, 
with penetration of the skull, at Independence, Missouri, October 22d, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 
October 25th. Died November 5th, 1864. 

Kautner, Charles H., Private, Co. E, 55th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 20 years. Sabre fracture of the cranium. 
Drury's Bluff, Virginia, May 16th, 1864. Aduiitted to Chesapeake Hospital, Fort Monroe, May 18th. Transferred, June 5th, 
to De Camp Hospital, David's Island, New York Harbor. Furloughed July 6th, 1864, and did not return. 

Lambert, Joseph C, Corporal, Co. G, 2l8t Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre fracture of the cranium, and incised wound 
of the left hand. Jettersville, Virginia, April .")th, 1865. Admitted to .Ca%'alry Corps Ilospit.al, April 12th. Transferred to 
Second Division Hospital at Annapolis, Maryland, Ajiril 15th. Returned to duty May 8th, 1865. 

Ladder, David E., Seigeant, Co. E, 3d Missouri Cavalry, aged 29 years. Sabre-cut of the left side of the skull, with 
fracture of the cranium. Little Blue River, Missouri, October 21st, 1864. Admitte<l to hospital at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 
October 27th, and transferred, on November 13th, 1864, to Post Hospital. He subsequently recovered and was released. 

Lucas, Philip, Private, Co. G, Ist New York Cavalry, at Winchester, Virginia, June 13th, 1863, received a sabre 
fi^cture of the anterior edge of the occipital bone; also a sabre-cut of the right shoulder, fracturing the head of the scapula. He 
was discharged from the service on August 24th, 1864, and in May, 1865, was examined by Dr. Charles Rowland, Pension 
Surgeon at Brooklyn, New York, who reported that there was an extensive indentation of the skull, and that Lucas suffered 
from partial loss of memory, and frequent attacks of vertigo, resulting from his injury. 

Maiioney, Denni.s, Private, Co. C, 132d New York Volunteers, aged 20 years. Incised wound four inches in length, 
extending from frontal protuberance along the temporal ridge, with fracture of the cranium; also a cut two and one-half inches 
long in the left parietal region, and the little finger severed, by a sword in the hands of the officer of the guard, April 4th, 1863. 
Admitted to Foster Hospital, at Newbeme, North Carolina, April 5th. Tetanus supervened, and death resulted ou April 25th, 
1863. 

Marshall, Thomas, 7th Virginia Cavalry, aged 34 years. Sabre-cut of the scalp, with fracture of the cranium. Orange 
Court House, Virginia, August, 1862. Admitted to Old Capitol Prison, Washington. Exchanged September, 1862. 

McGee, William, Qrderly Sergeant, Co. F, 1st New York Mounted Rifles. Sabre-cut of the scalp, with fracture of the 
external table of the cranium. Suffolk, Virginia, May 17th, 1863. Admitted to Regimental Hospital, and returned to duty during 
the same month. 

* Catalogue of the Surgical Section of the United States Army Medical Museum, Washin^oD, 1866, p. 34. 



INCISED FKACTURES OF THE CRANIUM. 21 

MclNTOsn, Francis, Private, Co. B, 80th Illinois Volunteers. Sabre-cut of the cranium at the vertex. Day's Gap, 
Alabama, April 30, 18G.3. Admitted to First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, July 3d. Returned to duty September 
7th, 1863. 

Mo.siER, jACf)B, Private, Co. G, 86th New York Volunteers, aged 21 years. Sabre fracture of the left ])arietal and occi- 
pital bones, while on picket dutv at Petersburg, Virginia, October 2d, 1864. Admitted to Armory Square Ho8])ital, Washington, 
October 29th. Died November 5th, 1864. 

Mullen, Ciiahle.s, Private, Co. D, 69th Pennsylvania Volunteers, received a sabre-cut on the left side of the head at 
South Mountain, September 14th, 1862. The blow of the sabre was directed obliquely, and intticted a wound commencing near 
the left frontal protuberance, extending two inches backwards along the parietal ridge, and downwards over the squ.amous por- 
tion of the t<'Uiporal, the scalp, muscles, and periosteum, and possibly a portion of the external table being incluiled in tlie flap. 
The man fell to the ground senseless. After a primary dressing he was ]>l.aced in a field liospital. and thence, on October 2d, he 
was conveyed to Frederick, and admitted to Hospital No. 5, under the charge of Surgeon H. S. Hewit, U. S. Vols. The wound 
was suppurating profusely at this time. The patient lay in a stupor, and was unable to articu- (fi'/f/X ^ 

late. It was supposed that he h.id traumatic meningitis, and the treatment was conducted in s* 'i "•/BBSf 

accordance with this diagnosis. There was a very gradual amendment ; but after several months 
the mental hebetude disappeared, and the power of speech returned. On January 2d, 18(53, the 
patient was transferred to Hospital No. 1, at Frederick, under the charge of Assistant Surgeon 
K. F. Weir, U. S. A. At this date, tliere was an open granulating wound, at the base of which 
dead bone was exposed; tlief)ericraniuni was separated from the bone near the margins of the 
wound. In the middle of March the cranium was exposed to a much greater extent. The 
patient complained much of headache, and there was partial hemiplegia of tlie right side. The 
bare portion of the parietal was necrosed, and was felt to be partly detached. Cataplasms were 
applied continuously for a few days, when it was decided that the necrosed portion of bone was 
BufRciently detached to warrant an attemjit to remove it. On March 28th, Acting Assistant Sur- 
geon PauUin performed the operation. The entire necrosed part was exposed by an L incision 
connecting with the wound. The fragment was then seized b^' forcejts, and, by gentle traction, 
was readily removed. The lips of the wounds were then approximated by adhesive ))laBters, 
over which compresses dipped in cold water were applied. The case progressed satisfactorily 
until April 2d, when the patient had spasmodic movements of the muscles. These ceased upon 
the removal of a detached, blackened bit of bone, half an inch square, from the anterior portion 
of the wound. Another small scale of dead bone was extracted on April 10th. In May the 
patient's general condition was excellent, and the wound was healing rapidly ; in the latter part 
of the month it had closed except at one small point, from which there was a constant puru- 
lent discharge. On June 8th, Mullen was discharged from service on .iccount of hemi])legia. left iiarictal, resulting fnun a fabre 

His mental faculties were much impaired. The exfoliation which was removed is represented wimnd.— .^/xr. ;»(,:!, .Sect. I, A. M. 

' M., natural size. 

in FlO. 7. Mullen was pensioned at the rate of eight dollars per month. On September 

4tli, 18G7, the examining surgeon of the Pension Office reported that the hemiplegia continued, and that the disability would 

probably be permanent. 

O'Hare, Barney, Private, Co. A, 6th New York Cavalry, aged 35 years, of robust constitution and health, received at 
the hands of a sentinel, at Camp Scott, Staten Island, New York, November 13th, 18S1, a sabre-cut on the left side of the head, 
extending from near the outer angle of the eye across the temporal regiim nearly five inches. The squamous portion of the 
terapoi'al and the parietal were incised for about two inches, and, in the middle of the incision, the bone and subjacent mem- 
branes were penetrated. Nearly two drachms of brain sub.'^tance esca])ed. The wound was immediately dressed, and there 
being much cerebral disturbance, and the pulse full and bounding, fifteen grains of calomel were given and twenty-one ounces 
of blood was taken from the arm, and the eighth of a grain of tartarized antimony was given every two hours. Next morning 
the man was sitting up, and stated that he was quite comfortable. Surgeon .\. I'. Clark, (itii New York Cavalry, who reports 
the foregoing particulars, proceeds to state that the scalp wound healed by first intention, and that on November 22d, 18(')l, nine 
days after the reception of the injury, the man returned to duty, and that no subsequent untoward symptoms appeared. O'Hare's 
name does not appear on the Pension Lists. In October, 1864, he was employed as a blacksmith at the Headquarters of the 
Army of the Potomac. 

PiSTORiu.s, William, Private, Co. E, 5th Pemisylvania Cavalry,.aged 39 years. Sabre-cut, with fracture and depression 
of the parietal bone. Petersburg, Virginia, June 9th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at Hampton, Virginia, June llth. Died 
June 18th, 1864, from compression of the brain. 

Reed, Jamrs T., Private, Co. C, 1st Vermont Cavalry, aged 29 years, was wounded in a charge at Boonsboro, 
Maryland, July 6th, 1863, receiving two sabre cuts, one on the head, the other on the left arm. The first was a slanting cut on 
the right parietal, which uncovered the dura matcir, completely' detaching a portion of the bone, the piece of the external table 
sliced off being two and a half inches in length and an inch and a quarter in breadth, while the portion including the dijdoe and 
internal table was much smaller. 'I'he iutegurueiital ttiip was not entirely separated from the scalp. The second cut involved 
the left elbow, and chipped off the olecranon process. The head was shaved on the field; the piece of bone sliced off was sepa- 
rated from the flap, and the integument was replaced and secured by adhesive straps. Water dressings were apjilied to the 
wound of the elbow, and the arm was placed in a sling. On .July 16th, the patient was admitted to Hospital No. 1, Frederick, 
M.aryliind. The wound of the head had almost entirely healed. Tli<' elbow w.is swollen and |)ainful. On July 20th, there was 
an attack of erysipelas of the arm. This subsided, and the limb was jilaced, flexed at a right angle, in a starched bandage, the 




22 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OP THE HEAD, 

wound bpiiiET exposed. Tliere was a copious discliarge of pus mixed with synovial Huiil. At this date the wound of the scalp 
was completely healed. On September 20tli, the patient had recovered with ancliylosis of the elbow. He suffered from head- 
ache, and from fixed pain at the seat of the head injury, especially when he was cx|)osed to the sun. On January 2Hd, 1864, he 
was transferred to the 1st Battalion of the Veteran Reserve Corps, and on September 2Gth, 1861, he was discliarge<l from 
service on account of disability. 

Rick, M.vhcus M., Corporal, Co. K, Ist Vermont Cavalry, aged 39 years, received a sabre fracture of the frontal bone. 
and a wound of the right thigh, at Gettysburg, July 3d. 1863. Admitted to hospital at lirattleboi'o, Vermont, August 5th. 
Returned to duty November 24th, 1863, and mustered out with his regiment on February 22d, 1865. 

lio(/ers, Thnmas K., Private, Co. C, 5th Alabama Infantry, aged 41 years, was wounded near Petersburg, Virginia, April 
2d, 1865, by a sabre-cut over the left supra-orbital ridge extending upwards and backwards two inches, and fracturing the 
frontjil bone. On April 8th, he was aiimitted to Lincoln Hosjjital, Washington. A few days after his .admission his photograph 
was taken for the co!leeli(m of Photograiilia of Surgical Cases of the Army Medical Museum. The picture is No. 6 of Volume 3 
of that series. It is well copied in the right-hand figure of the group in Plate I. On April 20th, the patient showing symptoms 
of compression. Surgeon J. Cooper McKee, U. S. Army, applied the trephine about one inch above the supra-orbital ridge and 
elevated the depressed bone. On May 27th, the patient was recovering rapidly, having manifested no bad symptoms since the 
removal of the bone. The large incision in the integument was cicatrizing fiivorably, covering the dura mater, so that pulsation 
was no longer visible. On June 14th, 1865, the patient had completely recovered, and, ujion taking the oath of allegiance, he 
was released. 

RoY.M.l., Wii.l,l.\Ji I?., Captain, 5th U. S. Cavalry, received several sabre wounds on June 13tb, 1862, near Old Church, 
Hanover county, Viiginia. Vv^hile posted, in observation, on the extreme right of General McClellan's army, his small com- 
mand was overwhelmed by the Confederate cavalry column of General J. E. B. Stuart. Captain Koyall made a stubborn 
resistance with his squadron. Though surroimdeil, and grievously wounded, he escaped from the field. On joining the main 
body, his injuries were examined by Surgeon (J. M. Ellis, 6th Penn.sylvania Cavalry. There were two sabre contusions on the 
right'side of the ln^ad. .a cut twn iuelics long on the forehead through the scalp only, a long cut on the left cheek which bled j»ro- 
fnsely, a cut on the right wrist dividing the tendon of the extensor proprins pdliicis, and .an inci.sed fracture four inches long of 
the left parietal, dividing the outer table and diploe. Entire rest and restricted diet, with cold applications to the head, were 
enjoined; but af>er a few days the patient was removed to Washington. Here he was attended by Surgeon General C. A. 
Finley, and Surge<m G. E. Cooper, U. S. A., who directed a continuance of the antiphlogistic regimen. The flesh wounds soon 
cicatrized ; but the incised fracture continued to suppurate for almost three months, after which the wound firmly healed. A 
conditi(Ui of extreme nervous irritability persisted for many months, with att.acks of headache and vertigo which incapacitated 
the sufferer for active service. In May, 1862, Captain Royall was brevetted Major, and in June Lieutenant Colonel, and, in 
October, he was assigned to duty as mustering officer at Louisville, Kentucky. He was promoted Major December 7tli, 1863, 
and brevetted Colonel March 13th, 1865. In April, 1866, he was examined at the Surgeon General's Office. His health was 
still impaired from the effects of his injuries, but was gradually improving. In 1869, his health was goo<l. 

Shaw, Joiin Hf.nry, Private, Co. I, 10th New York Cavalry, received a sabre-cut of the left side of the scalp, with 
fracture of the outer tabic of the frontal bone, at Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th, 1863. He was admitted to First Division 
Hospital at Annapolis, Maryland, on June 13th, and returned to duty June 30th, 1863. 

SiiUREY, Amo.s, Saddler, Co. H, 21st Pennsylvania Cavalry, was wounded by sabre-cuts at the affair at Jettersville, 
Virginia, April 5th, 1865. The outer tables of the parietal bones were fractured, and also the ulna and fifth metacarpal bone. 
He was admitted to First Division Hosjiital, Annapolis. Maryland, April 1,5th, and on M.ay 9th he was transferred to the Second 
Division Ho.spital at Annapolis. He died May 12th, 1865. 

SlDEHS, Hlli.VM, Private, Co. H. 21st Pennsylv.ania Cavalry, aged 18 years. Sabre-cut of the skidl, producing a com- 
minuted fracture of the left parietal bone. Amelia Court House, Virginia, April 6th, 1865. Admitted to Carver Hospital, 
Washington, April 16th. Discharged from service June 21st, 1865. 

Stkki.k, Jacob, Private, Co. E. 1st Michigan Cavalry, aged 20 years, received at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
July 1st, 1863, three sabre-cuts of the bead, fracturing the cranium ; ahso a cut on the neck, a gimshot wound penetrating the 
left lung, and a wound of the right arm. He was found lying in a bam in a stiite of insensibility. The ball was removed from 
the lung, the wounds were dressed, and he was adnutted to Camp Letterman Hospital, at Gettysburg, on July 6th. Tran-sferred 
to Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, ,Tuly 19th ; thence to West's Buildings, July 21st, and finally to Carver Hospital, Washington, on 
the 25th. He recovered and returned to duty October 20th, 1863. 

STRANDntTRG, ANDREW, Private, Co. H, 5th Minnesota Volunteers, aged 42 years, was admitted on December 18th, 1864, 
to the Cund)erland Hospit.al, at Na.shville, Tennessee, for a gunshot wound of the scrotum, received at the battle on the previous 
day before that citj-. The wound was not dangerous ; but the man had epile])tic fits, and it was remarked th.at there were 
Bevcr.al depressions in the cranium on the right frontal and pariet.il regions. The patient stated that he had been wounded 
several years previously by a sabre blow upon the head, and that he had ever since been subject to convulsions, which were 
conmionly slight, but occasionally severe and freijuent. A wounded captain of his regiment stated that the patient's fits had 
rarely disqualified him tor duty. After his admission to hospital, Strandbnrg had recurrences of epileptic seizures, at first every 
two or three days, and then at shorter intervals, until at last the intermissions between the attacks were of half an hour's dura- 
tion only. The intensity of the attacks increased with their fre(piency. He died in (me of the cnnvidsions, January 3d, 1865. 
At the autopsy, the upper portion iif the anterior lobe of the right hemisphere was found to be softened. Tliere was a collection 
of about two ounces of limpid ^erum above the right orbital plate of the frontal l)one. The brain, in this vicinity, was darker 
in color than natural. Over the right frontal and parietal regions the dura mater was very firmly attached to the skull. The 







^- A 



^ 



-,./'• 




INCISED FRACTURES OF HIE CRANIUM. 23 

right oiliital plate was fractured. Tlie calvaria, whicli was contrilmted to the Arnij' Medical Museum by tlie attoudiup medical 
officer. Surgeon S. C. Ayrea, U. S. Vols., exhibited nndtiple united sabre fractures ot the os froutis, and united linear fractures 
of both parietals, and disjunction of the coronal suture on the right side. Most of the fractures hail penetrated the lamina vitrea, 
wliich was much thickened in the vicinity of tlie fractures. Several detached fragments of the inner table had reimited, and 
e.\)iil>ited an eburnated appearance. Along the .sagittal and coronal siituri'S, and in tlie neighliorhood of the incised fiaetures, 
there were (Mseous depo.sits of long standing. An internal and e.\ternal view of the calvaria is presented in the aecomi>anying 
lithograph. 

S\vke.\f;y, 1)., Private, Co. D, 2d United States Artillery, received several severe sabre-cuts of the scalp, one of which 
fractured the cranium. November, 1863. Admitted to Doughis Hospital; Washington, November 23d. Returned to duty 
December 9th, 18l!:5. 

Vkhnou, Fo.stkr, Private, Co. E, 1st New York Mounted Rifles, received a sabre-cut of the left parietal region two and 
a half inches in length, which partially fractured the outer table of the skull. Smithfield, Virginia, May 17th, 18fi3. Admitted 
to First Division Hosjjital, Annapolis, Maryland, Alay 25tli. Returned to duty Augu.st 9tli, 1803. 

Of tlie forty-nine patients with incised fractures of the cranium above enumerated, 
forty-four were Union and five Confederate sokliers. Of the whole number, thirteen died, 
ten were discharged, four were paroled, two deserted, and twcMity were returned to duty. 
In the thirteen fatal cases, death resulted from epilepsy, several years after the reception 
of the injury, in one instance; in another, tetanus was the cause of death; and, in a third, 
pyaemia, ffl the ten remaining fatal cases, death resulted from inflammation of the brain or 
its membranes, or from compression. In three of the thirteen fatal cases, the fractures were 
incomplete, extending through tlie external table and diploe only. Of the ten patients 
who were discharged for disabilities resulting from sabre fractures of the skull, one became 
insane, one lost vision in an eye, three suffered from attacks of vertigo or dizziness, and, 
in two of these, the mental faculties were impaired, loss of memory being particularly 
noticeable. A sixth patient was hemiplegic, and his mind was much deteriorated. The 
other four men discharged, and the four paroled men, suffered only from occasional head- 
aches or from slight disabilities. In eleven of the forty-nine patients, fragments of bone 
were removed by the forceps, elevator, Hey's saw, or trephine. But one of these eleven 
cases terminated fatally. In thirty-seven cases, the site of fracture is definitely described. 
The frontal bone was principally involved in seven cases. Two of these terminated 
fatally; from tetanus, in one instance; in the other, with fracture of the outer table only, 
secondary encephaiitis and abscess of the brain supervened. There were two fractures 
of the temporal region, which recovered. In twenty-two cases, one or both parietals were 
fractured, and six of these cases resulted fatally. Of six patients with incised fractures 
in the occipital region, three recovered and throe died. These statistics corroborate the obser- 
vation of Tlennen^ and others, that sabre wounds on the top of the head are not, by any 
means, so dangerous as those of the sides. Boyer^ insisted emphatically on this distinction, 
citing cases from La Motte, {Traitt de Chir. Paris, 1732, T. If, p. 238, Obs. 139,) Marchetti, 
and Bohn, of numerous recoveries from very free incisions of the upper part of the skull, 
with injury of the membranes or to the brain. He pronounced incised fractures of the 
lateral parts of the head, with penetration of the brain tissue, far graver, and, indeed, 
almost invariably fatal accidents. Of two cases of recovery from sabre fractures in the 
temporal region mentioned in the foregoing return, [Lawler, p. 20, and O'Hare, p. 21,) 
the contents of the cranium were -uninjured in one instance, and in the other, the incision 
ran across the squamo-parietal sutliro, and the hemisphere was probably wounded at its 
upper portion. The very rapid recovery in the latter case is sufHciently surprising. In 
the three cases of recovery from sabre fractures of the occipital region, (Bradley, p. 17, 

' Henkex, Principles of Military Surgery, 3d «1. London, 1829, p. 28fi. 
'•iBOVEK, Traiti ties Maladies Chirurgicales, Seed. Paris, 1?47, T. IV, p. HX. 



24 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Engklkee, p. 18, Lucas, p. 20,) there was no evidence of lesions of tlie encephalon, and 
in two of these three cases, the incisions ajjpear to have impHcated only the outer table 
and diploe. The seat of injury is specified in eleven of the thirteen fatal cases of incised 
fractures of the cranium, and was low down laterally or posteriorly in nine. 

In five, of the eleven instances in which operative interference was employed in the 
treatment, it consisted in the early removal of detached or depressed fragments; in three 
cases, in the extraction of loose exfoliations at a later period; and, in three cases, in the 
formal application of the trephine.* The five patients treated by the early removal of 
fragments recovered, and three were returned to duty; one of them, however, suffering 
from deafness and dullness of intellect; while two were invalided, partly on account of 
disabilities unconnected with the head injuries, The three patients who had exfoliations 
removed, eleven, seven, and thirty-two months, respectively, from the date of the reception 
of their injuries, also recovered, and one was returned to duty, and two were discharged 
and pensioned; in the former, and one of the latter, necrosis involved the outer table only; 
the third patient suffered from hemiplegia and mental dullness. Two of the three patients 
subjected to trephining, on the first and eighteenth day, respectively, recovd^ed; and the 
third, trephined on the sixth day, survived the operation ten days. These cases will be 
further considered in the discussion"of the results of trephining for gunshot injuries. 

When sword-cuts slice away parts of the skull and the detached fragments of bone 
adhere to Haps of integument not entirely separated from the scalp, the treatment to be 
pursued has been a subject of discussion from an early period,^ and is still a disputed 
question. Denonvilliers and Gosselin," Legouest,^ and Jamain,^ advise that the isolated 
fragment of bone should be removed from the integument, and that the latter should then 
be replaced and kept in position by adhesive straps if possible, or else by sutures inserted 
at such intervals as to admit of the free discharge of pus. They follow the teaching of 
Dupuytren,^ based on the dangers of protracted suppuration, of necrosis of the detached 
fragment, and of secondary meftingitis, from leaving the bone to act as a foreign body. 
But these dangers would appear to be overrated, and John Bell, Hennen, Guthrie, and 
Macleod, were in favor of the practice of Pard, the re-application of the" flap, bone and all. 
Berengarius de Carpiensis, [Opera Omnia, p. 640,) Fallopius, {De Vulner. Capitis, 
Cap. XXII,) and Magatus, report instances of recovery after the removal of the detached 
section of bone and the re-application of the Hap of integument, larrey and Lombard, 
[Remarques sur les Jjcsions dc la Tete, Strasbourg, 1796,) followed successfully the prac- 
tice of Berengarius, and cite many interesting cases of recovery from sword cuts in the 
head, through the bone. Pare {(Eavres GomplHes, ed. Malgaigne, Book VIII, Chap. 7) 
advises that the osseous flap should be re-applied and kept in place by a few stitches, a 
practice which he successfully adopted in the case of 'Captain Hydron," and he quotes 

* Since tlie fcire^oinp sheets were in jirint, some additional informalion lias been obtained in relation to the case of S. L. BitoWN, {\>. 11.) 
The sjilire cut ran alonff the lower border of the left parietal for two and a half inches, and jirodnced a depressed fracture. The patient was conveyed, 
in ati insensible condition, to a field hospital, and was trephined, a button of bone and a detached fragment of both tables, an inch and a half in length 
beirijc: removed. He was completely luicoiiscious until Jidy ^th. when he recovered from bis profound stujior and was perfectly rational. He was kept 
on a strict antijihhigistic treatment for ten days longer, and was then conveyed to a hospiti»i at York, I'cinisylvania. 

' TItcaiirrrs Chirrrykr, continenn jmestantiuimorvm Avton-m, rtpote A>IHIiO.SlI P.VItKI PakiSIKNSIS, IoaNNIS TaGAVLTII 
Amuiani Vi.irACi, Ali-iioxisi KEiiiat Nkatolitani, Gvii.elmi Fauimtii Hildami, etc., Opera Chirunjka, nunc vcre in z-num 
collecla per Pktrim Uffenbaciiiii.'M. I'nincolVrti, aiiiio MDCX, p. 199. 

-' Compeiulium de Chirunjie I'raliijue, T. II. p. 570. 

^ Traiti de Cliirurijic d'Armee. \i.">l'J. 

■• Manuel de I'utho/oi/ie et de Clinii/uc Chirunjicales. 2d cd. Paris, 1807, T. 1, p. 580. 

•'' Clinli/ue Chirunjicale, T. VI, p. l.'Jl. 



INCISED FRA-CTURKS OF THE CRANIUM. 25 

Celsus {De re medica, Liber VIIT, Cap. TV) in Rupport of his j^recept. Sabatier (De la 
Med. Operaioire, ed. 1832, T. II, p. 18) cites other examples of successful results by Fare's 
plan from Leaulte,^ Le Draii, (Observations de Chirurgie, T. I, p. 156, Paris, 1731,) and 
Platner, (Opuscula, Lipsiae, 1748.) In the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, at 
London, tliere are ten skulls, which have suffered from severe slicing cuts. The large portions 
of bone cleft fromtliese crania have reunited, often a little out of their proper places. The 
fissures are all in a state of progress towards being filled up by bone; and the patients must 
have survived their respective injuries months, if not years. These crania are said to have 
been collected from a cemetery near a military asylum in Germany. Several remarkable 
examples of the reunion of osseous flaps sliced off by sabre-cuts are preserved in the 
]\Iuseum of the School of Val de Grace. Hennen [Principles of Military Surgery, ?d ed., 
p. 286) saw, in the Peninsula, many cases of this nature successfully treated by replacing 
the parts with the aid of a few stitches and of a supporting bandage. Macleod records [Sur- 
gery oj the War in, the Crimea, p. 181) the case of a Russian soldier under his charge, 
who recovered perfectly, the osseous Hap being left umlisturbed. Guthrie [On Jvjuries of 
the Head affecting the Brain, p. 96) adduces examples of recovery under both methods 
of treatment, and teaches that when the detaclied portion of l)one adheres firmly to the 
pericranium or integumental flap, it should be reapplied; but if it has but little adher- 
ence, it should be removed. 

The reports of these slanting cuts of the head, with detachment of a flap of bone, in the 
records of the American war, are insufficient in number and details to decide this question. 
In the case of Bedel, {ante p. 17,) an osseous flap from the occiput, attached to the integu- 
ment, and partially adherent at its base to the skull, was reapplied, and had nearly 
reunited througli the deposition of new bone, at the date of the man's death, forty-two 
days after the reception of the injury. Evidently, the presence of the slice of bone in 
the flap had not been injurious; the fatal issue having been due to the irritation caused 
by the splinters of the inner table, driven in on the right side. In the case of Strandburg, 
(p. 22,) illustrated by Plate II, detached fragments had completely reunited, the man 
surviving his injuries for years. On the other hand, in the cases of S. L. Brown, (p. 17,) 
and Reed, (p. 21,) the fragments of bone sliced off were removed from the integumental 
flaps, which were then replaced and retained, and both men made excellent recoveries. 
Little is known of the practice of Confederate surgeons in this particular. Dr. Chisolm^ 
advises that all sabre-cuts should be closed by adhesive strips or sutures, followed by cold 
water dressings. Dr. E. Warren^ suggests that the osseous flap should be reapplied; but 



' Obserratinns hi Surgery, written originally in French, by H. F. Le Dran, Senior Slastcr of the Company of Surgeons at 
Paris. Translated by J. S., 2d ed., London, 1770, p. 77. The XXII Observation, reported by M. Lcault6, sworn surgeon at Paris, 
relates to a sabre-cut of the occiput, "taking off.ibout the extent of a shilling from the first table of the occipital bone, and from 
the internal table the liignesa of a silver groat, without offending the dura mater, only leaving it uncovered." Lfiaulto attempted 
"the reunion of the teguments and the bone." M. Le IJran, "being at Tueruoy with the Mareschal de Villiers, came to visit 
the patient, and ap])reliended that it would be necessary to separate the bone fnmi the teguments entirely; but, upon second 
thoughts, we concluded," says Leatdte, " that I had always time enougli to ])rop"se this operation, if my former intentions did 
not succeed; and therefore we agreed to continue the same manner of dressing, whicli afforded me the satisfaction, in a few days, 
of approximating the pieces; and securing them so well to the neighboring parts tliat they perfectly reunited, forming a cicatrix 
iu the space of twenty-five days, without the least accident." 

- A Manual of Militarij Surr/ery for the use of Suri/cons in the Confederate States Army; by J. Jui.lAX ChiSOLM, M. D., 
3d ed., Columbia, S. C, 1864, p. 213. 

'An Epitome of Surgery for Field and Ilosijital ; by Ei>w.\i{i) W'.iUUEX, M. D., Kichnioud, Virginia, 1863, p. 3,">3. 
4 



26 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

does not present facts in support of the recommendation. Tlie otlier Confederate siu-ffical 
writers are silent on tlie subject. 

Altliougli the dangers from permitting tlie flap of bone adherent to the scalp to remain 
have, perhaps, been exaggerated, yet it is probably safer to remove it, if it can be detached 
without much diiSculty. That the dangers are not altogether imaginarv, is proved by the 
examples of necrosis of the segment of bone cited by Ravaton and Baorwindt. Should the 
bone fragment comprise only the outer table and diploe, it seems useless to preserve it; 
for the brain cavity remains closed by the vitreous table, and a flap of scalp alone has, 
incontestably, a tendency to reunite more promptly than an osseous surface. If the portion 
of bone sliced off includes the entire thickness of the cranial wall, and is reapplied with the 
integumental flap, cicatrization must be necessarily slow, and there will be a period of 
many weeks, during which complications are liable to arise. "^ 

Had it been practicable, the cases of incised fractures of the skull would have 
been arranged in accordance with the classification proposed by Mr. J. Adams, ^ viz: 
"First, tlie simple section of the outer table, in which a mere superficial mark is left; 
secondly, the division of botli tables by a perpendicular section; thirdly, an oblique 
or horizontal cut, where both tables are divided, but not courpletely detached; and, 
fourthly, the entire aldation of a piece comprising both tables, in which the bone 
adheres to the soft parts, or is completely removed with them." But the records 
are so incomplete that it has been possible to determine these distinctions in only 

'The literature of the subject has otjly been glanced at above. The question seems to have been a favorite topic of 
discussion witli the older surgeons. La Motte (Traite complet de Chirurgie. Paris, 1771, pp. 534, 535, 556, .'597) recorded four 
cases (Obs. 140, 141, 157, 161) of slanting sabre-cuts producing osseous fia])s, which, in three cases, included both tables of the 
skull, and in the fourth, the outer table only. In all four cases, the fragments of bone were removed, the integumental Hap 
reapplied, and recovery promptly ensued. Bilguer, J. JI., (^Chirunjisrhc fVahrnehmunyen in denem Eoiiijlirh Preussisc/ien Fehl 
LazarelUax, IJerlin, 1763, pp. 89, 114, 143, 145, 147,) cites five cases of tlie same nature, all of which recovered after the removal 
of the detached flap of bone, (Obs. 15, '23, 35, 36, 37). D. .7. Larrey report.-*, altogetlier, eleven cases of this descrijitiou. 
(lielaiion Ilistoriijiie et Chirunjirale de V Expedition de VArmec d' Orient. Paris, 1803, p. "-i'JO ; Cliiiiquc C/iirm-yirale, Paris, 18;i9, 
T. I, pp. 140, 188, 286, 306, et T. V, pp. 11, 40, 322; Alem. de Chir. Mil. et Camp(yjncs, Paris, 1812. T. Ill, pp. 140, 260.) In 
seven of these cases, the jiiece of bone sliced off was removed, and six of the patients recovered; in four cases the Hap of bone 
was rea])plied, and two patients recovered, and two died. 51. H. liarrey {Relation Chirunjirale dcs Evenemens de Juillet, 1830, 
Paris, 1831, p. 35) cites the case of a locksmith, who, supposing himself to be followed by a large body of insurgents, rushed 
upcm a squadron of grenadiers and received eight or ten sabre cuts on his head. There were several flaps; one, including a 
large portion of the parietal, fell over the right ear, exposing tlie dura mater over a space two inches long and an inch broad. 
Another, behiiul and above the left ear, contained a detached fragment of bone. XI. Magistel dres.sed tlie wounds, removing 
entirely the fragments of bone, and adju.'iting the Haps by sutures and adhesive strips. The patient was then placed in the 
Beaujiui IIos|)ital, under the care of Marjoliii and lilandin. Complete recovery followed in about six weeks, and 'he man was 
presented to the Academy of Medicine. II. Meyer (Iltilun'/ run Sfhadi'crletzun'ien, in Lanrjenberh'a Arcliir., 15. II, S. 91 und 
101. Berlin, 1862) cites two cases of tliis nature; in one, the severed segment of bone was removed and the fiatient recovered; 
in the other, it was replaced, and tlie patient died of meningitis. The pathological Jireparafion from the latter case is specimen 
1052, at the Museutu of the University of Zui'icli. liaerwindt (Die Jichandlnnij ran Kranken und Verioundctcn untcr Zelten itn 
Sommer 1866. Wiirzburg, 1867, S. 93) relates two cases of replacement of the segment of bone, followed by necrosis, the 
patients recovering after the extraction of the exfoliation. Ravaton {Chiruryic d'Armee, Paris, 1768, p. 549) also reports, 
in detail, two cases with a similar history. Ravoth und Vocke (Chirurgisehe Klinik, Berlin, 1852, S. .437) record two 
examples of recovery after removal of the osseous flap. B. Beck (Kriey.i-l'hiruryisehe Erfahrun'jen Wdhrend dcs Fcld- 
zu'jes, 1866, in SUddeutscldand. Freiburg, 18l>7, S. 161) cites a very interesting case of recovery .ifter the removal of a 
large segment of bone and the reappliiation of the flap of integument. On the otlier hand. Wepfer {Ohserrationa Mediro- 
Vrartirrp de Affectihrs Capitis, 8capliusii, 1827. |i. 34, Obs. 16) reports a very successful case in which the osseous flap was 
reapplied. Another is cited by Baudens, (Clin, dcs I'laies d' Amies a Feu, P.aris. 1836, p. 122,) a coiiijilic.atcd and very unprom- 
ising case at the outset. Tlieden (Xrne liemerk-itnr/en und Erfahrunjcn, 1782, Thiel. 1. S. 77) ajiproves of replacing tlie bone. 
Chopart and Desault (Tr^iti dcs Maladies Chirurr/irales et des Operations, Paris, 1796, p. 70,) are of the same opinion, and 
C. J. M. Langenbeck (Xosolojic und Therapic C/iiriir'ilsrhen Kranhhciten , Gottingen, 1830. S. 57) inclines in that direction. 
The authorities are about equally divided; but the facts adduced seem to favor the practice of removing the detached or 
partially detached segment of bone. 

■^ Additions to the Ei;/hth Edition of Cooper's Dictionary of Prartifal Surr/cri/, London, ISlJl. \i>]. I, p 8-!5. 



INCISED FRAOTUEES OF THE CRANIUM. 27 

tliirty-one of tlie forty-nine cases reported. Fifteen cases, of wliicli two were fatal, 
would be included under the first head; eight cases, four recoveries and four deaths, under 
the second; six cases, three of which were fatal, under the third; and two cases, a recovery 
and a death, under the fourth. In only one of the cases reported (R. Hall, p. 19j, did the 
question arise of the treatment to ho pursued in the event of a complete ablation of a 
portion of the skull, together with the integument, the connections of the flap with the 
head being entirely severed In this case, the complications were so grave that the ques- 
tion was of little interest. It is not impossible that, if the portion of scalp shorn off, the 
fragment of bone being removed, were immediately replaced, and secured by stitches, 
reunion might ensue. J^ut no example of such a plastic procedure has been recorded. On 
the contrary, authors advise that the dressing should be that of a wound with irreparable 
loss of substance, a simple dressing: for examjjle, a compress spread with cerate and a 
retentive bandage. 

The utility of the trepan in incised fractures of the skull will be considered in the 
general discussion of the subject of trephining, at the close of this chapter. It will, 
therefore, be unnecessary to make any further observations on the treatment of incised 
fractures of the cranium; since, unless it be decided that the symptoms demand operative 
interference, the treatment should be identical with that of incised scalp wounds. {8ee p. 1 ").) 

The returns confirra the observation of Tliomson,^ renewed by Dr. Macleod," on the 
remarkable rarity of hernia of the cerebral substance after sword, or compared with gun- 
shot wounds. This complication did not supervene in any of the cases reported, although 
in many of them the membranes of the brain were divided, while in several there was 
loss of brain tissue. 

In addition to those figured in previous pages of this section, the Army Medical 
Museum possesses eleven crania affording excellent illustrations of almost every variety 
of incised fractures of the skull. As these specimens do not pertain to the Surgical His- 
tory of the xVmerican War, the reader must be referred to the Catalogue of the Museum for 
full descriptions of them.* 

The three hundred and thirty-one cases of incised wounds of the scalp or cranium 
recorded in the earlier part of this section, comprise all of the sabre or sword cuts of the 
head entered on the registers of the Surgeon General's Office that can be satisfactorily 

' Report of Observations made in the British Militartj Hospitals in lichjium after the battle of Waterloo, Edinburgh, 1816, 
p. 50. Thomson cites a reniarkabk' case of removal of the upper ]>art of the occipital hone along with the dura mater, in which 
" a tendency to protrusion of the l)rain took place during an attack of inflammation ; a slight degree of stn]>or. with hjss of 
memory occurred; but on the inflanunatory state having been subdued tlie brain sank to its former level, the stupor went off, 
and the memory returned." Further on, he remarks: ''w-e had frequent opportunities of seeing the upper. an<l tlie lateral parts 
of the cerebrum exposed by sabre wounds; but. in no case, except that which I have mentioned, did any tendency to protrusion 
of the brain present itself to our notice." 

"Xotes OH the Sur'jcry of the War in the Crimea, by GlcoiuiK H. U. Maci.kod, M. D., I^cmdon, 1H.")8, ]). 181. 

'■^Report of the Operations of the Medical Department at the Battle of Pea lild'jr, Arkansas, on March 6th. 7th. and 8th, 
18C2. Bound MSS., S. G. O., Div. Surg. Rec, A. 125. 

^ Specimens 970 and 971, Section I, are crania of Araucanian Indians, killed by Chilian troops. No. 970 shows nine 
sabre-cuts, ilhistrating almost every variety of such injuries. It is figured at p. ',Vi of the ('utidorpic of the Surgical Section of 
Army Medical Museum. No. 971 shows fimr cuts, which have sliced off a large portion of the lefl parietal. No. 5107 is a sknll 
obtained at Waterloo, by Professor William (!ibs(m, and exhibits a long perpendicular cut tlirough the right pariet.al. Nos. 
•yM'i and ,5"2.'(), are crania of California Indians, killed ne.ar Fort Crook, and exhibit incised fractures of the vault of the skull 
by the tomahawk. No. 5.')29 is the skull of a Mataco Indi.an, showing two clean cross cuts on the vertex, and a deep oblique 
cleft in the left parietal ; the inniT table is divided without splintering; the wounds were inflicted by a very shaiT) sabre. Nos. 
5530, 5532, 5534, 5537, are crania of California Imlians. showing multiple incised fractures of the vault. No. 5544 is the 
skull of a I'onka squaw, showing a deep oldi(iue section of the occipital by a sword ; the inner table is cleanly divided. The 
last nine sjiecimens will be fully described in the next edition of tlie Surgical Catalogue. 



28 



■WOUiNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



1 



veritied. Others are alluded to by medical officers, but so indefinitely that identiiication 
lias been impracticable. Thus, for example. Surgeon D. S. McGuigan,' 3d Iowa Cavalry, 
in his report after the battle of Pea Ridge, refers to several sabre fractures of the skull, 
which do not appear upon the casualty lists, nor on any of the nominal or numerical 
returns of wounded : 

" The cavalry were pursued by Texan cavalry and mounted Indians, 
armed with a sliort and heavy sabre, made from large saw-mill files, and 
manufactured by their own meclianics. One blow with this rude weapon 
would crush througli the integuments and bony walls of the cranium, into 
the brain.'' * * '•'" " The wounds were mainl}^ produced by rifle balls, 
and by the sword or knife already described. A number were killed by 
one stroke of this weapon, and I saw several who were severely wounded 
b}- it." * * * " The cavalry were Avounded more frequently on the 
upper part of tlie truidv or the face, upon the head or upper extremities." 
''' ''' '•' "Hero, too," [at Leetown, Arkansas,] Surgeon McGuigan 
continues, "I found several wounded by the sabre, two on the head. The 
int<'gument only was divided in one case, and, in the other, the weapon 
liad penetrated the calvarium, through tlie prominence of the left jiarietal 
bone, in a liorizontal direction, and had divided the membranes, tIu'oui»;li 
which poi'tious of the cerebral substance ])rotruded I also found three of 



u 



u 



er w.'.rn by''lM.i'i'HM''!uMi uur 111(41 with sabrc-culs upon the Jiead and u].)per extremities, and several 

cN>iliw'ii>ra"p'*'9erv'i"e'i'n wlth luiiior iiijurios from the same weapon. These wounded were carried 
tiif 

Aiiierict 



li minor injuries from the same weapon. 

<'iirly p:irt of the , r-i -ll ^r- * ''1 

eriraiiwar.* to Oassvillc, Missoun. 

A number of the reports of medical directors and chief medical officers contain remarks 
on sabre wounds, that will be quoted in the general observations in the concluding volume 
of this work. 

The records of miscellaneous wounds and injuries include no cases of incised fractures 
of the skull, and but few of incised wounds of the scalp. These cases were commonly 
entered numerically, on the monthly report, under the rubric " incised wounds," or "vulnus 
incisum," and rarely by name. The total number of "incised wounds" reported during 
the four years of the war was twenty-one thousand four hundred and forty-four, with one 
hundred and ninety-six deaths; but it is impossible to determine how many of these were 
injuries of the head, since the seat of the wounds is not designated. 

The following cases of incised scalp wounds, which it is thought best to sejoarate from 
the sword wounds, were reported by name: 

Hunt, .Tihin M., Priv.ite, Co. K, 6l8t Illinois Volunteers, aged 23 years, received an incised wound on the left side of 



'There is no regimciit.al siirificiil ropister of the 3d Iowa Cavalry on file, at the Snrgeon Geiieral'K Office, for the dates 
referred to. No monthly sick reports for March and April, ISti'J, were received from the medical officer in charge of the 
regiment. There are no records on file from C'assville, Missouri, prior to February, 1865. The records of the military liospitals 
at Kolla, Springfield, Jefferson City, and St, Loui.s, Missouri, and of Keokuk and Davenport, Iowa, whitlier wounded were 
conveyed after the battle of I'ea Kidgc, have been carefully searched and found not to contain, at the period mentioned, the 
name of , a single wounded man from tlie 3d Iowa Cavalry, The '" Death Re^'isters " and the Casualty Lists of the Medical 
Director are eipially silent respecting the killed and wounded of this regiment at the battle of Pea Kidge, The regimental 
officers of cavalry bad peculiar dilficulties in making prouii)t and accurate retui'ns. When the conmuinds were engaged in 
scouting and picket duty, they were dispersed in small detacbments, and casualties took place of which tlie regimental surgeon 
was not cognizant ; when they were engaged in expeditions in large colunms, or raids, the nuirehes were so rapid tliat tliere 
was little time for clerical work. 

* Similar weapons were carried by a large number of the Cofederate soldiers captured at Koanoke Island, February 8th, 
1862, These knives were styled by those who wore them : ''Yankee-killers," They were from eighteen inches to twenty-four 
inches in length, and were made from scythe-blades or long files, sharpened to an edge, and set in wooden hilts They were 
not used offensively at Roanoke I.'^land, no disposition for hand-to-hand combat being manifested after the intrenched position 
was carried. The wood-cut is copied from two specimens procured at Roanoke Island, by the compiler of this work. 



INCISED WOUNDS OF THK SCALP. 29 

the head by a knife, at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, March 4tb, 1805. lie was admitted to liospital on the sanie day, and returned 
to duty, cured, on April lltli, 18()5. 

Macksox, Jf)HN, Freedman, was cut on tlie scalp by a knife, in an affray at Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 8th, 1864. He 
was received into the Freedman's Hospital, whence he deserted on May I'Mi, 1864. 

Licwrs, John, Private, Co. K, 13tli New York Artillery, aged 22 years, received an incised wound of the scalp by a 
a knife, on April 25th, 18f)5. He was admitted to Balfour Hospital, Portsmouth, Virginia, on the following day. He was 
discharged from service on .Tune 17th, 1865. . 

McI''.Mir.AND, .ToiiN, Private, Co. I, 8th Ohio Cavalry, aged 25 years, received an incised wound of the scalp hy a blow 
from a knife, on January 7th, 1865. He was admitted to Island Hospital, Harper's Ferry, Virginia, on January 9th, and 
returned to duty on March 6th, 1865. 

SciiCALA, Joseph, Private, Co. K. 12th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 32 years, on May 7th, 1865, was struck by a 
comrade with a knife on the left side of the scalp, producing .m incised wound. He was admitted to Lincoln Hospital, 
Washington, on June 24tb, and was discharged from service on July 31st, 1865. 

Ghekjj. F. M., Private Co. H, 45th Kentucky Volunteers, aged 19 years, received an incised wound of the scalp t>ver 
the superior angle of the parietal bone by a blow from an axe, on December 16th, 1804. He was admitted to hospital at 
Ijcxiiigton, Kentucky, on Deci-mber 21st, and returned to duty on .\pril 1st, 1805, for muster-out of service with his regiment. 

Leniiiex. Daxiel, Priv.ate Co. F, 20th New York Volunteers, on November 3d, 1864, received a blow on tlie head from 
an axe, whicli produced an incised scalp wound. He was admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, on November lotli, and 
returned to duty on December 17th, 1804. 

Smith, Joel, Priv.ate, Co. I, 127th New York Volunteers, aged 21 years, was admitted to No. 1 Hospital. lieaufort, 
South Carolina, on February 21st, 1865, ■with an incised wound of the scalji, produced by a blow from an ax(\ He was trans- 
ferred to hospital at Hilton Head on May 28th, and discharged from service on Juim; 8tli. 1805. 

Wyox, Fuedehick, Private, Co. G, 6th Wisconsin Voltniteers, aged 17 years, received an incised wound over the left 
parietal and occipital regions, by a blow from an axe, on March 5tli, 1855. He was admitted to Lincoln Hosjiital, Washington, 
on April 4tli, transferred thence to Mower Hospit.il, Philadelphia, on April 7th, ami, on May 31st, he was received into the 
Harvey Hospital at Madison, Wisconsin. He was discharged from service on July llitli, 1805. 

In the following examples of incised wounds of the scalp, the nature of the weapon 
by which the wound was inflicted is not reported: 

Able. Henuy, Private, Co. A, 107th U. S. C. T., aged 27 years, was admitted to Crittenden Hospital, Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, on July 30th, 1865, with an incised wound of the scalj). He returned to duty on .July 31st, 1865. 

Atlas, Geonie, Private, Co. I, 32d North Carolina Regiment, aged 37 years, received an incised wound of the scalp at 
Spottsylvania, Virginia, May lOtli, 1864. He w,a8 received into the Second Division Hospital at Alexandria, on May 14th, and 
transferred to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, on May 26th, whence he w.as sent to the Old Capitol Prison on June 1st, 1804. 

BoLTOX, .James, Privivte, Co. 1, 5th Missouri Cavalry, was received into the Post Hospital, Scliofield Barracks, St. Louis, 
Missouri, on September 28th, 1864, with an incised wound of the left side of tlie head. He returned to lUity on October 3d, 1864. 

Bowers, J., Private, Co. H, 12th New York Cavalry, aged 34 years, was admitted to Foster Hospital, Newberne, North 
Carolina, on September 25th, 1863, with an incised scalp wound. He was returned to duty December 9th, 1803. 

BUTTERFIELD, S. H., Unassigned Substitute, a^ed 18 years, received an incised scalp- vvound, and was admitted to 
hospital at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, on May 20, 1865. He was discharged from service on May 27th, 1865. 

DiNXE, MicuaI'X, Private, Co., B, 19th Pennsylvania Cavalry, received an incised wound of the scalp on February 22d, 
1864, at West Point, Mississippi. He was admitted to Washington lIos])ital, at Memphis, Tennessee, on February 27th, and 
returned to duty March 28th, 1804. 

GaI'I'NEY, J., Private, Co. B, 169th New York Volunteers, aged 36 years, received an incised wound of the scalp at 
Fort Fisher, North Carolina, on January ISht, 1865. He was admitted to McDougal Hospital, Fort Schuyler, New York, on 
January 25th, and discharged from service on May 25th, 1805. 

Hall, A., Private, Co. A, 169th New York Volunteers, aged 51 years, received an inciseil wound of the scalp, and was 
admitted to McDougal Hospital, Fort Schuyler, New York, on June 6th, 1865 He was dischaiged from service on July 
18th, 1805. 

Howard, John, Private, Co. B, 3d Rhode Island Volunteers, aged 23 years, was admitted to Sickel Hospital, Alexan- 
dria, Virginia, on May 5th, 1865, with an incised wound of the scalp. He returned to duty on May 18th, 1865. 

JoHN'.sox, F., Private, Co. E, 39th Ohio Volunteers, aged 19 ye.irs, was admitted to Crittenden Hospital, Louisville, 
Kentucky, on June 25th, 1805, with an incised scalp wound. He was returned to duty on .July 18th, 18()5. 

Kelly, .7., Private, Co, D, 2d Louisiana Cavalry, aged 30 years, received, in an affray, a severe incised wound of the 
scalp. He was admitted to hospital at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, on May 25th, and returned to duty June 13th, 1864. 

McCracken, W. N., Private Co. M, 5th Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery, aged 18 years, received an incised wound of 
the scalp on October 7tli, 1804, He was admitted to 3d Division Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, on October 10th, and returned 
to duty .January 24th, 1865. 



30 WOUNDS AND INJUKIES OF THE HEAD, 

McDoNAl-o, F., Private, Co. G, 55th Koiitueky Voluntcerp. aged ^9 years, was received into Main Street Hosjiital, 
Covington, Kentncky, on April lltli, 186"), witli an incised woniid of the scalp, not received in action. He died on May "^tli, 186,^. 

Satterii'liite , M., Private, Co. A, 44tli North Carolina Kegiment, received an incised-wound of the Bcalj) on .June iiGih, 
18G3. He was admitted to Hospital No. 4, Kiehmoud, Virginia, and furlouglied on July 0th, 18(53. 

Stuube, John J., Private Co. K, 178th New York Volunteer.^, aged 20 years, received an incised scalp-wound, and was 
admitted to Jefferson Barracks Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, Se])tember 20th, 1864. He was returned to duty on Sei)teniber 
27th, 1804. 

Varble, Hk.xry, Private, Co. C, 22d Indiana Volunteer.^, aged 21 years, received an inl'i^^e(l scalp wound at Franklin, 
Tennessee, on November 30th, 18GI. He was admitted to Brown Hos])ital, Louisville, Kentucky, on June 21st, 186.'), and 
niustered-out of service July 24th, 1865. 

Williams, A. M., Private, Co. G, 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry, was admitted to Cavalry Corps Ho.ipital at Galliitin, 
Tennessee, on .January 11th, 1805. with an incised wound of the scalp. He was transferred to Nashville on February 25lh, 
and discharged from service .July 28th, 186."). 

Wv.M.\x, .JosKl'ir, Lieutenant, Co. H, 9th Minnesota Volunteers, received .an incised scalp-wound, and was admitted to 
Post Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, on May lUth, 1864. He returned to duty on May 30th, 1864. 

YotT.vo, H. C, I'rivate, Co. F, 2(lth Kentucky Volunteers, .aged 28 years, received an accidental incised scalp wound, on 
February 28tli, 1865. He was admitted to lirown Hosjiital, Louisville, Kentucky, on June 7th, 18i)5. He was furlouglied, 
and returned to duty on July 29tli. 1865. 

Of tliese twenty-eiglit cases of inci.scd wounds of the scalp by various weapons, one 
resulted fatally. Fifteen of the patients were returned to duty, one deserted, and eleven 
were mustered out, or ptiroled, or discharged, not for disability, but because their terms of 
enlistment had nearly expired. ''' 

Punctured Abounds of thk Head. — The experience acquired in the late war con- 
firms the common impression that punctured wounds of the integuments of the cranium, 
or perforations of the cranial bones by bayonet or lance, or sword thrusts, are rare in 
modern times. On the infrequent occasions on which they are used offensively, these 
weapons are commonly directed against the chest or abdomen of an adversary. The 
majority of punctured wounds of the scalp or skull met with in military practice at the 
present day, result from accidents, or are inflicted in j^rivate quarrels, or by sentinels. 

Punctured Scalp Wounds. — Only eighteen cases of this nature are recorded. 
Nine were inflicted by sentinels, or received in broils or attempts to desert. Nine were 
received in action. 

AltM.STltONti, Ebenezkr, Priv.ate, Co. K, 86th Illinois Infantry. Bayonet wound of the scalp. ICenesaw Mountain 
Georgha, June 27th, 1864. Keturned to duty. 

Ball, Patrick, Pnvatc, Co. H, 49tli Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 37 ye.ars. Bayonet wound of the scalp. Wilder- 
ness, Virginia, May 8th, 1864. Admitted to Emory Hospital, Washington, May 13th. Eeturued to duty May 16th, 1864. 

Bl.vke, Tiioma.'*, Priv.ate, Co. B, 9th New Hampshire Volunteers. Bayonet wound of the scalp, in an attempt to desert. 
Admitted to post hospital at Albany, New York, December 2Gth. Deserted, December 30tli, 1863. 

Call, John W., Private, Co. D, 8th Regiment, 1st Army Corps, aged 24 years. Bayonet woimd of occipital region 
and of left eyebrow. May 23d. 1865. Admitted to post hospital at Camp Stoneman, May 25th. Returned to duty June 7th, 
1865. 

Davi.s, Joilv, Private. Co. G, 2d Maine A'ohmteers, aged 21 years. Bayonet wound of the right temporal region. Falls 
Church. Virginia, .July l^-'th. l-'lil. Patient remained unconscious tor eight days. W^as returned to duty in October, 1861. On 
.June 27th, 181)2, constitutional symptoms were manifested, and be w.as ,a(hnitted to Pennsylvania Hospit.al, Philadelphi.a, and 
again returned to dut3'. On November 18tli, 1862, he w.as admitted to Eckington Hospital, Washington, and discharged tlje 
service December 23d, 1862, for partial imbecility and such symptoms as dizziness, faintness, and sensitiveness to pressure 
over the seat of the wound. He was pensioned at four dollars per month, anil on September 13th, 18G7, his pension was 
increased to six dollars per montli. Tlie pension examiner at Bangor, Maine, Dr. .Jones, reported, February 15th, 1867, that 
dizziness had increased and was constant, aiul tliat the pensioner often fell, and became uncon.scioug. He drew his pension on 
March 4th, 180'J, but bis condition at that time is not reported. 

* The total number of incised wounds returned during the four years of the war, on the monthly reports of white troops 
in the I'nited .States service, was twenty-one tlious.and fonr hundred .and foity-four (21.444.) with one hundred and ninety-six 
(1U6) deaths; but there is no means of determining how many of these were injuries of the head. 



PUNCTURED WOUNDS OF THE HEAD. 31 

PuN'MonE. Gkohgio, Private, Co. E. 4tli New Hampshire Volunteers, aged 22 rears. Bayonet wound of the scalp. 
Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 5th, 1804. Admitted to Kniglit Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, June 19th. Deserted, June 
S.'ith, 1864. 

Fox, Jo.SKPli, Sergeant. Co. G, 148th Pennsylvania Voliniteers. B.ayonet wound of the scalp. August 25tli. 18fi4. 
Admitted to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, August 30th. Kcturned to duty Septsinber 21st, 18G4. 

KoscHlco, Gui.TiLi,, Private, Co. C, 13th Connecticut Volunteers. Bayonet wound of the scalp. March 25th, 1864. 
Admitted to University Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 26th. Returned to duty .July let, 1864. 

Lahey, Andhew, Private, Co. C, 10th Tennessee Volunteers. Bayonet wound of the scalp. May 4th, 1861. Admitted 
to Hospital No. 2, Nashville, Tennessee, May 6th. Died from inflammation of the brain. May 6th, 1864. 

Lentemah, FltEDlCRiCK, Corporal. 4th Ohio Battery, aged 27 years, received a punctured wound of the scalp on March 
Kith, 1865, and was received into Hospital No. 2, at Nashville, Tennessee, on the following day. He recovered, under simjjle 
dressings, and was returned to duty March 18th, 1865. 

McCauty, George, Piivate, Co. G, 23d Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 18 years. Bayonet wound of the scalp. Cold 
Harbor, Virginia, June 2d, 1864, Admitted to South Street Hospital, Philadelphia, June 13th. Returned to duty July 10th, 
1864. 

McDoXALU, Joseph \V., Private, Co. D, 75th Illinois Volunteers, aged 35 years. liayonet wound of the scalp. Colum- 
bus. Georgia, November 24th, 1864. Admitted to Hospital No. 5, Quincy, Illinois. December 8tli. Ketnrned to duty February 
7th, 1865. 

McGinpsey, Hugh W., Sergeant, Co. E, 1.55tli Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 22 years. Bayonet wound of tlio 
occipital and parietal regions. October 6th, 1864. Admitted to hospital at I'ittsliiu-g, Penn.'iylvania, the same d.iy. Returned 
to duty February 25lh, 1865. 

McGoVEliX, Piiii.lP, Private, Co. B, 15?th New York Volunteers, aged 25 years. B.ayonet woun<l of the scalp. March 
28th. 1864. Admitted to hospiral, Beaufort, .South Carolina, March 2iStli. Returned to duty April 27th, 1H6J. 

Meade, Michael, Private, Co. B, 6nth New York Volunteers, aged 22 years. Bayonet wound of the scalp. Chicka- 
mauga, Georgia, September 20th, 1863. Admitted to Hosphal No. 1, Louisville, Kentucky, Febru.nry 17th. Returned to duty 
February 22d, 1864. 

ToMONEY, Edward F., Private, lOOth Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 38 years. B,\vonet wound of the scalp. Peters- 
burg, Virginia, April 2d, 1865. Admitted to Slough Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, April 27th. Deserted May 15th, 1865. 

TuP.NEY, James, Private, Co, K, 105th Pennsylvania Volunteers, received a bayonet wound of the side of the scalp at 
Fair Oaks, Virginia, May 31st. 1862. He was sent to the rear and admitted to the Hospital at Mills Creek, on June 4th, 1862. 
The patient died on .June 13th. 1862. The particulars of the treatment are not recoided. The case is reported by Surgeon A. 
P. Heichhold, 105th Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

Wauxer, George, Private, Co. I, 1st Veteran Reserve Corps, aged 21 years. Bayonet wound of the scalp. March 
25th, 1885. Admitted to hospital at Elmira, New York, April 4th. Returned to duty. 

Of the eigliteen patients with punctured scalp wounds, eleven were returned to 
duty; three deserted; one was discharged for disability; and two died. Punctured wounds 
of the scalp, when made by a weapon directed perpendicularly to the skull, are necessarily 
slight in depth; when made obliquely, the point of the weapon soon penetrates from 
within outwards, on account of the convexity of the cranial vault They are occasionally 
complicated by erysipelas, burrowing of pus under the occipito-frontalis aponeurosis, or by 
liajmorrhage ; but are commonly trivial in extent and importance. When uncomplicated, 
the treatment consists in shaving the surrounding scalp and keeping the wound covered 
with a compress saturated with cold water or some resolvent lotion. The complications 
which existed in the two fatal cases above noted are not reported in detail. 

Punctured Fractures of the Cranium. — Only six examples of punctured frac- 
tures of the skull, by sharp-pointed weapons, have been reported. Five of these were 
inflicted by the bayonet, and one by a sword. 

Ali.ex, D. K., Private, Co. F. 50th Ohio Vohuiteers, aged 20 years, received a punctured bayonet wound of the scalp, 
with fracture and depressiim of the left parietal hone, at Franklin, Tennessee, November 30th, 18!i4. Admitted to Dennison 
Hospital, Cincinnaii, Ohio, January 18th, 1865, from Madison Hospital. Indiana. Temporary insensibility, paralysis of right 
arm, and .aphonia, fidlovved the injury. A portion of the bone, one and a half inches in length an<l three-fourths of an inch 
in breiidth, was removed. The wound healed, the scalp adheritig to the dura mater. Furloughed March 16th, 1865, and 
never returned to hospital. He was examined by Surgeon John C. Hupp, at Wheeling, West Virginia, July, 1865. There was 



32 



WOUNDS AND INJURIKS OF THE HEAD, 



a dopressed cicatrix over the solution of continuity of the skull. Tlie aperture in the parietal seemed to be about an inch in 
length, by tln-ce-fourths of an inch in breadth. The patient's speech was interrupted and .stammering. There was defective 
sensation in the rijiht hand, and numbness over a tract extending from the seat of the wound to the left side of tlie l>one. Exer- 
cise of body or mind occasioned pain in tlie cicatrix and left temporal re"ion. Any jolting, or stooping, effort in lifting, or any 
sudden or loud noise produced a sensation as of straining of the brain substance through tlie aperture. The patient described 
this sensation as very painful. In Marcli, 1819, this pensioner resided at Bridgeport, Hehnont county, Ohio, and the examining 
surgeon of the Pension Bureau reported that he was totally and permanently disabled, and retiuired cautious and watchful oare 
by night and day. 

BUCKI.F.V, John- B., Corporal. Co. D, 62d rennsylvaiiia Volunteers, aged 24 years, received a bayonet wound of the 
forehead, through the right superciliary ridge, at Chancellor.iville, Virginia, May 3d, IStiU. It was found, on examination, that 
the weapon had penetrated the frontal sinus, and passed horizontally baclcwards into tlie brain. The patient was transferred to 
Washington, and was admitted to Finley Hospital on the S)th, in a perfectly conscious condition, with a natural pulse and free- 
dom from febrile excitement. Acting Assistant .Surgeon Lewis Heard jiassed a bougie along the track of the wound into the 
right anterior lobe of the brain the distance of four inches, without forci", and without the least pain to the patient. The perfo- 
ration in the skull barely admitted the point of the iudex finger. Tliere were found a few small fragments of bone still hanging 
at the inner edge of the orifice. There was no hasmorrliage. I'erfect quietness was strictly enjoined, a saline laxative was 
ordered, and cold water dressings were ajiplied. The diet was liglit. On May 14th. he continued conscious and comparatively 
comfortable, comjihiining of but little jiain in the head. Teniporizhig treatment was continued. For the next two days signs of 
mental disturbance were noticeable, and partial loss of vision, with optical illusions. He complained of headache, and a febrile 
movement arose, with intense thirst. The liowels were kept open by Epsom salts. Pus and disorganized brain tissue were dis- 
charged from the wound. At noon, on the IGth, he moved his arms about tremulously, catching at imaginary objects, arousing, 
occasionally, from the stupor into which he had fallen, complaining of increased pain in the head, and then talking incoherently. 
The skin was of natural temperature, and the puUe at 811. On May 17th, the patient had passed a quiet niglit. The pulse was 
at 125 ; there was greater tremulousness of the arms, with increased stujior, and vision was nearly extinct. The patient had 
great thirst, but no ajipetite. The discharge of pus and disorganized brain substaijce continued. .Slight convulsions occurred 
in the afternoon, and the patient sank gradually, and died at six o'clock P. M., thirteen days after the rece|)tion of the injury. 
At the post mortem examination, made fourteen hours after death, the sinuses and the dura mater were found to be highly 
engorged with blood. The right hemisphere of the brain was sliced off, and over tlia right lateral ventricle a slight primiinence 
was observed, which, on being punctured, gave exit to a quantity of pus. The wound penetrated through the anterior lobe of 
the brain under the right edge of the corpus callosum, opened the right lateral ventricle, and extended back to the posterior 
crua of the fornix, which seemed to have sustained injury. The two lateral and third ventricles were filled with pus, and pus 
was also found in the fourth ventricle, and beneath tlie cerebellum around, the medulla oblongata. Acting Assistant Surgeon 
Lewis Heard reported the case.* 

G , Thomas, Private, Co. B, 90th Ohio Volunteers, was admitted, on November 27th, 186.3, to Hospital No. 1, 



Nashville, Tennessee, with a bayonet wound behind the left parietal eminence, inflicted by a sentinel. For several days the 
patient was in a state of stupor, and was obstinately constipated. Both of these conditions were removed by the use of powerful 
purgative medicines. Meanwhile tlie cicatrization of the wound progressed rapidly, and on December 8th it had nearly closed. 
On this day the patient complained, for the first time, of severe headache. A probe, pass<>d through the small orifice of the 
wound, indicated denuded and detached bone at its liase. A T-shaped incision was made, and several fragments of dead bone 
were extracted. On the 11th, there was somnolence and cephalagia, and in- 
creased stupor, with slight intolerance of light and sound ; the pulse was full 
and slow, forty-eight beats per minute. The scalp was tumid; the wound gaped, 
and was filled with fungous granulations. The incisions in the scalp were ex- 
tended, and some of the loose bits of bone were removed. An ice bladder was 
applied to the head, and purgatives, with purgative enemata, were administered. 
On the 12th, the patient had some little appetite. The pulse was 44 and feeble. 
There had been no .alviue evacuations, notwithstanding repeated do.ses of calo- 
mel and rhubarb, cpsom salt, podophyllin. with terebintlunate enemata. Ill the 
forenoon, pills containing half a drop of croton oil were ordered to be given 
every hour until the bowels moved. On the I'.ith, the patient was freely purged. 
A fungus began to protrude from the wound. On the 14th, the head.ache was 
slight but constant, the skin cool, the pulse 4-i and feeble. The cerebr.al hernia, 
tense and elastic, and indolent on pressure, still covered by the meninges, was 
steadily incie.asing in size. He was ordered half an ounce of wine every hour, 
with beef tea. On the l.Oth, the membranes covering the hernia sloughed, and 
the fungous appeared with a dark red granulated surface, not sensitive to the 
touch, nor bleeding readily. When the jiatienf, in his restless slee]), rolled over u])on tlie fungous growth, he would awake with 
a start. For the next two days he took wine in gradually augmented doses. His pulse became more feeble, and rose to 90 
pulsations. Kesjiirations 13, sighing. On December li)tli, the whole fungous mass sloughed away. There was deliriiun and 
sufisnltiis tendinum. Tlie other symptoms were unchanged. Death took place on December 2;id, ]8:i3. At the autopsy, an 
abscess of the left hemisphere, and diffused arachnitis, were observed. The bayom^t had penetrated an inch or more into the 
cerebrum. The calvaria was forwarded to the Army Medical Museum by Assistant Surgeon C. J. Kipp, U. S. Volunteers, with 




yn:. ft — Perforation of the left parietal bv .i hnjo- 
nel.—Sjxc. UlTSl, .Siirj;. Sect. A. M. M. 



* American Medical Timet. Juno 10. IgUS, Vol. \I, r- 293. 



PUNCTURED WOUI^DS OF THE HEAD. 33 

the foregoing notes of tlie case. It is represented in the adjacent wood-cut. (Fig. 8.) It sliows a perforation of the left 
parietal behind the protuberance. The opening is egtj-sliapcd ; but the edges suggest its original triangular outline. The edges 
are rounded, and the texture of the bone near the solution of continuity is jwrous, particularly on the inner table. A slight 
fissure exists in the outer table. 

H , John, Private of the Hospital Guards at the Lovell General Hospital. Portsmouth Grove, Rhode Island, aged 

25 years, was confined four hours on the night of February 28tli, 1863. as a punishment for bringing spirits into the camp and 

attempting to run the guard. When released from his cell by order of the officer of tiie guard, he rushed upon the latter and 

struelv him in the face, whereupon tlie sergeant drew his sword, and, stepping back a pace, put himself in guard, holding the 

grijie of his sword firmly against the right hip, with the point slightly elevated. Wliile in tliis position the prisoner again rushed 

upon the sergeant; but the ground being uneven, and the grass covered with a heavy frost, the assailant slipped and fell on the 

point of tlie sword, and then heavily forwards on the gromul. AVhen taken up he Wiis insensible, and breatlied heavily. On 

washing from his face the blood, which had (lowed copiously from a slight wound in the right no.stril. the officer of the day, an 

acting assistant surgeon, who was inunediately sinnmoned, detected no otlier injury than the trivial incision of the right ala of 

the nose. The man had been drinking freely, and. imder the supposition tliat he was suffering only from tlie stupefying eilecta 

of liqiu)r, increased by the fall upon his head, the surgeon remanded him to the guardhouse, where he laid in a state of stupor 

until the following morning, when he was removed to one of the wards of the hospit.il. He was fomid to be still unconscious, 

and breathed stertorously, and moaned occasionally. The pulse was fnll and slow. The eyelids were closed, showing, when 

forcibly openeil, the pupils dilated and innnovable. Tlie remedies usually employed incuses of apojdexy were dirccti'il, hut 

consciousness could not be restored, and the patient died on the succeeding morning, March 2i], IHiiil, thirty-one hours after the 

reception of the injury. An autopsy was made niiic^ and a half hours after death. lii'jor mortis wi'll iironotiiici'd. No external 

mark of violence was perceptible, except a wound five-eighths of an inch in length .and one-eightli of an inch in depth on the 

external edge of the riglit nostril. The nostril was filled with coagulated blood. There was no sign of fracture of the nasal 

bones. On removing the calvariinn, the blood vessels of tin' menibrancs of the brain were found to be engorged, and uixin 

reflecting the membr.ines, the convolutions over the whole of the right heinispliere wen' toiind to lie covered with extravasated 

blood. This extravasation extended along the whole of the base of the right siile, and, to a slight degree, on the left, covering 

the whole surface of the cerebellum, increasing at the base and towards the medulla 

oblong.ata. The brain was then removed, and the posterior clinoid process of the 

sphenoid was found to be fractured tran.sversely, and the middle and lower part of 

the superior turbinated bone was pierced. A small indentation, corresponding with 

the point of the sword, was found in the right clinoid process. The lungs were 

considerably engorged, but healthy and cre]iitant througliout. There was a slight 

adhesion found at the apex of the posterior part of the left lung. A portion of the 

sphenoid bone was removed to exhibit this very rare and interesting friicture. 

Uufortimately it was somewhat injured during maceration, but still gives a good 

illustration of this unusual form of injury. The portion of the sword which inflicted 

the injury was filed off, and was found to fill exactly the ]ierforations of the ethmoid 

and S]>henoiil bones. The sword had ])enetrated about four inches from the nasal rio. lo — Trunsvcrso fr.ietimi of the posterior 

'n 1 • * « r ,1 r II -1 1 1 A *• I ■ * * o clinoid it ^ss l)v a sword tlirust. — Spec. i(i!2, 

spine. 1 lie history ol the case was carefully compiled by Acting Assistant 8urge(m ^p|.| j \\_ yi ji " 

E- SeyfFarth, and the specimen, represented in the accompanying wood-cut, (FiG, 

1(1,) was forwarded by Surgeon L. A. Edwards, U. S- A., in charge of Lovell Hospital, to the Surgeon General. 

Saunder, O. W., Private, Co. D, 7th North Carolina Regiment, received at the battle of (iaiiies JliUs, .Iiine yfith, \^&i, a 
bayonet thrust in the forehead, which probably penetrated the frontal bone. He was conveyed to Richmond, and admitted, on 
June '27th, into Ward No. 3 of Chimborazo Ho.spital. He died on July 5th, lUiM. Surgeon E. H. Smith, C. S A., reports the 
case. 

WooDliUlDGK, William T, Musician, Co. F, l.')th Indiana Volunteers, received on October I'.th. 1863. a punctured 
wound of the skull from a bayonet thrust, which iierforatcd tln^ left parietal bone near its posterior superior angle. Two days 
after the injury he was received into the City Hospital at Indianapolis, Indiana, suffering with convnlBions. and symptoms of 
nieningitis and infiammation of the brain. On October 21st, several small fragments of b(uie were extracted ; but the symptoms 
were not alleviated, and the patient died on October 27th, 1863, from abscess of the brain. Acting Assistant Surgeon J. M. 
Kitchen reports the case. 

Of the six patients with punctured fractures of the cranium, one survived, though 
permanently disabled; and five died, with extravasation of blood in one case, cerebral 
hernia in one, encephalitis in one, and abscess of the brain in two cases. 

The very intractable and fatal nature of sucli injuries is well known. The diagnosis 
is commonly difficult, the small dimensions of the external wound forbidding satisfactory 
exploration. If the external table only is punctured, it is true that there is not much more 
danger than in a wound of the soft parts ; and recoveries take place when both tables are 
pierced, if there is no extravasation of blood, or wound of the membranes or the brain by the 
weapon, or by depressed splinters of the vitreous table. But when the puncture is small and 
5 




34 



WOUKDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



\J 



iMi 



MM 



1 2 

Flc. li. — I. J^nnpo carriod by 
the r. S. Lancers. L'. Lance car- 
ried by tith l*eini8ylvania Cav- 



narrow, it is very difficult to determine its deptli. The information obtained by tlie probe 
is unsatisfactory, and its use is not unattended by danger. When the brain is wounded, 
symptoms of cerebral mischief are frequently delayed until extravasa- 
tion or the pent-up products of inflammation produce pressure. Thus 
the surgeon is restrained from interference until a period when inter- 
ference is likely to be of little benefit. 

When arrows and lances were commonly used in warfare, this 
class of injuries were not uncommon, and many interesting examples 
of them are reported by authors.-' The Indian hostilities in the west- 
ern part of tlie United States still aflbrd examples of punctures of the 
cranium by arrows.^ 

In the late war, the lance was not used to any extent, and no 
cases were reported of wounds of the head by this weapon. Two 
regiments Avere armed with it; but the nature of the co'mtry which 
was the theatre of war was regarded as ill adapted to the manoeuvres 
of lancers; and, after serving for a while on escort duty, the regiments 
changed their equipment. 

A very grave complication of 2:)unctures of the cranium consists 
nhy. Scau o„e-ientii to one i^l'. in tho breaking off of the penetrating weapon, which is sometimes so 

Frutn specimens furnished the ri-i iii* 1* r T"rY*1 

A. M. ji.byCai>t.T.o.iJcnton, hrmly wcdged that its removal is a matter ot OTeat dilnculty. 

Ordnance Corjis. ./ o o */ 

The treatment of punctures of the cranium will consist of the ordinary simple 
dressing of wounds of the scalp, until symptoms of cerebral disorder arise demanding 
mechanical interference. Recognizing the great probability of dangerous complications, 
the surgeon will insist on strict precautionary measures, and will incise the scalp, and 
expose the fracture, and remove spiculae or foreign bodies, or elevate depressed bone as 
soon as he is satisfied that the brain or its membranes are injured. 

Besides the six examples of puncture of the cranium by sharp-pointed weapons, 
reported on the preceding pages, the Army Medical Museum has specimens of punctures 
of 'the skull by arrows and tomahawks.^ These preparations will be fully described in 
the next edition of the Museum Catalogue. 

'See Par6, (JCuvres Com/i/^ic*, ed. Malgaigne, livre 8'); Morgagni, (/>e Causis et Sedilus J/orJor«»i, Vol. I); Briot, 
^Hisloire dc I'lCtat et des Pror/rh de la Chiruri/ie Milltaire, BesaiKjon, 1817, p. Ill); Percy, (Mannel du Chiniryien d'Armec, 
Paris, 1830, p. 101) ; Desport, ( Traite des I'laics d' A rmes a Feu, Paris, 1749, p. 374) ; Larrey. (Itelatioii iled. de Camp, ct Vuijdijcs, 
Paris, 1841, p. 381 ; et Vll>il</ue Chirurr/u-ale. I'arls, 1829, T. I, pp. 156 et 192; et T. V, Paris, 1830, p. 323); Henneii, 7'W/id- 
plca of Military Sur<jcry, London, 1829, p. ^284) ; Rogers, Transactions of the lioyal JUcdico-Chirunjiral Society, \o\. WW); 
South, (Chelius's System of Surjery, Am. ed., Vol. I, p. 437); Hewett, (Ihiblin 3led. Jour., 1851, p. 347) ; Legouest, (Chirarr/ie 
d' Annie, p. 277) ; Uoiniefous, (Jour, de Med. de Montpcllicr, 1800); Bruns, (Die Chiruryischcn Kranlheiten, Tubingen, 1854, 
S. 32, u. 8. V.) ; Ilyrtl, (Handburh, S. 86) ; Velpeau, (l)klionnaire de Medccine, Paris, 1844, 2'""' ed. T. XXIX, p 559); Fritze, 
(Xassauische Jahrbucher, Heft. VII, S. 64); Sclmeider, {Die KopferUtzungen in Medicinish-gerichiiicher Hinsicht, Stuttgart, 
1843, S. 58.) 

• For a very interesting account of arrow wounds, witli numerous illustrative cases and judicious suggestions as to treat- 
ment, l)ased on extensive observation of such injuries, the reader is referred to an article by Assistant Surgeon [now Surgeon 
and Bvt. Lieut. Colonel] J. H. Dill, U. S. Army, in tlie American Journal of the Medical Sciences, N. S.. A'ol. XLIV, p. 365. 

■'No. 5528, Section I, A. M. M., is tlie cranium of a Toiikaway warrior, with two punctures iu the right parietal by the 
sliarj) point of a tomahawlf. It was obtained near Fort Cobb, Wasliita River, I. T., by Dr. E. Palmer. No. 5531, is a cranium 
penetrated through the left antrum and orbit, by a stone-headed aiTOW. It was obtained from a grave in Alameda county, Cali- 
fornia, by Dr. C. Yates. No. 5644, is a segment of tlie anterior portion of the skull of a Mexican herder, with a perforation of 
tlie frontal, above the left superciliar ridge, by an iron arrow head, which had been driven deeply into the brain, in an Indian 
fight, seventy miles north of Fort Concho, in the summer of 1868, It was presented by Bvt. Major W. M. Notson, Assistant 
^urgeon, U. S. Array. 



CONTUSIONS AND LACERATED WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 35 



Section II. 



MISCELLANEOUS INJURIES. 



In this section sucli injuries of the head as are common to the soUlier and the civiHan 
will be considered. These comprise the results of railroad accidents, of falls, of blows 
from blunt weapons, of kicks from horses and mules, of the falling of trees or masonry, 
and other accidents. 

It is impracticable to determine the total number of cases that should have been 
referred, during the war, to this category. On the monthly reports of sick and wounded, 
the contusions and lacerated wounds, and simple fractures, were entered numerically, 
without indication of the seat of injury. Cases of concussion and compression of the 
brain were returned separately, but these statistics were vitiated, because instances of 
gunshot wounds were oftentimes included. The information that can be gleaned from this 
source will be recorded at the end of this section. Abstracts of a few cases, cited from 
special reports, or from the histories of specimens in the Army Medical Museum, will 
illustrate the principal varieties of injuries of this class. 

In movements of large bodies of troops by rail, the men crowded upon platforms 
and roofs of cars, contusions and lacerations of the scalp, concussions of the brain, and 
fractures of the skull, were not infrequent. 

Railroad Accidents. — ^The following are examples of contusions from this cause: 

C\SE. — Second Lieutenant John H. Mastei'son, Co. E, lODtli U. S. C. T., aged 38 years, was tlii-own from a railroad car 
and received a severe contusion of the scalp, July 1st, 18f)4. He entered the Officers' Hospital at Nashville, Tennessee, the 
following day; recovered, under simple treatment, and was returned to duty July doth, 1864. 

Cask. — Private ,Iohn Jenkins, Co. G, 15th U. S. C. T.. atrod '28 years, fell from a railroad car at Nashville. Tennessee, 
December 2(ith, 1864, and receiveil a severe contusion of the head. He was treated at Hospit.al No. 16, at Nashville, by cold 
applications, and was returned to duty, well, on January 4th, 181)5. 

Casf;. — Private Ganin McCoy, Co. C, 16th Veteran Reserve Corps, aged 57 yeiira, received at Petersburg, Virginia, 
August 14th, 186',{, a severe contusion of the forehead and right side of the head, by falling from a car in motion. He was 
admitted to York, Pennsylvania, Hospital, and discharged from service on January 8th, 1864, on account of pereistent pain in 
the head. 

Cask. — Sergeant J. C. Williams, Co. 15, Ist Wisconsin Heavy Artillery, aged 20 yeara, received in a railroad collision, 
on August lOtli, 1864, a contused wound of the scalj). He recovered, under simple dressings, at the hospital at Lexington, 
Kentucky, .and returned to duty Avignst 2"2d, 1864. 

Ca.sk. — Private L. .J. Ijearned, Co. B. 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillei'y, aged 22 years, was similarly injured at the same 
time and place, but with greater severity. He wiis transferred to I'ark Hospital, Milwaukie, AVisconsin, on September IBth, 
and was discharged from service December 26tli. 1864. 

Case. — Private S. Croyton, Co. G, 6th Virginia Cav.ilrv, aged 17 years, received near Carlisle, Illinois, June Slst, 1865 
several severe contused wounds of the sc.ilp, in a railroad acci<lent. He was treated with cold local applications at tlie Marine 
Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, and recovered, and was discharged from service July 19th, 1865. 



36 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

The following men also received, in railroad accidents, contusions of tlie head, of a 
slight nature, probably, as all were speedily returned to duty: 

Cases. — PHvatt- J. Burns, K, "Isst New York Volunteers, near Wihniiigton, Deliiware, Septemlier 21st, 1864. 
Captain D. Cornelius, C, 212tli Pennsylvania Voliuiteers, near Baltiniore, .S<'ptenilier l/tli. 1864. 
Private Peter Daly, G, 140tli New Yorli V<iliuiteers, near York, Pennsylvania, .January 7tli, 1865. 
Private L. P. Daniels, I, 2(1 Ohio Artillery, near Knoxville, .January 2'Jtli, 1865. 
I'rivate W. Fogarty, A, 21st New York Cavalry, near Grafton, West Virijinia, .July 22il, 1864. 
Private J. H. Fritton, A. 3Hil Illinois Volunteers, New Orleans, March 2(1, 1865. 
Private J. Jaide, E, 1st Missouri Militia, near St. Louis, April 29tli, 1864. 
Private D. Jones, A, 145th Ohio Volunteers, near Washington, May 21st, 1864. 
Private W. Kennan, I'^, 14tli Veteran Keserve Corps, near IJaltimore, March 24th, 1864. 
J. T. Langston, Military Train, near Summit Point, Maryland, November 16th, 1864. 
Private ,J. N. Moore. C, Kllltli Pennsylvania Volunteers, near Pittsburg, March 23d, 1864. 
Private A. Russell. I, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, near Knoxville, .January 2yth, 1865. 
Corporal S. Shipinan, F, 88th Illimiis V(jlunteers. near JeHersonviUe. Jndian.'i, Decetnber Kith. 1864. 
.J. .Slaolier. Unassigned Recruit, near Klniiia. New York, A|iril 2(itl], 18l>5. 

Sergeant F. Wright, I), 16th New York Cavalry, near York, Pennsylvania. .January 7th, 1865, 
Corporal C. ZuraiF, A, XJd Illinois Yulunteers, near New Orleans, Louisiaua, March 3(1, 181)5. 

In the following cases of contusions of the head, the injuries were of a severe cluiracter, 
probably, since the patients were discharged from service for disability; 

Casks.— Private G. A. Campbell, I, 2(1 Oliio Arfy, near Knoxville, Teini., January 29th, 1865. Discharged May 12tli. 1865. 
I'rivate J. Carney, C, 43d New York Voliuit(?ers, near Albany, N. Y., March 7th, 18()5. Discharged July 6th, 1865. 
Private P. Coyne, A, 1st N. .Jersey Artillery, near Washington, D. C, June 13th, 1865. Discharged July 10th. 1865. 
Private T. Little, F, 122d Ohio Volunteers, near Washington, December 3(1, 1864. Discharged January 23d, 1865. 



Lacerations of the scalp were produced in the following cases: 



Case. — Private Philip A. Adams, Co. G, 8th Indiana Cavalry, aged 39 years, received June 30tli, 1864, near Chatta- 
nooga, Tennessee, a severe lacerated wound of the scalp, by falling from a railroad car. He was admitted to Hospital No. 3, 
Nashville, Teiniossee, on June 3(lth, and on January 11th, 1865, he was transferred to Gallatin, Tennessee. He was discharged 
the service for disability on June 5th, 1865. 

Case. — Private Clifford Allen, Co. I, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, aged 16 years, received a contuaed and lacerated wound 
of the left temporal region on January 29th, 1865, near Knoxville, Tennessee, from a railroad accident. He was admitted to 
the Asylum Hospital, at Knoxville, and recovered, under simple treatment, and was returned to duty on February 16th, 1865. 

Case. — Pri*-ate Eicliard Bogles, Co. G, 20th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 21 years, received on April 11th, 1864, a 
severe lacerated wound of the right side of the scalp, by falling from a railway car, and was admitted to Grafton Hosjutal, 
West Virginia, on tlie same day. The wound did well under cold water dressings, and he was returned to duty on June 2d, 1864. 

Case. — Private Kobert Boyd, Co. F, 8th New Jersey Vol unteers, fell from a railway car near Wilmington, Delaware, 
on June 2lRt, 1864, and received a lacerated wound of the scalp. He was immediately conveyed to the Tilton Hospital. 
Simple dressings were applied, and he was returned to duty July 8th, 1864. 

Case. — Private Albert Edgar, Co. G, 20th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 18 years, was wounded on the same occasion, 
and the preceding history applies to his case. 

Case, — Private L. J. Frence, Co. I, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, aged 21 years, received a severe contusion, with a 
lacerated wound of the scalj), on the same occasion as the preceding, and returned to duty at the same date. 

Case. — Private John B. Glynn, Co. H, 24th Missouri Volunteers, received a severe scalp wound by a fall from a rail- 
way car, on March 1st, 1863. He was admitted to Lawson Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, and retinned to duty .Iiuie 1st, 1863. 

Case. — Private G. W. Haines, Co. I, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, aged 36 years, w.as wounded in the same accident, and 
was treat(Ml in the same hospital. He had a woiuid of the scalp, with a very severe contusion, and recovered slowly. He was 
discharged from service on M,ay 21st, 186.5. Surgeon F. Meacliam, IT. S. V., reports the case. 

Case. — I'rivate G. W. Marvin, Co. I, 2(1 Ohio Heavy Artillery, aged 20 y(!ars, was wounded at the same time and ])lace, 
receiving a laceration of the scalp, extending from behind the left ear to the occipital protuberance. He recovered, under simple 
treatment, and was discharged from service May 24th, 1865. Surgeon F. Meacham reports the case. 

The following were returned to duty after receiving, in railroad accidents, slight 
lacerations of the scalp: 



CONCUSSION OF THE BEAIN FEOM RAILROAD ACCIDENTS. 37 

Cases. — Piivate G. W. Francis, C, 112th Pennsylvania Volunteers, near Pliiladelphia, November 7tli, 1864. 
Private (r. Conner, K, 2(1 Maryland P. II. V. B., near Cumberland, Maryland, October yotli, 18G4. 
Private W. Gunnin, 2d Massuclmtiotts Volunteers, near Albany, New York. .June 8tli, 181)4. 
Sergeant J. H. Jackson, 6, 149th Indiana Volunteers, near Indianapolis, Indiana, August 25th, 1865. 
Sergeant A. Mitchell, 27th Michigan Volunteers, near Cincinnati, Ohio, April 13tli, 18G3. 
Private L. H. Palmer, K, 97th Illinois Volunteers, Algiers, Louisiana, November 1st, 1863. 
Private T. W. Peverley, A, 33d Illinois Volunteers, ne.ir New Orleans, Louisiana, March 2d, 1865. 
Private T. Powers, H, 97th Illinois Volunteers, near Algiers, Louisiana, November 1st, 1863. 
Private D. Swinger, A, 19th Veteran Reserve Corps, near Baltimore, September 3d, 1864. 
Private J. Williams, L, 193d New York Volunteers, near Baltimore, May 18th, 1865. 

The following were discharged from service on account of lacerations of the scalp of 
a graver description: 

Cases. — Private J. Failoii, A, 1st New .lersey L. Artillery, near Washington, June 13th, 1865. Discharged July 10th, 1805. 
Private R. S. Harper, A, 1st Virginia Artillery, near Colnmbus, Oliio, February, 1865. Discharged May 20th, 1865. 
Private A. Kimball, G, 10th Vennont Volunteers, near Hrattleboro, A't., .June, 1865, Discharged .Inly 14th, 1865. 
Private M. Rice, G, 8Gth New York Volunteers, at Bristol, Pa,, March 7tl], 181)5, Discharged June 7th, 1865. 

In four of these forty-nine cases of contusions and lacerations of the scalp, erysipe- 
latous inflammation supervened, and others were complicated by sloughing and burrowing 
of pus. The patients all ultimately recovered. 

In the following cases, concussion of the brain was the most important feature : 

Case. — Captain W. W. Gushing, Co, I, 125th Ohio Volunteers, aged 27 years, was admitted to the Officers' Hosi)ital, 

Nashville, Tennessee, on March 12th, 1805, laboring under concussion of the brain, resulting from a railroad accident on 
March 1st, He was furloughed on March 13th, 1865, and did not report subseiiucntly. 

Case, — Private A. Faigue, Co. B, 153d New York Volunteers, received, in a railroad accident, near Harper's Ferry, 
Virginia, April 20th, 1865, a severe contusion of the head, accompanied by concussion, and ])robably Kaceration, of the br.ain. 
He was admitted on the same day to the Island Hospital, at Harper's Ferry, and survived but a few hours. Acting Staff Sur- 
geon N. F. Graham reports the case. 

Case. — Joseph M. Grace, unassigned recruit, aged 16 years, jumped from the care while in motion, near Bowling Green, 
Kentucky, on November 4th, 1664. He was admitted to Hospital No. 3, at Nashville. Tennessee, on November 5th. There 
was a severe contusion on the head, and signs of grave concussion of the Ijrain, He recovered from the head symptoms, but 
died on April 5tb, 18(15, from some pulmonary complication. Surgeon ,1, R. Ludlow, U, S. V., reports the case. 

C.4SK, — Patrick King, aged 23 years, a laborer in the em])loy of the subsistence department, fell from a railroad car .Tuly 
22d, 1863, and was admitted to the General Hospital at Fredeiiek, JIaryland, on the following day, in a senu-coraatose condi- 
tion, in consequence of a severe contusion of the forehead, with concussion of the brain. As the stupor jiassed off, there was 
mild delirium ; but the patient gradually improved under the use of s.aline cathartics and a low diet, and was returned to duty, 
August 14th, 1863. 

Cask. — Corporal T. J. Smith, Co. G, 6th Virginia Cav.alry, aged 20 years, was wounded, on the night of June 2l8t, 1865, 
by a collision of trains on tlie Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, near Carlisle, Illinois, The regimental surgeon, Dr. A. H. 
Thayer, reports that there were very grave symptoms of concussion of the brain. The patient was conveyed to the Marine 
Hospital, St. Louis, where Assistant Surgeon E. M. Horton, U. S. A., reports that arteriotomy was performed without any 
beneficial result. The patient died on June 23d, 1865. 

Case. — Private John Taft, Unassigned Recruit, received, in an .accident on the Philad(dpbia and B.altimore Railroad, 
March 30th, 1865, near Wilmington, Delaware, a severe contusion of the head, with concussion, and probably laceration, of the 
brain. He was conveyed to Tilton Hospital, at Wilmington, Every effort to bring about reaction was unavailing, and the case 
terminated fatally on the following day, March 31st, 18G5. No autopsy was held. The case is reported by Surgeon E. J. 
Bailey, U. S. Army. 

Ca.se. — Sergeant T. W^ise, Co. K, 134th Ohio Volunteers, aged 35 years, received, in a railroad accident, ,Tune 6th, 1864, 
near Point of Rocks, Virginia, a severe concussion of the brain. He was admitted to Ju<liciivry Scpuire Hosiiital. and after 
reaction had taken place, he was treated by pui'gatives, rest, and low diet. He recovered, and was furlonghed for forty days, 
and failed to return, but joined his regiment "of three months men," on October 20th, 1864, to be mustered out. Asgistant 
Surgeon Alexander Ingram, U. S. A., reported the tlie case. 

In the following cases, without injury to the walls of the cranium, there appears to 
have been some obscure injury to its contents: 

Case. — Private James Buckland, Co, H, 2d Missouri Artillery, received, in a railroad accident near St, Louis, August 
13th, 1864, a severe contusion of the head. He was received into Schofield Barracks Hospital on the s.Tmc day, with symptoms 
of severe concussion of the brain. His condition was relieved in a short time, lint, after a few d.ays, paralysis of the motor 
nerves of the lower extremities was observed, and symptoms indicative of softening of the brain ensued. The case terminated 
fatally, September 14th, 1864, from raniollissement. Assistant Surgeon E. M. Powers, U. S. V., re|x)rts the case. 



38 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



Case. — Lieutenant William Harrington, 29th I'ennsylvauia Volunteers, aged 28 years, fell from a railway car in motion, 
near Chester, Pennsylvania, Slarch Ist, 1864. He was admitted to the Citizens' Volunteer Hospital, in Philadelphia, on the 
following day. There W(^re signs of severe ccracussion of the brain; hut no evidence of fracture could be detected. He died 
on March 4th, 18G4. The relatives refused to permit an autopsy. Surgeon K. S. Keuderdine, U. S. V., reports the case. 

Case. — Private Edward McKeeby, Co. C, 19th Illinois V<ilunleers, aged 30 years, on Juno l'M\, 1864, while riding on 
a railroad car, received a contusion of the right side of the occiput, by striking violently against a bridge. He was admitted, 
on June 13th, into Hospital No. 8, Nashville, Tennessee, at which time there were no external marks of violence, and no pain. 
Occasional delirium was the only indication of mischief to the contents of the cranium. On the third day the symptoms were 
greatly aggravated. Coma supervened, with involuntary discharges ; and death took i)lace on June tiGtb, 1864. At the autopsy, 
there was found upon the superior surface of the right cerebral liemisphere, and beneath the pia mater, a small collection of 
pus, and upon the lefl side a coagulum of blood. The inferior surface of the cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons varolii, and 
optic commissure, were covered with a thick coat of pus. The right lateral ventricle and choroid plexus were likewise covered 
with pus. A clot of blood was found interposed between the dura mater and cranium, below tlie right lobe of the cerebellum. 
Tliere was a contusion, with extravasation of blood, beneath the scalp on the riglit side of the occiput. No fracture could be 
detected. The thoracic and abdominal organs were normal in appearance. Surgeon E. R. Taylor, U. S. V., reports the case. 

Ca.se. — Sergeant S. Warner, Co. C, 34th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 31 years, near Beverley, New Jersey, July 15tli, 
18C4, fell from a railway car in motion, and received a very sevei'e contusion of the head. He was taken to tlie Beverley Hospital, 
and presented the symptoms of severe concussion, but, in addition, the pupils were quite irresponsive to light, and vision was 
extinct. The synii)toms of comjiression were speedily relieved, but vision did not return. On A)iril 4th, 18IJ5, the patient was 
transferred to .Satterlee Hosjiital, IMiiladelpliia, and was discharged from service May 24tli, 1835, for traumatic amaurosis, 
completely, and probably permanently, blind. Assistant Sia-geou Dallas Bache, U. S. A., reports the case. 

The following cases of railway accidents were attended by fractures of the skull: 

Cask. — Sergeant Charles Dougherty, Co. C, 69th I'enn.sylv.ania Volunteers, aged 38 years, while in an intoxicated 
condition, fell from a railroail car, on April 16th, 1864, receiving a severe contusion of the left temporal region, and a compound 
fracture of the right humerus. He was admitted to Cuyler Hospital, Germantown, Pennsylvania, on April 18th. The ann was 
dressed in an angidar splint, and stinudants were administered. There was nuich ecclij'uiosis about the temple and orbit. The 
general symptoms a)iproac!u'd those of delirium tremens. There was apparent im2irovement for the first twenty-four hours, 
when obstinate vomiting began, and recurred with brief intermissions. On the morning of the fifth day, tlie patient was in a 
moribund condition, pulseless at the wrist, bathed in a cold perspirati(m, and delirious. There was a general capillary 
congestion amounting to cyanosis almost, and an excessive dilatation of both pupils, with insensibility to light. Coma grad- 
ually came on, and death on April 20tli, 1864. The autopsy revealed extensive congestion of the membranes and substances 
of the brain, softening and laceration of the spleen, with extravasation of blood in the abdominal cavity, congestion of the base 
of the right lung, and a multiple fracture of the right humerus. Assistant Surgeon H. S. Schell, U. S. A., reports the case. 

Case. — Walter Fitch, in the employ of the Quartermaster Department, aged 19 years, received a fracture of tlie vault 
of the cranium, by being thrown from a railroad car in motion. May 18tli, 1864. He was admitted to the field hosjiital at 
Bridgeport, Alabama, on May 19tli, with symptoms of compression of the brain. Death took place on May 26th, 1864. Assistant 
Surgeon H. T. Legler, U. S. V., reports the case. 

Case. — Private Edwin French, Co. F, 3d Delaware Voliuiteers, .aged 18 years, was thrown from a railway car, on 
June 21st, 1802, and the fall produced a linear fracture of the skull near the vertex. He was admitted to hoi^iiital at 
Fre<lerick. Miu'yland, August 22d, 1862. The treatment was expectant. He was transferred to Race Street Hospital, Pliil- 
adeljihia, on Sejitember 27th. The case is entereil on the register as one of "general debility." He was transferred on 
January 14tli, 1803, to Mower Hospital, Philadeliihia, and complained of great dizziness and pain in the head. On February 
15th, he had a severe chill, due apparently to malarious influences, since quinine prevented the reciu'rence of other paroxj-sms. 
In May he was well enougli to perform duty as a nurse in the ward. He was transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps on 
August 27th, and was sent to modified duty on September 3d, 1803. 

Case. — Private George H , Co. I, 3d Del.aware Volunteers, fell from a railroad car, on June 22d, 1862, his head 

striking the groiuid with great violence. He was taken up in a stunned and 
insensible condition, and was conveyed to the neighboring ])()st hospital at 
Winchester, Virginia. Acting Assistant Surgeon W. Draiue found a severe 
contusion over the riglit parietal eminence, and, as grave sym|)tonis of cora- 
pressi(>n of the brain were a])parent, he made a free crucial incision through 
the scalp, with the cxjiectatioii of linding a depressed fracture of the skull. 
But, although the skull was freely exjiosed by retlectiiig the flaps of integu- 
ment, no evidence of fracture was observed. The jiatieiit lingered, comatose, 
for a few days, and died on .June 26tli. 1862. At the autopsy, a fissure seven 
inches in length was discovered, commencing in the squamous ])ortion of the 
right temporal bone, passing through the right jiarietal protuberance, crossing 
the sagittal suture at right angles, and running forward on the lefl parietal 
bone. The specimen (FiG. 12) was forwarded by Dr. Draine to the Army 

Medical Museum, and the facts above recorded wei'e reixn-ted by .Surgeon 

Fio. 12. — Fis.stire of the vault of tlie cranium from a 
George Suckley, U. S. V . fail from a rail-car in motion.— i^cc. lao. Sect. I, A. M. M. 




FRACTURKS OF THE SKULL FROM RAILROAD ACCIDENTP. 39 

Cask. — Private, A. Mitcliell, Co. K, 6tli Indiana Cavalry, aged 98 years, received, in a i-ailw.ay accident, near Murfreesboro, 
TeniieBSee, on October Sfltl], IHfll, a severe lacerated wonnd of tlie bead, witli fracture iif tbe rigbt parietal bone. He also 
had a comjionnd fracture of tlie right fore-arm. He was conveyed to Nashville, and subse(juently was transferred to Jefferson 
Barracks, St. Louis, on December Cth, 1864. There had not been, at any time, signs of compression, and. on his arrival at St. 
Louis, the cerebral symptoms had disappeared. After undergoing an amputation at the arm, he recovered, and was discharged 
from service, well, on April 5tli, 1865. 

Case. — Private G. Spancell, Co. A, lOStli Illinois Volunteers, in a railroad accident near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Sep- 
tember 10th, 1863, received a compound fracture of the skull. He was ])laced in hospital under tlie care of Surgeon W. Threl- 
keld, U. S. V. The case was coniplicated by laceration of the brain, and extravasation of blood within the cranium, and death 
took place within a few hours after the accident, September 10th, 186:!. 

Case.— Private Zachari.ah Ward, Co. H, 139th Indiana Volunteers, aged 17 years, fell from the cars in motion, near 
Mumfordsville, Kentucky, Jidy 4tl], 1864. He was taken to the military hospital at Mumfordsville, where a simple linear 
fracture of the frontal bone was diagnosticated. There were no symptoms of compression, and the treatment was of the 
expectant nature. On August 14th, he was transferred to Clay Hosjiital, at Louisville, Kentucky, and again, on iSeptember 
10th, to the City Hospital, at Indian,a])olis, Indiana. With the exception of slight vertigo and headache, he had (juite recovered 
at this date, and two weeks subsequently, September 24tli, 1864, he was returned to duty with his regiment. 

Casi:. — Private Matthew Young, Co. I, 1st Ohio Artillery, aged 39 years, received a coniiioiind fracture of tlie left 
parietal bone, with a terrible laceration of the scrotum, on November 29tli, 1864, in a railroad accident, near Knoxville, 
Tennessee. He was taken to the Asylum Hosjiital, at Knoxville. It was found that the symptoms did not justifv o])erative 
interference. The testes had been quite torn away, .and the con.stitutional de])ression was great. The patient lingereil in great 
Bufiering until December 16th, when he died. The case is re])orted by Surgeon B. liarnuin, 2otli Michigan Volunteers. 

The next case apj^ears to furnish an example of fracture of the base of the crauiuui 
by contre-coup : 

Case. — Private Joseph Weber, Co. C, 6th New York Cav.alry, fell, or jumjied, from a railroad car in motion, near 
Newark, New Jersey, on January lltb, 1865. He was carried to the Centre Street JJrancli of the Ward Hosjiital, at Newark. 
It was found that there was a compound comminuted fr.acture of the frontal bone. He was sensible, and conversed with 
readiness, and walked up stairs to his bed. Meningitis soon supervened, indicated by nausea, rigors, contracted pupils, with 
intolerance of light, and severe headache. These symptoms were unavailingly combatted by cold applications to the head, 
purgatives and revulsives. Tlie case terminated fatally on January 15th, 1865 At the autopsy, it was found, on removing the 
scalp, that the frontal bone was badly fractured, being comminuted near the right frontal eminence, while fissures, penetrating 
both tables, extended backwards, nearly to the coronal suture, and downward.*, quite into the right orbit. On removing the 
calvivrium, a barge clot was found on the dura mater, below the right frontal eminence. The membranes were much congested, 
and were covered in places with fibrinous exudations, and elsewhere were strongly adherent to the calvarium. The cei'ebrum, 
and particularly tbe right heiuis-pliere, was found in the same highly congested state. The removal of the encephalon disclosed 
a second simple fracture, of the base of the cranium, extending througli the liasilar process of the occipital lione, nearly to the 
for.amen magnum. The case is reported by the late Assistant Surgeon .J. T. Calhoun, U. S. A., the report of the post mortem 
examination being funiished by Acting Assistant Surgeon W. S. Ward. 

Falls. — Injuries of the head by falls were not uncommon, especially in the cavalry. 
The following are examples of contusions or lacerations of the scalp from this cause: 

Casks. — Tlie men named in this category, by being thrown from their horses, or falling from heights, received injuries 
of the scalp of sufficient severity to be admitted into General Hospitals, whence they were returned to iluty, after intervals of 
from two to one hundred and thirty-six days : 

Private F. Albrecht, Co. F, 7th Michigan Cav.alry, Alexandria, Virginia, October 20th, 1863. 

Private B. F. Alsop, 3d Iowa Cavalry, near Vieksburg, Slississijipi, March 10th, 1864. 

Private F. Andrews, A, 12th Ohio Cavalry, Lexington, Kentucky, April 15tli, 18G4. 

Private R. F. Barton, L, 1st Kentucky Cavalry, near Knoxville, Tennessee, July 6th, 1864. 

Private F. Beal, 1st Provisional Cavalry. Washington, D. C, December lltli, 18C5. 

Corjioral J. lilethune, 37tli Co., 2d Battalion Veteran Reserve Corps, near Washington, D. C, .Ianu.ary 31st. 1865. 

Private S. S. Burridge, E, 9th New York Volunteers. Alexandria. Virginia, Seiiteniber 28tli. 1863. 

Private F. Campbell, H, 6th United States Infantry, Hilton Head. South Carolina, November 1st, 1^*65. 

Private A. B. Chamberlain, H, 4th Vermont Volunteers, I'hiladeliihia, Pennsylvania, March 13tli, 1863. 

Private P. Crow, C, 1st Missouri Artillery, Rolla, Missouri, Maj- 21st, 1863. 

Private J. Dailey, E, 30th Massachusetts Volunteers, New Orleans, Louisiana, September 19tli, 1863. 

Private H. Egbert, D, 7th Illinois Volunteers, F.ayetteville, North Carolina, March lltli, 1865. 

Private M Fesby, F, 29tli U. S. C. T., Point of Rocks, Virginia. March 31st, 1865. 

Private .1. Haley, 18th Massachusetts Volunteers, ni'ar Boston, Massachusetts, December 11th, 1861. 

Sergeant T. Haley, 1st Delaware Volunteers, (iettysburg. Pennsylvania. .July 3d, 1863. 

Private J. A. Hern, E, 12tli New York A'olunteers, near Alexandria, A'irginia, December 20th, 1862. 

Lieutenant D. Hillis, I, 3d New York Artillery, Newberiie, North Carolina, Jlay 22d, 1864. 

Private T. Marin, I, od New .Tersey Batteiy. near Fort MonroeJ Virginia, August 1st, 18ti4. 

Firet Lieutenant J. D. McBride, H, 44th Missouri Volunteers, Nashville, Tenue-ssee, December 1st, 1831. 



40 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Private, S. McCarty, B, lOtli Ifew Jersey Volunteers, near Plnla(lel[)]iia, Poiiiisylvania, .Taraiary 7tli, 18()4. 

Private P. McUougal, 61st MassacIiMsctts Volunteers, near Oalloup's Island, Massaclinsctts, January, 1865. 

Private J. JIcFarland, K, 2(1 Xcw Jersey Cavalry, Meni])liis, Teinicssee, Deoeniber 28tli. 18(34. 

Private G. 1^. McKenzie. A, lUtli New York Cav.ilry, York, Pennsylvania, July 6tli, 1863. 

Private G. Jleyers, G, 41st Missouri Cavalry, St. Louis. Missouri, June oUtli, 1805. 

Private F. Munch, 1!, lltli Indiana Voliuiteers, Columbia, Tennessee, January 14tli, ISiiS. 

Private P. O'Donald, F, 15th New York Cavalry, near Alexandria, Virgiuia, June 30th, 1865. 

Private P. I'ahner, I, 1st Veteran Reserve Corps, Washington, T>. C, February 13th, 1864. 

Private W. Pomperi, F, Tlst New York Volunteers, Shipboard, February 2d, 1864. 

Private J. Kegan, C, GOth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, April 11th, 18i)l. 

Private M. Kigel. H, 20ih Pennsylvania Cavalry, Martinsburg, Virginia, June Sd, 1864. 

Private B. Ij. Roberts, K, ."9th Kentucky Volunteers, Lexington. Kentucky, June I2th, 1864. 

Private S. Smith, C, Ist Iowa Cavalry, Memphis, Tennessee. .Mai'ch 26th. 1865. 

I'rivate J. Steves, E, Plsf New Y'ork Volunteers, BalliiiKU'e, Maryland, February 23d. 18()5. 

Private E. Sullivan, M. 11th Kentucky Cavalry, Lexington, Kentucky, November ]8th, 1864. 

Private F. Tarbox, H. 14th Penn.sylvania Cavalry, Harper's Ferry, A'irginia, April 20th, 18()5. 

R. Taylor, (Jovernnient employe, near Harper's Ferry. Virginia, June KJth, 1865. 

Private J. E. Thoma-s, G, 115th Pennsylvania Volunteers, near Philadeljihia, Pennsylvania, June 1st, 1863. 

Private L. Tui-rier, H, 29th Illinois Volunteers, iiear Mobile, Alabama. March 27tb, 1865. 

Private T. Trempeman, E, 16th Illinois Cavalry, Camp Butler, Illinois, July 29th, 186'3. 

Private P. Vincentio, B, Native California Cavalry, San Francisco, California, January 20th, 1864. 

I'riv.ate J. N. Wise, B. Ist Pennsylvania Artillery, Washington, D, C, May 4tli, 1864. 

Pi'ivate E. Y'orlc. (i, 3(1 Ohio Vohuitcers, Columbia, Tennei-se(>, January 14tli, 1865. 

Priviite J. Y'orknian. B. 23(1 Michigan Volunteei's, Columbia, Tennessee, November 26tb, 1804. 

The following are examples of severer coiit'.isions of the liead, resulting from falls. 
Many of them terminated in such disabilities as to disqualii'y the patients from furtlier 
active service: 

Cask. — Private W. Alentharpe, Co. M, 9th Indiana Cavalry, was thrown from his horse at Vicksburg, Mississipj)i, May 
IStli, 1865. and fell upon his head. He was admitted to McPherson Hospital, and wasjfound to have a severe lacerated wound 
of the right ]iarietal region, with grave symptoms of concussion of the brain. He partially recovered, and was discharged from 
service June 15th, 1865. Assistant Surgeon J. A. White, U. S. V., reports the case. 

C.v.SK. — Private A. Alteman, Co. G, 1st Pennsylvania Artillery, aged 40 years, fell from his horse July 1st, 1864, striking 
his head on the left temporal region. He received a severe concussion of the brain. He was admitted to hospital at Chambers- 
burg, I'ennsylvania, and was returned to duty on September 2d, 1864 ; but instead of rejoining his regiment, he jiroceeded to 
the Y'ork Hospital, where he remained until January 18th, 1865, when he was transferred to the military hospital at rittsbiirg. 
Here he remained until June 5th. 1865, when he was transferred to Chester, I'ennsylvania, whence he was discharged from 
service for disability July 26th, 1865. The disability appears to have been due to chronic rheumatism, rather tlian the eft'ccts 
of tlie injury. Surgeon T. 11. Bache, U. S. V., reports the case. 

Cask. — Private J. C. Baumbach, Co. E, 65th Ohio, was admitted to hospital at Camp Chase, Ohio, December 23d, 1864. 
He had been thrown from his horse, and, falling upon the left side of his head, had suffered a severe concussion of the brain. 
There was entire loss of vision of the left eyt, and the vision of the right eye was impaired. Ailer a time deafness of the right 
ear supervened. The patient was discharged from service May 17th, 1864. for disability. The case is rejiorted by Surgeon S. 
S. Schultz, U. 8. V. 

Cask. — Private Frank Clune, 15th New Y'ork Cavalry, was thrown fiom his hoise at Louisville, Kentucky, July 2(lth, 
1865, aiul fell violently upon his liead. He was admitted to Crittenden Hosjjital innnediately after the accident, and died in a 
f(!W hours, July 20th, 1805, from the effects of concussion and probable laceration of the brain. No fractiu-e or extravasation of 
blood was detected. It was impossible to bring about reaction from the condition of extreme depression resulting from the 
concussion. Assistant Sin-geon J. C. G. Ha]ii)ersett, U. S. A., reports the case. 

Case. — Private Dexter Cole, Co. I, 2.'th Michigan Volunteers, in October, 1802, received a severe blow upon the head 
by a fall, and was admitted into Stanton Hospital at Washington, on February 1st, 1863, completely deaf, in consequence of tlie 
connnotion or concussion of the brain. Every method of treatment for the restoraticm of his hearing having been employed 
umivailingly, he was di.>icharged from service February '26th, 1863, on the certificate of Surgeon John A. Lidell, of his total 
disabilitv. 

Cask. — Private J. I). Davis. Co. F, lOth Indiana Volunteer.s, aged 42 years, w.is adnn'tted to Cumberland Hospital, 
Nashville, Tennessee, December Otli, 1864, on account of a fall from a horse on the previous day. He had a bad contusion of 
the scalp and concussion of the brain. He recovered, and was sent" to Jeffersonville Hospital on Janiniry 7th, 1865. He was 
treated for chronic rheumatism till February 22d, when he was transferred to Hospital No. 15, at Nashville, where he was 
treated for asthma initil May 24th, 1865, wlieii lie was finally discharged from service. The case is reported by Surgeon W. M. 
Chambers. U. S. V. 

Cask. — Private Hetu'v Drimeyer, Co. C, 28tli Ohio Voliuiteers, aged 28 years, a somnambulist, fell from a second story 
window while walking in his sleep, in .July. lr'G3, and, striking on his head, received a severe contusion and concussion of the 



CONTUSIONS AND OONCUSSTONS FROM FALLS. 41 

brain. TI(> was admitted to tlio Marine HoBjiital, Cincinnati, Ohio. He recovered from tlie immediate effects of tlie accident, 
but liis idioHyncraBV was regarded as siicli a dangerous one for a soldier, that he was discliarged from service August 16th, 18G3. 
Acting Assistant Surgeon John Davis reports the case. 

Ca.se. — Sergeant D. H. Gleason, Co. H, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry, aged 28 years, was thrown from his horse in a 
charge at Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863, and received a very severe concussion of the brain. He was sent to the liospital at the 
Cavalry Depot at Camp Stoneman, Washington. Afler recovering from the symptoms of concussion, he suffered from persistent 
pain in the head, and on Marcli 7th, 1864, he was sent to Finley Hospital, Washington. He recovered, and returned to duty 
October 1st, 1864. Tlie case is reported by the late Surgeon G. L. Pancoast, U. S. V. 

Cask. — Private P. Goodman, Co. C, 13th New York Cavalry, aged 46 years, received a severe injury of the head, by 
being thrown from his horse, February 13th, 1864. He was admitted to Campbell Hospital, and was discharged from service, 
with complete loss of vision in his right eye, March 6th, 1864. Surgeon A. F. Sheldon, U. S. V., reports the case. 

Ca.se. — Corporal J. H. Hefler, Co. D, 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 25 years, was thrown from his horse, at Louisville, 
Kentucky, April 15th, 1864, falling between his own horse and that of a comrade, and striking upon his head. His injury w-as 
supposed to be of a slight character ; but he suffered from constant headache until the 29th of August, when an abscess 
commenced to form over tlie right parietal. The abscess was opened on November 3llth. The patient was then transferred to 
the hospital at Madison, Indiana. On his admission, his pulse was ninety, his skin dry, his tongue coated, and bowels consti- 
pated. On examining the seat of injury the parietal bone was found to be denuded, and externally necrosed for a space one 
and a half inches in width, by two and a half inches in length. On December 21st, the scalp was freely divided and the flaps 
reflected, with a view of removing the necrosed bone ; but upon examination the necrosed portion did not seem to be sufficiently 
separated to justify operative interference. On January 1st, 1865, very marked symptoms of compression were ushered in 
suddenly, convulsions recurring in rajiid succession for two days, when a comatose condition supervened, which lusted until the 
patient's death, on January 13th, 1865. At the autopsy, a large abscess was found in the right hemisphere of tlie cerebrum 
communicating with the lateral ventricle, and containing several ounces of pus. There were evidences of InHainmation of the 
cerebellum and meninges ot the brain. The necrosed portion of bone was, in two or three |daces, perforated. It was observed 
that the walls of the cranium were very tliin. The thoracic and abdominal viscera were normal in appearance. Tlie notes of 
the case were furnished by Acting Assistant Surgeon H. F. liosworth. 

Ca.se. — Lieutenant J. Hendriok, Co. H, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry, was thrown from his horse in August. 1863, and his 
head struck the ground with such violence as to produce a severe concussion of the brain. He was admitted to the Officers' 
Hospital at Philadelphia, with partial hemiplegia of the right side, and occasional attacks of delirium. With rest and restricted 
diet, these symptoms gradually disappeared, and this officer was returned to duty, well, on February 5th, 1864. Acting 
Assistant Surgeon W. Camac reports the case. 

Case. — Private C. S. Miller, Co. I, 18th Connecticut Volunteers, aged 30 yeare, fell from a bridge at Harper's Ferry, 
Virginia, (^etoiiei" 27th, 1864, and received a severe contusion of the scalj) with concussion of the brain. He was sent to the 
hospital at Sandy Hook, Maryland, on the following dav, and was transferred to Frederick, on November 2d. He gradually 
recovered his physical health, but dullness of intellect persisted, and he was discharged from service for disability, on May 
2l8t, 1865. Assistant Surgeon T. H. Helsby, U. S. A., reported the case. 

Case. — Private John Miller, Co. E, 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 31 years, fell from a tree, on .Tune 16th, 1863, and 
struck upon the left side of his head, and upon his shoulder, fracturing the left clavicle. He was admitted, a few hours 
afterwards, to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, in a seml-conseions condition. ]iartially insensible, the surface pale and cold, with 
other symptoms of severe concussion of the brain. Stimulants were administered. He failed to react. On tlie following day 
his respiration became more labored, and, failing gradually, he died on June 18th, 1863. Surgeon G. S. Palmer, U. S. V., 
reports the case. 

Case. — Private J. P. Schneider, Co. L, 1st Missouri Engineers, aged 30 years, was thrown from a wagon, near New 
Madrid, in November, 1863, and, striking on his forehead, was badly stunned, and received a contused and lacerated wound 
of the integuments. He was treated in several hospitals, at Chattanooga, Cumberland, and Jefl'ersonville, and is reported 
as suffering from indigestion, hernia, neuralgia, and other ailments, and finally, at Jlound City Hospital, Illinois, on December 
Ist, 1864, with ulceration of the frontal bone, over the sinuses. He was discharged the service on account of incurable disease 
of the frontal sinuses and turbinated bones, on March 11th, 1865. Surgeon H. Warduer, U. S. V., reports the case. 

Case. — Private Charles Sherman, Co. A, Todd's Scouts, was thrown from his horse, on August 18tli, 1863, and, striking 
upon the right side of his head, received a severe concussion of the brain. He was admitted to Camp Dennison Hospital, Ohio, 
a few hours after the reception of the injury, at which time respiration was almost extinct, pulse soft and feeble, and extremities 
cold. Complete insensibility existed, altliough be could swallow stimulants in small quantities. Sinapisms were apjilled to the 
back of the neck and to the extremities, and reaction was slowly established. On August 19th, he remained unconscious, with 
irregular and labored respiration, pulse 60. full, slow, and hiconiprcgsilile. with involuntary discharge of urine, and partial 
paralysis of the right arm. During tlie evening of the same day symptoms of improvement and returning consciousness were 
manifest. At 9 p. in. the pulse w.as 110. and full. Ho was bled, and the pulse increased in frequency, but afterwards fell to 112. 
Upon the application of cold to the head the respiration became natural. On August 2l)th, he opened bis eyes when sharply 
spoken to, his res|iiration was natural, pulse 78, and compressible. He continued in this condition until August 26th. when his 
symptoms improved still more, and he replied to questions readily. He bad no paralysis, and took liquid nourishment freely. 
He recovered completely, and w.ib returned to duty on October 22d, 1863. Surgeon B. Cloak, U. S. V., reported the case. 

6 



42 



WOUNDS AND INJUEIES OF THE HEAD, 



Cask. — Private F. Tillotson, Co. B, 7th Kansas Cavalry, aged 25 years, received a severe concussion of tlje brain by a 
fall from his liorse, near iloniphis, Tennessfc, and was transferred from a hospital at tljat city to the Marine Ho.«pital at St. 
Louis, on September Kith, 18fi4. He was fiu'loughed on November 20th, and on December 24th, 1864, lie deserted. Surgeon 
A. Hammer, U. S. V., reports the case. 

C.iSE. — Private T. J. Wittermode, Co. I, 14tli Indiana Vohmteers, was admitted to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia, 
March 16th, 1863, with a very severe contusion of the scalp, occasioned by a fall. A puffy tumor of the scalp, which subsided 
under the use of evaporating lotions, while persistent pain at the seat of injury continue<l. The patient was transferred to 
McDougal Hospit.il, New York, on April 22d, thence to Fort Wood, thence to New York City, where he was transferred to 
the Veteran Reserve Corps, on July 27th, 1863, in accordance with G. O. No. 235, War Department, A. G. C, 186.'!. 

The next series consists of abstracts of thirteen cases of simple or compound fractures 
of the cranium produced by falls: 

Cask. — Private .John W. Anderson, Co. E, 19th Michigan Volunteers, fell down stairs in the court-house at McMinns- 
ville, Tennes.-'ee, February 2d, 1864, and, striking his head, produced a fracture of both tables of the left teuiptiral bone. He 
was admitted to hospital under tlie charge of Surgeon John Hemiett, lOtli Mieliigan Volunteers, who records the accident upon 
his regimental montlily report. The cas(! terminated fatally on February 6tli, 1864. At tlie autopsy, intense congestion of the 
cerebral vessels was observed, witli effusion of serum in the cavity of tlie ventricles; but no extravasation of blood was observed. 

Cask. — Private J. J. ISrooks, Co. G, 9tli Illinois Cavalry, aged 28 years, was thrown from his horse on April 5th, 1864, 
and fell upon his head. A fracture, involving the frontal, temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and upper inaxillnry bones, was pro- 
duced. The patient was taken to the Adams Hospital at llempliis, Tennessee. He died a few hours after Ids admission, and it 
w.is found that the brain had been extensively contused and lacerated. Acting Assistant Surgeon F. Inipey reports the case. 

Cask. — Private James Carr, Co. G, 6th United States Cavalry, aged 24 years, fell from his horse on July 6th, 1863, 
receiving a wound of the frontal region with fracture, and depression of the inner table of the skull. He was admitted to 
Carver Hosjiital. Washington, on July 21th, in an irritable, morose, and restless condition. Three days subseipiently he was 
slightly delirious, and respiration was difliciilt. In the afternoon he became completely unconscious, with insensible pupils and 
stertorous breathing, and death ensued in a few lioiir.s, on .Tuly 27tii, 1863. The antop.xy revealed a depression of the inner 
table of the frontal bone, and an ab.scess immediately beneath, (illed with sanious pus, and surrounded with plastic lymph, 
ilaiiy of the sulci were adherent, and patches of lymph were distributed on the anterior and middle lobes of the brain. Surgeon 
O. A. Judson, U. S v., reports the case. 

Case. — Private William Day, Co. C. 57th Illinois Volunteers, aged 44 years, an epileptic subject, a deserter from his 
regiment, had a severe fall, April 1st, 18154, and was admitted, in a delirious state, to the Marine Hospital at Chicago, Illinois. 
Acting Assistant Surgeon R. M. Isham, who reports the case, does not describe the symptoms, or the appearances at the autopsy ; 
but states that there was a fracture of the base of the cranium, and that compression of the hrain, consequent upon a large 
extravasation of blood within the skull, was the cause of death. The patient died April 3d, 1864. 

Cask. — Private Hugh Donelly, Co. K, 38tb New York Volunteers, received at the battle of Williamsburg, May 5th, 1862, 
a flesh wound of the shoulder. He was made a prisoner. While confined at Richmond he had a fall in prison, striking his 
head, and producing a depressed fracture of the right parietal bone. He was exchanged, anil received into hospital at Camp 
I'arole, Amiapolis, on February 5th, 1S33 He was deaf, and his mental faculties were very sluggish and obtuse. He was 
discharged from service for total disability on February l8th, 1863. Surgeon .Tames Nerval, 79th N. Y. S. M., reports the case. 

Cask. — Sergeant Albert K , Co. A. 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry, falling violently ujioii liis head, in April, 1862, in 

W^ashington, D. C, had a fracture of the left side of the occipital bone, attended 
with laceration of the brain. He entered the .Judiciary Square Hospital in an in- 
gen.sible condition, with stertorous breathing, dilated pupils, slow pulse, and relaxed 
sphincters. Cold applications to the head, purgatives, and derivatives, were em- 
ployed unavailingly. The patient passed into a condition of profound coma, and 
died April 28th, 1862, from compression of the brain. Acting Assistant Sur- 
geon C. G. Page made the autopsy, and found a partially organized coaguhim 
in the substance of the posterior lobe of the left hemisphere, and in the cavity 
of the left ventricle. The clot is not recent, and the brain substance in the 
vicinity is firmly contracted around it. It is of a dark brownish-yellow color, 
and spongy in texture, and measures one inch in diameter by one-fourth of 
an inch in thickness. On the surface of the brain there is a more recent clot, 
black in color, and partially disorganized, measuring nearly the s.ame as the 
first. The specimen was contributeil by Dr. Page to the Army Medical Mu- 
seum. A view of the clot in the ventricle is given in the accompanjing wood- 
cut, (Fig. 13.) 

Cask. — .Sergeant J. J. Kent, Co. L, 1st Wisconsin Cavalry, aged 29 years, was thrown from his horse February 18th, 
1864, and falling on his head, had a depressed fracture of the left parietal bone near its coronal suture. It can only be learned 
of the early history of the case that it was treated on the expectant plan. The patient was .admitted to Harvey Hospital, at 
Madison, Wisconsin, on July 27th. He made a vevy good recovery, returning to duty October lUth, 1864. 

Case. — Sergeant Alexander N , Co. B, 13th New York Cavalry, was thrown from his horse while riding in the 

Streets of Washington, on August 10th, 1865, his head striking violently upon the pavement. He was taken to the hospital at 




Flo. ]:j. — I'ortion of left hemisphere of the brain 
containing ucuaguhitu. — Spec. 50ii, .Sect. I, A. M. M, 




CONTUSIONS AND LACERATIONS BY BLOWS FROM MUSKETS. 43 

Camp BaiTy in an insensible condition, anil, in a few hours, became delirious. He remained so nntil his death, which took place 

on August 14tli, 1865. There was no external evidence of depression or fracture of the skull, but simply a severe contusion o 

the forehead. The autopsy revealed a three-branched linear fracture of tlie frontal 

bone. Its direction is indicated hi the accompanying wood cut. (FiG. 14.) 

Externally one line of fracture passes from the centre of the superior border of the 

bone downward and outward through the right frontal eminence. From the upper 

third of this fissure a second fissure passes nearly at right angles downward through 

the left frontal eminence. This last fissure involves the external table only. The 

inner table is fissured to correspond with the first line of fracture, and there is also 

a short fissure branching upward. The inner table opposite each irontal eminence 

is reticulated, and in the centre of the perforated plate on the left side there is a 

small nodule of bone of the size of a grain of wheat. The specimen, with a mem- pio. 14. — Fracture of the frontal l)one without 

orandum of the case, was forwarded to the Army Medical Museum by Surgeon dUrl.i«™e>jt, fromafalUromahorse.-5i«c.297J, 

J. M. Ilonii.ston, 3d New York I'rovisioiial Cavalry. 

Case. — Lieutenant J. M. Ragan, Co. E, 1st Tennessee Artillery, aged 30 years, was thrown from his horse, June 18th, 
1865, and was admitted into the Officers' Hospital, at Knoxville, Tennessee, on the following day, laboring under very grave 
symptoms of compression of the brain. He died, June 25th, 1865, from extravasation of blood, consequent up<m the fracture of 
the skull. Surgeon F. Meachani, U. S. V., reports the case. 

Case. — Private E. G. Stevens, Co. D, 8th Vermont Volunteers, aged 18 years, fell from a second story window, in New 
Orleans, on June 10th, 1864, his head striking the ground. He was conveyed to the University Hospital, and Surgeon Samuel 
Kneeland, U. S. V., recognized the usual signs of fracture of the base of the cranium. There was also a contused and lacerated 
wound of the vertex. The case terminated fatally June 11th, 1864. 

Case. — Private C. Tiniberman, Co. C, '2d New Jersey Cav.alry, aged 19 years, received, April 2'2d, 1864, a severe fall. 
He was admitted to Gayoso Hospital, at Memphis, Tennessee, on April 30th, and was found to liave a comi>ound fracture of 
the occipital bone. There were no symptoms which were thought to justify operative interference, and the treatment consisted 
of cold applications to the head, and purgatives. Death took place on May 11th, 1864. Surgeon F. N. Burke, U. S. V., reports 
the case. 

The two following were believed to be examples of fracture by contre-coup: 

Case. — Private John H. Bowker, Co. A, 3d Maine Volunteers, was thrown from a horse, March 26th, 1862, at Fort 
Monroe, Virginia and, falling upon his head, received a fracture of the base of the skull. He was immediately conveyed to 
the Hygeia Hospital, with marked symptoms of compression of the brain. He died, March 27th, 1862. Brigade Surgeon 
R. B. Bontecou, U. S. V., reported the case. 

Case. — Private Peter Flynn, Co. H, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, was admitted to the Post Hospital at Munfordsville, 
Kentucky, January 3d, 1864, with a fracture of the skull. He had every symptom of grave compression of the brain, and 
blood was passing from his mouth and ears. He was comatose, and died two hours after his admission. The man had received 
a heavy blow upon the left supra-orbital ridge, whether hy a weapon, or fall, could not be ascertained ; but no evidence of 
fracture could be discovered at this point. Surgeon S. Albright, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, who reports the case, believed that 
there must be a fracture of the base of the skull by contre-coup. Tlie post mortem exaniinatiou proved the correctness of this 
diagnosis. Tliere was a fissure running across the petrous bone, diastasis of the sutures between the occipital and left temporal, 
with a large coagulura of blood in the left cranial fossa. 

Blows. — Contusions and lacerations of the scalp, concussion of the brain, and frac- 
tures of the cranium, were produced by a great variety of blows. When received in action, 
such injuries were commonly inflicted by clubbed muskets, falling trees or branches cut 
down by artillery, or by kicks from horses or mules. In affrays in camp or on the street, 
similar injuries were more generally produced by blows from clubs or axes, slung shot, 
and various other blunt weapons, or by bricks or stones: 

Cases. — The nineteen following named patients were admitted to hospital for contusions or lacerations of the scalp by 
blows from muskets, and were returned to duty, tlie average duration of treatment being about one month : 
Private J. W. Anderson, H, 19th Massachusetts Volunteers, in action, at Gettysburg, .July 2d, 1863. 
Private D. W. Butler, A, 92d Illinois Volunteers, at Nashville, Tennessee, November, 1864. Deserted. 
Private C. Chamberlain, A, 34th New Jersey Volunteers, November, 1863. 

Private H. W. Jones, K, 9th New Hampshire Volunteers, in action, near Jackson, Mississippi, July 14th, 1863. 
Private R. Launtz, C, 54th Pennsylvania Volunteers, in action, at Piedmont. Virginia, June 5th, 1864. 
Private P. Leonard, G, 2d Michigan Cavalry, in action, near Nashville, Tennessee, December 7th, 1864. 
Private ,7. Linebacker, F, 13th Missouri Volunteers, accidentally, at Rolla. Missouri, December 11th, 1864. 
Private M. J. Loud, A, 2d Rhode Island Volunteers, in action, near .\ppomattox, Virginia, April 6th, 1865. 
Private J. McCracken, A, 5th Tennessee, accidentally, Cincinnati, Ohio, .January 22d, 1865. 
Private H. McLaughlin, G, 16th New York Cavalry, near Alexandria, Virginia, July 31st, 1864. 
Private W. Magee, L, 2d Iowa Cavalry, in action, near Nashville, Tennessee, December 18th, 1864. 



44 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Private Conrad Osman, Co. I, 108th Ohio VoUinteers, Marietta, Georgia, November 13th, 1864. 

Private W. A. Pahner, A, 146tli New York Volunteers, in action, near Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 5th, 1884. 

Corporal T. Kobb, A, 2d Di.xtrict of Columbia Volunteers, Washington, D. C, August, 1865. 

Corporal J. Schinlfel, 1), 28tli Ohio Volunteers, near lieverly. West Virginia, February 7th, 1864. 

Private J. Snowdon, F, liOth Uiiite<l States Colored Troops, in action, near Petersburg, Virginia, Jidy 30th, 1864. 

Private J. Sweeney, G, Second Battalion, 14th United States Infantry, near Annapolis, Maryland, June 9th, 1863. 

Private W. J. True, K, 2d Illinois Volunteers, near Mempliis, Tennessee, March 10th. 1865. 

Private A. Wolf, D. 59th New York Volunteers, in action, at Gettysburg, July 2d, 1863. Deserted. 

Cases. — The twelve following received injuries of the head, of a more severe nature, from blows from muskets : 

Private Andrew Berry, Co. B, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 54 years, at Snickei-'s Gap, Virginia, April 1st. 186.5, in 
action. Was sent to Satterlee Hospital, Pliiladelphia; thence to McOlellan Hospital, July 16th ; thence to Mower Hospital, 
.July 20th, and was discharged from service August 24th, 1865, in accordance with G. O., War Department, A. G. O., May 3d, 
1865. 

Private M. Brown, 15, 140tli New York Volunteers, in action, at Spottsylvania, May 12th, 1864. 

Private 11'. B. linrii.i, A, 22d North Carolin.-i Regiment, was admitted to Farmville Hospifiil, Virginia, August, 1864, and 
was discharged from the Confederate service for total deafness, resulting from a blow received, in action, from a musket. 

Private J. Hewett, Co. li, 2d Vermont Volunteers, aged 28 years, received, May 5th, 18G4, a lacerated woiuid of the 

scalp, with concussion of the brain, by being struck witli the butt of a musket at the battle of the Wilderness. He was treated 

at the University Hospital, Baltimore, and at the Smith Hospital at Brattleboro, Vermont, and returned to duty .July 29th, 1864. 

I'rivate M. Leisure, 173d Ohio Volunteei'S, aged 30 years, accidentally, at Nashville, Tennessee. Transferred July 1st, 

1865. Not accounted for. 

I'rivate Otis J. Libby. Co. H, IGth Maine Volunteers, was struck on the head bj- a musket, at the battle of Fredericks- 
burg, December 12th, 1862, and was sent to Alexandria, December 19th, and was discharged from service, totally disabled, on 
Marcli 3(lth, 1863. The case was recorded liy Surgeon K. Bentley, U. S. V. 

Private J. L.ogan. Co. C, 6th Maine Volunteers, aged 28 years, received a lacerated wound of the scalp, July 21st, 1861, 
at the first battle of Bidl Run. He was tre.ited at the Mason Hospital, Boston, and returned to duty, and was subsequently 
discharged from service on account of epileptic fits, January 11th, 1865. 

Private J. O'Donnell, Co. K, 12th Maine Volunteers. Insubordination, December 9th, 1862. In 1663 and 1864, he was 
serving out his sentence by Court Martial, at Ship Island, Mississijipi, and Tortugas, Florida. 

Private J. Parker, Co. K, 2d New Hampshire Volunteers, aged 23 years, March 12th, 1864. Partial paralysis of left 
arm. Recovery-, and returned to duty, May 6th, 1864. 

Private Sampson Turner, Co. F, 66th Ohio Volunteers, was admitted into the Twentieth Army Corps Hospital, on July 
6th, 1864, much debilitated by malarious attacks. While in hospital, a musket fell upon his head, producing a concussion of 
the brain, and almost instant death, on August 26th, 1864. 

Private W. Walter, 3d Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteers, June 26th, 1864, lacerated wound of the scalp, at the battle of 
Gaines' Mills, 1862. Examined for 44th Regiment V. R. C, January^ 1867. 

Private Robert M. Young, Co. D, 107th Illinois Volunteers. Laceration of the scalp by a blow from the butt of a gun. 
Admitted to Douglas Hospital, Washington, July 17tli, 1863. He was transferred to the Invalid Corps, September 16th, 1863. 

The seven following abstracts refer to examples of fracture of tlie skull resulting 
from blows from muskets: 

Ca.se. — Private Michael B , Co. F, 9th Massachusetts Volunteers, while sleeping on the ground after the battle of 

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 4th, 1863, was struck on the head by a musket in the hands of a fellow soldier. The hammer 
of the musket inflicted a woimd of the left temple and a de])ressed fracture at 
the middle of the lower border of the left parietal and adjoining portion of the 
left temporal bone. The patient was conveyed to Baltimore. He was adujitted, 
on July 5th, into Jarvis Hospital, in a comatose condition There was a hernia 
of the brain of the size of a walnut. The patient retained voluntary motion of 
the lower limbs. The pupils were irregular and insensible to the light. Con- 
sciousness was never restored, and death took place on Julj- 6tli, 1863, forty- 
four hours after the reception of the injury At the autopsy, nnide fourteen 
. hours after death, the left side of the calvarium was removed, and a number of 
long fragments were found imbedded in the middle lobe of the left hemisphere, 

the brain tissue being broken up as far as the left lateral ventricle. Two frag- 

_, ,„,. ,, .1 11,, Fin. 15. — Section of cninnim frnctnred hv a blow 

ments, one of the outer and one of the mner table remauied attached ; the latter from a muBket.— Spec. 14,')7, .Sect. I, A. M. M. 

and one of the former having their free edges depressed one-fourth of an inch. 

The oval opening made in the skull is represented in the adjacent wood-cut, (FiG. 15.) The pathological specimen and notes of 

the case were contributed by Siu-geon D. C. Peters, U. S. Army. 

Case. — Private Jiimes H. Bums, Co. F, 9th New Hampshire Volunteers, was struck, at Petersburg, Virginia, July 30th, 
1864, with the butt of a musket, and received a contused wound of the scalp, with fracture and depression of the riglit parietal 
bone, two and a half inches anterior to the lambdoidal, and two inches external to the sagittal suture. On Jiuie 1st, 1865, he 
was transferred to the 6th New Ham])shire Vohnite<!rs. Cephalalgia, upon exposure to the sun, was the only troublesome 
symptom. He was mustered out of service on July 17th, 1865. 




COKTUSIONS AND LACERATIONS FROM FALLING TREES OR BRANCHES. 45 

Case. — Private Wni. Mclntire, Co. K, 2d Delaware Volunteers, received a blow from the butt of a pistol in a street 
brawl, at Wilmington, Delaware, November 2l6t, 1863. He was conveyed to Tilton Ho8))ital, wliere Surgeon E. J. Bailey, 
U. S. Army, wlio reports the case, found that there was a compound fracture with depression of the left parietal, causing grave 
injury to the brain. Operative interference was deemed inexpedient, and the patient died, November 25th, 1863. 

Case. — Private Jarvis Nunn, Co. A, 12th Kentucky Volunteers, aged 18 years, was admitted into the Old Hallowell 
branch of the military general hospitals at Alexandria, Virginia, February Ist, 1865, with a compound fracture of the skull by 
a blow fiom the muzzle of a musket in the hands of a comrade. The wound and fracture were situated a little above and to 
the outside of the left frontal eminence. There was no disturbance of the mental faculties, and no especial derangement of the 
physical functions at the date of the patient's admission, except slight constipation, which was overcome by a cathartic. On 
February 4tb, a slight febrile movement, with a dull frontal headache and swelling of the left parotid gland was observed ; but 
there was no obtuseness of intellect. On the following day, the left side of the face was oedematous. The eyes, particularly 
the left eye, being watery. The bowels were soluble. The wound had now commenced to suppurate, the discharge being 
foetid. Cold apjdications were made to the head. On the 7th, the pupils were dilated, and the tongue was protruded with 
difficulty. On February 8th, the patient was delirious, deaf, unable to articulate, or to protrude his tongue. He<could be roused 
with difficulty from his comatose state. The respiration was at 44, and the pulse thready at 115. It was necessary to evacuate 
the urine by a catheter. On the 9th, the coma became profound;, respiration 36; pulse 128; pupils widely dilated, and 
irresponsive to light. On February 10th, the respiration was very labored, the face and neck oedematous ; the ej'elids firmly 
closed ; but, when forcibly separated, revealing the pupils dilated to almost the extent of the iris. The urine and faeces wei-e 
discharged involuntarily. The surface was covered by a profuse sweat. The radial pulse was imperce))tible. Death took 
place at three o'clock in the afternoon of February 10th, 1865. At the auto))sy there was found, on the left side of the sinciput, a 
wound covered with yellow pus, and beneath, a depressed fracture of the frontal bone; and on removing the skull-cap a dark 
coagulum. The dura mater was not iuHanied, but was sejiarated from the bone for some distance around the fractui'e. The 
anomaly of the right lung being divided into two lobes only was noticed. This lung was emphyseuuituus, and the bronchial 
mucous membrane on this side was thickened and discolored. The tissue of the left lung was crejiitant, but red and slightly 
softened. The structure of the spleen was softened. The case was reported by Surgeon E. Hentley, U. S. V. 

Case. — Private Joseph Richards, Co. G, 13th Wisconsin Volunteers, aped 52 years, received, at Paint Rock, Alabama, 
December 3l8t, 1864, a lacerated woimd of the scalp, with fracture of the right parietal, by a blow from a musket. He was 
sent to the hospital at Huntsville, where he recovered from the symptoms of concussion at first manifested, and was so far 
convalescent that, on March 31st, 1865, he was transferred to Nashville, Tennessee. On April 13th, he was sent to Crittenden 
Hospital, at Louisville, Kentucky, and thence to Swift Hospital, at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. He recovered from his injury, 
and was discharged from service, on June 30th, 1865. 

Case. — Private David Smith, Co. K, 113th Ohio Volunteers, aged 23 years, was struck on the head by a musket, August 
4th, 1864, in a private quarrel, and received a partial fracture of the frontal and left parietal bones. He was received into 
Adams Hospital, at Memphis, Tennessee, August 17th, 1864. He recovered perfectly, under expectant treatment, and was 
returned to duty December 10th, 1864. Surgeon J. G. Keenon, U. S. V., reports the case. 

Case. — Private E. J. Tripp, Co. B, 77th New York Volunteers, aged 42 years, in the battle of Spottsylvania. May 10th, 
1864, was struck upon the head with the butt of a musket which produced a severe contusion of the scalp, and a simple fracture 
of the cranium. These injuries seem to have led to no very serious derangement of the cerebral functions since the patient was 
able to return to duty in October, and to go into action at the battle of Cedar Creek, October 19th, 1864, when he received a 
flesh wound in his groin, for which he was treated in the field hospital of the Secimd Division of the Sixth Corps, and afterwards 
at Martinsburg, Virginia, whence he was furlougbed, on February 1st, 1865, to report at Ira Harris llos])ital, Albany, New 
York, on March 12th. He was discharged from service August 7th, 1865, on account of loss of power in the lower extremities, 
and impairment of the mental faculties, resulting from the injury of the head. Assistant Surgeon James H. Armsbj-, U. S. V., 
rated his disability at two-thirds. 

The following men received injuries of the head from falling trees or branches: 

Cases. — The seventeen men named in this series had contusions or lacerations from the above cause of sufficient 
severity to require treatment in general hospitals. Thej' were all returned to duty after a few days or weeks of treatment, with 
the exception of a few who were mustered out of service, or who deserted : 

Private W. R. Bradstreet, Co. B, 19th Maine Volunteers, in action, Wilderness, Virginia. May 9th, 1864, 

Drummer D. Cain, Co. H, 20th Massachusetts Volunteers, Brandy Station, Virginia, May 2d, 18(54. 

Corporal G. Chase, Co. H, 4th Vermont Volunteers, March 23d. 1865. 

Private J. Cozzens, 14th Co. Unattached Massachusetts Volunteers, June22d, 1864. 

Private F. Freeman, Co. 1, 25th Wisconsin Volunteers, October lOth, 1864. 

Lieutenant D. B. Greeley, Co. B, llth Iowa Vohmteei's, in action, at Corinth, Mississippi, October 4th, 1862. 

Private T. Lee, Co. H, 20th Indiana Volunteers, January 13lh, 1865. 

Private J. Mclntyre, Co. B, 157th New York Voliuiteers, Fillitinny, South Carolina, December 6th, 1864. 

Private J. McNulty, Co. D, 26th Massachusetts \'olunteers, August 23d, 1864. 

Private J. Maine, Co. K, 162d New York Volunteers, Winchester, A'irginia, February 22d, 1865. 

Private J. D. Mansfield, Co. B, 16th Maine Volunteers, February 7th, 1865. 

Private J. Miles, Co. C, 16th Illinois Volunteers, February, 1865. 

Private G. H. Miller, Co. B, 23d United States Colored Troops, Petersburg, Virginia, October, 27th, 1864. 



46 WOUNDS AND INJUEIES OF THE HEAD, 

Private E. B. Mitchell, Co. K, 15th Virginia Volunteers, Cumberland, Maryland, August 9th, 1864. 

Trivate T. Mount, Co. D, 77th Illinois Volunteers, March 27th, 1805. 

Private J. Naylor, Co. D, 52d Illinois Vohuiteers, Rome, Georgia, November 1st, 1864. 

Private .1. Talbot, Co. I, 189th New York Volunteei-s, June 1st, 1805. 

Cases. — The fourteen named in this series were dischargedfrom service on account of disabilities, produced by more 
severe injuries, from the same cause : 

Private Edward Harris, Co. H, 120th New York Volunteers, in action, at Hatcher's Run, Virginia, February 8th, 18S5. 

Private Peter Hollalian, Co. G, 73(1 New York Volunteers, January 4th, 1865. 

Private John \V. Hudson, Co. A, OOtli Oliio Volunteers, June, 1865. 

Private John Larkin, Co. D, 88th New York Volunteers, A)>ril, 1865. 

Private William Loveland, Co. F, 21st New Yorlc Cavalry, March 23d, 1865. 

Corporal Arthur McCune, Co. D, 7th Indiana Volunteers, January, 1865. 

Private Patrick Maloney, Co. D, 4Ct]i New York Voliuiteers, Petersburg, Virginia, November 3d, 1804. 

Private Otto Nestler, Co. B, 7th New Y'ork Volunteers, February 5th, 1865. 

Private Joseph W. Newland, Co. G, 80th, New York Volunteers, Rochester, New York, November 13th, 1864. 

Private D. Rogers, 29th United States Colored Troops, Petersburg, Virginia, October 25th, 1864. 

Private Christian Smith, Co. E, 7th New York Volunteere, April, 1865. 

Private Patrick Sullivan, Co. H, 73d New York Volunteers, May, 1865. 

Private Stephen Twelves, Co. A, 116tli Pennsylvania Volunteers, Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 3d, 1863. 

Case. — Lieutenant John A. Porter, Co. C, 36th Illinois Volunteers, aged 23 years, in the engagement at Resaca, 
Georgia, May 15th, 1804, was struck on the head by a limb of a tree which had been cut off by a solid .shot He fell, senseless, 
the l)lood gushing from his mouth and nostrils. He remained in an unconscious state for forty-eight hours, when he was con- 
veyed to the hospital at Chattanooga, Tennessee. On admission, he was speechless, and completely paralyzed in the upper 
extremities and in the muscles of the hea<l and face. On June 18th, he was transferred to Hospital No. 1, at Nashville, whence 
he was furloughed on August 1st, 1864. At this date "tlie entire upper part of his body was paralyzed." He remained at his 
home until November 10th, when, having regained bis strength, and, in a measure, the use of his upper extremities, he returned 
to t]ie hospital, and thence to duty with his regiment at Pulaski, Tennessee. He participated in the engagements at Spring Hill 
and Franklin, Teimessce, on November 2yth and 30th, hoping that the excitement Avould restore his voice. He stated that the 
sound of nnisketry and artillery firing "almost burst bis head." In the early part of December^ 1864, after violent and repeated 
efforts to utter a sound, a copious hsemorrhage took place from the fauces, and possibly the upper portion of the larynx, preceded 
by a feeling of "cracking and bureting,'' and a sense of " rushing upward in the head," The haemorrhage was followed by 
complete return of his voice, seven and one-half months after the reception of the injury. During this period tinnitus aurium 
and vertigo existed, at times, to such extent as to deprive him of sight and hearing. He was mustered out of service on October 
8th, 1865, with his regiment. On June 13th, 1866,he waspensioned, todatefrom October, 1865. The examining surgeon reporting 
a concussion of the right hemisphere of the brain, which caused "general debility, affecting the right leg, arm, and eye" 
He drew his pension at the Quincy Agency, Illinois, March 4th, 1869, and was then reported as permanently disabled. He 
resided at Little York, Warren county, Illinois, and wrote thence, in the spring of 1866, a very detailed account of his acci- 
dent, from which the above abstract is partially compiled. He stated that he suffered so much from dizziness, from flow of blood 
to the liead, that lie supposed he would never recover his health, and concluded : " I am unable, entirely, for manual labor; yet 
my wound was received in a glorious cause, and one that I was willing to sacrifice my life for." 

In the next two cases, falling trees produced fractures of the cranium : 

Case. — Private James M. Logan, Co. K, 106th Illinois Volunteers, was, in .January, 1803, struck by a falling tree, 
which fractured the cranium at the vertex, just posterior to the coronal suture, involving both tables. He was admitted to the 
hospital at the provisional encampment at Fort Pickering. Tennessee, where he remained under treatment until August 4th, 1803, 
when he was discharged from the service. On August 8tli, 1863, Pension Ex.imining Surgeon Thomas B. Henning, examined 
the case, and reports that a portion of the bone was lost, and that the pulsations of the brain were visible. An abscess had 
formed in the lefl temporal region, and was then discharging. The man was debilitated, and when exposed to the sun, or 
exertion, would suffer from vertigo and headache. 

Case. — Private John Tyler, Co. K, 30th United States Colored Troops, was injured, on December 27th, 1864, by a 
falling tree, which produced a linear fracture of the cranium, extending from the sagittal suture obliquely through the left 
parietal and temporal bones to the middle for.Tmeu laccruni. He was admitted to the field hospital of the Twenty-fifth Army 
Corps on the same day, in an unconscious condition, from which he never rallied. His pulse was slow and weak, respiration 
stertorous, and pupils insensil)le to light. But little nourishment coulil be given in consequence of impaired deglutition. With 
the exception of slight improvement in his pulse, he continued in the above condition until his death, on December 31st, 1864. 
At the autopsy, effusion of blood in the left parietal and temporal regions beneath the scalp, and slight effusion internally upon 
the dura mater. Beneath the dura mater, on the right side, a thin coagulum extended from the upper surface of the hemisjihere, 
down into the middle fossa of the cranium, where it was one-fourth of an inch in thickness. The convolutions of brain were 
flattened from pressure. The inferior portion of the right middle lobe, for a space of one and a half inches, was much 
ecchymosed and softened, and blended with the coagula. Then? were two ounces of serum in the sub-arachnoid space, and in 
the lateral ventricles, which were somewhat distended. The left hemisphere was normal; no other organs were examined. Sur- 
geon Norton Folsom, 45th United States Colored Tri>ops, reports the case. 



FROM CLUBS AND OTHER BLUNT WEAPONS. 47 

Kicks, from horses and mules, were a not infrequent cause of injuries of the head: 

Casks. — Tlie ton named in tlie following list were rpceiveil into hoaiiital on account of contusions or lacerations of the 
scalp by kicks from liorsea or mnles, and wern retnrned to duty after a brief interval : 
Private William Brown, Co. G, 21st New York Cavalry, November 1st, 18G4. 
Teamster R. Broyden, Quartermaster's Department, January 13tli, 1865. 
Private Al(mzi) Cole. Co. 6, Ctli Pennsylvania Reserves, June 3l)tli, 1863. 
Private William Deal, Co, I, 7th Illinois Cavalry, July 28th, 1854. 
Sergeant R. S. Dow, Co. C, 39th Massachusetts Volunteers, October 15th, 1864. 
Bugler Jacob Horn, Co. K, 5th United States Artillery, Buzzard Roost, Georgia, May 9th, 1864. 
Private Joshua Lewis, Co. A, 5th Micliigan Volunteers, July, 1863. Deserted, September 3d, 1863. 
Private Andrew Peters, Co. G. 3d United States Colored Troops, St. Louis, December 4tli, 1862. 
Private Edward T. Simmons, Co. G, 1st Delaware Vclunteers, May, 1864. 
I'rivate Calvin Starzman, Co. H, 12th Illinois Cavalry, February 21st, 1865. 

Cases. — The four followhig are reported as discharged from service on account of severe injuries of the head, witliout 
fracture, from kicks: 

Private John W. Forckers, Co. A, 3d Maryland Volunteers, March, 1885. 
Private Andrew Kerr, Co. G, 1st Michigan Cavalry, November 25tli, 18.)3. 
Private Philip Seton, Co. G, 169th New York Volunteers, July 25th, 1865. 

Casks. — The four following are reported as having received simple fractures ( f the skull from kicks; but the accidents 
were not followed by any very grave symptoms, since the men were returned to duty, or discharge<l, as well : 
Private William N. Elwood, Co. I, 29th Pennsylvania Volunteers. Returned to duty, June 22d, 1865. 
Private Peter Leiser, Co. C, 67th Ohio Volunte<'rs. Discharged, October 1st. 18G3. 
Private George Styles, Co. B, iOtb New York Cavalry. Returned to duty, July 12th, 1865. 
Private John L. Weigel, Co. I, 8th Ohio Cavalry. Returned to duty, October 29th, 1834. 

Case. — Private George A. Teasdale, Co. G, 36th New York Volunteers, received a severe contused wound of the scalp, 
with fracture of the left parietal bone, by a blow from a horse's foot, in a cavalry charge, at the first battle of Bull Run, .Inly 
21st, 1861. He was made a prisoner, and remained in confinement until the tenuiiuition of the war, in the spring of 1865. lie 
was then released, and was examined at Washington for admission into the 44tli Regiment Veteran Reserve Corps. He was 
suffering from very imperfect vision, resulting from the injury he had received. The late Assistant Surgeon W. A. Bradley, 
U. S. Army, reported the case. 

Case. — Abraham, a colored teamster of the Quartermaster's train of the 20th Army Corps, received, September 14tli, 
1863, near Stevenson, Alabama, a kick from a mule. The blow was found to have produced a depressed fracture of the left 
temporal bone. Surgeon D. J. McKibben, U. S. V., who records the case, states that the patient died on September 17th, 1863 
from compression of the brain. 

These cases comprise all the injuries of the head from kicks that have been reported 
by name, with the exception of one, which will be cited among the cases of trephining, at 
the conclusion of this section. 

Injuries of the head, requiring treatment in hospitals, were frequently produced in 
private quarrels, or affrays, by blows from clubs and other blunt weapons: 

Cases. — The forty-one named in the following list received contusions or lacerations of the scalp from blows from 
clubs, &c., and were returned to duty after a short period of treatment in general hospital : 
Private Samuel Biland, Co. L, 1st Missouri Artillery, November 26th, 1863. 
Private Abraham Bowen, Co. I, 16th Kentucky Volunteei-s, June 4th, 1864. 
Private B. F. Boswell, Co. D, 1st District of Columbia Volunteei-s, October 2d, 1864. Deserted. 
Sergeant Wm. Campbell, Co. E, 33d Iowa Volunteers, March 31st, 18li5. 
Private F. E. Conn, Co. F, 1st United States Artillery, January 5tli, 1865. 
Private S. F. Conway, Co. D, 1st Virginia Cavalry, December 23d, 1864. 
Private C. C. Daggart, Veteran Reserve Corps, December 13tli, 1864. 
Private John Dowler, Co. G, 2d District of Columbia Volunteers, October lOtb, 1863. 
Private S. W. Duvall, Co. D, 12th Kentucky Volunteers, January, 1865. 
Private James English, Co. K, 3d Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, January 9th, 1865. 
Private John Fitzgibbons, Co. B, 13th New Y'ork Artillery, December, 1883. 
Thomas Geary, Quartermaster's Department, July 15, 18i)4. 
W. W. Hopkins, Recruit, 5th Michigan Volunteers, April 26th, 1865. 
Thomas Jordan, employ^, Quartermaster's Department, March 3lst, 1835. 
Private William Johnson, 10th New Hampshire Volunteers, December, 1833. Deserted. 
Sergeant W. Leroy, Co. G, 4th United States Artillery, October 25tli, 1884. 
Private Edward Lowry, Co. E, 1st Veteran Reserve Corps, April 21st, 1864. 



48 "WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Private David McBiide, Co. A, 18tli Iowa Volunteers, Octol)er 17tli, 18(j3. 

Private Michael McCabe, Co. H, 4tli Wisconsin Volunteers, .Januarv- 22d, 1805. 

Private Jerry McCarty. Co. C, 8th Illinois Cavalry, February 1st, 1864. 

Private Daniel McLaughlin, Co. E, McClellan Guard, June 27tli, 1863. Deserted. 

Private Patrick Martin, Co. E, 88th New York Volunteers, May 24tli, 1865. 

Sergeant L. Martindale, Co. G, 2d Maine Cavalry, August l:3tli, 181)5. 

Private John Moony, Co. H, 5th Connecticut Volunteers, November 29th, 1863. 

Private John Moore, Co. D, First Battalion California Volunteers, December 12th, 1863. 

Private Kenneth Newton, Co. K, 38th Illinois Volunteers, December 10th, 1864. 

Private Edward Ormsby, Co. I, 145lh New York Volunteers, November, 1863. 

Corporal Daniel Parker, Co. D, 73d New York Volunteers, February 7th, 1863. 

Sergeant J. D. Place, Co. F, 7.5th Illinois Volunteers, December 11th, 1864. 

Corporal .Jacob Paul, Co. E, 16th Illinois Volunteers, December 14tli, 1864. 

Private W. E. Redding, Co. G, 2d Tennessee Mounted Infantry, January 20th, 1865. 

Private M. J. Rice, Co. I, llOth Pennsylvania Volunteers, May, 1863. 

Private Peter Smith, Co. C, 1st Missouri Artillery, December 22d, 1864. 

Private James E. Shay, Co. F, 22d Illinois Volimteers, May 24th, 1864. 

Private John Scott, 2d Indiana Battery, .January 27th, 1865. 

Private Jacob Smith, lldth Ohio Volunteers, October 4th, 1864. 

Private Silas M. Smitli, Co. C, 15th Illinois Cavalry, November 14th, 1863. 

Private Charles Trucksiss, Co. C, 16th Veteran Reserve Corps, September 11th, 1864. 

Private Edward Woodruff, Ordnance Coips, .January 1st, 1865. 

Private Francis Wirtz, Co. L, 1st Missouri Artillery, November 20th, 1863. 

Private John Williams, Ordnance Corjjs, January 1st, 1865. 

Ca.se.s. — The seven following men received injuries of the liea<l from blows, which were followed by grave complications : 

I'rivate G. H. Cutting. Co. D, 8th Delaware Volunteei-s. Blow from spade. May, 1865. Otorrhea followed. Mustered 
out July 22d, 1865. 

Private Joseph Edwards, Co. A, 28th Illinois Volunteers. Laceration of forehead by a billet of wood. May, 1864. 
Severe erysipelas Duty, .June 30th, 1864. 

I'rivate Henry Louglnvell, Co. H, 15th Ohio Volunteers. Contusion of frontal region by a billet of wood, November 
25th, 1864. Discharged, June 10th, 1865. 

Private Michael Miller, 27th Co., 7th Regiment, V. R. C, aged 52. Severe contusion of scalp and concussion of the 
brain from a blow by a whip handle. May 14th, 1865. Discharged, November 14th, 1865. 

Private A. Robinson, 6th Michigan Cavalry, aged 24. Laceration of forehead by a slung shot, May 23d, 1865. Dis- 
charged, July 3d, 1865. 

Corporal William Warner, Co. F, 7th Michigan Volunteers, aged 24. Partial paralysis of the left arm from a blow from 
a fence rail, in action, Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. Transferred to 2d Co., 1st Battalion, V. R. C, September 4th, 1863. 

Private James Whissen, Co. F, 13th Ohio Cavalry, aged 21, was struck on the head with a pick-axe, February 16th, 
1864. October Ist he was sent to a hospital at Alexandria, with violent epileptic convulsions. These continued to recur, and 
he was dischaiged from service March 18th, 1865. 

The fourteen following abstracts afford examples of fractures of the cranium by blows 
from various blunt weapons : 

Case. — Seaman James R. Connor, U. S. Steamer Arlett.i, aged 19 years, was admitted to the Post Hospital at Beaufort, 
North Carolina, October 31st, 1864, on account of a blow upon his bead by an iron stanchion on the previous day. The blow 
had caused a fracture of the vault of the cranium. The patient died November Ist, 1S64. Surgeon N. P. Rice, U. S. V., reports 
the case, without particulars of the treatment. 

Case. — Sergeant J. G. Garrabrant, Co. C, 39th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 39 years, was admitted to the Ward Hos- 
pital, Newark, New Jersey, on January 8tli, 1865, in an insensible condition, with a fracture of the cranium and compression 
of the brain, resulting from a blow received in a street affray a few hours previously. He never regained consciousness, and 
died on Jaimary 12th, 1865. At the autopsy, the arachnoid membrane was highly congested, and the smallest vessels were 
visible. Upon the anterior portion of the right lobe of the cerebrum, between the dura mater and arachnoid, there was a clot of 
blood several inches in diameter. The other portion of the brain was normal. The internal table of the occipital was found to 
be fractured in two places, extending from the torcular Ileropliili to the foramen m.ignum. The case is reported by the late 
Assistant Surgeon J. Theodore Calhoun, U. S. A. 

Case. — Private John W. Ilogencr, Co. E, 120th Ohio Volunteers, received, on board a transport steamer, a blow from an 
iron bolt, which caused a fracture of the frontal bone. He was admitted to Hospital No. 11. at New Albany, Indiana, on 
November 18th, 1863. and died, on November 2lBt, 1863, from compression of the brain. Acting Assistant Surgeon A. M. 
Clapp reports the case. 

Casic. — David H , U. S. Marine Corps, aged 35 yeai'S, was admitted to the post hospital at Vicksburg, Missis- 
sippi, February 24th, 1866, with all the toes frost-bitten. This seemed to constitute the only trouble, with the exception of a 
slight headache, which was attributed to the constipated condition of his bowels for three or four days prior to admission. An 



FEACTURES FROM VARIOUS BLUNT WEAPONS. 



49 



aperient was ordered, with sim])le dressings to the feet. Until February 27th, tliere was a gradual improvement in the local 



Ou February "-i^tb. the patient 
An incised wound of the scalp, 




lesion, but the dull, heavy pain in the liead continued, with poor appetite, and costive bowels 
was found comatose, and for the first time there was noticed a slight paralysis of the right side. 
an incli or more in length, was discovered in front of the left parietal protu- 
berance. A crucial incision was made, and the flaps were reflected, with a 
view of trephining in the event of a fracture of the skull with depression, but 
as no lesion of the skull could be detected, the incision was closed. No other 
injury of the scalp was found after careful examination. The coma and 
paralysis were ascribed to apoplectic effusion. Tlie patient expired at three 
o'clock on the morning of the following day. The antecedent history of this 
patient could not be ascertained, and Acting Assistant Surgeon G. F. Rock- 
well, who attended and reported the case, remarks that he was restricted to 
inferences from the clinical history and what the autopsy revealed. On re- 
moving the calvarium he found a small coaguluni, but its location was not 
under the site of the external wound, but a little back of the coronal suture, 
on the left side, where tlie internal table was slightly depressed. But the 
chief difficulty was on the right side. When tl)e skull-cap was lifted between 
two and three ounces of blood escaped, still leaving a coagulum covering the 
whole hemisphere. There was a semicircular fissure of the external table 
just m front of the left parietal protuberance, and stellate fissuring, with slight depression of the iniu-r table, including a surface 
one inch in diameter. From this point a fissure, involving both tables, extended to the centre of the left branch of the lambdoidal 
suture. There were no traces of attempt at repair. There must have been a rupture of some of the larger vessels to cause such 
profuse extravasation of blood. There was no external wound of the scalp ovi'r the fracture of the left parietal. The specimen 
(Fit;. 16) was contributed to the Array Medical Museum by Dr. Rockwell, wbo believed that the weapon em])loyed unist have 
been a billet of wood, or something of that nature. 

Case. — Private William Hoian, U. S. Marine Corps, aged 43 years, was admitted to Armory Square Hospital, Washing- 
ton, May 14th, 18G5, with a bruise of the left side of the forehead, received in a street fight a few hours previously. The injury 
was regarded as a simple contusion of the scalp, and was treated as such. On May iOth, the patient suddenly became comatose, 
and death took place on the following day. May '21st, 1865. The ^os< mortem examination revealed a slight fissui'e of the outer, 
and a considerable depression of the inner table. An abscess of considerable size extended for some distance beneath the frontal 
bone. Surgeon D. W. Bliss, U. S. V., reports the case. 

Cask. — Corporal Michael Lynch, Co. H, 4r)th New York Volunteers, aged 33 years, was struck with a dul) July lat, 
1864. He was admitted into the hospital of the "id Division 2d Corps ou the same day, and was transferred to Stanton Hospital, 
in Wasliington, on July 4th. Surgeon John A. Lidell, U. S. V., who reports the case, found that there was a comminuted 
fracture of the right temporal bone. Cerebral inttaunnation supervened, and the patient died July 14th, 18()4. 



Flo. IH.— Fnirtiiri' 
blunt weapon. — Sjicc. 



if tile K'fl iKiriftiil by a blow from a 
.'t7(i, Sect 1, A. M. M. 



Case.— Private E. C. M- 



-, Co. D, 23th Alabama Infantry, a prisoner of 



war at Rock Lslaud. Illinois, was killed by a fellow prisoner, August 14th, 1864, by 
a blow on the right temporal region with a board. Death was almost instantaneous. 
At the autopsy, it was found that the skull was remarkably thin, and that a nearly 
vertical fissure extended through the sijuamous portion of the temporal, the great wing 
of the sphenoid, and nearly to the median line of the frontal bone, bifurcating an inch 
from its termination. The right orbital plate of the frontal, which was extremely 
thin, was fissured either by contre roup, or by the impulse communicated tlirougb the 
cerebral substance. There was diastasis of the squamo-sphenoid suture. Large 
branches of the meningeal arteries were ruptured, and death resulted, lu-obably, from 
hcemorrhage in the cavity of the cranium. But the condition of the brain and its 
membranes, and the extent of the intracranial bleeding, were not reported. The speci- 
men is delineated in the adjacent wood-cut, (Fig. 17.) By an imxdvertence of the en- 
graver in copying the photograph, the specimen appears reversed, and represents a 
fracture of the left instead of the right side. 




Ftc. 17. — Frncturt'of the temporal by ablow 
from u board.— Spfc. astJ^, Sect. I, A.M. M. 



Case. — Private J. M. Munroe, Co. E, 26th Massachusetts Volunteers, was admitted to St. James Hospital, New Orleans, 
February 23d, 1863, with a fracture of the skull, produced by a blow. He recovered, under expectant treatment, and was 
discharged from service on May 12th, 1863. The case appears ou the report of Assistant Surgeon J. Homans, U. S. A. 

Ca.se. — Private John Murr.ay, Co. D, fitli Illinois Cavalry, aged 23 years, was struck on the head by a slimg shot, in the 
streets of Memphis, Tennessee, April 7th, 1864. He was admitted, on tlie same day, to Adams Hospital, and bis case is recorded 
on the register of that hospital .as a contused wound of the scalp. He was furloughed on July 8th. and admitted to Knight 
Hospital, New Haven, Coimecticut, on August 24th. He was furloughed from this hospital on Se]iteinber 9th. and re-admitted 
as unable to travel, two days subsequently. He was again furloughed on November 2d, 1864, and re-admitted from lurlough 
November 15th, and, according to the monthly report of Surgeon P. A. .lewett, U. S. V., in charge of Knight Hospital, was 
discharged from service on November 16th, ISlVl, on account of total physical disability, resulting from fracture of the skull, 
The certificate states that the man was unfit for duty in the Veteran Reserve Corps. 

7 



50 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Case. — Private Francis M. Pettit, Co. G, 12th Kansas Volunteers, isreportefl by Surgeon C. R. Stuckslager, 12tli Kansas 
Volunteers, as having received a conip<iunil fracture of the left parietal hone, a little in advance of the protuberance, l)y a blow 
from the handle of a table fork. There was depression of bone, with injury of the membranes of the brain, and the patient 
died a few days after the injury, May 7tli, 1863. A post mortem examination was made, which disclosed indications of softening 
of the brain and meningitis. 

Ca.se. — Private Michael Smith, Co. F, 7th United States Infantry, arrived at Fort Bascom, New Mexico, August 10th, 
■ 1863, and, on August 20th, he applied to xVeting Assistant Surgeon S. Rankin, to have his head dressed. Dr. Rankin found a 
fistulous opening on the right frontal protuberance. The man related that, six months previously, at Fort Union, he had 
received, in an affray, a blow which had broken his head, and that a little matter had flowed from the wound ever since. A 
simple dressing was applied, and the man did not report again on the sick list until September, 1863, when, after getting on a 
frolic, he was attacked with grave symptoms of cerebral disorder, and died, from cerebritls, September 20tli, 1863. At the 
post mortem examination, Dr. Rankin found a piece of bone two inches long and one inch wide, consisting of the inner table, 
altogether detached, lying pressing upon the brain, which had undoubtedly been in the same situation the previous spring when 
he received the injury. 

Case. — Alfred Sypole, Farrier, Co. M, 4th Virginia Cavalry, on February 26th, 1864, was knocked down by a blow 
from an axe, while making a furious assault upon a non-commissioned officer of his company. For several hours afterwards he 
was insensible, and then partially recovered ; but remained moody and stupid. On March 2d, he was admitted into the post 
hospital at New Creek, West Virginia, under the care of Surgeon S. B. Smith, U. S. V., who reports the case. Dr. Smith found 
a small wound, suppurating freely, over the left temporal bone, and a fracture without depression. The mental faculties were 
confused. The patient complained of severe pain on the oppo.--ite side of the head. An emollient poultice was applied to the 
Beat of injury, and a brisk cathartic was ordered, which promptly relieved the jiain in the head, and was followed by a restora- 
tion of clearness of intellect. At this time, the patient seemed to convalesce rai>idly. In two days, he walked .about and enjoyed 
himself, entering freely into general conversation, and expressing himself with ease and clearness. On the evening of the 16th, 
he became sullen and depressed in spirits, and had a recurrence of severe pain on the opposite side of the head from the wound. 
On the following morning, the patient had convulsions, and death took place in a short time, March 17th, 1864. On a post 
mortem examination, it was found tliat there was a fracture of the temporal bone, triangular in shape, an inch and a half in 
length, and about one inch in width at the base. The dura mater was not injured, and the bone was not depressed. In the 
middle lobe of the left hemisphere there was an abscess near the fracture containing an ounce and a half of pus. No abnormal 
appearances could be detected on the opposite side of the brain, where the intense pain had been experienced. There was but 
little injection, anywhere, of the pia mater. 

Case. — Private James Wiggins, Co. C, 1st U. S. Cavalry, was admitted to the Balfour Hospital, Portsmouth, Virginia, 
April 10th, 1855, with compression of the bi'ain, resulting from a fracture of the frontal bone by a blow over the left superciliary 
ridge, received a few hours before admission. The roof of the orbit was depressed, as well as the lower part of the skull, over 
the anterior portion of the left hemisphere. An operation was deemed inexpedient. Cold applications to the head, blisters to 
the nape of the neck, and stimulants, constituted the treatment. Assistant Surgeon J. H. Frantz, U. S. A., reported the case. 

Case. — Private J. li. WilHnson, Co. B, 46th Virginia Regiment, was struck on the head by an iron bar, used in starting 
a steam engine, and bad a fracture of the right parietal bone. He was treated at the Farmville Hospital, Virginia, on the 
expectant plan. Epileptic convulsions ensued, and the patient was discharged from service, permanently disabled, on Sep- 
tember 23d, 1864. Surgeon H. D. Taliaferro, C. S. A., records the case on his monthly report. 

The following are examples of contused and lacerated wounds of the scalp produced 
by stones, bricks, and similar missiles: 

Cases. — An officer and eight men of the 6tli Massachusetts Militia received contusions or lacerations of the scalp, by 
paving stones, bricks, etc., on the occasion of the memorable attack upon that Regiment by insurgents iu Baltimore, on April 
19th, 1861 : 

Privates G. Alexander, C. H. Chandler, and Sergeant W. H. Lamson, of Co. D ; Sergeant G. G. Durrell, Co. D; Lieut. 
James F. Rowe, of Co. L; Privates S. Flandere, J. Porter, J. Pennell, and Charles B. Stinson, of Co. C. These patients were 
conveyed, by rail, to Washington, and were treated in the E Street Infirmary, under charge of Surgeon Norman Smith, 6th 
Massachusetts Volunteers, and the late Dr. J. Sim Smith, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. A. 

Cases. — The twenty-two men named below are reported as having been treated in various hospitals for contused or 
lacerated scalp wounds, produced by bricks or stones, and returned to duty, after a comjiaratively brief period of treatment : 
Private James Armstrong, Co. K, 7th Pennsylvania Reserves, October 4th, 1803. 
Private Anthony Bal)ano, Co. C, 46th Indiana Volunteers, April 16tli, 181)."). 
Private Wm. Bowles, Co. A, let Michigan C. T., September 17th, 18u4. 
Corporal F. B. Cox, I, 22d Pennsylvania Cavalry, May 3Uth, 1865. 
Sergeant F. A. Cullin, D, 22d Veteran Reserve Corps, July 9th, 18G4. 
Private J. R. Davenport, H, 84tb New York Volunteers, July 1st, 1863. 
Private E. Enghausen, K, Ist New York Light Artillery, .lune 1st. 1S65. 
Private J. Ginn, C, 36th Indiana Volunteers, November 27tb, 1863. 
Private F. I*. Green, D, 205th, Pennsylvania Volunteers, May 26th, 1865. 
Private G. W. Hamilton, K, 86tli Illinois Voliuiteers, July 1st, 1864. 
Private R. D. Herron, A, 23d Michigan Volunteers, December 22d, 1864. 



FROM UNSPECIFIED CAUSES OTHER THAN GUNSHOT. 51 

Private B. Hockworth, I, Ist West Virginia Infantry, April 18th, 1864. 

Private T. Kelley, A, 14th Tennessee Cavalry, December 20th, 1864. 

Private J. Kennedy, L, 1st Missouri Engineers, August IGth, 1864. 

Private W. Locke, G, 23(1 Veteran Reserve Corps, March 18th, 1865. 

Private M. Lope, A, 22d Ohio Volunteers, June 29th, 1865. 

Private T. Minnan, Ordnance Corps, March 10th, 1865. 

Private A. Newhauser, G, 1st Illinois Artillery, April 29th, 1865. 

Private P. Rhodes, D, 18tli Iowa Volunteers, October Ist, 1863. 

Private W. Sallee, Ordnance Corps, January, 1865. 

Corporal J. W. Smithers, B, 27th Massachusetts Volunteers, May 11th, 1864. 

Private C. H. Winn, I, 35th Illinois Volunteers, May, 1864. 

The three following are cases of fractures of the skull from the causes last mentioned : 

Case. — Private John Aldrich, Co. K, 176th New York Volunteers, aged 29 years, in an attack of delirium, struck his 
head with a stone, on July 25th, 1864, producing a compound fracture of the cranium. He was admitted to the University 
Hospital, at New Orleans, Louisiana, on the following day. An abscess formed and the patient died, on August 15th, 1864, 
from inflammation of the brain. Surgeon Sanniel Kneeland, U. S. V., reports the case. 

Ca.se. — Corporal Adam Gaslein, Co. B, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry, had a simple fracture of the vault of the cranium, in 
April, 1863, caused by a blow from a stone. He was admitted to Columbian Hospital, Washington, on April 4th, 18()3. He 
had a very protracted convalescence, and finally recovered perfectly, and returned to duty, A]it\\ 12th, 1864. Surgeon T. R. 
Crosby, U. S. V., reports the case. 

Case. — Private Daniel T. Swartz, 7th West Virginia Cavalry, aged 35 years, had a laceration of tlie forehead, and a 
compound fracture of the left side of the frontal bone, frinn a blow by a brick-bat, on April 1st, 1865. He was admitted to 
Washington Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, where the hjemorrhage, which had been very profuse, was arrested, and the wound 
dressed simply, there being no indications of depression of bone or of intracranial extravasation of blood. On May 15th, the 
patient was transferred to Gayoso Hospital. On May 24th, he was considered cured, and returned to duty. Surgeon Daniel 
Stahl, U. S. v., reports the case. 

Unspecified Causes — Many men also were received into general hospital for con- 
tusions or lacerations of the scalp, or for concussion of the brain, or fracture of the skull, 
and were reported by name, but without any indication of the precise cause of their 
injuries: 

Cases. — The one hundred and twenty-one men enumerated in the following list recovered, and were returned to duty 
or discharged from service at the conclusion of the war after a brief period of treatment for such injuries as are mentioned above : 
Private H. Ackernian, K, 18th Wisconsin Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, January 11th, 1865. 
Private W. H. Alexander, C, 39th New Jersey Volunteers, Camp Frelinghuysen, New Jersey, October 24th, 1864. 
Private J. Anderson, G, 4th Tennessee Cavalry, Vicksburg, Mississiiipi, February 20th, 18f55. 
Bugler G. W. Ashland, B, 12th Pennsylvania Volunteers, Sandy Hook, Maryhuxl, May l'2tli, 1864. 
Teatuster C. Barachi, Indian Expedition, Fort Ridgely, Minnesota, May 3lBt, 1864. 
Private T. Barber, H, 118th New York Volunteere, Petersburg, Virginia, June 2d, 1865. 
Private D. Bon, C, 2d Missouri Artillery, Cape Girardeau, Missouri, December 20th, 1863. 
Private B. S. Boorman, G, 41st Ohio Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, December 13th, 1864. 
Private W. ,T. Brown, E, 14th Illinois Cavalry, Nashville, Tennessee, February 9th, 1865. 
B. Busa, Government Employ^, Wasliington, D. C, February 17th, 1864. 
Recruit J. Cain, Merrill's Horse, St. Louis, Missouri, November 8th, 1864. 
Lieutenant H. D. Call, A, 76th New York Volunteers, Georgetown, D. C, January 9th, 1864. 
Private J. Cautrell, Schofield Hussars, St. Louis, Missouri, December 8th, 1863. 
Private W. C. Carroll, B, 4th Tennessee Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, March 30th, 1863. 
Private M. Casey, L, 1st Illinois Artillery, New Creek, West Virginia, November 10th, 1864. 
Private A. R. Chapman, C, 32d Massachusetts Volunteers, Washington, D. C, May 23d, 1865. 
Private J. Chase, G, 4th Michigan Cavalry, Nashville, Tennessee, March 6th, 1864. Deserted. 
Private J. Christie, A, 18th New York Cavalry, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 26th, 1865. 
Private IV. M. Clare, G, 20th Missouri Regiment, Farmville, Va. 

Private H. W. Cochran, I, 17th Indiana Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky. November 30th, 1864. 
Private B. Cofflety. G, 77th Pennsylvania Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessei-, December 15th, 1864. 
Private J. Cox, A, 13th New York Cavalry, Washington, D. C, August 11th, 1864. 
Recruit J. E. Cranfield, 63d New York Voliniteers, Alexandria, Virginia, May 8th, 1864. 
Private W. Daly, A, 16th United States Infantry, Nashville, Tennessee, December 18th, 1865. 
Private W. Danekas, E, 11th Illinois Volunteers, Meni])his, Tennessee, April 6th. 1865. 
Private L. L. Davis, C, 15th New Jersey Volunteers, Washington, D. C, May 11th, 1864. 
John Dugan, Govenunent Employe, Quartermaster's Department, Nashville, Tennessee, November 28th, 1864. 
Private H. Dunham, I, 6th Missouri Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, Decen)ber 9th, 1864. 



62 "WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Corporal S. Eplar, C, 2d Minnesota Cavalry, Fort Ridgely, Minnesota, April 13th, 1804. 

Private J. Ervay, A, lOtli Michigan Volunteers, Knoxville, Tennessee, April ii4th, 1864. 

Private A. C. Ewing, C, 2Sth Kentucky Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, June 15th, 1865. 

Private C. Farnsworth, A, ;5d Ohio Cavalry, New Albany, Indiana, Ajiril 10th, 1864. 

Private .1. Fitzgerald, "^Ist Wiscouf^in Volunteers. Nashville, Tennessee, November 2d, 1864. 

Private M. Flaherty, C, 49th Missouri Volunteers, St. Louis, Missouri, November 17th, 1864. 

let Sergeant A. B. Francisco, F, 124th New York Volunteers, Chester, Pennsylvania, May 30th, 1864. 

Corporal G. Gamble, A, 27th Pennsylvania Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, May 13th, 1864. 

Private P. Gannon, K, 39th Massachusetts Volunteers, Boston, Massachusetts, May 9th, 1864. 

Sergeant ./. A'. Gilchrist, K, 5th Alabama Infantry, Richmond, Virginia, June 4th. 1864. 

Corporal T. Gleason, E, 63d New York Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, September 7th, 1865. 

Private J. G. Gossman, B, 176th Ohio Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, August 2d, 1864. 

Private A. Grant. H, 59th Indiana Volunteers. Tullahoma, Tennessee, September 1st, 1864. 

Private J. B. Griffith, I, 95th Pennsylvixnia Volunteers, Washington, D. C, May 14th, 1864. 

Sergeant C. B. Hadley, B, 56th Massachusetts Volunteers, Boston, Massachusetts, April 21st, 1864, 

Private W. Hatsell, B, 6th Kentucky Regiment, Nashville, Tennessee, September 24th, 1863. 

Private H. Ilenning, E, 8th Iowa Cavalry, in action, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, April 3, 1865. 

Private J. ^^. llceve;/. A, 56th Georgia Infantry, Nashville, Tennessee, February 16th, 1864. 

Private .T. Hickey, D, 23d Marylanil Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, June 25th, 1855. 

Private E. B. Hieronymus, B, 7th Missouri State Militia Cavalry, St. Louis, Missouri, March 30th, 1865. 

Private M. Iliggins, L, 2d Massachusetts Artillery, Portsmouth, Virginia, July Ist, 1865. 

Private F. Howe, G, 6th Vermont Volunteers, .January 6th, 186.5. 

Private J. Hudson, C, 2d United States Infantrj-, Elmira, New York, January 7th, 1865. 

Private .T. .Tenks, F, 51st New York Volunteers, Alexandria, Virgiiii.a, April 2.3d, 1864. 

Private .1. .lames, Unassigned Substitute, Elmira, New York, May 7th, 1865. 

Sergeant \V. A. .Johnson, A, ]5tli Indiana Battery. Wiisliington, D. C, February 17th, 1865. 
Private J. Kanally. K, 35th Indiaiux Volunteers. Louisville, Kentucky, February 2'2d, 1804. Erysipelas. 
Private 1). Kelly, K, 73d I'ennsylvania Volunteers. I'hiladelphia, Peimsylvania, July 8th, 1863. Deserted. 
Private E. A. Knapp, I, 89tli Illinois Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, May 29th, 1864. 
A. Kruse, Contract Nurse, Washington, T>. C, May 1.5th, 1864. 

Corporal T. Langley, E, Iflth United States Colored Troops, Portsmouth, Virginia. May 27th, 1865. 
Private A. J. Little, H, 5th Missouri State Militia Cavalry, RoUa, Missouri, July 4tli, 1864. 
Private J. S. Lockwood, A, 17th Connecticut Volunteers, St. Augustine, Florida, June llth, 1864. 
Private ,1. McAldee, 2d Indiana Battery, Nashville, Tennessee, February 16th, 1865. 
Private B. McCarty, B, 21st Connecticut Volunteers, Portsmouth, Virginia, May 5th, 1865. 
Private JJ. McCarty, B, 40th Missouri Volunteers, St. Louis, Missouri, November 6th, 1864. 
Private C. McDonald, C, 19th Massachusetts Volunteers, in action, Wilderness, Virginia, May 6th, 1864. 
Private N. McEnroe, F, 2d New York Volunteere, Newark, New Jersey, June 6th, 1864. 
Private P. McGevi, B, 10th Tennessee Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, November 6th, 1864. 
Private M. McKenney, I, 1st United States Artillery, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, .July 3, 1863. 
Private C. McMahon, I, 5th Missouri State Militia Cavalry, St. Louis, Missouri, January 1st, 1865. 
Private 1*. Mahon, F, 20th Connecticut Volunteers, Aquia Creek, Virginia, M.ay 4th, 1863. 
Private F. Marrais, 7th Massachusetts Battery, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 18th, 1864. 
Private .J. Marity, G, 1st Michigan Engineers, Louisville, Kentucky, March 15th, 1864. 
Private M. Miller, C, 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery, Bowling Green, Kentucky, October 22d, 1863. 
Private W. Missor, G, 87th Illinois Volunteers, St. Louis, Missouri, December 18th, 1862. Deserted. 
Private S. W. Morgan, G. 1st Indiana Artillery, New Orleans. Louisiana, January 8th, 1864. 
Private W. .J. Mowry, K, llth Illinois Cavalry, Vicksburg, Mississippi, February 24th, 1864. 
Sergeant J. Murphy, D, 2d Maryland Cavalry, Annapolis, Maryland, August 27lli, 1863. 
Private M. Murray, C, 6th New York Heavy Artillery, Washington. D. C, August 16th, 1864. 
Private J. F. Neal, F, 55th Kentucky Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, May 26th, 1865. 
Private T. Newell, D, 6tli Kentucky Cavalry, Louisville, Kentucky, Mardi 18th, 1864. 
Private .J. O. Barker, H, 9ih Uiuted States Colored Troops, Portsmouth, Virginia, May 27th, 1865. 
Private .1. O'Hara, D, 2d Massachusetts Heavy Artilley, Boston, Massachusetts, September 12th, 1865. 
Private W. Palmer, B, 26th Virginia Infantry, June 17th, 1864. 

Sergeant A. M. Parmenter, E, 29th Michigan Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, October llth, 1864. 
W. Parker, Substitute. 16th Kentucky Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, December 9th, 1864. Deserted. 
Orderly Sergeant T. Pepper, United States Army, Covington, Kentucky. June 18th, 1865. 
Private W. H. Perry, K, 6th Illinois Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, July 28th, 1865. 
Private J. M. Pierce, H, 6tli Indiana Volunteers, Chattanooga, Tennessee, November 25th, 1863. 
I'rivate L. E. Porter, H, lti9th New York Volunteers, Baltimore, Maryland, August 23d, 1864. 
Private J. Riley, D, 4th United States Infantry, New York, August 30th, 1865. 
Private J. Ritchey, H, 18th Kentucky Infantry, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, September 26th, 1863. 
• Private M. Rodgers, D, 14th United States Infantry. Elmira, New York, January 7th, 1865. Deserted. 
A. Rosa, Blacksmith, L, 1st Illinois Artillery, Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 29th, 1864. 
Private R. Sci-rter, G. 3Pth Indiana Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, May 19th, 1864. 



FROM UNSPECIFIED CAUSES OTHER THAN GUNSHOT. 53 

Private J. ScribiKT, D, lltli Missouri Cavalry, St. Louis. Missouri, December 28th, 16G4. 

Corporal L. Seiper, E, 4()tli Missouri Volunteer.s, St. Louis, Missouri, November 7th, 18G4. 

Private D. Smallwood, C, 15th United States Colored Troops, Nashville, Tennessee, August 19th, 1865. 

First Lieutenant A. Smith, D, 51st New Yoi-k Volunteers, Alexandria, Virginia, May 18th, 1805. 

Recruit C. Smith, 14tli New York Artillery, Elniira, New York, December 29tli, 186S. 

Private D. Smith, D, 1st Wisconsin Cavalry, Nashville, Tennessee, March 9th, 1864. 

Private H. Smith, A, 68th New York Volunteers, Nashville, Tennessee, December ICth, 1864. 

Private I. Smith, D, 31st Maine Volunteers, Boston, Massachusetts, April 18th, 1864. 

Private .J. Smith, A, 9tli New York Volunteei-s, New York, July 20th, 1863. Deserted. 

Private J. Smith, B, 18th New York Cavalry, Washington, D. C, February 14tli, 1864. Deserted. 

Private J. Smith, C, lUth Tennessee Mounted Infantry, Nashville, Tennessee, May 4tli, 1864. 

Private W. A. Smith, F, 1st Delaware VoUmteera, Wilderness, Virginia, May 5th, 1864. 

Private J. Spencer, A, 179th Ohio Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, October 6th, 1864. 

Private T. Sullivan, F, 52d Illinois Volunteers, Louisville, Kentucky, .June 21st, 1865. 

Corporal J. Suter, E, 7th Veteran Reserve Corps, Louisville, Kentucky, July 19tli, 1864. 

Private J. Sutter, K, 1st Michigan Cavalry, Washington, D. C, March 2d, 1864. 

Private TV. C. Swanson, K, 12th North Carolina Infantry, Rielimond, Virginia. April 28th, 1863. 

Private E. Sweat, F, 93d New York Volunteers, Wilderness, Virginia, May .")th, 1864. 

Private E. Taylor, F, 3d Ohio Cavalry, Nashville, Tennessee, June 8tli, 1864. 

Private 1). fV. Vicks, C, 5()th Georgia Regiment, Richmond, Virginia, June 5th, 1863 

Private W. Visser, G, 82d Illinois Volunteers, Ballesville, Illinois, December 18th, 1862. Deserted. 

Private J. Walcott, I, 50th Ohio Volunteers, Baltimore, Maryland, February 4th, 1865. 

Corpora! P. Walton, I, Ulth Pennsylvania Volunteei-s, Savannah, Georgia, February Ist, 1865. 

Corporal C. Williams, M, 2d Massachusetts Volunteers, Worchester, West Virginia, .January 23d, 1865. 

Private T. Wilson, M, 3d United States Cavalry, Little Rock, Arkansas, February 19th. 1866. 

Private H. Wolf, B, 9th New York Cavalry, Washington, D. C, June 2l)tli. 1865. 

Private G. B. Y'oung, B, 64th United States Colored Troops, Vicksburg, Mississippi, July 31st, 1865. 

The following are examples of graver injuries belonging to the foregoing category: 

Case. — Private Frederick Burling, Co. D, 23d New York Volunteers, aged 21 years, received a severe injury of tlie 
head, at Upton's Hill, Virginia. Deafness and partial paralysis ensued, and he was discharged from service on March let, 1862. 

Case. — Private O. B. Cook, Co. H, 14th Vermont Volunteers, received a severe injury of the head, at Fairfax Court 
House, Virginia, January 4th, 1863, and was discharged for disability, rated at one half, on March 24th, 1863. Surgeon A. T. 
Woodward, 14th Vermont Volunteers, records the case. 

Case. — Private Milton Crowell, Co. B, 84th Illinois Volunteers, received a contused wound of the liead, in May, 1863, 
and was admitted to Gayoso Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, June 1st. Cerebral complications arose, an<l he died on June 5th, 
1863. Surgeon D. W. Hartshorn, U. S. V., records the case. 

Case. — Private Edward Garnett, Co. B, 5th Ohio Volunteers, at Camp Banks, in the spring of 1863. r(>ceived an injury 
of the head, which resulted in impairment of the mental faculties. Complete loss of memory was a remarkable feature of the 
case. The patient was discharged for total disabihty by order of Surgeon R. O. Abbott, IT. S. Army, the Meclical Director of 
the Department of Washington, March 3d, 1863. The case is recorded by Assistant Surgeon J. H. Withers, U. S. V. 

Case. — W. F. Kirkland, a recruit of the 16th New Y'ork Cavalry, agi'd 43 years, received a lacerated wound of the 
scalp in the frontal region. May 4th, 1864, and was admitted to Camden Street Hospital, Baltimore. Erysipelas of the scalp 
supervened, and was followed by meningeal inflammation. The patient died on May 13tli, 1864. Surgeon Z. E. Bliss, U. S. 
v., records the case. 

Case. — Private Thomas Morrissey, Co. A, 2d Vermont Volunteers, aged 26 years, was admitted to Lincohi Hospital, 
Wasliington, April, 1863, under the charge of Surgeon H. Bryant, U. S. Volunteers, on account of a contusion of the head. 
Symptoms of arachnitis were manifested ; but the patient recovered partially, was transferred to a convalescent camp near 
Alexandria, on March 10th. He was discharged from service on March 20th, 1863. His mental faculties were much impaired. 
His disability was rated at two-thirds. Surgeon S. B. Hunt, U. S. V., records the case. 

Case. — Sergeant Richard M. Porter, 37th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 28 years, received a contusion of the scalp, in 
July, 1864. He was admitted into Augur Hospital, and, on August 2d, he was transferred to the 3d Division Hospital, at 
Alexandria, with symptoms of incipient cerebritis. He died, August 28th, 1864. Surgeon E. Beutley, U. S. V., records 
the case. 

Case. — Private Thomas Solomon, Co. F, 2d Louisiana Mounted Infantry, aged .")0 years, received, in camp, near Green- 
ville, Louisiana, .lune 18th. 1864, a confused wound of the scalp. On June 20th, he was transferred to University Hospital, 
New Orleans, and on December 2l8t, 1864, he was transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps. 

The following are abstracts of cases of simple or compound fractures of the skull, 
produced by causes not specified, save that it is stated that they were not inflicted by 
gunshot : 




54 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Case. — Private Robert Bihh, Co. E, 4tli Virginia Regiment, was admitted, March 31st, 1864, into tlie liospital at the 
Old Capitol Prison, Washington, witli a simple fracture of the skull. He died, April 6th, 1866. 

Ca.sk. — Private James Hiirns, Co. B, 39th Massachiisefts Volunteers, aged 57 years, was admitted to Staiit<m Hospital, 
Washington, on Jidy 14tli, 1863, witli a fracture of the cranium. He was transferred to Satterlee Hospital, Pliiladelphia, on 
May 10th, 1864, and returned to duty October 18th, 1864. Surgeon I. I. Hayes, U. S. V., records the case. 

Case. — Private Peter Caliill, Co. C, 79th New York Volunteers, aged 19 years, received an accidental compound fracture 
of the external table of the frontal bone, June 14th, 1865, while serving on the Provost Marshal's Guard. He was admitted to 
Sickel Hospital, Alexandria, on June 14th, and discharged from service well, on July 4th, 1865. Surgeon E. Bentley, U. S. 
v., records the case. 

Case. — Private W. H. Clirist, Co. I, 126th Ohio Volunteers, aged 24 years, was admitted to tlie base hospital, at City 
Point, Virginia, with a lacerated wound of the scalp, and fracture of the skull, April 24th, 1865. He was transferred to 
Patterson Park. Baltimore, May 18th, to Hick's Hospital, convalescent, June 8th, and discharged from service, well, June 17th, 
1865. Surgeon Thomas Sim, U. S. V., records the case. 

Case. — I'rivate I'etcr Clnfat, Co E, 2d Louisiana Regiment, was sent to tlie St James Hospital, New Orleans, on May 
Kith, 1863, by tlie Pi'ovost Marshal, with fracture of the skull. He died on the following day. Assistant Surgeon J. Homans, 
U. S. A., records the case. 

Case.— The body of private John C , Co. K, 2d U. S. Infantry, aged 30 

yeare, was brouglit into hospital, at Fort Columbus. New York Harbor, on January 

21st, 1865. It was found that life was entirely extinct. There was a contu.oed and 

lacerated woiuid, three indues in length, belaud the left ear, and a depressed fracture 

on the left side of the occipital. No clue whatever couhl be obtained as to the nature 

of the weapon by which the Injury was inflicted; nor, indeed, could it be accurately 

determined whether it was due to a blow, or to a fall. At the autopsy, it was found that 

tlie medulla oblongata was torn away ahnost completely from the pons Varolii. There 

was great intracranial extravasation of lilood, and a fracture extending across the 

oeci])itaI and temporal bones to the left side of the foramen magnum. A fi.ssure 

proceeded also througli the riglit condyloid foramen into the mastoid process of the right 

temjioral. Assistant Surgeon P. S. Conner, IJ. S. Army, forwarded to the Army Fir,. 18.— .Seofion of b.i.se of cranium shon-- 

Medical Museum the notes of the case, and a section of the" skull, which is represented ^l^ ^';Z''^'*"'^ fmcUuro.-Spec. 4351, Sect. I, 

in the accompanying wood-cut, (Fiu. 18.) 

Ca.sp:. — Captain J. B. Forcum, Co. H, 4th North Carolina Infantry, received, at Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863, a simple 
fracture of the cranium. He was admitted to Hospital No. 4, at Richmond, Virginia, and recovered, and was furloughed, 
August 3d, 1863. Surgeon .1. B. Read, C. S. A., records the case. 

Case. — Bugler Morris Houlahan, Co. G, 5th U. S. Cavalry, was admitted to the Seminary Hospital, Georgetown, 
December 11th, 1862, with a fracture of the skull, and died the same day. Acting Assistant Sui-geon Laudon Wells, records 
the case. 

Case. — Private John Hines, Co. D, 3d Michigan Volunteers, aged 39 years, received a fracture of the right side of the 
frontal bone, on October 28th, 1864. He was treated at Huntsville, Alabama ; Nashville, Tennessee ; Louisville, Kentucky ; and 
recovered, and was discharged from service, June 9th, 18l>5. Sui-geon ]>. 13. Breed, U. S. V., records the case. 

Case. — Sergeant I{. W. Jones, 1st Virginia Artillery, was admitted to Chimborazo Hospital, Richmond, Virginia, on 
November 17th, 1863, with a fracture of the skull. He recovered, and returned to duty, December 13th, 1863. Surgeon E. S. 
Smith, C. S. A., records the case. 

Case. — Private Michael McNulty, ( ,i. E, 77tli Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 24 years, received a simple fracture of the 
frontal bone, December 10th, 1864, at Nashville, Teimessee. He was transferred to Louisville, thence to Camp Dennison, Ohio, 
and recovered, and was returned to duty, January 7th, 1865. Surgeon J. E. Herbst, U. S. V., records the case. 

Case. — Private Andrew Mader, Co. L, 3d Penn.sylvania Artillery, received a simple fracture of the right parietal, 
December 13th, 1864. The line of fracture passed across tlie nii<Idle meningeal artery, which was ruptured, and gave rise to a 
large e.xtravasation of blood. He was admitted to Balfour Hospital, Portsmouth, Viiginia, with every symptom of compression 
of the brain. He died, December 16th, 1864. An autopsy revealed a large coagulum over the right hemisphere. Assistant 
Burgeon J. H. Frantz, U. S. A., records the case. 

Case. — Private George W. Morey, Co. E, 10th Michigan Volunteers, aged 23 years, received a contused wound on the 
left side of the head, at Tunnel Hill, Georgia, in April. 1864. The existence of fracture was suspected, but not clearly diagnos- 
ticated. The patient was treated at Hospital No. 19, Nashville, Tennessee, at Louisville, Kentucky, and at St. Mary's Hospital, 
Detroit, Jlichigan. He had fre<pieiit epileptic convulsions, and died in one of the paroxysms, May 25, 1864. 

C/^SE. — Sergeant John Miller, Co. I, 2d Illinois Artillery, was admitted to Indianapolis Hospital, in September, 1862, 
with fracture of tlu> skull. He died, September 17tli, 1862. Surgeon J. S. Bobbs, Brigade Surgeon, U. S. V., records the case. 

Case. — I'rivate Daniel W. Nash, C<i. F, 31st Ohio Volunteers, received a simple fracture of the skull, in February, 1863. 
He was admitted to Hospital No. 10. at Louisville, Kentucky, and was discharged from service, February 28th, 1863. Acting 
Assistant Surgeon E. O. Brown, records the ease. 



FRACTURES FROM TJNSPEniFIED CAUSES. 



55 




Case. — Teamster Washington Odell, Co. I, 98th Illinois Volunteers, received an injury of the skull in 1863. He was 
admitted to Camp Pennison Hospital, Ohio, and was discharged fi-om service, on August 12th, 1863. Surgeon H. C. McAllister, 
98th Illinois Volunteers, records the case, 

Ca.sk. — Private Stephen E. Potts, New York Marine Artillery, was admitted to Foster Hospital, Newherne, North 
Carolina, August 23d, 18G2, with a simple fracture of the skull. He recovered, and was discharged from service, Decemher 
13th, 1863. 

Case. — Private Dennis Quinn, Co. F, 11th Veteran Reserve Corps, received, in September, 1864, a simple fracture of the 
frontal hone, with a slight depression. He was admitted to Judiciary Square Hospital, Washington, on September 24th, and 
recovered, and returned to duty on October 8th, 1864. Assistant Surgeon P. C. Davis, U. S. A., records the case. 

Case. — Private William Russell, 26th New York Battery, was admitted to the St. James' Hospital, New Orleans, 
Louisiana, on March 11th, 1863, with a simple fracture of the skull. He recovered, and was discharged from service, on May 
lltli, 1863. Assistant Surgeon John Homans, U. S. A., records the case. 

Case. — Private J. C. R , Pennsylvania Artillery, aged 22 years, was admitted, on September 30th, 1864, to Jarvis 

Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, in an inebriated condition, with a contusion of the 
left side of the face, and a small contused wound over the left malar bone. No history 
of the cause or circumstances attending his accident could be ascertained. Cold 
applications were made to the head, and he was kept quirt in bed. No symptoms of 
grave cerebral mischief appeared until the evening of October 5th, wlien he became 
noisily delirious. He became comatose, and died the following morning. Scctlo ctulu- 
veris twenty-four hours after death. There was ecchymosis on the left side of the 
face; the left ramus of the lower jaw bore traces of an old gunshot fracture. There 
was also a gunshot fracture involving the light shoulder. On removing the scalp, 
dark blood oozed from the ruptured veins, and on removing the sknll-cap and cere- 
brum, a clot of blood of from one and a half to two oimccs was found between the 
frontal bone and dura mater on the left side, adhering to the membrane. It must, 
necessarily, have compressed greatly the anterior lobe of the left hemisphere. There 
was also a clot at the posterior surface of the posterior lobe of the right hemisphere. 
The cerebral substance was softened at this point. There was effusion of serum over 
the pons Varolii and in the third and fourth ventricles. The arachnoid membrane 
was considerably separated from the sulci by effusion into the subaraclinoid cavity. 
The veins of the pia mater were everywhere turgid. The fracture commenced on 
the outer part of tlie left superciliary ridge, and passed across the left orbital plate p,o m.—Fmrtnre of ihi' orbital plate of the 
of the frontal, fissuring the ethmoid, and the body of the sphenoid. The sphenoidal fnmtal, Hie cthm.iid, and si.henoid.— S/)ec. ;M40, 
fissure on the left side was enlarged as though by absorption from without. Acting 
Assistant Surgeon B. B. Miles contributed the specimen, (Fig. 19,) with the notes in the case. 

Case. — Private Frederick Seltzer, 5th U. S. Artillery, was admitted to the Seminary Hospital, Georgetown, D.C., January 
8th, 1862, with a fracture of the skull. He died on January 12th, 1862. Surgeon Joseph R. Smith, U. S. A., records the case. 

Case. — Private J. M. Sharp, Co. F, 45th North Carolina Regiment, received a simple fracture of the zygoma of the right 
temporal, without injury to the cranial cavity. He was admitted to the Farmville Hospital, Virginia, on June 2d, 1864. He 
recovered, and was furloughed on August 9th, 1664. Surgeon H. D. Taliaferro, C. S. A., records the case. 

Case. — Private Adolphus Seymour, Co. F, 1st New York Cavalry, aged 21 years, received a simple fracture of the right 
side of the frontal bone, at New Market, Virginia, May 15th, 1864. He was transferred in June to Frederick, Maryland, and 
in October to Anna)iolis Junction, and thence to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, and finally to Turner's Lane Hospital, whence 
he was discharged on March 16th, 1835, on account of confirmed epilepsy. 

Case. — Private Frederick Stapley, Co. E, 92d Illinois Volunteers, was admitted to Hospital No. 19, Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, on June 4th, 1883, on account of a simple fracture of the skull, according to the hospital register. If the diagnosis was 
correct, the case was unusually successful, since the patient returned to duty on June 18tli, 1863. Surgeon John W. Foye, U. 
S. v., records the case. 

Case. — Private Frank Treber, Co. D, 10th Tennessee Volunteers, aged 38 years, was admitted to Hospital No. 19, Nash- 
ville, Teimessee, on March 21st, 1865, with a simple depressed fracture of the os frontU. He was transferred to Cumberland 
Hospital on April 20th, and returned to duty, well, on April 2t)th, 1865. Surgeon B. Cloak, U. S. V., records the case. 

Removal of Fragments. — In the following cases of fracture of the skull, from falls 
or blows, depressed fragments of bone were removed by the forceps, saw, or elevator : 

Case. — Seaman Henry Black, of the United States Transport S. R. Spalding, fell from the spar deck into the hold, on 
June 20th, 1863, a distance of twenty-four feet, striking on the vertex of the skidl. A large scalp wound, fiiur inches in length 
with fracture of both tables of the skull, witli depression, having a diameter of two inches, was jiroduccd. On his admission to 
the military hos]iital at Beaufort, North Carolina, the man was pale, his pulse imiierceptible, aiul he lay groaning occasionally, 
his lower limbs moving spasmodically. The trephine was applied, but the depiesscd portion of bone could not be raised by the 
elevator. A portion of the fractured skull was then removed by Hey's saw; after which, the remaining portion was raised to 
jts normal position by the elevator, and the periosteum, which had been carefully preserved, was brought back over the solution 



56 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

of continuity of the bone. Tlie wound was then dressed with cold water. The after treatment was of stimulant and tonic 
description, with careful atTention to the bowels, and occasional opiates. At the date of the report, fifteen days after the 
operation, the patient was walking about the ward. The wound of the scalj) was united and the small portion over the trephined 
part was healing by granulation. The case appears on the monthly report of Beaufort Hospital, North Carolina, signed by 
Surgeon F. S. Ainsworth, U. S. V. 

Case. — Private Edward Connore, Co. A, 9th Illinois Cavalry, aged 22 years, received in a street fight, March 22d, 1864, 
a blow from a stone, whicli struck the left side of the forehead. He was admitted into the Lawson Hospital at St. Louis, 
Missouri, on the same day. There was an external wound three inches in length, a depressed fracture involving both tables of 
the skull. Several small spiculte of bone were removed, and the depression of the inner table was raised by an elevator. A 
piece of the broken outer table was missing, having, apparently, been torn off at the time of the injury. A saline purgative 
was administered and low diet was prescribed, with cold water applications to his bead. His general condition at this thne was 
good; the pulse was natural, the pupils were sensible to light and normal in movement, and his intellect was perfectly clear. 
He continued thus until the night of the 23d, when symptoms of concussion and compression of the brain were manifested: the 
symptoms of compression, perhaps, predominating. On the following day, there was evidently compression, as indicated by 
the stertorous breathing and insensibility, dilated pupils and slow pulse. Death took place at midnight on March 24tli, 1864. 
An autopsy was made on the following day. The external table of the frontal bone showed the loss of a fragment of the size 
of a quarter of a dollar. A fissure extended backwards an inch and a half into the left parietal. There was a stellate fracture 
of the inner table, but no depression. At the seat of injury there was no extravasation of blood. The brain substance around 
this point was softened, but to an inconsiderable degree. The specimen was preserved, hut was not forwarded to the Army 
Medical Museum. The case was reported by Surgeon C. T. Alexander, U. S. A., in charge of Lawson Hospital. 

Ca.se. — Private Miles P. Hatch, Co. H, 161st New York Volunteers, aged 22 years, was admitted, on January 12th, 1865, 
to St. Louis Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana, with twenty other wounded men, injured on the occasion of the collision between 
the United States transport J. H. Dickey, ami .John Rain, on tlie Missi><sip])i River, fifteen miles below Vicksburg, on Janu.ary 
9tli, 180."). Private Hatch was found to be still laboring under the efi'ects of concussion of the brain. He had received. a 
violent blow, causing a wound of the scalp and fracture of the skull. Symptoms of injury to the brain persisting, the wound 
in the scalp was enlarged, and tlie fracture wa.s exjxised, and a fiagnu'nt of depressed bone was removed. The case terminated 
fatally on January IJtli, 1865. This imperfect account is derived from the monthly report of the 161st New York Volunteers, 
for January, 1865, and from the hospital register, signed by Surgeon A. McMahon, U. S. V. 

C'A.SE. — Private Jonathan Leet, Co. M, 22d Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 18 years, received, on April 4th, 1865, a com- 
minuted fracture of the cranium, by a blow from a glass bottle. He was admitted to hospital, at Cumberland, Maryland, 
on May 14th, from his regiment. Fragments of bone were removed on the following day. He was discharged from service on 
August 15th, 1865. Surgeon J. B. Lewis, U. S. V., Records the case. 

Case. — Private Conrad Murphy, Co. E, 17th Kentucky Volunteers, was confined for misconduct in the guard-house, on 
February loth, 1863. He was insubordinate, and the sentinel struck him on the head with the butt of a musket, with such 
violence as to fracture the frontal bone. Murphy was taken to the Post Hospital, at Clarksville, Tennessee, under the charge 
of Surgeon A. B. Patterson, 102d Ohio Volunteers. Stertorous breathing, dilated pupils, oppressed pulse, and stupor, indicated 
compression of the brain. An incision was made at the seat of injury, and the depressed bone was elevated, and detached 
spiculiE were removed, but the grave symptoms were not modified, and death took place on February 18th, 1863. At the 
autopsy, made by Assistant Surgeon S. Hubbard, 17th Kentucky Volunteers, it was fouml that there had been an extensive 
extravasation of blood upon the brain. 

Case. — Private , 149th New York Volunteers, received at Stevenson, Alabama, January 29th, 1864, a heavy blow 

from a glass bottle, in a private quarrel, in the camp of the Second Division, Twentieth Army Corps. He was taken to the 
regimental hospital, and Surgeon J. V. Kendall. 149th New York Vohmteers, ascertained that there was a fracture of the 
frontal bone over the right frontal sinus, with depression of the vitreous table. The patient had repeated convulsions and in 

the intervals was partially comatose. Surgeon Kendall extended the wound in the 
integument so as to freely expose the bone, and removed four fragments of bone, and 
also raised a depressed portion of the inner plate, which was not detached. The scalp 
was then brought together by sutures, and cold water dressings were applied. The 
patient was reported as doing well in February, the symptoms of compression being 

Fio. 20. Four frnirments removed from the entirely relieved, hut it has been impracticable to learn the ultimate result of the case. 

ripht side of the frontal bone, fmotiirpd by a Xbe fragments of hone removed are represented in the adjoining wood-cut, (Fig. 20,) 

blow from a lK)ttle : natural size. Spec. 2210, ^ • -, i ir- • i i • i ii 

Sect. I, A. M. M. and coinpri.se about half a square mch oi the inner table, and a somewhat larger portion 

of the external table. 

Case. — Private Charles V. Orton, Co. L, 1st Tennessee Cavalry, in an engagement at Shoal Creek, Alabama, October 
19th, 1864, received a wound in the neck from a musket ball, which lodged under the sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle, and also a 
blow, apparently from the butt of a musket, or stone, which produced a compound fracture of the frontal bone. The regimental 
sifrgeon. Dr. VV. F. Green, reports that several fragments of bone were removed from the forehead, and the signs of compression 
of the brain being therebv relieved, the patient was sent, by way of Pulaski, to N.ishville, Tennessee, and was admitted to 
Hospital No. 14. on November 23d. He was subsequently sent to the West End Hospital, at Cincinnati, Ohio, and was 
discharged from service, on May 2d, 1865, for disability rated at three-fourths. He was allowed a pension of six dollars per 
month from this date, and Commissioner H. Van Aemam states that he drew his pension on March 4th, 1869; but that the 
particulars of his condition at that time were not reported. 




REMOVAL OF FRAGMENTS AND TREPHINING. 



57 




Fifi, 21. — Segment of ripht 
parietal, sbowinff a fracture 
from a blow from a spade. — 
Spec. 712, Sect. I, A. M. M. 



Cask. — At Antietain, Maryland, September 17th, 1862, a soldier, employed in entrenching, 
struck anotlier, on the left side of his head, with the edge of a spade. The wounded man fell, 
badly stunned, and, on examination, it was founil that the blow had produced a depressed frac- 
ture of the left parietal bone. The patient was conveyed to the Smoketown Hospital, and was 
placed under tlje care of Surgeon B. A. Vanderkieft, U. S. V. He breathed with stertor, and had a slow 
pulse, dilated pupils, and the other signs of compression of the brain. The scalp was shaved, and an 
incision was made, through which a number of fragments of detached bone were removed. The 
jiatient lingered, in a state of stupor, until November 8tli, 1862. The particulai-s of the case are 
not recorded in the register or in the reports from Smoketown Hospital; but the only death in 
tlie hospital from fracture of the cranium, at the date referred to, is that of Sergeant Arthur F. 
Hascall, Co. C, 61st New York Volunteers. The fracture extends downwards from the sagittal 
suture three inches, and it is an inch wide at its lowest part. A few fragments are adiierent 
to the inner table, and the edges of the orifice are carious. The specimen is represented in the 
adjoining wood-cut, (Fig. 21.) The contour of the aperture in the bone represents, with exactness, 
the outline of the edge of the spade. The specimen was forwarded to the Army Medical Museum 
by Surgeon Vanderkieft, by Hospital Steward A. Scbafhirt, U. S. A. The latter states that a 
detailed history accompanied the specimen. A careful search has failed to discover tliis paper, and 
the registers of the Museum contain no indication of its reception. 

Trephining. — The following eighteen abstracts of cases of fracture of the skull 
from various causes, other than gunshot injury, refer to instances in which the trephine 
was formally applied : 

Case. — Private Joseph Bums, Co. C, 4th Kentucky Cavalry, aged 23 years, was struck on the head at 8 o'clock P. M., 
February 22d, 1864, by a slung shot, which produced a fracture of the skull, extending from the vertex to the left orbit, through 
the parietal, frontal, and the great wing of the sphenoid. The patient was taken to Clay Hospital, at Louisville, Kentucky, on 
the evening of the accident, with symptoms of grave compression of the brain. During the night be had frequent convulsions. 
Early the following morning. Acting Assistant Surgeon John E. Crowe applied the trephine, and elevated the depressed bone. 
The patient had previously been comatose or convulsed every five or ten minutes; but in ten minutes after the operation he 
became conscious, and spoke rationally, stating the circumstances attending his injury and his military history. In a few hours, 
however, the convulsive paroxysms returned, and continued during the night. The patient died on the succeeding day, 
February 24th, 1864. Surgeon Alexander T, Watson, U. S. V., records the case. 

Case. — Private Patrick H. Green, Co. H, 125th New York Volunteers, while on furlough, received a blow on the lefl 
side of the head from a slung shot, on the night of May 23d, 1863. He was treated by a private physician until June 3d, when 
he was admitted into the Ladies' Home Hospital, New York City. Twenty-four hours after his admission he had a spasm of 
the right side of the body, and, upon examination, there was found to be a depressed fracture of the skull. The scalp was laid 
open by an incision, and trepldning was performed, and the depressed portions of bone were removed. The scalp wound was 
united by sutures, and a compress of cloths wet with tepid water were applied. Rest and quiet were enjoined. The convulsions 
ceased after the operation, and the wound discharged freely. The patient progressed favorably, and was discharged from service 
on September 21st, 1863, for hemiplegia. Acting Assistant Surgeon John W. Robie reports the case. 

Case. — Private Charles H , Co. G, 61st Ohio Volunteers, aged 37 years, was found lying in the street, at Alex- 
andria, Virginia, on September 27th, 1863, in a comatose condition, with a wound on the right side of his head. He ■was 
conveyed to the New Hallowell branch of the 3d Division General Hospital, by 
the provost guard. On admission his breathing was stertorous, laborious, 
slow ; his pulse was at 48, full and regular. There was a punctured wound 
over the lower portion of the right parietal, and an examination by the probe 

showed that the bone was fractured and de))ressed. A crucial incision was J0^' /^ ^*<^r**~^|?f ~.' \ 

made through the scalp, and the cranium being freely exposed, it was found ^^''■' iS \ „ '^ -v \ 

that the fracture was much more extensive than had been supposed. A disk mS^'k ''^\ fcfe''> .- ",- \ 

of bone was removed by the trephine, and several detached pieces were 
removed by the elevator, so that, altogether, a portion four inches in length 
by two inches in width of the skull-cap w^as taken away. The flaps of the 
integument were then brought together, and were united by sutures. Cold 
wafer dressings were applied. The immediate effects of the operation were 

very remarkable. In less than three minutes after the removal of the de- Fio. 22. — Section of craninm with great loss of sub- 
irt ^^1 ^-x ji- J J.. 1. stance from the removal of depressed fraffraents. — Spec 

pressed fragments, the patient opened his eyes, and appeared to awake to 3^73. s^ot. I A. M. M. 

consciousness, and in less than a minute more he spoke, articulating dis- 
tinctly. . For the first week after the operation his diet was restricted to barley water. On October 4th, seven days after the 
operation, he was reported to have had no bad symptom and he complained of nothing but hunger. The «utures h.ad been 
removed, and the greater portion of the incision had united by first intention. He was now allowed the "extra diet" of the 
hospital, consisting of oyster broth, rice pudding, and the like. On October 20th, the patient was up and about the ward. No 
untoward symptoms had intervened meanwhile, and the treatment had been unchanged. At this date the patient was put on 
" half diet," and the nearly cicatrized wound was dressed with simple cerate. He continued to do well until November 26th 
when he was visited by his brother, who brought him some bad news from home which disturbed him very much, and he 
immediately went to bed and became stupid and sullen, taking no notice of anything. Is it not possible that his brother brought 

8 




58 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



liim some stimulant as well ? On October i!7tli the patient liad become comatose, with every sign of compression of the 
brain, and on October 28th, 18G3, he died. At the autopsy, twenty hours after death, there was found to be an abscess in 
the right liemisphere and tlie neighboring brain substance was softened. The tlioracic and abdominal viscera were healthy. 
The edges of the aperture were found to be rounded off and in process of repair. The notes from which tlie abstract is 
compiled were made by Acting Assistant Surgeon S. B. Ward, and the specimen was forwarded to the Army Medical Museum 
by Surgeon E. Bentle^', U. S. V. It is represented in tlie wood-cut (Fig. 22) on tlie preceding ))age. 

Case. — Private John T. Jenlins, 5th Alabama Regiment, was received into a regimental hospital at Union Mills, 
Fluvanna county, Virginia, in October, 1861, suffering from compression of the brain, produced by a blow. The skull was 
extensively fractured. Trepliining was unsuccessfully performed. The patient died on October 26th, 18G1. The case is noted 
on a monthly report of sick and wounded signed by Surgeon A. Venable, C. S. A., and no further particulars can be obtained. 

C.tSE. — Private William H. Lowery, Co. C, fith Tennessee Cavalry, aged 22 years, was wounded in an affray at Mem- 
phis, Tennessee, October 3d, 18G4, receiving a punctured fracture of the right parietal bone, near its superior posterior angle, 
produced by a blow of a musket, the liammer passing tlirough both taldes of the cranium. He remained in tlie regimental lios- 
pital until October l!3th, wlien he entered Gayoso Hospital. He was somewhat drowsy and stupid, but no other symptoms of 
compression existed. On the following day he was put under the influence of chloroform, and Acting Assistant Surgeon Julius 
Brey trephined the skull and removed a circiihir portion of the outer table and three depressed fragments of the inner table. 
Tlie tip of the little finger could be introduced through the opening made in the skull, and it appeared that there was no injury 
to the dura mater. Cold water dressings were applied to the wound. The patient was restless for several days, and slightly 
delirious at night. Symptoms of cerebral disturbance were tliouglit to be favorably modified by the use of the extract of Can- 
nabis Indica. On October 18th, an intercurrent attack of pneumonia supervened. On November 3d, there were signs of cerebral 
hei'Tiia. Protrusion of the cerebral sulistance progressed so rapidly, that on November 6tli it was deemed expedient to compress 
the fungous mass by a bladder of ice. On Novem'.ier 7th, paralysis of tlie left arm was observed. On tlie IGth, the cerebral 
hernia was still further compressed by a metallic disk. Coma supervened, and the patient died, November 17tli, 18C4. Surgeon 
F. N. Burke, U. S. V., furnished the notes of the case. 

Ca.se. — Private E. Miller, Co. G. Cth Virginia Cavalry, aged 17 years, was wounded, in a railroad collision on the Ohio 
and Mississippi Railroad, near Carlisle, Illinois, June 21st, 1865. He was taken to Illiiioistown, under the care of his 
regimental surgeon, Dr. A. II. Thayer, and was thence sent to the Marine Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, where a depressed 
fracture of the cranium was diagnosticated. Assistant Surgeon E. M. Horton, U. S. AiTny, decided that the symptoms of 
compression of the brain demanded an operation, and applied the trephine, and removed several fragments of bone; but the 
symptoms were not relieved, and tlie case terminated fatally in the night of June 23d, 1865. Surgeon T. F. Azpell, U. S. V., 
reports the case. 

Case. — Private Sumner H. Needhani, Co. I, 6tli Massachusetts Militia, on April 19th, 1861, during the attack upon his 
regiment, by riotous insurgents in Baltimore, Maryland, was struck on the forehead by a brick, which fractured the frontal 
bone. He was conveyed to the Baltimore Univei'sity, where his wound was examined by Dr. William A. Hammond, who 
lound symptoms of compression of the brain demanding the application of the trepliine. The operation was immediately 
performed by Dr. Hammond, but the symptoms were not relieved, and the patient died in a few hours, April 19tli, 1861. Mr. 
Needham, a resident of Lawrence, Massachusetts, was one of the earliest victims of the rebellion.* 

Case. — A negro, whose name was unknown, was brought into the E Street Infirmary, Washington, D. C, with well 
marked symptoms of compression of the brain, in the latter part of February, 1864. He was examined by Assistant Surgeon 
J. W. S. Gouley, U. S. A., who found a wound over the right parietal pro- 
tuberance, caused apparently by a blow from the head of an axe. The scalp 
was shaved, and it was found that there was a depressed fracture of both tables 
of the skull, witli detachment of a large fragment. It was not practicable to 
insert the elevator to raise the depressed fragment; to allow this to be done, a 
disk of bone was removed by the trephine. A triangular fragment, measuring 
an inch by one and a quarter inches, was then removed and the flaps of the 
scalp were approximated. The symptoms of compression were relieved, and 
the patient was doing well three d.ays subsequently, when the specimen, rep- 
resented in the adjacent wood-cut, (FiR. 23), was forwarded to the Army 
Medical Museum. The facts above noted are taken from a minute, made upon 

the reception of the specimen, by Surgeon John H. Brinton, U. 8. V. It has p„, on^uisk nnd fragment of bone removed for 
been impracticable to learn the ultimate result of the case ; but a letter from depressed fracture from a hlo-x.—Sptc. 2081, Sect. I, 
the late Assistant Surgeon T. G. Mafkenzie, U. S. A., dated March 25th, 1864, 

states that the man was doing well at that date, though his left arm was paralyzed. Dr. Mackenzie refers to an escape of brain 
substance at the time of the injury; and Dr. Gouley, in forwarding this letter, states that at least half an ounce of brain matter 
was lost, and comments on tlie singular good fortune o£ tlie patient in recovering without the supervention of cerebral hernia, 
and without loss or apparent impairment of the mental faculties. 

Case. — A. B. Parish, Quartermaster's Department, received a lacerated wound of the frontal region, with fracture and 
depression of tlie frontal bone, by a kick from a horse, near Natchez, Mississippi, September 13th, 1864. He was admitted to 
the hospital, at Natchez, on the same day, in a semi-comato.se condition. Soon after his admission, Acting Assistant Surgeon 
James S. King, administered chloroform, and trepliiued the skull, and raised the depressed portion of bone with the elevator. 
The patient soon reacted. Tonics, stimulants, and low diet, were ordered. The patient gradually improved, and was discharged 
from the hospital, entirely cured, on October 13, 1865. 





* Record of the Massachusetts Volunteers, 
Boston, 1868, pp. 7i>3. Vol. I, p. 34. 



1861-1865. Published by the Adjutant General, under a Resolve ofthe General Court. Quarto. 



\ 



TREPHINING. 59 

Case. — Private P , 14tli Tennessee Confederate Infantry, aged 25 j-earB, small in stature, biit muscular, received, 

in a quarrel, a woimd on the anterior portion of the parietal bone, from a stone held in the clenched fis^t of his adversary. He 
was stunned by tlie blow. Fearing punishment, he did not report at sick call for several days, when he was compelled to do so 
because of the supervention of erysipelas. He was soon relieved of this complication; hut in a few weeks, became subject to 
epileptic paroxysms, which recurred every four or five days. He was discharged for disability, and went to his liome, at 
Springfield, Tennessee. Convulsions recurred with such frequency and vioU'nce that he went to Nashville in May, 1862, to be 
treated by Dr. W. T. Briggs, of the medical school in that city. His general health was poor, the countenance pale, the bowels 
torpid, the pulse quick and irritable. A depression of the skull corresponded with the cicatrix of the original wound. There 
was no pain about the cicatrix ; but a sense of pressure on the whole side of the head. After ten days of preparatory treat- 
ment. Dr. Briggs, assisted by Drs. Bowling and Buchanan, removed a disk of bone with the crown of a very large trephine. 
The inner surface of the disk presented a sharp angle at the union of the edges of the depressed inner table. S])ecial 
instructions were given that the patient should rest quietly in bed, but he disregarded these instructions, yet the wound healed 
in ten dajs, and there was no recurrence of the convulsions. He reentered the Confederate service, as a so-called "Partizan 
Ranger," and was captured and sentenced to be hung, but escaped before the sentence was executed; aiul. under these exciting 
circumstances had no return of epilepsy. The abstract of the case is compiled fiom a report by the operator.* 

Case. — Private James Rogers, Battery L, 4th Ohio Artillery, was struck on the head by a stone on May 3d, 1865, 
receiving a depressed tracttire of the skull. He was admitted to tlie hospital at New Creek, Virginia, on M.ay 7th, in a coma'ose 
state. He remained in tliis condition until May 9th, when he was placed under the influence of ether, and Assistant Surgeon 
S. M. Finley, 22d Pennsylvania Cavalry, applied the trephine and elevated the depressed bone. The patient reacted well, and 
simple dressings were applied. Krysipelas supervened, but was successfully combatted by chloride of iron. The patient 
improved rapidly, the wound was cicatrized, and he returned to duty, well, on June 29th, 1865. 

Case. — Private John R , Co. H, 2d Michigan Volunteers, aged 41 years, was wounded on July 17th, 1865, in a 

street affray, receiving four wounds of the head from stones thrown at him. He was admitted ti) Armory ."Square H<is))it:il. Wash- 
ington, D. C, on the following day. He w.as perfectly conscious, yet had marked contraction of tlie |)uiiils, with accelerated 
pulse, and a tremulous voice. There was considerable ecchymosis about the orbits. The first wound examined was over the 
frontal eminence, and penetrated no further than the aponeurosis of the occipito-frontalis nuisde. The second was in the centre 
of the coronal suture, and slightly denuded the pericranium. Tlie third was in the right temporal region, and likewise was a 
scalp wound. The fourth was on the right parietal eminence ; and, upon a close examination, it was discovered that a minute 
depression of the bone, half an inch in diameter, existed, evidently produced by a blow from the sharp edge of the stone. The 
patient was a stout, muscular man, in good health ; he suffered no nausea, and little pain. He was immediately placed under 
the influence of ether, and Surgeon D. W. Bliss, U. S. V., after shaving the scalp, made a crucial incision three inches in 
length, having the wound at the intersection of the incisions, and then, reflecting the flaps, applied the crown of a trephine and 
removed a disk of bone, which was found to include, with remarkable exactness, a depressed fragment of the vitreous plate. 
Between the diploe and depressed lamina there was a coagulum. The dura mater was uninjured The wound was partly 
closed by four sutures, an opening being left over the perforation, into which a 
pledget of charpie was inserted. The patient recovered favorably from the anes- 
thetic, and was put to bed and ordered to observe perfect quiet and strict diet. 
The case proceeded without an unfavorable symptom. On July 23d, the sutures 
were removed. On July 24th, the compress of charpie was taken away, and a 
healthy granulating surface appeared beneath. These facts in regard to the case 

were reported by Assistant Surgeon Charles A. Leale, U. S. V. The patholoei- •- „, „ . , ■ • . , • , i .. , 
r J 6 ' r b Flo. 24. — External .ind internal views of a button of 

cal specimen was presented to the Army Medical Museum by the operator, and bone removed fi>r a depressed fracture by a blow from 
is represented in Photograph No. 87 of the Surgical Section of the Army Medical " ° '°'~ ^"^' •'~< '^ ■ ' 
Museum, and in the accompanying wood-cut, (FiG. 24.) The disk is seven-eighths of an inch in diameter, and is slightly 
reduced in the illustration. On August 24th, 1855, the patient was transferred to Harper Hospital at Detroit, Michigan. The 
case continued to progress favorably, and the man recovered without a bad symptom. He was discharged from service on 
September 8th, 1865. 

Case. — Private James C. Shedd, Co. D, 11th New York Cavalry, aged 19 years, was thrown from his horse to the 
pavement, while riding through the streets of New Orleans, Louisiana, April 10th, 1864, There was a compound comminuted 
fracture of the cranium, confined princijially to the external table, which was depressed about an inch and a half in length and 
half an inch in depth. He was conveyed to the University Hospital, being in a stupid condition, in consequence of the concussioti 
and the influence of liquor; but, at times, he was restless, and could be aroused for brief periods only by determined efforts. 
Shortly after admission he was placed under the influence of chloroform. Surgeon Samuel Kneeland, U. S. V., then enlarged 
the wound of the scalp, which was found much torn and bruised, and trephined the skull at the anterior portion of the right 
parietal region, removing several pieces of bone and elevating others. Cold wiiter was applied to the wound, rest and quiet 
enjoined, and light diet ordered. The case progressed favorably, with very little cerebral disturbance, and on the 10th of June, 
1864, the patient was disch.arged from the service, as a long time would be necessary for the exfoliation of the bone, extensively 
denuded of periosteum. His general health and strength were excellent. 

Case. — .Tesse Smith, Freedman, aged 18 years, employed as a cattle driver, rolled off, in his sleep, from the hay in a 
stable loft, and fell, some twelve feet, to the floor, striking his head. He was found in the morning, cold and insensible, lying 
on the stable floor, near the horses. Under the use of frictions, hot drinks, and other restoratives he revived, and was carried 
to the Freedmen's Hospital, at Alexandria, Virginia. Acting Assistant Surgeon Robert N. Atwood, found a wound of the scalp 
of a crucial form over the right parietal eminence, and a depressed fracture of the bone ; but, as the general condition of the 

* The Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surj^ery, New Series, 1866, Vol. I, p. 3.5. 





60 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 




KiG. 25. — Disk nnd depressed 
frag^inent of bone from right 
parietal. — Spec. 4817, Sect. I, A. 
M. M. 



patient was comfortable, sensibiUty being restored, and the mental faculties being apparently normal, Dr. Atwood decided to 
await further developments. No decidedly bad cerebral symptoms appeared for twelve days after the injury, when the patient 
complained of increased headache, and a few hours subsequently had a severe convulsion. On the following day, the patient 
was much the same as usual, except that his headache was increased. Dr. Atwood, in consultation with Acting Assistant 
Surgeon A. W. K. Andrews, decided to operate, and ether having been administered, enlarged the original wound and applied 
the trephine, and removed a button of bone to which the greater portion of the depressed fragments were iniited by the inner 
table. On removing the bone, pus gushed out copiously. At the upper posterior part of the perforation the inner table wa» 
detached three-fourths of an inch more than the outer. This fragment was, with some difficulty^ 
removed by strong forceps. An hour afterwards, the patient having recovered from the ether, 
was highly excited, restless, and complained of intolerable pain. He was ordered a grain of 
sulphate of morphia, and in two hours slept comfortably. For ten days subsequently, the morphia 
was continued, being given to the extent of two or three grains daily. His diet, at this time, was 
bread and milk, in small quantities, acidulated with vinegar, which he craved earnestly. He also 
had vinegar and water to diink. In three days after the operation the brain commenced to 
to protrude through the opening in the skull, and by the tenth day had attained the size and shape 
of half of a hen's egg. Dr. Atwood decided to try, by gentle compression, to reduce the protru- 
sion, and applied a compress and retentive bandage with this view; but immediately violent 
convulsions occurred; and, although the compress was in.stantly removed, violent convulsive paroxysms recurred during the 
night, not less than fifteen or twenty times. The next day the patient was hovering between life and death, but he gradually 
rallied, and strange to say, after the subsidence of the convulsions lie had no more pain in his head. His bowels had been 
regular throughout his illness, and he had taken no medicine except the morphia, which was discontinued as soon as the pain 
iu the head ceased. Convalescence proceeded rapidly; the protrusion subsided; a firm and dense cicatrix covered the 
aperture in the skull; and the patient recovered without any impairment of his mental faculties or motor powers. Several 
months after his recovery he was brought to the Army Medical Museum to be photographed. Tlie picture is numbered 185 in 
the Surgical Series. The boy was then in perfectly good healtli, and his faculties were unimpaired. The specimen of the disk 
and depressed fragment of the parietal was presented to the Museum by Dr. Atwood, and is figured in the accompanying wood 
cut, (Fig. 2j.) 

Case. — Private W. H. South, Co. H, 168th Pennsylvania Volunteers, while quartered in a house, at Washington, North 
Carolina, fell down stairs, May 13th, 1863, and struck upon the left side of his head. The medical officer of the garrison, 
Assistant Surgeon P. E. Hubon, 27th Massachusetts Volunteers, was summoned, and found that there was a stellated fracture 
of the cranium, one fissure running over the occipital bone, another fissure through the petrous portion of the left temporal, and 
a third extending to the left orbit. At tlie point of impact the left parietal was much depressed. The patient was unconscious, 
and stertorous breathing, dilated pupils, and other evidences of compression of the brain existed. Dr. Hubon applied the 
trephine and elevated the depressed bone. The patient did not regain consciousness, and died thirty-nine hours after the 
accident, May 15th, 1863. The case appears on the monthly report of the Post Hospital, Washington, North Carolina, for 
May, 1863. 

Case. — Private Charles E. Towns, Co. I, 9th New Hampshire Volunteers, was thrown from his horse, and falling upon 
his head, received a fracture of the cranium. He was treated in the regimental hospital until February 1st, 1865, when he was 
admitted to the hospital of the Second Division of the Ninth Anny Corps. The accident is not recorded on the regimental 
reports, and it is impracticable to ascertain its date. Such facts as are known are derived from the report of the Corps Hospital. 
On the patient's admission it was decided that compression of the brain with depressed bone existed ; and the operation of 
trephining was performed by Surgeon L. W. Bliss, 1st New York Volunteers. The date and other particulars are wanting. 
The patient died, February 20tli, 1865. "The case was reported by Surgeon F. N. Gibson, 9th New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Case. — Private Charles Williams, Co. B, 161st New York Volunteers, was admitted into St. Louis Hospital, New 
Orleans, Louisiana, January 12th, 1865, with an extensive fracture of the cranium and compression of the brain, caused by a 
blow received in a steamboat collision, January 9th, 1865, between the U. S. Transport J. H. Dickey and the Transport John 
Rain, on the Mississippi River, fifteen miles below Vicksburg. The trephine was applied and a portion of depressed bone was 
elevated, and another portion was removed. The patient died on January 18th, 1865. Surgeon A. McMahon, U. S. V., 
records the case on his monthly report without particulars of the operation or after treatment. 

Case. — Private Charles V , Signal Corps, received, on February 24th, 1862, at Georgetown, D. C, a kick from a 

horse; the sharp cork of the shoe penetrating the cranium at the anterior inferior angle of the parietal bone, driving fragments 
of the internal table inward, penetrating the dura mater and rupturing the middle 
meningeal artery. He was seen by Acting Assistant Surgeon John 8. Billings, 
six hours after the reception of the injury. He was comatose, and presented the 
usual signs of compression of the brain from depressed fracture. Dr. Billings 
applied the trephine and removed the depressed fragments, and also about two 
ounces of coagulated blood. The patient immediately came to his senses, and 
did well for four d.ays, when symptoms of cerebro-meningitis set in. The patient 
was then transferred to the Union Hotel Hospital. Active treatment was unavail- 
ing, and death followed in two days, or on March 2d, 1862. The autopsy showed 
effusion of lymph over the whole of the right hemisphere of the cerebrum. A 
portion of the cranium, showing the extent of bone removed, was contributed, 

with a memorandum of the case, to the Army Medical Museum by Dr. Billings. Fio. 26. — .Section of the cranium trephined for 
It is represented in the adjacent wood cut, (FiG. 26. ) mS,''sI^,.Ta" M. m" ""' ''"^ '^ * l«M:«._,Si«. 




ANALYTICAL REVIEW. 01 

Five tundred and eight cases of injuries of the head, resulting from railroad accidents, 
falls, blows, or analogous causes, have been enumerated in the foregoing pages of thia 
Section. They comprise nearly all of the cases of this nature reported by name during 
the war; all, in fact, in which the nature and seat of the injury could be satisfactorily 
verified. A large proportion pertain to the two latter years of the war, when the system 
of reporting had been perfected. A few cases, about eighteen altogether, have been 
gleaned from the Confederate records. Of the whole number of five hundred and eight 
cases, three hundred and thirty-one were contusions or lacerations of the integuments, 
without serious primary or secondary injury to the skull or its contents; seventy-two were 
examples of injury of the head affecting the brain, but without fracture of the skull; and 
one hundred and five were instances of fracture of the skull. In the first class, all of the 
patients recovered, though there were many instances of troublesome complications from 
hsemorrhage, abscesses under the scalp, erysipelas, and sloughing. In the second class, 
the percentage of complete recovery was small, as fourteen of the cases terminated fatally, 
and fifty-three patients were discharged for disability. In the third class, the mortality 
was large, fifty-seven of the one hundred and five patients having died. 

Of the five hundred and eight cases, seventy resulted from railroad accidents, seventy- 
eight from falls, two hundred and six from blows, and one hundred and fifty-four from 
unspecified causes other than gunshot, the sabre, or the bayonet. 

Analyzing the seventy cases of injuries by railway accidents, it is found that forty- 
nine were contusions and lacerations of the integuments, attended, in some instances, with 
the temporary effects of concussion, or by erysipelas, sloughing, or burrowing of pus. 
Thirty-five of these forty-nine men were returned to duty, and fourteen were discharged 
for disability. Eleven were cases of severe concussion, or contusion, or laceration of the 
brain, and of these patients, two were returned to duty, one was furloughed and not heard 
from afterwards, one was discharged as permanently blind, one died from pulmonary com- 
plications, and six died from the effects of the accident. Ten were cases of fracture of 
the skull, and, of these patients, one was returned to duty, one was transferred to the 
Veteran Reserve Corps, one was discharged, and seven, including one who had been 
unsuccessfully trephined, died. In short, of the seventy patients reported with injuries of 
the head from railroad accidents, thirty-nine went to duty, seventeen were discharged,* 
and fourteen died. 

Of the seventy-eight cases of injuries of the head from falls, forty-three were exam- 
ples of contusions or of contused or lacerated wounds, followed ultimately by recovery. 
Seventeen were attended by grave concussion of the brain, or other serious complications, 
and of these seventeen patients, three were returned to duty, nine were discharged, one was 
transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, one deserted, and three died. Eighteen were 
cases of fractyre of the skull, and thirteen of them were fatal Five of the eighteen 
patients were subjected to trephining, or the removal of fragments, or the elevation of 
depressed bone, and three of the five recovered. In brief, forty-nine of the'seventy-eight 
patients were returned to duty, twelve were discharged, sixteen died, and one was doing 
well at the last report, fifteen days after undergoing an operation for the elevation of 
depressed bone. 



* In the summaries, the men transferred to modified duty in the Veteran Reserve Corps, are included with those returned 
to duty, and the furloughed men, not heard from, and the deserters, with those discharged. 



62 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OP ME HEAD, 

Of the two hundred and six cases of injuries of the head from blows, the scalp alone 
was seriously involved in one hundred and eighteen; six of these patients deserted, and 
the remainder were returned to duty. Thirty-six cases were attended by cerebral com- 
plications; of these men, three went to duty, three to modified duty in the Veteran Reserve 
Corps, twenty-seven were discharged, and one died, while in two cases, the ultimate result 
has not been ascertained. Fifty-two were instances of fractures of the skull, and of this 
series of patients, seven recovered and were returned to duty, one was transferred to the 
Veteran Reserve Corps, fourteen were discharged for disability, twenty-eight died,* and in 
two cases the result is undetermined. Operative interference was employed in twenty of 
the fifty-two fractures. One of the patients went to duty, six were discharged, and eleven 
died, and in two casesf the ultimate issue has not been ascertained. The results of the two 
hundred and six cases may be thus recapitulated : one hundred and twenty-six went to 
duty, forty-seven were discharged, twenty-nine died, while in four cases the results are 
undetermined. 

Of the one hundred and fifty-four cases of injuries of the head from unspecified 
causes, one hundred and twenty-one refer to uncomplicated contusions or lacerations of 
the scalp. One hundred and thirteen of these patients returned to duty, and eight deserted. 
In eight cases, the brain or its membranes were involved, and four- of these patients were 
discharged on account of deafness, paralysis, or impairment of the mental faculties, one 
was transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, and three died. Twenty-five cases are 
reported as instances of fracture of the skull ; but in several of the cases the diagnosis is 
not beyond suspicion. Six of these patients are reported as returned to duty, two were 
furloughed, eight were discharged for disability, and nine died. 

In brief, of the five hundred and eight patients with wounds and injuries of the head, 
three hundred and thirty-four were returned to duty, ninety-eight were discharged, 
seventy-one died, and, in five cases, the results are undetermined. 

The Contusions of the Scalp, from miscellaneous causes, may be conveniently sub- 
divided into those in which there was laceration of small vessels in the areolar tissue and 
limited effusion of blood ; those attended by extensive ecchymosis ; and those in which the 
tissues were pulpified and disorganized. J 

The uncomplicated contusions of the scalp, without external breach of surface, that 
were treated in hospital, generally required but little surgical interference. They were 
commonly dressed with a spirit or lead lotion, at first, or by an ice bladder, or the frig;orific 
mixture of hydrochlorate of ammonia, saltpetre, and salt, recommended by Hennen^ and 
Schmucker,'' conjoined with elevation of the head, and an antiphlogistic regimen. No 
instance of the application of leeches is mentioned. When a large amount of effused 
blood remained long unabsorbed, bandaging, with moderate compression, stimulating 
frictions, and general treatment were sometimes employed. In a few eases, the bad 
practice of incising the tumor and squeezing out the coagulum, is reported to have been 
adopted, with the result of inducing inflammatory action and unhealthy suppuration. 

* The case of Wiggins, on page ■'iO, sliould have been recorded as fatal. He died on April 14th, 1865. 

t Already referred to among the fif>y-two fractures. 

{ Dupuytren, it is well known, classified contusions in four degrees, (Le(ons Oralea, T. IV, p. 267;) but even the French 
surgeons admit that cither the third or fourth division is " un peu arbitr'iire." See FoLLlN, Traile ele Pathologie Externt, T. I, 
p. 386, Paris, 1669. 

' Henxex. Principles of Military Surgery, 3d ed., London. 18-29, p. 283. 

'SCHMUCKER, J. L. Chirurgifche Wahmehmungen. Berlin und Stettin, 1774, Erster Theil, S. 89. 



ANALYTICAL REVIEW. 6S 

In quite a large number of the contusions of the acalp, there was great extravasation 
of blood under the occipito-frontalis tendon; and, in several of these cases, suppuration 
ensued. They were judiciously treated by free incisions at the most depending parts, 
the courses of the larger arterial branches being avoided, and by the subsequent appli- 
cation of warm water dressings. Though complicated, in a few instances, by erysipelas and 
sloughing, recovery eventually resulted in all of these cases. There were also examples of 
bruises of the scalp, with effusion of blood in the meshes of the condensed cellular tissue 
connecting the common integument with the occipito-frontalis aponeurosis, producing that 
remarkable condition in which, the effused blood coagulating imperfectly, the portion in 
the centre remaining fluid, and the scalp being apparently depressed at this point, a 
depressed fracture is closely simulated. These circumscribed bosses, hard at the circum- 
ference and soft and depressible in the centre, were more frequently observed over the 
lateral regions of the skull. Fortunately, there were no symptoms of afllection of the 
brain in these cases, and the attendants wisely refrained from cutting down upon the bone. 
Resolvent lotions and the popular plan of compressing the bump by one or two coins or a 
bit of folded sheet lead, appeared to expedite absorption. In two cases, the plan proposed 
by Champion,^ of suddenly compressing the tumor by a l)low severe enough to rupture the 
sanguineous cyst and to cause the blood to be inhltrated into the neighboring cellular 
tissue, was employed with good results. In these cases, a peculiar crepitation, due 
doubtless to broken fragments of fibrinous coagula, was observed. 

There were a few instances in which the surface of the scalp was unbroken while the 
tissues composing it were crushed so as to be irretrievably disorganized. These cases 
were treated by warm emollient applications, until the gangrene that ensued had ceased, 
and the sloughs had separated, and granulation began ; when the usual means of promoting 
cicatrization were employed. 

The Contused and Lacerated Wounds of the Scalp will be so fully considered in the 
section on gunshot wounds of the head, that few comments will be required in this place. 
In examining the detailed histories of the several hundred cases barely enumerated 
in the foregoing part of this Section, examples are found of almost every variety of injuries 
of this nature, from slight solutions of continuity, resembling incised wounds, to nearly 
complete denudations of the calvarium. As a general rule, the treatment of these lesions 
appears to have been simple and judicious. That axiom of practical surgery which forbids, 
in the treatment of scalp wounds, the sacrifice of the smallest portion of damaged integu- 
ment', was almost universally observed; and the means adopted of replacing and connecting 
detached flaps of integument were usually well selected. In several cases, very large 
portions of the scalp were described as nearly torn away, hanging by slender pieces of 
skin. Such injuries were caused, in two instances, by blows from muskets; but more 
frequently by falls, or by the passage of the wheels of heavy wagons, caissons, or gun- 
carriages, over the side of the head. In these cases, after suppressing haemorrhage, on 
the rare occasions in which it was troublesome, after cleansing the pendulous flaps from ' 
the dirt, gravel, or other foreign bodies adhering to them, and after divesting them and 
the adjacent scalp of hair, it was customarv to replace the flaps, and maintain them in 
position, either by agglutinative plasters, or by sutures. In most cases, the dressing was 
completed by the application of compresses dipped in cold water, and maintained by a 

' Archives GinirdUs de Medecine, Premiere S6rie, 1827, T. XV, p. 139. 



64 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

bandage. In some instances, layers of raw cotton, cliarpie, or picked oakum, were 
arranged as graduated compresses upon the flaps. A few surgeons preferred to apply 
poultices or warm water dressings, if the scalp was much mangled. In all of the cases 
of detachment of large flaps, it would appear that the pericranium was fortunately left 
entire; and, though many of these cases were complicated by erysipelas, sloughing, or by 
the bagging of pus, the wounds granulated after awhile, and all eventually cicatrized. No 
instance was reported of any special inconvenience arising from the employment of stitches. 
In one case, a very long wound was sewed up by the continued or Glover's suture, without 
bad consequences'. Usually, when adhesive plasters were considered insufficient to 
approximate the edges of the wounds, the interrupted suture with metallic threads was 
employed. Assistant Burgeon J. S. Billings, U. S. A., reports a lacerated wound of the 
scalp neatly approximated by tying together the hairs bordering the retracted edges of 
the wound. This expedient answered a good purpose, cicatrization following as promptly 
as usual under more methodical dressings. 

In scalp wounds with little separation of the edges, adhesive plasters were the ordi- 
nary dressing. The importance of adjusting the parts with the nicest accuracy, and of 
leaving sufficient intervals between the strips, with the lower angles of the wound open, 
was generally appreciated. The propriety of removing the dressings as infrequently as 
practicable was commonly recognized. In the hospitals about Philadelphia, the gauze and 
collodion dressing recommended by Dr. P. B. Goddard, found favor; but the isinglass and 
resin plasters, supplied by the field medicine-chests and knapsacks, were the agglutinatives 
commonly employed. In a few cases, it is stated that the old fashioned Friar's Balsam* 
was advantageously employed. 

The complications arising in this class of wounds of the scalp were hsemorrhage, 
erysipelas, abscess, and sloughing. Several instances of troublesome bleeding from the 
posterior auricular, occipital, or temporal arteries, or their branches, are reported; but, in 
every case, the hsemorrhage was controlled by compression, either by the clamp tourni- 
quet, or the common tourniquet, or by a circular bandage and compress, or by a com- 
press consisting of a metallic disk. In one case, a profuse secondary bleeding from the 
temporal was arrested by dividing the vessel transversely, and suff"ering it to retract. 
Persulphate of iron, in powder or solution, was employed as a styptic in several cases; 
but not with advantage. In a case in which it appeared that ligation must be resorted to, 
acupressure was suggested as peculiarly appropriate; and preparations to use this resource 
were made, when, the bleeding being controlled by pressure, ceased, and did not recur. 
Erysipelas was not a very frequent complication, being reported in but thirteen of the 
four hundred and three cases unattended by fracture. Nearly all of the cases in which it 
supervened were attended by symptoms of affection of the membranes of the brain, or of 
the brain itself; yet, with one exception, (Kirkland, p. 53), they terminated favorably, 
under the supporting and stimulating treatment uniformly adopted. There were numerous 
instances of abscesses under the scalp, due apparently, in most cases, to negligence in 
keeping the detached scalp in apposition with the subjacent parts by gentle bandaging, 
or to the retention of clots of blood under the flaps. Incisions, followed by fomentations 
and poultices, and the washing out of the cavity of the abscess by warm detergent solu- 
tions, appears to have been the ordinary treatment In many of the contused and lacerated 

* Compound Tincture of Benzoin, or ISaume du Covimandsur, or Tehtturi haltamique of the French Codex. 



ANALYTICAL REVIEW. 65 

wounds, there was slight loss of tissue from gangrene, and in two cases, very large portions 
of the scalp sloughed away, yet the exposed surface was soon covered with florid granu- 
lations, and rapidly cicatrized. Detergent or stimulating lotions were employed in these 
cases, and solutions of the salts of zinc or the permanganate of potassa were the applications 
commonly selected. 

Concussion of the Brain. — It will be remembered that the five hundred and eight 
cases of injuries of the head from miscellaneous causes were classified, on page 61, in three 
divisions: the first comprising three hundred and thirty-one cases of injuries of the integ- 
uments chiefly; the second, seventy-two cases of severer injuries, with cerebral complica- 
tions; and the third, one hundred and five cases of fractures of the skull. In the 
second class were placed only those cases which terminated fatally, or in discharge 
for disability, or in return to modified duty after protracted disability. But concus- 
sion of the brain, temporary in its effects, was observed in a large proportion of the 
three hundred and thirty-one slighter cases enumerated in the first class; and, in 
fifteen of them, this complication was attended by profound insensibility and collapse 
and appeared, at first, to be very serious, though speedily followed by reaction and 
recovery. Severe commotion or concussion of the brain was observed In fifty-nine of the 
seventy-two cases of the second class, or, altogether, in seventy-four of the four hundred 
and three cases of miscellaneous injuries of the head without fracture. The treatment of 
this condition usually consisted in wrapping the patient in hot blankets, and applying 
bottles of hot water to the extremities, in employing frictions, and sinapisms, and stimu- 
lating enemata; and, after reactioii was established, in prescribing purgatives, low diet, 
and rest in bed. The precautions suggested by authors respecting the use of volatile 
salts, cordials, and venesection during the stage oi collapse, appear to have been observed 
uniformly. The management of the stage of reaction appears, also, as a general rule, to 
have been prudent and judicious ; but many exceptions, due sometimes to the exigencies 
of the situation, and sometimes to the negligence or officiousness of the attendants, are 
noticed, in which quiet and abstinence were not enjoined, or stimulants and full diet were 
ordered in obedience to false therapeutic dogmas in preference to the lessons of experience. 
To these causes, probably, must be attributed the considerable number of instances in 
which concussion was followed by cerebral irritation or encephalitis, complications which 
will be considered further on. In one case of concussion, (Hherman, p. 41,) when reaction' 
was becoming over-action, venesection was practiced, with apparent advantage. In one 
case, concussion produced almost instant death, (Turner, p. 44;) but neither this nor the 
thirteen other cases which resulted fatally from the direct effects of concussion, throw any 
light upon the functional or textural alterations of the brain rtisulting from this shock, but 
leave the subject, which has perplexed pathologists for so many centuries, as inscrutable 
as ever. 

As has been intimated at the beginning of this Section, the value of the numerical 
statistics relative to concussion and compression of the brain derivable from " monthly 
reports of sick and wounded," would have been greater, if the cases due to miscellaneous 
causes had always been separated from those resulting from injuries by gunshot projectiles. 
In the first year, and in a portion of the second year, of the war, the reporters failed some- 
times to make this important discrimination; but, subsequently, explicit instructions having 

9 



66 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



been promulgated, the gunshot injuries were separately reported. The number of cases 
of concussion and compression of the brain recorded on the monthly reports is given in 
the following table: * 

Table I. 

Cases of Concussion or Compression of the Brain, generally from Causes other than 
Gunshot, recorded on the Monthly Reports during the War. 



Year. 


May and June, 
1861. 


Year ending 
June 30, 1802. 

279, 590 
9,548 


Year ending 
June 30, 1863. 


Year ending 
June 30, 1864. 


Year ending 

June 30, 1865. 


AflGUKCiATK. 


White Tnoops. 
Mean strength in Fk'Ul ami (iarrison.. 


41,55G 


630, 761 
45, 630 


622, 058 
55, 710 


.574,(122 
71,484 


515, 517 
45, 593 ■ 

Cases. Deaths. 






Cases. , Deaths. 


Cnscs. Deaths. 


Cases. 
295 


Deaths. 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


C.xscs. 
193 


Deaths. 
60 




7 

'\ 


144 19 


62 


234 


52 


873 193 
61 17 


Oonipi*08sion of Krain _..._. 


60 i 17 




















Colored Troops. 
Mean strength in Field and Garrison. . 








46, 020 
1,222 


86, 660 
5,572 


66, 340 
3,397 


" " " General Hospitals.. 













Cases. 


Deaths. 


Casef. 


Deaths 
13 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


Concussion of Brain ... - . 








18 


9 


31 


49 


22 











This table indicates that in the year ending June 30th, 1862, there Avas one case of 
concussion of the brain in a mean strength of 2,008, and that of 144 cases, one in 7.5 was 
fatal. In the following year, when the concussions from gunshot injury may be supposed 
to have been generally excluded, there was one case of concussion in a mean strength of 
2,292, and a mortality of one in 4.7 cases. In the third complete year there was, among 
the white troops, one case of concussion in 2,896, and a mortality of one in 4.5; and, in 
the colored troops, one case of concussion in 2,625 cases, with a mortality of one in 2 cases. 
In the fourth year, the cases of concussion were, among the white troops, one in 3,344 
mean strength, with a mortality of one in 3.2, and, among the colored troops, one in 2,975 
mean strength, with a mortality of one in 2.4. 

The report of Surgeon Thomas H. Williams, C. S. A., Medical Director of the Con- 
federate Army of Northern Virginia, shows that the consolidation of the monthly reports 
of sick and wounded for nine months, from July, 1861, to March, 1862, inclusive, furnish 
eighteen instances of concus-jion of the brain in a mean strength of 49,394. During the 



* Tile consolidations for wliite troops are taken from page 640 of the medical volume of the First Part of the Medical and 
Surgical History of tlie RebiUioii. The consolidations for the colored troops are furnished me in manuscript by Brevet Lieut. 
Col. J. J. Woodward, Assistant Surgei* U. S. A. After 181>2, "compression of the brain'' was excluded from the nomencla- 
ture of tile monthly report of sick and wounded. The ileaths are understood to be included among the cases: c. g. of 144 
jiatients witli concussion of the brain, during the year ending June 30, 1802, 19 died. 



ANALYTICAL REVIEW. 67 

months of September, October, November, and December, 1862, of an aggregate of 48,543 
patients in the General Hospitals under the supervision of Surgeon T. H/Williams. C. S. A., 
there were sixteen examples of concussion of the brain. All of these thirty-four cases 
terminated favor^ibly. From the absence, in these reports, of any fatal results from con- 
cussion, it may be inferred such were probably entered under other headings. Of the 
Confederate systematic writers on military surgery, the compilers of the official manual' 
advise, in the early treatment of concussion, the use of external warmth, frictions, and diffu- 
sible stimuli; Surgeon J. J. Chisolm", 0. S. A., thinks "the safest practice consists in doing 
as little as possible, the indiscriminate use of stimuli on the one hand, or bloodletting on 
the other, being especially avoided;" while the Surgeon General of North Carolina, E. 
Warren,^ with strange confusion, "in order that the pathological difference between con- 
cussion and compression of the brain may be thoroughly comprehended," ascribes to 
concussion the signs almost universally believed to attend compression. The "Confederate 
States Medical and Surgical Journal," published under the auspices of Surgeon General 
S. P. Moore, C. S. A., contains no reference to the treatment of concussion of the brain, 
and the reports and treatises above alluded to furnish the scanty information to be derived 
from the Confederate records. 

Fractures of the 8kull. — Of the one hundred and five cases of fracture of the skull 
recorded in this Section, forty-six were instances of simple and forty-three of compound 
fracture; while, in sixteen cases, the reports are silent regarding this distinction. Fifty- 
seven of the one hundred and five cases terminated fatally; in three cases, the ultimate 
results cannot be learned; and forty-five patients are reported as recoveries. The causes 
of death in the fifty-seven fatal cases were: compression of the brain from fragments of 
bone, in sixteen cases; laceration of the brain, in five cases^; shock and concussion, in two 
cases; extravasation of blood, in sixteen cases; encephalitis, in ten cases; abscess of the 
brain, in six cases; epilepsy, in one case; cerebral hernia, in one case. Each of the three 
undetermined cases was doing well several weeks after the reception of the injury. Of the 
forty-five patients reported as returned to duty, thirty had simple and fifteen compound 
fractures, and four of the simple and seven of the compound fractures were depressed. Of 
these forty-five patients, seventeen recovered wholly, and were returned to duty; one 
recovered and was mustered out on the expiration of his terra of service; another recovered 
from the injury of the head, and was discharged on account of the loss of an arm; and 
twenty-six were discharged on account of physical disabilities of various degrees Epilepsy, 
in three cases; hemiplegia or paraplegia, in three cases; impaired intellectual functions, 
in two cases; deafness, in two cases; imperfect vision, in one case; vertigo and cephalalgia 
on exposure to the sun, in five cases, are the disabilities particularly specified. It is safe 
to say, that nineteen of the one hundred and five patients with fractured skull recovered 
completely, that twenty-nine recovered partially, and that fifty-seven died. 



' A Manual of Mililari/ Surgery, prepared for the Vie of the Confederate States Army, by Order of the Surgeon General. 
Kichmond, 1863, p. 7. 

'ClIlSOLM. J Manual of Military Surgery for the Use of Surgeons of the Confederate States Army. Columbia, S. C, 
1864, p. 275. 

' Warken'. An Epitome of Pra;li~al Surgery for Field and Hospital. Ricliniond, 1863, p. 351. 

*In one of the cases of laceration of the brahi (Michaei. B , p. 44) there was cerebral hernia, as well as in the case 

of LOWEUY (p. 58), cited two lines further on. In the latter, this complication was apparently, the proximate cause of death. 



68 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



All of tlie cases, twenty-eiglit in number, of fracture of the skull without injury to 
the brain or its membranes terminated favorably, witli the exception of the case of Pri- 
vate M. Young (p. 39), complicated by a terrible laceration of the testes. Fifty-eight cases 
in which symptoms of compression of the brain supervened immediately or soon after the 
reception of the injury, present ibrty-six deaths, three instances of favorable progress a 
few weeks after the injury, with the ultimate results undetermined, and three examples of 
complete, and six of partial recovery. In the nineteen remaining cases cerebral compli- 
cations appeared at a later date ; ' ten of the nineteen were fatal ; eight ended in permanent 
disabilities, through impairment of the mental, sensory, or motor functions; while only 
one patient completely recovered. 

It was observed that fissures or long linear fractures with little depression, as a 
general, rule characterized the fractures of the skull from falls or railroad accidents, while 
extensive splintering of the internal table was a very frequent consequence of blows from 
blunt weapons. 

The portion of the cranium injured is referred to in seventy-eight of the reports, and 
is indicated in the following tabular statement : 

Table II, 
Seat of Injury in One Hundred and Five Fractures of the Skull from Falls, Blows, &c. 



Regions. 


Cases. 


Died. 

10 
15 

6 

2 

11 


Disch'd. 


Duty. 


Unkn'n. 


P«r cent, 
of deaths. 


Frontal 


22 
33 

7 
2 

11 
1 
1 
1 

27 

105 


6 

12 

1 


5 
4 


1 

2 


47.6 

48.4 
85.7 

100. 

100. 

100. 
100. 
40.7 

55.8 






Occipital --.-...-......-...... ....................... .......... 






Base 








Krontal and Parietal .... 




1 






I 

1 

11 




Xeroporal and Parietal ........ .... 








Not stated 




9 


7 






Total 


57 


28 


17 


3 





The far greater fatality of fractures of the side and base of the cranium than of those 
implicating the anterior and upper portions of the vault, is well illustrated by these figures. 

There were no instances of fracture of the internal table alone; but the case of Cahill 
(p. 54), and that of Sharp (p. 55), afford, perhaps, illustrations of fracture implicating the 
external table only, over the frontal sinus and at the base of the zygoma. The case of 
Schneider (p. 41) also, reported among the severe contusions, the patient having been 
discharged on account of obstinate ozoena from ulceration of the frontal sinus, possibly 
belongs to the category of fractures of the external table The frequency of such frac- 



' At ineipere febrem in capUit vulnere, quarta die aut teptima aut undecima, valde lethale at. Hippocrates, De Prcedict. 
Lib. II, Sect. IL Cap. 10. 



ANALYTICAL REVIEW. 69 

tures lias been overestimated by Sir Astley Cooper' and other eminent surgical ■writers. 
In rare instances, blows upon the mastoid or zygomatic processes, or frontal sinuses, pro- 
duce such an injury; but, over the vault of the cranium, a depression of the outer table 
upon the diploe, without lesion of the vitreous lamina, is oftener described in books than 
demonstrated by pathological preparations.^ 

Of the eleven cases of fracture of the base of the cranium, two were accompanied 
by that peculiar colorless discharge from the auditory canal which excited so much dis- 
cussion among surgeons thirty years ago, and which is held to be a positive indication of 
fissure of the petrous bone.^ Three cases of fracture of the base were believed to be 
instances of fracture by contre-coup. This subject will be fully considered hereafter, and 
it will be shown that the existence of such fractures, in the sense understood by Grima* 
and Saucerotte, may be fairly called in question. 

In seventy-nine cases of fracture of the skull treated without operative interference, 
the death-rate was 54.4. Of twenty-six cases operated upon, the ultimate results are 
ascertained in twenty-three, in which the mortality-rate was 60.8. 

Memoval of Fragments and Trephining. — Of the twenty-six depressed fractures 
treated by the removal of fragments and trephining, five were caused by falls, three by 
railroad or steamboat accidents, and eighteen by blows. Fourteen of the patients died. 
Three undetermined cases were progressing favorably fifteen days, three weeks, and four 
weeks, respectively, from the date of injury. Nine patients recovered, of whom two went 
to duty, two were discharged though entirely well, and five were discharged for disabilities 
due to cerebral disorders. In brief, it may be said of the twenty-six cases in which 
operative interference was employed, that complete recovery took place in four cases, 
partial recovery in eight cases, and death in fourteen cases. 

The cases recorded in this Section afford instances of commotion, contusion, lacera- 
tion, and compression of the brain, of rupture of the meningeal arteries, of cerebral irri- 
tation, of perversion or loss of the sensory or intellectual functions, of various paralyses, 
of puffy tumor and persistent pain in the scalp; but general observations on these subjects, 
all of which will appear again in the succeeding Section, may be reserved for the con- 
clusion of this Chapter, 



' ASTI.EY COOPKR. Lecturet on Surgery, London, 1842, p. i:!0. 

"Specimen 4853, Section I, A. M. M., represents a segment of tlie frontal bone of a young man wlio received a blow from 
a fireman's iron "spanner" upon the left superciliary ridge. Sucb competent observers as Drs. Thomas Miller and Robert 
King Stone, of Washington, ditignosticated a depression of the outer table of the frontal sinus. Several months subsequently, 
the patient died from inflammation of the brain, and an extensive depression of the inner table was revealed. The large collec- 
tion of specimens of fractures of the skull in the Army Medical Museum fails to afford a single example of fracture of the outer 
table singly, if the grooviugs by shell fragments and incisions by cutting weapons are excluded. 

' Berengarius, in his work on Fractures of the Cranium, published at Bologna, in 1518. first called attention to this 
phenomenon, and Stalpart Van der Weil, (Obs. rariur. cent, prinui, Obs. XV, Leyden, 1728, j>. G8.) cited an example, and 
quoted another from Laugelot; but Laugier, in bis note to the Frencii Institute, iu 1839, pointed out the significance of this 
discharge in diagnosis. 

' Grima, Sur Les Contre-coups dans les Lesions de la Tele. Mdmoires sur les Sujets proposes pour les Prix de rAcad^mie 
Royale de Chirurgie. Paris, 1619, T. IV, p. 207; Sauckrotti:, in the same work, Vol. IV, p. 290. Sabouraut, loc cit.r 
p. 337, and many others. 



70 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HKAD, 



Section III. 



GUNSHOT WOUNDS. 



In modern times, the proportion of wounds and injuries of the head received in action 
has always been largo. In the lute war, tlie ratio of such injuries to the total number of 
casualties was especially great, because the men frequently fought under cover, and many 
of the engagements were of the nature of siege operations. More than twelve thousand 
gunshot wounds of the head must be discussed. They will be classified, with many sub- 
divisions, into those affecting the scalp only, those attended with injury to the skull, 
and those implicating the encephalon. 

Gunshot Wounds of the Scalp. — The number of such cases is so great that it is 
only practicable to present a numerical statement, supplemented by details of the fatal 
and complicated cases. 

Table III. 

Results of Seven Thousand Seven Hundred and Thirty-nine Cases of Gunshot Wounds 
of the Scalp reported during the War of the Rebellion. 



Patients. 


5 


P 


d 

> 


Resigned. 


i, 

at 
on 

5 


-3 


Discharged. 


O 

1 


i 

u 


11 

HO 




-a 

c 


Released on 
oath. 


Unknown. 


hi 
< 

1 


U. S. Officers 


11 

126 

7 

1 


167 

3108 

75 

4 

1 
65 


127 


10 


10 


97 


35 

542 

13 














7 

958 

11 

5 

8 

114 


337 

6625 

138 

10 

25 

604 


U. S. Enlisted Men ( white) 

U. S. Enlisted Men (colored) 


76 
2 


261 

4 


1427 
26 


































! 






5 
118 


3 

7 


156 


2 
6 


6 

108 


10 


Confederate Enlisted Men 


17 


1 


3 


1 


ToT.tL 


162 


3420 


127 


10 


10 


97 


593 


201 


275 


1609 


8 


114 


10 


1103 


7739 





* The inference from tlie records is that these ten officers were not dismissed dishonorably, but were stricken from the 
rolls for failing to comply witli orders to report tlieir condition while on leave of absence. 



GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 71 

The following fifty-four fatal cases of gunshot wounds of the scalp are reported as 
uncomplicated. In every instance, the most careful scrutiny has been exercised to 
determine if any injury of the cranium, or its contents, was suspected by the surgical 
attendants : 

Cask. — Private Thomas Armstrong, Co. D, 2d Marylinid Volunteers, aged 48 years, received a flesh wound of the 
licad, in an engagement before Petersburg, Virginia, July 2, 1864, from a conoidal ball. He was at once admitted to the 
Hospital of the Second Division, Ninth Corps, thence sent to City Point, and conveyed to the DeCamp Hospital at David's 
Island, New York, where he arrived on July 6th. He died on the 14tli of .July, 1864. 

Casp:. — Private .lames Barry, Co. D, 2d New York Mounted Rifles, aged 30 j-ears, received, in an engagement 
before Peterabuig, Virginia, June 18, 1864, gunshot flesh wounds of the head and arm. He was admitted to the hospital of the 
Second Division, Eighteenth Corps, and, on June 19th, was sent to the First Division Hospital at Annapolis, Maryland, where 
he died, June 22d, 1864. The late Surgeon B. A. Vanderkieft, U. S. V., recorded the case. 

Case. — Sergeant Harvey F. Beals, Co. C, 59th New York Volunteers, was struck, at the battle of Cold Harbor, 
Virgini.i, .June 3d. 1864, by a friigmcnt of shell, which caused a flesh wound of the head. He was admitted, on June 8th, to the 
Columbian Hospital, Washington, D. C, where simple dressings were applied. Death occurred on June 12tli, 1864. 

Case. — Private Horace Bellows, Co. G, 98th New York Volunteers, aged 34 years, was wounded, in an engagement at 
Chapin's Farm, Virginia, September 19th, 1664, by a conoidal ball, which severely injured the scalp over the right side of head. 
He was admitted to the hosjiital of the First Division, Eighteenth Corps. On October 2d, he was transferred to the hospital at 
Fort Monroe, Virginia, and on October 15th, to the White Hall Hospital, near Bristol, Peimsylvania. He died on October 
20th, 1864. Assistant Surgeon W. H. Forwood, U. S. A., reported the case. 

Case. — Private Rupert Carney, Co C, 28th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 38 years, received, in an engagement near 
Dallas, Georgia, May 25th, 1864, a slight gunshot scalp wound of the back of the head. He was admitted to the hospital of tli« 
Second Division, Twentieth Corps, and, on June 2d, was transferred to the hos|)ital at Chattanooga; tlience, on June 11th, to 
Hospital No. 1, Nashville, Tennessee, where he died, on June 15th, 1864, from the effects of the wound. 

Case. — Corporal Wm. G. Carr, Co. G, 13th New Hampshire Volunteers, aged 40 years, received, in a skirmish, on 
May 13th, 1864, a wound of the scalp, from a fragment of shell striking over the left eye, and making a ragged wound an inch 
and a half in length. He was sent to the hospital at Point Lookout, Maryland, and died on June 22d, 1864. 

Case. — Private Frank Carter, Co. F, 17th New York Volunteers, aged 18 years, was wounded, in an engagement before 
Petersburg, Virginia, June 17th, 1864, by a fragment of shell, which cut the scalp near the vertex. He was, on the same day, 
admitted to the hospital of the Second Division. Ninth Corps, and, on June 19th, sent to the Hospital at Annapolis. The 
wound was dressed with dry lint, sprinkled with opium. The patient died July 7th, 1864. 

Case. — Lieutenant .John R. Clemm, Co. K, 3d Maryland Volunteers, received, at the battle of Cliancellorsville, Virginia, 
May 3d, 1863, a slight gunshot flesh wound of the head. He was admitted to the field hospital of the First Division, Twelfth 
Corps. He died on May 22d, 1863. Surgeon A. Chapel, U. S. V., recorded the case. 

Ca.se. — Private Jackson Cliflon, Co. D, 107th Illinois Volunteers, aged 22 years, received, at the battle of Franklin, 
Tennessee, November 29th, 1864, a shell, wound of the right side of the scalp. He was admitted, on December 1st, to Hos])ital 
No. 3, Nashville, Tennessee, where simple dressings were applied. On December 2d, he was transferred to the Jefferson 
Hospital, Jeffersonville, Indiana, where he died, on December I7th, 1864, from the "effects of wound.'' 

Case. — Private William Coakley, Co. K, 28th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 40 years, received, in an engagement 
before Petersburg, Virginia, June 16th, 1804, a lacerated woutuI of the scalp from a fragment of shell. He was admitted to the 
hospital of the First Division, Second Corps, and thence sent to the First Division Hosjiital at Annapolis, Maryland, which he 
entered on June 20th. Simple dressings were applied to the wound. The patient died on June 28th, 1864. 

Case. — Private Stephen Colledge, Co. E, 2d Pennsylvania Artillery, aged 33 years, received, in an engagement before 
Petersburg, Virginia, June 18th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the right side of the scalp. He was, on the next day, admitted to 
the hospital of the Eighteenth Corps, and on June 21st, was sent to the Chesapeake Hospital, near Fort Monroe, where ha 
died on July 17th, 1864. Assistant Surgeon E. McClellan, U. S. A., records the case. 

Case. — Private Martin Cornell, Co. N, 7th Rhode Island Volunteers, aged 33 years, received, at the battle of Spott- 
Bylvania Court House, Virginia, May 12th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the integuments of the forehead, over the right eye. He 
was, at once, admitted to the hospital of the Second Division, Ninth Corps. On May 16th, he was sent to the Harewood 
Hospital, Washington, D. C, and, on May 18th, was transferred to the First Division Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, where he 
died, on June Ist, 1864 The late Surgeon B. A. Vanderkieft, U. S. V., recorded the case. 

Case. — Private Albert L. Curtis, Co. D, 17th Maine Volunteers, aged 20 years, was struck, near Petersburg, Virginia, 
June 17th, 1864, by a fragment of shell, which caused a flesh wound of the head. He was admitted to the hospital of the 
Third Division, Second Corps, and thence, on the 21st, conveyed to W^ashington, D. C, to the Lincoln Hospital. On the 27th. 
he was sent to Cony Hospital, at Augusta, Maine. Death occurred on August 12th, 1864. Surgeon G. Derby, U. S. V., 
reported the ease. 

Case. — Privjite Van Buren Danner, Co. H, 87th Pennsylvania Volimteers, aged 26 years, was struck, at the battle of 
Winchester, Virginia, September 19th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which produced a lacerated wound of the scalp over the left 



72 WOUKDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

frontal eminence. He was admitted to the depot field hospital on the same day. On the 25th, he was sent to the hospital at 
Sandy Hook, Maryland, and on the 26th, lie was transferred to the Sixteenth and Filbert Streets Hospital, Philadelphia. He 
died on November 10th, 1864. Surgeon T. B. Keed, U. S. V., reported the case. 

Case. — Private John Duett, Co. E, 8th Maine Volunteers, aged 26 years, received in an engagement at Drury's Bluff, 
Virginia, May 16th, 1864, a wound of the scalp in the occipital region from'a grape shot. He was, on May 18th, admitted to 
the hospital at Point Lookout, Maryland, where he died on July 4th, 1864. Surgeon A. Heger, U. S. A., recorded the case. 

Case. — Eben L. Farrar, Musician, Co. I, 96th New York Volunteers, aged 19 years, was wounded in an engagement 
before Petersburg, Virginia, June 23d, 1864, bj' a conoidal ball, which tore the scalp over the parietal bone. He was at once 
admitted to the field hospital of the Eighteenth Corps, and, on June 25th, transferred to the Hampton Hospital, Fortress Monroe. 
Simple dressings were applied to the wound He died on July 4th, 1864, from the " effects of the scalp wound." 

Case. — Private William Finke, Co. I, 13th Indiana Volunteers, aged 25 years, was wounded in an engagement near 
Bermuda Hundred, Virginia, on May 20th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which tore the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of 
the First Division, Tenth Corps ; on May 21st, he was sent to the hospital at Fort Monroe, and on June 1st, 1864, transferred to the 
Ward Hospital, Newark, New Jersey, where he died on June 15th, 1864. The late Surgeon G. Taylor, U. S. A., recorded the 
case. 

Case. — Private Leroy W. Freeman, Co. H, 142d Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 18 years, was wounded in an engage- 
ment at the South Side Railroad, October 27th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which struck over the right parietal bone. He was, on 
October 29th, admitted to the hospital steamer Connecticut, and conveyed to Washington, D. C, where he entered the Emory 
Hospital on October 30th. Simple dressings were applied to the wound. Death occurred on November 12th, 1864, "from 
hectic fever." Surgeon N. R. Mosely, U. S. V., reported the case. 

Case. — Private //. Garrett, Co. C, 56th Alabama Regiment, was admitted to the prison hospital at Nashville, Tennessee, 
with a gunshot wound of the scalp. He died on November 5th, 1863. Acting Assistant Surgeon T. G. Hickman reported the 
case. 

Cask. — Private W. A. Giles, Co. C, 98th Oliio Volunteers, received near Atlanta, Georgia, August 6th, 1864, a gunshot 
wound of the scalp, and was sent to the hospital of the Second Division of the Fourteenth Corps. He was transferredj on 
August 24th, to Chattanooga, Tennessee, and died, at Hospital No. 1, on August 29th, 1864. 

Case. — Private George Grafl', Co. E, 32d Indiana Volunteers, was struck by a conoidal musket ball, near Dallas, Georgia, 
May 26th, 1864, and was received at Chattanooga, Tennessee, on June 3d, with a severe lacerated wound of the scalp. He 
died June 5th, 1864. Surgeon E. B. Collins, 5l8t Indiana Volunteers, records the case. 

Case. — Private George Hall, Co. D, 30th United States Colored Troops, aged 20 years, received, in an engagement before 
Petersburg, Virginia, July 30th, 1864, a shell wound of the scalp. He was, on August 1st, admitted to the hospital for colored 
troops at City Point, and, on August 14th, was transferred to the Summit House Hospital, Philadelphia, where he died on 
September 5th, 1864. Surgeon J. H. Taylor, U. S. V., reported the case. 

Case. — Private O. J. Hardin, Co. K, 68th Georgia Regiment, aged 23 years, received at the battle of Gettysburg, Penn- 
sylvania, July 1st, 1863, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was probably treated in a field hospital until July 20th, when he 
was admitted to the Chimborazo Hospital, Richmond, Virginia, where he died on August 7th, 1863. 

Case. — Private Daniel C. Harrison, Co. C, 76th Illinois Volunteers, received during the siege of Fort Blakely, Alabama, 
April 8th, 1865, a severe gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the field hospital of the Second Division, Thirteenth 
Corps, and, on April 11th, was ordered to be transferred to the St. l>ouis Hospital, New Orleans, but died on April 14th, 1865, 
on the journey. Surgeon O. Peabody, 23d Iowa Volunteers, records the case. 

Case. — Private John Holmes, Co. C, 98th Ohio Volunteers, was struck over the occipital region by a conoidal ball, at 
Atlanta, Georgia, August 6th, 1864. At the hospital of the Second Division, Fourteenth Corps, and at the Chattanooga Hospital, 
the injury was regarded as a simple laceration of the scalp. He died at Chattanooga, August 18th, 1864. 

Case. — Private David J. Huguner, Co. K, 6th New York Heavy Artillery, aged 42 years, was wounded, at Cold Harbor, 
Virginia, May 30th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which caused a wound of the scalp on the back of the head. He was admitted to 
the hospital of the Third Division, Fifth Corps; on June 3d, sent to the Stanton Hospital, Washington, D. C, and, on .June 
21st, transferred to the McDougall Hospital, New York, where he died, on October 5th, 1864, from " exhaustion following 
gunshot wound." Assistant Surgeon S. H. Orton, U. 8. A., reported the case. 

Case. — Private James Ireland, Co. K, 2l8t Connecticut Volunteers, aged 18 years, received a gunshot wound of the 
scalp at the battle of Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 3d, 1864. He was, on June 6th, admitted to the Mount Pleasant Hospital, 
Washington, D. C, and, on June 12th, transferred to the McClellan Hospital, Philadelphia, where the injury is diagnosed as 
gunshot Hesh wound of right cheek. He die<l on June 16th, 1861. The late Surgeon Lewis Taylor, U. S. A., reported the case. 

Case. — Private Andrew Jackton, Co. G, 5th Texas Regiment, was wounded, at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
July 3d, 1863, on the right side of the scalp, by a gunshot projectile. He was admitted to the Seminary Hospital, where he 
died, on July 23d, 1883. Surgeon Henry Janes, U. S. V., recorded the case. 

Case. — Private Jabez Johmon, Co. A, 29th Virginia Regiment, was wounded and made a prisoner in the retreat of the 
Confederate aiTny from the lines of Petersburg, in April, 1865. He was admitted, on April 17th, to the hospital at Point of 
Rocks, with wljat appeared to be a lacerated gunshot wound limited to the scalp. He died on April 24th, 1865. 



FATAL GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. " 73 

Case. — Private Win. A. Johnson, Co. C, 24tli Kentucky Volunteers, was wounded in the scalp, by gunshot, at Resaca, 
Georgia, May 14th, 1864. He was sent to Clmttanoofra, Tennessee, and died on the day of his admission to Hospital No. 1, 
May "illth, 1864. Surgeon Francis Salter, U. S. V., reported the case. 

Case. — Sergeant P'rancis M. Jones, Co. F, 36tli Indiana Volunteers, aged 28 years, received, in an engajrement at 
Marietta, Georgia, .June 23d. 1861, a severe gun.shot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hosi)ital of the First Divisicm, 
Fourth Corps, and, on .Tune 27th, was sent northward. On July 1st, 1864, he entered Hospital No. 1, Nashville, Tennessee, 
and died, on July 12th, 1864, "from wound." Surgeon B. B. Breed, U. S. V.. reported the case. 

Case. — Private Gideon M. Jones, Co, B, 25th Ohio Volunteers, aged 43 years, was wounded in an engagement at 
Honey Hill, South Carolina, November 30th, 1864, by a musket ball, winch caused a scalp woiuid of the occipital region. He 
was, on the following day, admitted to the hospital at Hilton Head. Simple dressings were applied ; but death took place 
on .liinuary 14th, 1865, "from wound." Assistant Surgeon C. T. Kelier, U. S. V., reported the ease. 

Case. — Private Lewis Knmpi, Co. D, 12th Missouri Volunteers, aged 40 years, received, at the battle of Kesaca, 
Georgia, May 14th, 1864, a gunshot scalp wound of the left side of the head. He was, on the same day, admitted to the h<is]iilal 
of the First Division. Fifteenth Corps; on May 23d, was sent to the Field Hospital, Chattanooga, Teiuiessee. and, on May 
25th, transferred to Hospital No. 1, Nashville, Tennessee, where he died on June 5th, 18C4. 

Case. — Priv.ite Chauncey C. Moore, Co. D. 42d Illinois Volunteers, received, at the battle of ChattanooL'a, Tennessee, 
November 24th and 25th, 1863, a gunshot wound of the scalp of the right side of the head. He was lieateil, for a few ilays, in a 
field hospital, and, on December 1st, was admitted to the General Hospital at Chattanooga. He died on l)ecend)er 18th, 1863. 

Case. — Corporal S. B. Morten, Co. K, 1st South Carolina Regiment, w.as admitted to the Jackson Hospital, Kichmond, 
Virginia, May loth, 1864, with a gunshot wound of the scalj). He died on May 21th, 1861. Dr. Wellford, C. S. A., reiimlid 
the case. 

Case. — Private John Nicholson, Co. D, 56th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged IS years, received, at the battle of the 
Wilderness, May 6th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp, over t^he frontal bone. H<' was, on May 14tb, admitted to the Columbian 
Hospital, Washington, D. C, where simple dressings were applied. He died on Jlay 30th, 1864. Reported by Surgeon T. R. 
Crosby, U. S. V. 

Case. — Private Lewis Noble, Co. C, 73d Ohio Volunteer.*, received, at the engagement at Tunnel Hill, Georgia, July 
20th, 1864, a gunshot flesh wound of the head. He was sent from the hospital of the Third Division, Twentieth Corps, for 
transfer to the rear, and died on his way to Chattanooga, July 25th, 1864. 

Case. — Corporal Lawrence C. Pepoon, (10th Sharpshooters,) 60th Ohio Regiment, aged 21 years, received in an engage- 
ment before Petersburg, Virginia, July 6th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the head, obliquelv across the occipital protuberance. 
The bone was apparently uninjured. He Wi's admitted to the hospital of the Third Division, Ninth Cor])s. where simple dress- 
ings were applied to the wound. On July 15th, he was sent to the Filbert Street Hospital, Philadelphia, when death occurred 
on July 24th, 1864, from " the effects of the wound." Assistant Surgeon S. A. Storrow, U. S. A., reported the case. 

Case. — Private Michael Raher, Co. D, 44tli Ohio Volunteers, was struck by a gunshot projectile at Lewisburg, Virginia, 
May 23d, 1862, receiving a wound of the integuments over the ua fruittis without any injury to the bone. He was admitted to 
the Washington Park Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, on June 16th, and died on June 21st, 1862. Reported by Dr. J. B. Smith. 

Case. — Private Chauncey Reeves, Co. F, 19th Michigan Volunteei-s, at Resaca, Georgia. May 14th, 1864, was struck by 
a musket ball, which produced a lacerated wound of the left side of the scalp. He was treated at the hospital of the Third 
Division, Twentieth Corps. He died on May 16th, 1864. Recorded by Surgeon W. C. Bennett, U. S. V. 

Case. — I'rivatc Albert A. Roaks, Co. H, 21st Kentucky Volunteers, aged 36 years, was woiuided in an engagement near 
Marietta, Georgia, June 26th, 1864, by a conoidal nmsket ball, which caused a Hesh wound of the head. He was admitted to 
the hospital of the First Division, Fourth Corps, and, on the 1st of July, w.as sent to Hospital No. 1, Nashville, Tennessee, but 
was transferred, on July 6tli, to the Jefferson Hospital, Jcffersonville, Indiana. Death ensued July 20th, 1864. 

Case. — Private James Rowley, Co. C, 4th New York Cavalry, aged 17 yeara, received in an engagement near Charles- 
town, Virginia, August 29th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was, on the following day, admitted to the hospital at 
Sandy Hook, Maryland, where simple dressings were applied. Death occurred on September 1st, 18(54, from " effects of wound." 

Case. — Private Wm. Sebring, Co. I, 14tli Ohio Volunteers, at Chiekamau;.'a. September I'Jth, 1863, received a lacerated 
gunshot wound of the left side of the scalp. He was taken to the hospital of the Third Division, Fourteenth Corps, and thence 
to the Chattanooga Hospital, where he died on October 9th, 1863. Surgeon Israel Moses, U. S. V., repotted the case. 

Case. — Sergeant Nelson P. Steinhour, Co. H, 4th New Hampshire Volunteers, aged 23 j-ears, received in an engagement 
before Petersburg, Virginia, June 30th, 1864, a gmishot wound of the scalp. He was admitted, on July 3d, to the hospital at 
Fort Monroe. Irritative fever followed, and tlie patient died from exhaustion, on July 10th, 1864. 

Case. — Corporal William A. Stewart, Co. B, l.^'ith Oiiio Volunteers, aged 21 years, received at the battle of Nasliville, 
Tennessee, December 15th, 1864, a simple Hesh wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Third Division, 
Fourth Corps, was thence transferred to Hospital No. 1, Nashville, Tennessee, and, on December 20th, sent to the hospital at 
Jeffersonville, Indiana, where he died on .January 24th, 1865. from the "eflects of the wound." 

10 



74 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Case. — Private John Stringer, Co. G, 6tli U. S. CJolore:! 'rroo))M, received, at Wilmington, North Carolina, Fehriiarv 19th, 
1835, a slitrlit lacerated wonnd of the scalp b_v a nuisket hall. At the hospital I'or ('olore<l Troops, the injniT was regarded as 
trivial, yet death fdlowed from the effects of the wound on February 2Ctli. 1805. Kecorded l>y Surgeon I). W. Hand, U. S. V. 

Case. — Private William Tait, Co. F, lOOth Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 40 years, received, at the battle of Spott- 
sylvania. Virginia. May I'Jtli, 18G4, a gtmsliot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the First Divi.sion, Ninth 
Corps. On May loth, he was sent to the Mount Pleasant Hospital, Washington. D. C, and, on M.iy 19th, to the McL'lellan 
Hospital, Philadelphia, where he died on May 28th, 1831. Surgeon Lewis Taylor, U. S. A., reported the case. 

Cask. — Private David Titus. Co. M, 1st New .Jersey Cavalry, aged 19 years, received, at the battle of the Wilderness, 
Virginia, May 5tli, 1861, a gunshot wound of the scalp, over the left temporal region. On May Ijjth, he was admitted to Mount 
Ph'asant Hospital. Washington, D. C.. and on June 10th, transferred to DeCanip Hospital, New York Harlxir. where he died 
on June 21st. 18 it. Assistant Surgeon Warren Webster, U. S. A., reported the case. 

Cask. — T^ieutenant .Tohn Van De Sande, Co. 15, 115th New York Volunteers, aged 31 years, received, in an engagement 
near Malvern ITill, Virginia, August Kith, 1864, a severe giuishot woun<l of the scalp. He was, on August 17tli, admitted to the 
hospital at Fort Monroe, Virginia, where he died on Se))ti'mber 3d, 1834. Assistant Surgeon E. McClellan, U. S. A., repoited 
thu case. 

Cask. — Private Jackson W. Vorhees, Co. I, 2~th Michigan Volunteers, aged 38 years, received, at the battle of Cold 
Harbor, Virginia, .lune 3d, 1864, a gunshot llesh wound of the left temple. He was, on .June 8th, admitted to the hospital of 
the Third Division, Ninth Corps, and on June 14th, to the Second Division Hospital at Ale.xan<lria. Simjde dressings were 
,api>]ied. Death occ;u-red on June 28th, 1864. Surgeon T. Rush Spencer, U. S. V., reported the case. 

Cask. — Priv.ate Jani'K Walker, Co. B, 1st North Carolina Regiment, received a very slight gunshot wound of the scalp, 
at the hatth? of Gaines's Mills. Virginia, June 27th, 1802. He was admitted to Howard (irove Hospital, near Richmond, 
Virginia, and died .July 15th, 1802. Surgeon C. D. Rice, P. A. C. S.. recorded tlie case. 

Cask. — Pi-ivate Ezekiel Winuner, Co. C, Slith Illinois V^diniteers, aged 22 years, received, at the battle of P>anklin, 
Tennessee, November 3Uth, 1804, a gunshot wound of the sculp. He was, on the following day, admitted to Hospital No. 15, 
Nashville, and, on December 3d, sent to the .Jefferson Hospital, .Jefferson ville, Indiana, where he died, on December 17th, 1864, 
from " effects ol wound." Surgeon M. Gohl.suiith, U. S. V., recorded the case. 

Cask. — Private Wni. G. Young, Co. G, 44th Illinois Volunteers, aged 24 years, received, at Marietta, Georgia, June 26th, 
1334, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Second Division, Fourth Corps, on the following 
day, and transferred to Chattanooga, on July 2d, and died on .July 3d, 1804. Assistant Surgeon C. C. Byrne, U. S. A., reported 
tlie case. 

Cask. — Sergeant W. H. Zimmennan, Co. E, 11th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 25 years, at the battle of the 
Wilderness, Virginia, May 6th, 1864, received a scalp wound over the right parietal region, from a musket ball, which lodged 
beneath the integument. The missile was extr.acted on the field, and the patient was sent to the rear, and conveyed finally to 
Washington, D. C, entering Armory Square Hospital on May 26th. He died on June 29th, 1804. 

Nine patients, with gunshot wounds of the scalp, died while on furlough, and it has 
been impossible to obtain particulars of the complications which led to the fatal results : 

Case. — Corporal Selah B. Alden, Co. D, 13tli Massachusetts V(dunteers, aged ."2 years, received at the battle of the 
Wilderness, Virginia, May 8th. 1864, a gunshot wonnd of the scalp. He wns admitted to the regimental hospital, and thence 
sent to the Campbell Hospital, Washington, D. C, on May 12th. On May 17th he was furloughed, and, according to the regis- 
ters of the Pension Hureau, and the records of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts, he died at Natick, May 25th, 1864. 

Case. — Private Thonuis Bowles, Co. I, 28th Kentucky Volunteers, aged 28 years, received, in an action at Spring Hill, 
Tennessee, November 29th, 1831, a wound of the scalp by a conoidal musket ball. He was admitted into the field hospital of the 
Second Division, Fourth Army Corps, and. on the following day, was sent to Nashville and admitted into the No. 8 Hospital. 
Simple dressings were used. On December 3d, he was tranferred to Jefferson ville, Indiana, and admitted into the general 
hospital at that place. The report of the Adjutant General of Kentucky states that he died, while on furlough, February 6tli, 
1865, " from wounds received in action." 

C.\SK. — Private Thomas Bryant, Co. C, 118th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 29 years, received, at the battle of the 
Wihlerness. Virginia May 7th. 1804, a slight wound of tlie scalp firom a fragment of shell. Hi- was admitted to the hospital of 
the First Division. Fifth Corps, and, on May 12th. he v.-.as sent to the Campbell Hospital, Washington, D. C. On May a7th 
he was furloughed, and died while on furlough. July 16th, 1861. Surgeon A. F. Sheldon, U. S. V., reports the case. 

Cask. — Private J. H. Chase, Co. I, lOjth New York Volunteers, aged 42 years, was admitted to the Lincoln Hospital, 
Washington. D. C, on August 19th. 1804. with a contused gunshot wound of the scalp. He was finloughed (ui November 4th, 
and died while on furlough, December 12th, 1804. 

Cask. — Private H. F. Higby. Co. H, 121st New Y(uk \'olunteers, aged 25 years, was wounded, at the battle of Spott- 
sylvania, Virginia, May 11th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which cut the scalp at the supeiior frontal region. He was admitted to 
the hospital of the First Division. Sixth Corps, and, on May IGth, was sent to the Mount Pleasant Hospital, Washington, D. C. 
The wound did well, and the patient was furloughed on May 21st. He died, while on leave. May 27th, 1864. 



COMPLICATED GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 75 

Case. — Private 1S\. V. IIosTner, Co. A, 9th New York Henvv Artillerv, a<x<i([ 18 vcars, roccived, at the battle of Cediir 
Creek, Vh-ginia, October 19th, 18t)4. a severe gunshot wound of the wealp. lie was, on tlie same day, aihnitted to the liospital 
of the Tliird Division, Sixth Corps, and thence was sent to the Cnyhr Hospital iit (lermantown, IVnnsvl vania. where he entered 
on October ii4tli. He was fiirlonghed on November 6th ; and died, while on furlough, December 9th, 1834. 

C.\.SK. — Lieutenant John Jungerich, Adjutant 121st Pennsylvania A' olunteers. received, at the battle of North Anna 
River, Virginia, May S.Sd, 1864, a slight gunshot flesh wound over the right side of the front.il bone. He was taken to the 
hospital of the Fourth Division, Fifth Corps, and thence was sent to Washington. On May 31st, he was granted leave, and 
died on .June 23d, 1864, while on leave of absence. 

Ca.si:. — Private Robert F. Parkliill, Co. B, 9th New York Artillery, aged 27 years, received, at the battle of Cedar Creek, 
Virginia, October 19th, 1864, a severe shell wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Third Division, Sixth 
Corps. On October 24th, he was sent to the Sheridan Hospital, Winchester, Virginia, and tlience to the hos])it.T,l at York, 
Pennsylvania, which he entered on October 2()th. Under simple dressings the wound was doing well, and on November 7th, 
the patient was furloughed. He died, while on furlough, November 12th, 1864. 

Ca.se. — Private William F. Small, Co. 1$, 7th New Hampshire Volunteers, received, in an engagement in front of Peters- 
burg, Virginia, on M.ay 10th, IBliJ, a gunshot wound of the scalp, inflicted by a conoidal musket ball. He was admitted into 
the hospital at Hampton, Virginia, on May 11th, and, on .June Hth, was transferred to De (!amp Ilospit.al, David's Island, New 
York. On November 1st, 1864, he was considered convalescent, and received a fiu'lough, and died, while at home, on .June 
29th, 1865. 

The records are silent regarding tlie causes of deatli in the sixty-three examples of gun- 
shot wounds of the scalp here enumerated. The average interval between the reception of 
the injury and the fatal termination was twenty-seven days. It may be suspected that in 
most, if not all, of these cases, there was some undiscovered primary or secondary lesion 
of the skull or its contents, but precise evidence on the subject is wanting. The seat of 
injury is specified in twenty-seven cases; as in the frontal region in seven, the temporal in 
two, the parietal in twelve, the occipital in six. 

Gunshot Scalp Wounds followed by JSncephalitis . — In the following cases of gunshot 
wounds of the scalp, which terminated fatally from inflammation of the brain or its mem- 
branes, the reports indicate that the injuries were carefully examined, and that the 
observers were convinced that there were no primary lesions of the skull : 

Cask. — Private Wilhara H. AUington, Co. C. 141st New York Vohmteers, a;^'ed 21 years, received, at the engagement 
before Dallas, Georgia, May 25th, 1864, a gunshot flesh wound of the forehead, from a musket ball He was admitted into the 
field hospital of the Twentieth Corps. Simple <lressings were used The patient was transferred to the Cundierland Hospital, 
Nashville, Tennessee, on .Tune 2d. Meningitis set in soon aflerwards, and resulted fatally, on .Jmie llth. 1864. The case is 
rejjorted by Surgeon C. McDeiniott, U. S. V. 

Case. — Private Albert E. Amnion, Co. H, 27th Indiana Volunteers, aged 21 years, was wounded, in the engagement 
near Dallas, Georgia, May 25th, 1864, by a conoidal musket hall, which caused a slight wound of the sculp. He was admitted 
to the hospital of the First Division, Twentieth Corps, and, on June 1st, was sent to the field hospital at Chattanooga, Tennessee. 
Meningitis supervened, and death took place on June Itlth, 1864. Assistant Surgon C. C. Byrne, U. S. A., reports the case. 

Case. — Private Simon Birdsell, Co I, 32d Illinois Volunteers, received a severe gunshot wound of the integuments of 
the forehead, at the battle of Shiloh, April 6th, 1862. He was treated by Brigade Surgeon William Dickinson, U. S. V.. and 
was conveyed on an hosjiital ste.amer to the hospital at Benton Tiarracks, St. Louis. The wound progressed very favorably, 
and, on May 5tli, the patient was considered convalescent, and was furloughed to go to his home at latan, Morgan County, 
Illinois. Inflammation of the brain su])erveued, .md the case tenninated fatally on June 2d, 1862. The attending physician, 
George M. Smith, M. D., of latan, reports the case. 

Case. — Private Charles Brown, Co. D, i3d United States Colored Troops, received, in an engagement before Peters- 
burg, Virginia, July 13th, 1864, a severe gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Fourth Division, 
Ninth Corps. On .Tuly 31st, he was sent to the hospital for colored troops at City Point, and, oil- August 17th, he was placed 
on the steamer Baltic for transportation to the Satterlee Hospital at Philadelphia. Surgeon I. I. Hayes, U. S. V., reports that 
convulsive fits supervened, and that death took place aboard the steamer on August 18th, 1864. 

Case. — Private Thomas ("asey, Co. F, llth Illinois Volunteers, was wounded, at Fort Doiielson, Tennessee, February 
16th, 1862, by a musket ball, which grazed the left side of the head, producing a slight scalp wound, which was considered of 
trivial importance. The man was sent to the Academy Hospital at Nashville, Tennessee, and remained in a comfortable 
condition until February 26th, when he complained of violent headache, and soon afterwards became wildly delirious. He was 
freely purged, and a blister was applied to the nape of the neck, and there was great apparent improvement, until M.arch 10th, 
when a relapse took place, and symptoms of compression of the brain supervened, terminating eventually in coma. He died 
on March 2lBt, 1862. Acting Assistant Surgeon W. P. Jones recorded the case. 



76 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

<I!ase. — Sergeant Thouias Elliott, Co. E, lOtli Wisponsin Volunteers, aged 28 years, received a lacerated gunshot wound 
of the scalp, near Petersburg, Virginia, .Jinie iSlltli, 18()4, anl was taken to the corps field ho.spital. He was transferred, on the 
following day, to the base hospital at Point of Rocks, and thence, on July 4th, to Chesapeake Hospital, and thence, on .July 
14th, to the McDougal Hospital, New York harbor. He died on August 11th, 1864, of subacute encephalitis. 

Cask. — Private John H. Fridley, Co. K, 93th Virginia Regiment, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
July 2d, 1863, a gunshot wound of the head. He was, on the same day, admitted to the Seminary Ho.spital at Gettysburg, 
and, on .June 17th, he was sent to the bospital at Chester, Pennsylvania. Meningitis set in, and death resulted on August 13th, 
1863. Surgeon E. Swif^, U. S. A , records the case. 

CaSR. — Private David Garrett, Co. A, 9Sth Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 20 years, received, at tbe battle of Cedar 
Creek, Virginia, October 19th, 1864, a gunshot scalp wound. He was taken to the hospital of the Second Division, Sixth 
Corps, and, on October 23d, he wa.« admitted to the Satterlee Hospital, at Philadelphia. The injury was considered slight, as 
the jiatient was furloughed in a sliort time utter his admission. While at home, iutlannnation of the brain supervened, and he 
died on November 9th, 1864. The case is reported by Surgeon I. I Hayes, U. S. V. 

Ca.sk. — Private Augustus Hether, Co. K, 98th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 46 years, was wounded at the battle of 
Spottsylvaiiia Court House. A^irginia. May 12th. 1864, by a c(moidal musket b.all, which severely lacerated tbe so.ilp. He was 
immediately conveyed to the hospital of the Second Division, Sixth Corps; thence transfer! ed to the First Division Hospital 
at Alexandria. Death resulted on .June 17th, 1854. Surgeon E. lientley, U. S. V., reports the case. 

("ask. — Sergeant William P. H(dilen, Co. G, 2d Maine Volunteers, aged 26 years, was admitted to the hospital at Annap- 
olis, Maryland, on November 1.5th, 1862, with a gunshot wound of the integuments of the forehead. The wound granulated 
kindly, and cicatrization w.is almost eoiuplete, and the patient improved steadily until M»y 5tb, 1863, when he was attacked 
by a severe pain in the bead, which rapidly increased and became intense, in spite of counter irritation and anodyne applica- 
tions. Death took place on May 5tli, oidy six hours from the time that the pain first set in. At the autopsy, the anterior lobe 
of the cerebrum was found sol'tein'd and disorganized. There were t'oiu" ounces of pus in the lateral veuti'ide. Surgeon T. A. 
Mcl'arlin, U. S. A., reported the ca.-^e. 

Ca.sk. — Private Celestus Jenkins, Co. H, 9th New York Artillery, aged 22 years, was wounded at the battle of W^in- 
chester, Virginia, September 19th, 1864. by a fragment of shell, which caused a severe wound of the right temporal region 
without injury of bone. He was, on the same day, admitted to the hospital of the Third Division, Sixth Corps, and was thence 
conveyed to l'liila<lidi)liia. and admitted, on the 27lli, into the Filbert Street Hospital. Death resulted on the 9th of October, 
1864. Surgeon Thomas B. Keed, U. S. V., records the case. 

Case. — Private H. li. Johnson, Co. G, 1.5th Alaliama Infantry, age<l 19 years, received, at tlie battle of Fredericksburg, 
Virginia, December 13tli, 18C3, a gunshot wound of the scalp in (he left parietal region. He was admitted into No. 12 hos- 
pital, at Richmond, on December Ifith. Symptoms of inflammation of the brain made their appearance, and several convulsions 
followed. The scalp was shaved, anA cold lotions were applied, and mercurials were administered. He died January 4th> 
1863. Surgeon W. H. Thorn, C. S. A., reports tbe case. 

Cask. — Corporal John Kealey, Co. \, 99th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 21 years, received, while on the picket line 
before Petersburg, Virginia, September 12tb, 1864, a gunshot scalp wound of the vertex, from a conoidal nmsket ball. He was 
admitted, on September loth, into the field hospital of tbe Third Division, Second Corps. On September 19th. the patient was 
Bent to field hospital of the Second Corps, and, on the same day, he was transferred to WashingtoUi where, on September 21st, he 
was admitted into Emory Hospital. Infiammation of the brain set in, and death followed, October 3d, 1864. Surgeon N. R. 
Moseley, U. S. V., reported the case. 

Ca^e. — Sergeant Thomas H. Jjaw, Co. I\, 5th New Hampshire Volunteers, received, at the battle of Antietam, Maryland 
Septemhei' 17th, 18r>2, a gimshot wotmd of tbe int<'gunients of the forehead. He was admitted to the hospit.al of the Second 
Corps, ami, on October 5th, w.is sent to the Dailies Home Hos])itaI at New York. An abscess of the scalp formed, and menin- 
gitis ensued, terminating in conii)ression of the brain, coma, and death on October 11th, 1862. Surgeon A. B. Mott, U. S. V., 
reports the case. 

Case. — Private S. Lawson, Co. I'^, 22d Georgia Eegim^t, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 3d, 
1863, a gunshot wound of the scalp, and was taken to the Seminary Hospital. On July 25th, he was transferred to the West's 
Building Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, where he died on September (ith, 1863. 

Case. — Private ./. A. Mtirjihi/, Co B. 49th Virginia Regiment, aged 30 years, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania, .July 3d. 1863, a gunshot woinidof the right side of the scalp. He was, on July 6th, admitted to Hospital No. 1, 
Frederick, Maryland, on July 7th, transferred to Annapolis, probably for exchange, and on August 1st, 1863, he w.is admitted 
to a Confederate hospital, at Petersburg, Virginia, where he died, on August 18th, 1863, of meningitis. 

Cask. — Private Hugh O'Dounell, Co. C, 29th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 24 years, received, at the battle of Atlanta, 
Georgia, .July 20th, 1864, a severe gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted into the ho.spital of the Second Division, 
Twentieth Corps, and thence sent to Hosi)ital No. 2, at Chattanooga, Tennessee, on .July 2.5th. He was transferred, about the 
Ist of August, to Nashville, and thence, within a few weeks, sent to the Satterlee Hospital in Philadelphia. Death supervened 
on August 3lst, l-!64. 

C.VSK. — Private Dnnran Stone, Co. C, 1st North Carolina Battery, received a wound of the right side of the scalp by a 
conoidal musket ball. He was admitted into the Pettigrew Hospital, Raleigh, North Carolina, on March 23d, 1865. Simple 
dressings were used. Meningitis supervened, an<l the case terminated fatally on JIarch 29th, 1865. Surgeon E. Burke Hay- 
wood, C. S. A., records the cise. 



COMPLICATED GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 77 

Case. — Private Nicholas Strayer, Co. C, 205th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 30 years, received, in an engagement 
before Petersburg, Virginia, April 2d, 1865, a gunshot wound of the scalp above tlii> left ear. He was admitted to the hos])ital 
of the Third Division, Nintli Corps, and, on April 4tli, was sent to tlie Lincoln Ih^pital, Washington, D. C, where he died on 
May 12tli, 18G5, from inflammation of brain. Assistant Surgeon J. C. McKee, II. S. A., records the case. 

Cask. — Private Henry Warner, Co. B, 1st Michigan Volunteers, aged 29 j'ears, was wounded near Petersburg, Virginia 
July 24th, 181)4, by a fragment of shell, which caused a severe wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the 
First Division, Pifth Corps, and thence sent to City Point, where he remained under treatment until the 6tli of August. He 
was then transferred, by steamer, to the De Camp Hospital at David's Island, New York Harbor, where death resulted on 
August 2i)tli, 1834. 

Case. — Private John Warner, Co. D, 4th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 26 years, received, at the battle of the Wilder- 
ness, May 6tli, 1864, a ginishot wound of the scalp, by a conoidal musket ball. He was taken to the hospital of the First 
Division of the Sixth Cori)s, and transferred to tlie Finley Hospital, at Washington, on May 11th ; from thence he was sent to 
Philadelphia, and admitted to the Satterlee Hospital on 5iay 18th. On May 28tli, he was attacked by a chill, attended by a 
violent pain in the head, and symptoms of cerebral inflammation. The case terminated fatally on May 29th, 1864. 

Case. — Corporal James E. White, Co. A, 3d New Hampshire Volunteers, aged 33 years, received, in an engagement 
near James's Plantation, Virginia, May 20th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp from a conoidal musket ball. He was admitted 
into tli(^ Held hospital of the Tenth Corps on the same day, and a day Liter was transferred to tlie Hamptiin llospilal at Fort 
Monroe. On June 1st, the patient was sent to the Ward Hospital, at Newark, New .Jersey. Congestion of the brain supervened, 
and death resulted on July 14tli, 1861. The late Assistant Surgeon J. T. Calhoun, U. S. A., recorded the case. 

In eight fatal cases of gunshot wounds of the scalp, it may be inferred, from the 
nature of the prescriptions, that some form of encephalitis supervened and induced fatal 
results; but the precise features of the secondary complications were not reported: 

Case. — Private John Aufterheide, Co. B, Cth Ohio Vohniteers, received, at the battle of Cbickamauga, Georgia, 
September 19th, 1863, a severe gunshot flesh wound of the head. He was, at once, admitted to the hospital of the Second 
Division, Twenty -first Corps, and, on the next day, sent to the General Hospital at Chattanooga, Tennessee, where he died, on 
September 22d, 1863. Surgeon A. J. Phelps. U. S. V., recorded the case. 

Case. — Private A. L. Cook, Co. E, 16th Connecticut Volunteers, received, in the engagement at Plymouth, North 
Carolina, April 20th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He died on May 9th, 1864. Surgeon D. G. Rush, lOlst 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, recorded the case. 

Case. — Private Isaac Hamlin, Co. F, 101st Illinois Volunteers, received, near Dallas, Georgia, May 25tli, 1864, a slight 
gunshot wound of the head. He was admitted into the field lios])ital of the Third Division, Twentieth Army Corps, on the 
same day, and, on May 30th, he was sent to Chattanooga. He died on .June 16th, 1864. 

Case. — Private J. H. Hatley, Co. D, 27tli North Carolina Infantry, received, in action, a gunshot wound of the scalp. 
He was admitted into the Moore Hospital at Richmond, Virginia, December 20tli, 1863, and died on December 22d. Surgeon 
Otis F. Manson, C. S. A., recorded the case. 

Case. — Private J. Hinton, Co. C, 28th Alabama Regiment, was wounded and made a prisoner at the battle of Chatta- 
nooga, and was admitted, on November 23d, 186!!, to Hospital No. 4, Chattanooga, Teimessee, with a gmishot scal]> woinid over 
the forehead. He died on December 15th, 1863. Surgeon Francis Salter, U. S. V., reports the case. 

Case. — Private Clarence E. Smith, Co. A, 94th New York Volunteers, was admitted to the Patent Office Hospital, 
Washington, D. C, on September 21st, 1862, with a gunshot wound of the scalp. He died on October 1st, 18()2. Assistant 
Surgeon J. J. Woodward, IJ. S. A., recorded the case. 

Case. — Private Hiram Voiles, Co. F, 70th Indiana Volunteers, received, at the battle of Resaca, Georgia, May 15th, 
1864, a slight gmishot wound of the right side of the scalp. He was admitted to the hos|)ital of the Third Division, Twentieth 
Corps, and, on May 20th, was sent to the general field hospital at Resaca, where he died, on May 24th, 1864. Assistant Surgeon 
M. C. Woodworth, U. S. V., recorded the case. 

Case. — Private Madison Wilman, Co. D, 1.5th Iowa Volunteers, aged 26 years, received, at the battle of Shiloli, Ten- 
nessee, April 6th, 1862, a slight gunshot wound of the scalp. He died on June Ist, 1862. Surgeon Samtiel B. Dawes, 15th Iowa 
Volunteers, reported the case. 

Erysipelas. — The proportion of cases in which erysipelas supervened after gunshot 
wounds limited to the integuments of the cranium, was by no means large. But twenty- 
two cases were reported, of which eight terminated fatally. It is highly probable that 
this complication was present, in a mild form, in many of the cases reported without 
commentary as "returned to duty;" but was seldom of such gravity as to be made the 
subject of special report. The few exceptions are here noted: 



78 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Case. — J. B. Bristof, Co. C, 26th Virginia Regiment, aged 30 years, received, on July 17th, 1864, a gunshot wound of 
the scalp, just above the right eye. During tlie progress of tlie case erysipelas supervened, but it was checked, and, on July 
30th, the patient was reported a.s convalescing. Surgeon P. F. Urown, C. S. A., records the case. 

C.\SE. — Private Charles Ferry, Co. B, 72d New York Volunteers, aged 37 years, received, in tlie Peninsular cam- 
paign, at Alalveru Hill, July 1st, 186'2, a shell wound of the occipital region of the scalp. He was admitted to Division 
No. 1 Hospital, at Annapolis. Maiyland, from the Steamer Kennebec, July .')tli, 1862. A severe attack of erysipelas supervened, 
from which the patient recovered, and was returned to iluty on October 11th, 1862. Acting Assistant Surgeon Arthur Rich 
recorded the case. 

C.\.SE. — Private Henry T. Frazell, Co. B. 6th Missouri Volunteers, received in front of Vicksburg. Mississippi, May 22d, 
1863, a gunshot wound of the sc.ilp in the right temporal region. He was received on board the hospital steamer R. C. Wood, 
from Chickasaw Uayou, on the 8th of June, and transferred to Memphis, Tennessee, where, on tlie same day, lie was admitted 
to Union Hospital. On tlie morning of the 29th, the wound was attacked by erysi])elas. which soon extended over the entire 
scalp and face. The disease yielded readily to treatment, and, on July 7th, the jiatii'iit was reported as very nearly fi'ee of the 
disease. On the 22d of July, he had so completely recovered as to be able to return to duty. The case is reported by Surgeon 
J. D. Brumley, U. S. V. 

Case. — Private T. A. GaUar/her, Co. C, 10th Louisiana, was wounded at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 3d, 
1863, by a musket ball, which entered the scalp to the left of the median line, near the superior ridge of the occiput. The mis- 
sile p.'issed forward, and downward behind the ear, and lodged about the middle of the lower jaw. He also received a gunshot 
wound of the ankle. The wounds were dressed in a field hospital, and thence he was sent to Camp Letterman Hospital at 
(Jettysburg, where he was admitted on July 27tli. Erysipelas supervened, which, by appropriate treatment, was subdued, and, 
at the date of liis transfer to Baltimore, the patient was doing well. He was admitted, on October Gth, to West's Building Hos- 
pital, at Baltimore, Maryland, where he remained until November 12th, 1663, on which date he was paroled. 

Case. — First Sergeant Samuel B. Gray, Co. I, 123il Illinois Volunteers, in an eng.agement ne.ar Milton, Tennessee, 
March 20tli, 1863, received a gunshot scalp wound. He was admitted into Hospital No. 1, at Murfreesboro, March 21st, and 
transferred tlience to Nashville, and admitted, on May 22d, in Hospital No. 2.3. He remained here until August 1st, when he 
was sent to Louisville, and admitted into Hospital No. 7. On September 3d he was sent to Hospital No. 19, where erysipelas 
supervened. Simple dressings were used. He was discharged from service October 13tli, 1863, on account of a scrofulous 
abscess. The ease is reported by Assistant Surgeon E. O. Brown, 26th Kentucky Volunteers. 

Case. — Sergeant R. M. Harris, Co. F, 3d Tennessee Infantry, aged 24 years, received at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, 
Georjiia, .June 3Utli, 1864, by a e(moidal ball, a wound of the scalp over the right temple. He was admitted, on July 11th, to 
Holston Hospital, at Knoxville, Tennessee. The wound became affected with erysipelas, which was subdued, and the patient 
was furloughed on the 2oth of October. On November 18tli, he was admitted to Asylum Hospital at Knoxville, where he 
remained until February 4th, 1865, when he was returned to duty. The case was reported by Acting Assistant Surgeon S. L. 
Herrick. 

Case. — Sergeant John McPeake, Co. B, 82d New York Volunteers, received, at the battle of Antietam, Maryland, Sep- 
tember 17th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the integuments of the forehead. He was admitted to the regimental hospital, and, on 
November 21st, was sent to hospital at Camp Parole, Annapolis, Maryland. Erysipelas of a severe character supervened, but 
the patient recovered, and was discharged from the service on February 23d, 18o3. Surgeon James Norval, 7S)th New York 
State Militia, recorded the case. 

Case. — Private J. L. Means, Texas Regiment, received, in the assault on Fort Donelson, Tennessee, February 15th, 
1862, a slight wound of the scalp, over left parietal region, by a musket ball. He was conveyed to a Confederate hospital in 
Nashville. Erysipelas set in, on the tenth day after the reception of the injury, and extended over the entire head and face. 
Tincture of iodine was applied locally, and general su])poiting treatment was employed. He rapidly recovered, and was 
discharged from the hospital about March 26th, 1862, for duty. 

Case. — Private ./. L. Smilci/, Co. E, 12th Alabama Infantry, aged 19 years, received, in the assault on Fort Steadman, 
Virginia, March 25tli, 18li5, a gunshot wound of the occipital region, by a conoidal musket ball. He was admitted into the 
Washington Street Hospital, at Petersburg, Virginia, on the same day. Erysipelas supervened. The patient was made a 
prisoner and transfeired to the Hampton Hospital, at Fort Monroe, May 17th, and on May 2IJth, 1865, he was sent to the 
Military Prison. Assistant Surgeon B. F. Pope, 10th New York Artillery, reports the case. 

Cask. — Private William II. Smith, Co. I, 99th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 18 years, received, in an action on the 
Southside Railroad, Virginia, about April 7tli, 1865, a gunshot wound of the right parietal region. He was admitted into the 
field hospital of the Third Division, Second Corps. Simple dressings were applied. On April 12th, he was admitted into the 
Second Corps field hospital, at City Point, whence he was transferred, on April 18th, to Finley Hospital, Washington. On 
April 21st, erysipelas attiicked the .■'calp and face. Tincture of iodine, and lead and opium washes, and poultices were used. 
He was admitted into Mower Hospital, Philadelphia, May lOtli, and on .Inly 19th, 1865, he was discharged from service. 

Case. — Private F. M. StreeO-r, Co. G, 42d Mississippi Infantry, received a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted, 
on July 23d, 18(53, into the Howard Grove Hospital, Richmond, Virginia. Erysipelas supervened. On September 16th, 1863, 
he was furloughed. The case is reported by Surge<m C. D. Rice, P. A. C. S. 

Case. — Private L. H. Tm/Ior, Co. A, 46th Virginia Regiment, was admitted, on July 2d, 1864, to the Howard Grove 
Hospital. Richmond, Virginia, with a gunshot wound of the scalp. Erysipelas supervened; but otherwise the case progressed 
favorably, ami the p.atient was furloughed, on .July 31st, 1864, for thirty d.ays. Surgeon C. D. Rice, P. A. C. S., recorded the case. 



COMPLICATED GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE 8CALP. 79 

Another case of erysipelas of the scalp, complicated by hfemorrhage, will be recorded 
further on among the abstracts of scalp wounds with hcemorrhage. Still another affords 
an instance of the application of sutures in gunshot lacerations of the scalp : 

Case. — Private James Buchanan, Co. C, 6th Iowa Volunteers, aged 35 years, roceived at the battle of Resaca, Georgia, 
May 14th, 18CA, a lacerated wound of the vertex of the scalp, from a fragment of shell. The cranium was laid hare for a 
distance of two and a half inches. He was admitted to the field hospital of the Fifteenth Army Corps, in charge of M. C. 
Woodworth, Assistant Surgeon U. S. V., on tlie same day, and the wound was cleaned, the scalp shaved, and its edges approxi- 
mated by sutures. The woun<l was then covered with water dressings. The next report is dated May 20th, when it is stated 
that tlie wound was tumefied, highly inflamed, suppurating, and gaping, the sutures liaving broken out. The wound was 
cleaned of purulent matter, and was dressed with strips of i.«lnglass plaster, and covered by a compress. On the 21st. tliere 
was erysipelatous inflammation extending from tlie vertex over the forehead nearly down to the eyelid. The wound was 
dressed with pla^iiters, as before, and strong tincture of iodine was painted over the entire inflamed surface and a border of the 
sound skin adjacent. On the 22d, the erysipelas extended slightly downwards to the face. On the 25th, the iuMamniation had, 
in a great measure, subsided. The patient was transferred to the Cumberland Hospital, at Nashville, Tennessee, under the 
care of Surgeon C. McDerniont, U. S. V., and was treated by simple dressings to the scalp and with purgatives. On .Inne 4th, 
he was transferred to the Holt Hosjiital, at Jeffereonville, Indiana, in charge of Surgeon H. 1*. Stearns, IJ. S. V. It is stated 
on the register of this hospital, that the wound was inflicted liy a conical nnisket ball. The patient recovered without further 
complication, and was returned to duty August 19th, 181)4. 

Eight cases were reported which terminated fatally in consequence of the meningeal 
inflammation following the invasion of erysipelas : 

C.VSE. — Private Lewis Alfrey, Co. K, 22d Indiana Volunteers, received, in an engagement at Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia, 
June 27tli, 18G4, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Second Division. Fourteenth Corps, 
and, on July 1st, was transferred to the Cumberland Hospital at Nashville, Tennessee. He died, on July 2Gt!i, lS(i4, "of 
erysipelas, following gunshot wound of scalp." Assistant Surgeon W. H. Trull, U. S. V., records the case. 

Case. — Corporal William Cammire, Co. H, 73d Illinois Volunteers, aged 22 years, was admitted to hospital No. 19, 
Nashville, Tennessee, on December 1st, 18B4, with a gunshot wound of the left side of the scalp. Erysipelas of the bead and 
face supervened, and the case had a fatal terminaticm on December 4th, 1864. 

Case. — Private James B. Fant, Co. B, 17th Mississippi Regiment, was, on May 9th, 1864, admitted to the Howard Grove 
Hospital, Richmond, Virginia, with a lacerated wound of thescalp in the left temporal region, caused by a grape shot. On 
July 8th, erysipelas attacked the wound, and death resulted on July 29th, 18iJ4. Surgeon T. M. Palmer, C. S. A., records 
the case. 

Case. — Private William Jackson, Co. F, 16th Ohio Volunteers, received, at the siege of Vioksburg, Mississippi, Decem- 
ber 28th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the left side of the scalp. He was conveyed, on the steam transpoit City of Memphis, to 
Paducah, Kentucky, and was admitted, on January 8th, 1863, into Hospital No. 2. Krysipelas of the scalp sniiervened, and 
death resulted from exhaustion, on February 23d, 1863. At the post mortem examination the liver, spleen, and mesenteric 
glands were iound enlarged. The case is reported by Surgeon H. P. Stearns, U. S. \. 

Case. — Corporal Francis N. Leicis, Co. E,-18th North Carolina Regiment, received, in an engagement before Petersburg, 
April 1st, 1865. a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was, on April 4th, admitted to the hospital at Fort Monroe, where he 
died, on April 13th, 1865, of erysipelas. Assistant Surgeon W. D. Wolverton, U. S. A., records the ca«e. 

Case. — Private Reinhold Maywold, Co. G, 6th Wisconsin Volunteers, aged 27 yeai-s, was wounded, in an engagement 
at the Southside Railroad, April 1st, 1865, by a conoidal ball, which struck over the scpiamous portion of the lefl temporal bone. 
He was, on the following day, admitted to the field hos|)ital of the Fiflli Corps, and, on April 4th, was sent to the Lincoln Hos- 
pital, Washington, D. C, where he died, on April 24th, 1865. from erysipelas following gunshot wound of scalp. 

Case. — Private Fountain McClarry, Co. E, IdOth U. S. Colored Troops, aged 24 years, received, at the battle of 
Nashville, December 16th, 18f)4, a gunshot wound of the scalp, on the back of the hea<l. He was admitted, on the following 
day, to Hospital No. 16. Simple dressings were applied. Eiysipehis supervened, and d:'ath followed, on January 14th, 1865. 

Cask. — Private .John Williams, Co. B, 12th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 30 ye;irs, received, in the attack on Peters- 
burg, Virginia, June 17th, 1864, a shell wound of the left side of the scalp. He was admitted, on June 19th, to the hospital of 
the Second Corps at City Point, and, on June 25th, was sent to the Lovell Hosjiital, Portsmouth Grove, Rhode Island. 
Erysipelas supervened, and death occurred on July 7th, 1864. 

Gangrene — The contused wounds of the scalp made by balls, always followed by 
the death of a thin layer of tissue, sometimes lead to sjireading gangrene, a complication 
more common in head wounds with fracture of the skull than in those limited to the scalp. 
In the latter class, but nine cases of traumatic gangrene were reported, of which four 
terminated fatally. 



80 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Case. — Private Joseph H. Clouse. Co. H, 20th Indiana VoluntcRis, was wounded at the battle of Gettysburg, I'cnnsyl- 
vania, July 3d, 186;!, by a conoidal ball, which entered just above the frontal eminence of the left side, and made a large Hesh 
wound. He was sent to Philadelphia, and, on July 5th, admitted to the Satterlee Hospital. Cold water dressings were 
applied until the 11th, when flax-seed poultices were used. The wound did comparatively well mitil the 2Utli, when gangrene 
appeared. Tincture of the sesquichloride of iron was given, and applications of nitric acid, followed by emollient dressings, 
were made for a few days, when the sloughs came aw.ay, and the wound commenced to heal. On the 24tli, the edges were 
appro.\imating. About a square inch of the l)one was visible, one-half of which was denuded of its periosteum. The patient 
was furlouglied on August 2d, 1S63; returned to his regiment, and was, on December 22d, 1863, tran.sferred to Co. F, 20th 
Indiana Regiment, reorganized. 

Case. — Private William I'adffet, Co. B, 1st Florida Battery, was admitted, on June 4th, 1864, to Howard Grove Hospital, 
Riclimond, Virginia, with a gunshot wound of the scalp over the left temporal bone. Gangrene attacked the wound, hut was 
readily checked, and on Jidy 23d the patient was furlouglied for sixty days. 

Case. — Private Horace Garrquis, Co. E, 8th Connecticut Volunteers, aged 20 years, received, in an engagement before 
Petersburg, Virginia. Jfay 7th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was, on May 9th, admitted to the Hampton Hospital 
near Fort Monroe, and, on May 18th, transferred to tlie Mower Hospital, I'liiladelphia. On May 30th, the wound commenced 
to slough. Bromine was applied, and afterwards flax-seed poultices, and on June 15th, healtliy granulation set in. On July 
11th, the patient was sent to tlie Kuiglit Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, and on October 11th, 1864, he was retmned to duty. 

Cask. — Piivate .John R. Kittredge, Co. I, 93d New York Volimteers, aged 20 years, was wounded at the battle of the 
Wilderness, Virginia, May .'itb, 1864, l)y a conoidal ball, which passed across the vertex of the cranium from left to right, 
causing a scalp wouiul two inches in length. He was admitted to the hosi)ital of the Third Division, Second Corjis; on May 
10th, sent to the Carver Hospital, Washington, D. C, and, on May 1.5th, transferred to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia. On 
June 14th, the wound began to slough; poultices were applied, and on June 18th the sloughing had ceased. Kittredge was 
returned to duty on October 4th, 1864. 

Cask. — I'rivate JV. I. Watson, Co. D, 20tli Georgia Cavalry, received, on October 27th, l'^64, a gunshot woimd of the 
seal]). He was admitted into tlie second division of the Jackson Hospital, Richmond, on the same day. Gangrene supervened. 
He recovered, and was furlouglied March 24th, 186.5. 

The following cases of sloughing after gunshot wounds of the scalp, terminated 
fatally: 

Case. — Private Daniel L. Dougherty, Co. H, 55th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 27 years, was wounded before Peters- 
burg, Virginia, June 16th, 18G4, by a conoidal b.all, which injured the scalp and the left shoulder. He was, on the following 
day, admitted to the hospital of the Eighteenth Corps, at Point of Rocks, Virginia, and, on June 19th, was sent to the Hampton 
Hospital, Fort Monroe, where simple dressings were applied to the wound. Death occurred on July 15th, 1864, from gangrene 
and exhaustion. Assistant Surgeon E. McClellan, U. S. A., recorded the case. 

Casi;. — Private Patrick Doyle, Co. D, 117th New York Volunteers, .aged 36 years, was wounded before Petersburg, 
Virginia, June loth, 1864, liy a fragment of shell, which caused a wound of the scalp. He was treated, for some days, in a 
field ho8pit,al, and thence, on .Tune 24th, transferred to the Mount Pleasant Hospital, Washington, D. C, and, on June 27th, 
sent to the Satteilee Hospital, Philadelphia. Gangrene attacked the wound, and the patient died on July 30tli, 1864. 

Case. — Private Irvine Hawkins, Co. I, 2d, New York Artillery, aged 19 years, received, in an engagement at Petersburg, 
Virginia, June 16th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the occipital region, by a round ball. He was admitted, on the same day, into 
the field hospital of the First Divi.sion, Second .\nny Corps, and, im the 21st, was sent to the base hospital at City Point. Simple 
dressings were used. The patient was subsequently transferred to Washington, niid was received into the Mount Pleasant 
Hospital on June 27th. He was, a few days later, sent to the Chester Hospital in Peiinsvlvauia. The wounds fell into a 
sloughing condition, and death resulted fnmi the consequent exhaustion, .luly 28tb, 1864. Surgeon Thomas H. Baclie, U. S. V., 
reports the case. 

Case. — Corporal William Roth, Co. E, 119th New York Volunteers, aged 23 years, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania, July 3d, 1863, a scalp wound in the left parietal region, and also a wound through the left latissimus dorsi 
muscle. He was convej'ed to Philadeliihia, and, on July 5th, was adiuitti'd to the Satterlee Hospital. Both wounds were 
gangrenous. Charcoal poultices were applied, after cauterization by nitric acid. On July 26th. the wounds looked he.althy; 
but, on Julj- 29tb, excessive diarrhoea supervened, followed by chills and headache, and death occurred on August 2d, 1863. 
The case is reported by Acting Assistant Surgeon N. Hickman. 

Hcemorrhage. — In gunshot wounds of the scalp, primary hsemorrhage was very 
infrequent, but secondary hsemorrhage was not uncommon, and proved, when it occurred, 
a very troublesome complication. Abstracts will be given of all the cases, twenty-one in 
number, reported in detail: 

Case. — Private Thomas Bell, Co. .\, 9tli Pennsylvania Volunteer Reserves, a paroled prisoner, was admitted to hospital 
at Annapolis, Maryland, on .January 11th, 1863. He had been wounded by a musket ball, which entered the scalp to the right 
ot the occipital protuberance, and. jiassing forward and slightly upward, emergid at a distance of two inches above the ear. 
The missile, in its course, cut the occipital .artery, from which there was profuse lia;morrhage. Sight and hearing were some- 



COMPLICATED GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 81 

wliat affertcd; but, on the date of his leaving the hospital, the patient was doing well. He was transferred, on January 21st, 
1863, to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, after which there is no account of him. Surgeon T. A. McParlin, U. S. A., records the cage. 

Ca.sk. — Private Burton Fuller, Co. H, 7th Iowa Volunteers, was wounded, at the battle of Corinth, Mississippi, October 
3d, 1862, in the right temple. The missile entered on a line with the external canthus of the right eye. severing the temporal 
artery, and lodged. He was, on October 13th, 1862, admitted to the Hospital at Mound City, Illinois, where the temporal 
artery was ligated. Fuller was discharged from the service on January 13th, 1863. 

Ca.se. — Private John Heame, Co. E, 164th New York Volunteers, was wounded, in an engagement near Suffolk, 
Virginia, April 24th, 1863, in the right temporal region, the missile dividing the temporal artery, which bled freely. The 
hfDuiorrhage was checked by compression, and the patient was sent, on the following day, to the hospital at Hampton, Virginia. 
On .June 22d, 1863, he was returned to duty. 

Cask. — Lieutenant A. St. Clair Smith, Co. E, 12th New Hampshire Volunteers, was wounded at the battle of Cold 
Harbor, Virginia, June 3d, 1861, by a conoidal musket ball, which cut the scalp over the left ear and severed the temporal 
artery, which was secured with some difficulty. He was admitted, on .June 5th, to the field hospital of the Eighteenth Corps, 
and thence sent to Washington, D. C, imd was treated, at his quarter.^, at the Avenue House. He was furlouglied, on .June 
lltli, 1864, and was finally mustered out with his regiment, on ,June 2l8t, 1865. Acting Assistant Surgeon 0. K. Smith re<()rded 
the case. 

Case. — Corporal .John C. Taylor, Co. D, 5th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 44 years, received, at the battle of Fair Oaks, 
June Ist, 1862, a gunshot woimd of the scalp. He was sent to the Seminary Hosiiiia! .it Georgetown, D. C, and admitted on 
.June 4th. Profuse haemorrhage occurred, on the same day, fioni one of the branches of the teini)oi"iI artery. The main trunk 
was ligated. Just above the zygomatic process. Tlie patient was returned to duty on August I'Jtb, 1862. Tbe case is reported 
by Acting Assistant Surgeon Josiab F. Kennedy. 

In six cases of secondary haemorrhage from gunshot wounds of the scalp, the bleeding 
was controlled by pressure and by styptics : 

Cask. — Private G. A. Arnold, Co. G, 2d Vermont Volunteers^ aged 21 years, was wounded, at the battle of the Wilder- 
ness, Virginia, M.iy 5th, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which caused a wound of the scalp in the right parietal region. He 
was admitted to the Harewood Hosjiital. Washington, I). C, and, on May 15th, sent to Mower Hosjiital, Philadelphia. On the 
following day hceniorrhage occurred from the parietal branch of the temporal artery, which was controlled by compression. On 
May 31st, the wound had nearly healed, but the patient suffered from headache. He was returned to duty on .July 26th, 1864. 

CA.sr.. — Private John Gallager, Co. G, .5th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 25 years, was wounded at the battle of the Seven 
Pines, Virginia, June Ist, 1862, by a round ball, which struck in the right parietal region, two inches from vertex, la^'ing the 
bone bare. He was conveyed to Washington, and admitted, on .June 4th, into the Seminary Hospital, Georgetown. A luemorrhage 
took place from the temporal artery on the same day. The patient suffers from occasional attacks of vertigo. On .July 18th, he 
was transferred to the Union Hotel Hospital, in the same place, and, on July 25th, 1862, wits returned to duty. Assistant 
Surgeon Joseph R. Smith, U. S. A., reports the case. 

Case. — Private Zachariah Hancock, Co. I, 19th Indiana Volunteers, was wounded, at the battle of Gettysburg, Penn- 
sylvania, .July 2d, 1863, by a buckshot, which entered behind the left ear and lodged. He was, on tbe same day, admitted to 
the Seminary Hospital, Getty.-<burg, and, on July 11th, sent to the McClellan Hospital, Philadelphia. IIa3morrhage, amounting 
to twelve ounces, occun-ed on the following day, but w.as arrested by pressure and a solution of the persul])liate of iron. The 
patient was discharged on December 3d, 1883. Surgeon Lewis Tiiylor, U. S. A., records the case. 

Case. — Private John Lowrey, Co. I, id United States Infantry, aged 29 years, was wounded, at the battle of Antietam, 
Maryland, September 17th, 1862, in the right temporal region. He was, on September 22d, admitted to Hospital No. 5, 
Frederick, Maryland, and, on October 10th, sent to McDougall Hospital, Fort Schuyler, New York Harbor. On October 16tli, 
hsemorrhage occurred from the tem}ioral artery, but was easily controlled by compresses and styptic preparations. The patient 
was returned to duty on November 4th, 1862. 

Cask. — Private John O'Connor, Co. I, 20th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 21 years, received, at the battle of Gettys- 
burg, Pennsylvania, July 2d, 1863, a wound of the scalp near the vertex, by a fragment of shell. He was admitted into a field 
hospital, and, a few days later, was sent to Philadelphia, .and admitted, on July 7th, into the Mower Hospital. On July 11th, 
a considerable bcemorrhage took place, which was controlled by a compress and styptics. He deserted October 5th, 1863. The 
case is reported by J. Hopkinsou, Surgeon U. S. V 

Case. — Private Henry Schurringhausen, Co. I, 1st Ohio Light Artillery, age<l 25 years, was wounded in the forehead, 
by a buckshot, in the engagement at Cliantilly, Virginia, September 1st, 1862. He was admitted to the Master Street Hospital, 
I'hiladelphia, on September 3d, 1862. The injury was regarded as slight, but subsequent sloughing caused haemorrhage from 
the frontal artery on September 10th. The bleeding was readily arrested by continuous pressure and Monsell's dry salt. The 
wound healed, and the patient was discharged from the service on January 4tli, 1865. 

In eight cases, the bleeding was successfully treated by ligating the wounded vessel : 

C.\SK. — Lieutenant Henry (iilmoie, Co. A, 17th Vernmiit Volunteers, aged 32 ye.ir.s, received, at the batile of Spott- 
sylvauia, Virginia, May 12th, 1864, a gunshot flesh wound of the head. He was treated in a field hospital until May 19th, 
11 ' . 



82 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

when lie was sent to the Campbell Hospital, Washington, D. C. On admission, the wound was in a bad condition ; tiie 
temporal bone was exposed to view, and the tissues were sloughing and inclined to gangiene. On May 21st, hsemorrhage 
occurred from the temporal artery. Acting Assistant Surgeon F. W. Killy, ligated the artery in its continuity. No untoward 
symptoms occurred. On August 15th, Lieutenant Gilmore was transferred to the Officers' Hospital, at Annapolis, JIaryland, 
and, on September 6th, 1864, he was returned to duty. Surgeon A. F. Sheldon, U. S. V., records the case. 

Case. — Private F. C. Harthi, Co, G, 4ntli Virginia Regiment, aged 21 years, was admitted on June 1st, 1864, to 
Chimborazo Hospital. Richmond, Virginia, with a gunshot wound of the scalp, received on May 31st, 1864. On June .5tli 
haemorrhage occurred from the anterior branch of the temporal artery, which was ligated near the expansion of the temporal 
muscle. On June :iOth, the patient was doing well, and, on July 1st, he was furloughed for sixty days. 

Case. — Private Josiah Mullen, Co. A. 100th Pennsylvania Volunteers, was wounde<l during the siege of Knoxville, 
Tennessee, November 30th, 186.% by a conoidal Iwll, which struck the left side of the head and severed the temporal artery. 
He was at once admitted to Hospital No. 5, Knoxville, where Surgeon George B. Coggswell, 29tli Massachusetts Volunteers, 
ligated the temporal artery near its origin. The ball was not discovered until December 5th, when it was extracted from 
beneath the sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle, near the sternal extremitj'. The patient recovered, was furloughed on February 17th, 
1864, and finally returned to duty. The case is reported by Surgeon A. M. Wilder, U. S. V. 

Ca.sio. — Private Henry Reese, Co. I, 5od Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 18 years, was wounded at the battle of Gettys- 
burg, Pennsylvania, .July 2d, 1863, by a shell, which caused a llesli wound over the right temple. He was, on .July 5th, 
admitted to the Satterjee Hospital, Pliiladelphia. On July 13tli, baimorrhage, amounting to four ounces, occurred from the 
temyioral artery, which was ligated in the wound. Haimorrhage did not recur, and the patient was returned to duty on Decem- 
ber 7th, 1863. The case is reported by Surgeon I. I. Hayes, U. S. V. 

Cask. — Corporal A. Talmadge, Co. E, 11th New .Jersey Volunteers, aged 32 years, was wounded at the battle of Gettys- 
burg, Pennsylvania, .July 3d. 18(13, by a conoidal nuisket ball, which tore the scalp over the left temple for a distance of one by 
two and a half inches. He was admitted, on .July 5th, to Satterlee Hospital, Philadeliiiiia. The woinid became gangrenous, and 
was treated with tia.xseed meal and porter poultices. The pain was intense, and the patient was unable to rest ; the wound 
began to slough, and there was such free bleeding, that on July 14th the anteiior temporal arter3- was ligated. The slough was 
gradually tlii-own off, and, on .July 23d, healthy granulation commenced. A slight ha;morrhage occurred on July 27th, but 
was speedily arrested by compression. The patient was furloughed on August 1st, 1863, and returned to duty on March 24tb, 
1864. The case is reported by Surgeon I. I. Hayes, U. S. V. 

The following patients recovered, also, from secondary hicmorrhage treated by ligation, 
and tliey were discharged on account of the expiration of their terms of service : 

Casi;. — Corporal Henry Kullman, Co. I, 27th Wisconsin Volunteers, aged 25 years, was wounded in an engagement 
before Petersburg, Virginia, .July 30th, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which entered anteriorly to the right ear, passed 
through the pavilion, and emerged just behind the concha. He was at once admitted to the hospital of the First Division, Ninth 
Corps, and, on August 1st, was sent to the Harewood Hospital, Washington, D. C. On August 14th, haemorrhage, amounting 
to four ounces, occurred from the temporal artery, which was ligated in its continuity by Surgeon R. B. Bontecou, U. S. V., a 
ligature bemg placed above and below the wound. Hajmorrhage did not recur. On September 3d, 1864, the patient was sent 
to the Mower Hospital, Philadelphia, and, on May. 30th, 1865, was mustered out of service. The case is reported by the opera- 
tor. Surgeon R. B. Bontecou, U. S. V. 

Case. — Private Richard Norris, Co. C, 1st United States Cavalry, aged 32 years, was wounded at the battle of the Wil- 
derness, Virginia, May 8th, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which entered in front of the right car and emerged two inches 
back of the right mastoid process. He was admitted into Finley Hospital, Washington, D. C, on May 11th, 18(i4. On May 
25tli. hsemorrh.age occurred from the occipital artery, which was ligated by Acting Assistant Surgeon F. G. H. Bradford. The 
man recovered, and was discharged on July 20th, 1864, on account of the expiration of term of service. Surgeon G. L. Pan- 
coast, U. S. v., reported the case. 

In the following case, recovery ensued after ligation for secondary haemorrhage, and 
the patient deserted from hospital : 

Ca.sk. — Private David Jones, Co. B, 1st Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 26 years, was wounded at the battle of Spott- 
sylvania, Virginia, May 9th, 1864, by a conoidal musket hall, which entered above and to the left of the left eye, passed in a 
direct line through the integuments over the temporal region, and emerged four inches from the point of entrance. He was 
conveyed to the Second Division Hospital .at Alexandria, and, on May 21st, was transferred to Mower Hospital, Philadelphia. 
The wound was swollen and painful, and bled freely. On May 24th, the temporal artery was ligated in its continuity, in front 
of the ear, and half an inch below the wouiul, by Acting Assistant Surgeon S. D. Marshall. An attack of erysipelas was 
checked by local applications of iodine and of lead wat«r. The patient recovered, and was, on July 7th, 1864, sent to the hospital 
at Beverly, New Jersey, whence he deserted on July 23d, 1864. 

Two cases of gunshot wound of the scalp, complicated by ha3morrhage, had a fatal 
termination : 

Cask. — Private Alexander Brown, Co. B, 14th New York State Militia, aged 33 years, was wounded at the battle of 
the Wilderness, Virginia, May 8th, 1864, by a conoidal nnisket ball, which entered in front of the left ear, passed downward 
and backwards, and emerged about one inch below the occiput. He was admitted into the field hospital of the Fourth Division, 



COMPLICATED GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THK SCALP. ^3 

Fifth Army Corps, on tlie same day, anil a few days later sent to Alexandria, and was admitted, on May 12th, to the Second 
Division Hospital. Simple dressings were used. On May 19th, haemorrhage took place from the occipital artery, and, though 
temporarily checked, the arterial bleeding recurred on the 20th, and, on the 21st, about thirty-eij^ht ounces of blood were 
believed to have been lost altogether. Compression and astringents were the measures unavailingly employed. The patient 
died on May 2l8t. 1864. The case is reported by Surgeon T. Rush Spencer, U. S. V. 

Cask. — Private Lewis Jones, Co. C. 115th New York Volunteers, aged 23 years, received, in an engagement at OluBtee, 
Florida, February 20th, 1804, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was conveyed to Jacksonville, and thence to Hilton Head, 
South Carolina, where he entered the hospital on February 25th. On February 27th, Inemorrhage amounting to six ounces, 
occurred from the anterior temporal artery. The vessel was ligated, and haemorrhage did not recur. On April 20th, he was 
sent to the hospital at Fort Monroe ; on April 26th, to the DeCamp Hospital, New York Harbor; and, on September 27tli, 1864, 
to Albany, New York, where he died on October 15th, 1864, from the effects of the wound. Assistant Surgeon M. F. Cogswell, 
U. S. v., records the case. 

Tetanus. — In five of the fatal cases of gunshot wounds of the scalp, tetanus was the 
cause of death. In every instance, the invasion of this complication was ascribed to 
exposure to dampness, with sudden depression of the temperature of the atmosphere: 

Ca.se. — Corporal Charles G. Carpenter, Co. F, 19th Iowa Volunteers, aged about 32 yeais, received a wound of the 
scalp, in the engagement at Morganzia, Louisiana, September 29th, 1863, by a conoidal ball. He was admitted, from the field, to 
St. Louis General Hospital, at Jvew Orleans, on October 4th, 18ii3, where ho was treate<l by application of simi)le dri'ssings, and 
the administration of saline cathartics, and the free use of niorpliiiu. On the night of October 7th, the weather liccame cold and 
damp, and, on the following morning, the patient manifested .symptoms of trismus. The jilienomena of acute tetamis rapidly 
ensued, and the case terminated fatally, on October 11th, 1803. At the autopsy, an extrava^^ation of blood wiis found beneath 
the skull, at a point corresponding with the wound of the scalp. The case is reported by Surgeon F. liacon, U. S. V. 

Case. — Piivate A. J. Cook, Co. li, 92d Ohio A'^olunteers, by the accidental discharge of a pistol in his own hands, 
received, on November 2d, 1862, a slight bullet wound of the integuments of the forehead, over the right superciliary ridge. 
He was admitted to hospital at Charlestown, Virginia. The wound at first granuLited kindly; but, on November 10th, the 
patient having, in spite of the protestations of his nurse, removed the dressings, and gone out of doors on a cold, damp <lay, 
tetanic spasms of great severity set in, and the case terminated fatally within twenty-four hours. Acting Assistant Surgeon 
McEvven reports the case. 

Case. — Private Wilson Miller, Co. C, 116th United States Colored Troops, aged 26 years, was wounded, in an engage- 
ment before Petersbnrg, April 2d, 1865, V>y a conoidal ball, which lodged two inches above the left ear. He was taken to the 
hospital of the Secoinl Division, Twenty-fiflh Corps, where the ball was removed. On April ."Jth, 1835, he was admitte<l to the 
hospital at Fort Monroe. He was placed in a hospital tent, and unavoidably exposed to dampness owing to inclement weather. 
On April 14th, trismus commenced, and spasms gradually extended to the muscles of the chest, abdomen, and extremities. 
Active pui-gatives were given until the bowels were thoroughly evacuated, after which opium was prescribed without effect. 
Subsequently, ether and chlorofonn were administered, with but temporary benefit; assafoetida also, was ineffectually administered 
per anum in large and repeated doses. Death occurred on April 2(lth, 1865. Assistant Surgeon E. JleClellan, U. S. A., reports 
the case. 

Case. — Lieutenant Patrick Morris, Co. M, 62d Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 30 years, received, at the battle of 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2d, 1803, a gunshot scalp wound of the occipital region. On July 3d, he was admitted to the 
hospital of the Fifth Corps. On July 7th, tetanus, in the form of trismus, made its appearance (Chloroform was administered 
by inhalation, and free incisions were made through the scalp near the seat of injury. These measures appeared for a time, 
greatly to alleviate the symptoms, but after a temporary remission, these recuiTed with increased severity, and death took place, 
on July 11th, 1863. 

Case. — Private Thomas J. Severance, Co. F, 2d New Hampshire Volunteei-s, aged 25 years, was wounded, at the battle 
of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2d, 1803, by a fragment of shell, which caused a wound of tlie right side of the scalp, 
posterior aspect. He was, at first, admitted to the Seminary Hospital, and, on July 8tli, was transferred to Turner's Lane 
Hospital, Philadelphia. The general health of the patient was good. The edges of the wound were inflamed, and cold water 
dressings were therefore applied, and continued until July lOtli, when the patient complained of stiffness of the jaws. The 
throat was rubbed with strong ammouiacal liniment. On the following day, there was confirmed trismus, and, in addition to 
this, emprosthotonos occurred daring the night. Warm cataplasms were applied to the wound, and anodynes were administered 
internally. On July 18th, the anodynes were continued, and, as the wound was found to be suppurating freely, a supporting 
course, consisting of milk punch, and injections of beef tea, was resorted to. On July 19lh, the patient appeared to be much 
the same, manifesting a great indisposition to be disturbed. The treatment of the preceding day was continued, together with 
the application of powerful rubefacients along the spine. Death resulted on the morning of the 20th of July. The apparent 
cause of the invasion was damp weather, as it occurred during a very damp, rainy period. The case is recorded by Assistant 
Surgeon C. H. Alden, U. S. A. 

The following case was regarded as an instance of recovery from traumatic tetanus, but 
the evidence is anything but satisfactory : 



84 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Cask. — Private Conrad Wentzpll, Co. E, 75th Pennsylvania Volunteers, ageil 34 years, received, at the battle of Gettys- 
burg, July 1st, 18(>3, gunshot wounds of the left side of the head and of the upper third of the left arm. He was at once 
a<lMiitteil into Seminary Hospital, Gettysburg, and thence, on .Tidy 13th, sent to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia. There were 
indications of tri-sinius or tetanus; but upon chloroform being inhaled, no spasms or pain recurred. On the IGtIi, the patient 
complained of biu'iiing pain in the wound, but on the 25th, he wns doing well. The wound looked healthy, and no further 
complication ensued. He was furloughed on September 2Stli. 1863, and transferred to Veteran Keserve Corps on February 
29th, 1864. 

Pycemia. — The reports specify five cases of gunshot wounds of the scalp in which 
pya3mia supervened: 

Ca.sk. — Privatt! T. D. Tlu/f/s, Co. I, Anthorn's Regiment, was, on July 5th, 1863, admitted to the hospital steamer R. C. 
Wood, with a gunshot wound of the left side of the scalp. On .Tidy 7th, he was transferred to the Overton Hospital, Mempliis, 
Tennessee, and, on July 31st, lie was sent to the Church Hospital of the same city, where he died, on September 3d, 1863, of 
septicajmia, accompanied by embolic obstructions in some of the smaller arteries. 

Case. — Private George Gold, Co. I, 155th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 23 years, was admitted to Harevvood Hospital 
on October 7th, 1864. He had been wounded at Poplar Grove Church, on September 30tb, by a musket ball, which struck the 
scalp, passing from before backwards, tearing up a portion ai)out three inches in length by one inch in breadth, laying bare the 
skull and denuding it of its jjericranuim for the space of three inches in length and one inch in breadth, through the middle of 
which space the sagittal suture passed, meeting the coronal at the anterior border. The p.itient was carefully watched for symp- 
toms indicative of cerebral or meningeal inflainmation ; but none were manifested up to the moment of his death, unless a slight 
drowsiness, which, at the time, was attributed to the administration of eight grains of Dover's powder, might be so regarded. 
He was up and about the ward, complaining of nothing except the wound in the scalp, and receiving no treatment, except 
simple dressings, until the morning of October 18tli, when he spoke of a slight pain in the left side of the chest, over the lower 
lobe of the lung. There was some dullness on percussion over the ])art complained of. but no marked ph_vsical signs of inflam- 
matory mischief. On October 19tli, the ])atient was worse. The pain in the left chest was more severe, resembling that of 
pleurisy; the pulse was full and frequent; the tongue brown and rather dry; there was very little cough, and no expectoration. 
On percussion, the right side was very dull over thi^ lower lobe, less so over the ui)23er lobe. The respiratory nuinnurs were 
nearly if not quite normal, over the whole of the right lung. Examination by auscultation nnsatisfixctory, on account of the 
turbulent action of the heart and the catching character of the respiration. There was no cephalic or nervous symptoms. On 
October 2Uth, the patient appeared more comfortable in the early part of the day, the respiration less labored, and pulse more 
quiet, and tongue more moist ; towaids the latter part of the day, however, the symptoms increased in severity. Great dullness 
over whole of left side of chest was noticed, and greatly diminished resonance ou the right side. The vesicular murmur was 
heard over a small portion of the superior lobe of the left lung only. Moist friction sounds over nearly the whole of the left lung 
could be beard, together with l)ronchial respiration, and, at some circumscribed parts, a very coarse crepitation. On the right 
side the vesicular murmur was rather faint, and greatly obscured by bronchial respiration. On October 21st, there was less 
pain and dyspnoea, very little cough, with a soft infrequent pulse, pale countenance, and increasing dullness on percussion over 
the right side. Towards the latter part of the day there was less drowsiness. The patient died at half-past eight o'clock, on 
October 22d, 1861. He was perfectly sensible and rational within ten minutes of his death. A post mortem examination was 
made three hours afterwards. Cadaveric rigidity was strongly marked ; the skin of the chest and face was of a deeply jaundiced 
laie On making an opening into the chest, about twenty ounces of yellow serum was found in the left pleura, none in the 
right. The pleural cavities of both sides, but particularly the left, were covered to a considerable extent with coagiilable lymph 
of considerable firmness. The left costal and pulmonary pleural were bound strongly together by broad, thick bands, the result 
of some former disease. There were also a few much less firm attachments on thi^ right side. The lower lobe of the left lung 
was in a state of gray hepatization, the upper lobe in that of red hepatization, and in both, at various points, were found circum- 
scril)ed deposits of pus, containing from one-half a drachm to a drachm each. The lower lobe of the right lung was in a state 
of red hepatization, and the middle and upper lobes were greatly congested. In the lower lobe were found two or three purulent 
deposits, which appeared to form centres of inflammation, or metastatic foci. The wound along the scalp appeared as during 
life. Pus was found along the coronal and sagittal sutures, throughout the whole extent, dissecting the scalp from the bone, to 
the breadth of one inch. The skull was roughened, and deprived of pericranium to that extent. The portion of the wound 
which had been originally denuded had begun to exfoliate, a line of separation being visible around it. On removing the 
calvaria. a thin layer of pus was found between the bone and dura mater, extending along the sagittal and coronal sutures to 
the same extent as on the exteinal surface, the amount of pus within the skull being less than one drachm. There was a 
narrow strip of the dura mater each side of these sutures which was inHamed; at other parts this membrane was healthy. The 
arachnoid and pia mater were perfectly nonnal. The hiain and its ventricles, the cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and roots of 
all the cerebral nerves, were carefully examined, and no lesions were discovered. The heart and its valves, the vena cava and 
azygos, the pulmonary veins and arteries, the jugulars, and the blood-vessels of the brain, were in a noi-mal condition. The 
liver was apparently healthy. Acting Assistant Surgeon Cobb recorded the case. 

Case. — Private Rufus Hedges, Co. 6, 10th Michigan Volunteers, received, in the engagement at Peach Tree Creek, 
Georgia. July 21st, 1864, a slight gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted into the field hospital of the Second Division, 
Fourteenth Army Corps, on the same day. On the following day, he was conveyed to Hospital No. 2, at Chattanooga, 
Tennessee. On August 7th, he was transferred to the Sherman Hospital, at Nashville. A supporting diet was given, and 
simple dressings used. The patient died, on August 30th, 1864, of pysemia. Surgeon William Threlkeld, U. S. V., reports 
the case. 



COMPLICATED GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 85 

Case. — Private Gilmer P. Rook, Co. B, 9th Maine Volunteers, aged 18 years, received, at the seipe of Petersburg, 
Virginia, July 8tli, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Second Division, Tenth Corps, 
and was thence sent to the McDougall Hospital, at Fort Schuyler, where he entered on July 27th. He died, on July Slst, 
of double pneumonia and icterus, and other signs of pyaemia. 

Cask. — Private A. Russell, Co. K, 53d North Carolina Regiment, received, at the battle nf Getty.«burg. Pennsylvania, 
July 3d, 1863, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the Seminary Hospital, and, on July 17th, was transferred 
to the De Camp Hospital, at David's Island, New York. Pyaemia supervened, and death occurred on September 20th, 1863. 
Sui-geon Charles Gray, 11th New York Cavalry, reports the case. 

Complications from IntercurreJit Diseases. — In twelve cases of gunshot wounds of 
the scalp, the fatal results are ascribed to typhoid fever. This tenti was often employed 
in a very loose sense by some of the medical ofheers, being applied not infrequently to 
a state of exhaustion resulting from irritative or traumatic fever : 

Case. — Private George W. Beisel, Co. K, 55th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 29 j-ears, was wounded, while on picket, 
May 2nth, 1864, by a musket ball, which tore the scalp on the left side. He was admitted, on Miiy 2:'d, to the hospital at P< int 
Lookout, Maryland, furloughed June 24tli, and readmitted on August 17th, 1864. Typhoid fever then set in, and d<>ath 
occurred on October 27th, 1864. 

Case. — Private Charles W. Hapenstall, Co. G, 3f)th Illinois Vohuiteers, aged 18 yuiii-s, was wounded, at the battle of 
Franklin. Tennessee, November 30th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which injiu-ed the scalp. He was treated in a regimental 
hospital at first, and transferred, on December 2d, to Hospital No. 19, at Nashville; but. on the same day, he was returni'd to 
modified duty, at the Convalescent Camp. On December 4th. he was admitted to the Clay Hosjiital. Louisville, Kentucky, on 
account of the same injury. On December 25th, he was tiansferred to Hospital No. 5, at Quincy, Illinois, where he died, on 
December 26th, 1864, of "typhoid fever." 

Case. — Private Lewis Hicks, Co. K. 6th New York Heavy Artillery, was wounded, in an engagement before Petersburg 
Virginia, .June 18th, 1864, by a conoidal b.ill, which struck the left temporal region, inflicting a laceration of the integument. 
He also received a shell wound of tiio second finger of the left hand. He was admitted to tlie hospital of the .Second Division, 
Fifth Corps, where the terminal phalanx was removed. On July 2d. he was sent to the Slough Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, 
where cold water dressings were applied to the scalp wound. Death occurred, from enteric fever, on July lOth, 1864. The 
autopsy revealed the pathognomonic ulceration of Peyer's glands, and extensive inflammation of the intestinal canal. 

Case. — Private Thomas Jorman, Co. A, 35th North Carolina Regiment, was iidniitted to the hospital transport De Molay, 
with a gunshot wound of tlie scalp. Typhoid fever supervened, and the patient dieil, on August ^8th, 1864. 

Case. — Private John Leach, Co. I, lltb Iowa Volunteers, aged 26 years, received, at the battle of Shiloh, Tennessee, 
April 6th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He subsequently contracted typhoid fever, from which he died, on May 22d, 
1862, at Monterey, Tennessee. Assistant Surgeon A. R. Derby, 2Uth Missouri Volunteers, reports the case. 

Case. — Private Otis Packard, Co. I, 3d Maine Volunteers, aged 18 years, received, at the battle of Spottsylvania, 
Virginia, May I2th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp, over the left eye. He w.a8 admitted to the hospital of the Third 
Division, Second Corps, and, on May 14th, sent to the Harewood Hospital, Washington, D. C, where he died, on July 9th, 
1864, of "typhoid fever." 

Case. — Private John O'Ragan, Co. C, 1st Maine Infantry, aged 41 yeare, received, at the battle of Cedar Creek, 
Virginia, October 19th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted, on the same day, to the hoS])ital of the Second 
Division, Sixth Corps, and, on October 23d, was sent to the Haddington Hospital, Philadelphia, where he died, "of typhoid 
fever," December 11th, 1864. 

Case. — Private George A. Rausli, Co. B, 103th Illinois Volunteers, received, in the engagement at Arkansas Post, 
January 11th, 1863, a slight gunshot wound over the eye. He was treated in a field hospital, and, on March 8th. was discharged 
from the service, on account of chronic diarrhoea and hernia. He died "of typhoid fever,'' on board of the steamer Nashville, 
on March 12th, 1863, while in ti-ansit foi' his home. 

Case. — Private Barney Riley, Co. F, 1st New York Dragoons, aged 26 year.*, w.as wounded in the engagement at Tre- 
vilian Station, Virginia, on Jime 11th, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which caused a wound of the left side of the scalp. He 
was immediately admitted to the field hospital of the Cavalry Corps, anil, on .Tune 21st. he was transferred to Mount Pleasant 
Hospital, Washington, D. C. Typhoid fever supervened, anil the patient died on August 11th, 1834. The case is reported 
by Assistant Surgeon C. A. McCall, U, S. A. 

Case. — Private Alfred B. Smith, Co. F, 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, aged 26 years, was wounded, in an engage- 
ment before Petersburg, Virginia, June 15th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which lacerated the scalp severely. He was admitted to 
the hospital of the Third Division, Second Corps, and thence, on July 17th, was sent to the Finley Hosintal, Washington, D. C. 
He died, on July 27th, 1864, "of typhoid fever." 

Case. — Private George F. Stetson, Co. E, 23d Massachusetts Volunteers, .iged 23 ye,irs, was, wounded, at the battle ot 
Cold Harbor, Virginia, .June 3d, 1864, by a fragment of shell, which caused a scalp wound of the left side of the head. He 
was admitted to the field hospital of the Eighteenth Corps, and, on June 9th, sent to the First Division Hospital, at Alexandria. 
Typhoid fever supervened, and death occurred on July 8th, 1884. 



86 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

Case. — Private Charles Tennis, Co. K, 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry, aged 25 years, received, in a skirmish, near Dallas, 
Georgia, May 27th, 1864, a severe gunshot wound of the left side of the head. He was sent to Kingston, Georgia, and in May 
sent north. On June 3d, he was admitted to Hospital No. 8, Nashville, Tennessee, and, on June 27th, transferred to the Third 
Division Hospital, at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, where he died, on September 16th, 1864, of typhoid fever. 

In four cases of gunshot wounds of the scalp, the fatal terminations were attributed 
to incidental malarial attacks. But, as the symptoms were not minutely described, and 
the necroscopic appearances were not observed, suspicion arises that, in some of the cases 
at least, the chills may have been symptomatic of internal suppuration, or a part of the 
characteristic phenomena of pysBmia. 

Case. — Private Jolm A. Boyle, Co. A, 105th Ohio Volunteers, received, in an engagement, near Chattanooga, Tennessee, 
September 23d, 1863, a gunshot wound of the head. He was admitted to Hospital No. 15, Nashville, where he died, on October 
19th, 1863, of typho-malarial fever. 

Case. — Private Daniel Meyers, Co. C, 110th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 40 years, received, at the battle of the 
Wilderness, Virginia, May 5th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp, caused by a fragment of shell. He was, on May 26th, admitted 
to the Carver Hospital, Washington, D. C, and, on Juni' 2d, transferred to the Hospital at Brattleboro', Vermont. Fever of a 
malarial character supervened, and de.ith occurred on June 13th, 1864. 

Case. — Private Lewis Price, Co. A, 73d Illinois Volunteers, received, at the battle of Chickamauga, Georgia, 
Si'pteniber 19th, 1883, a slight gmishot wound of the scalp, over tlie left eyebrow. He was admitted to the hospital of the 
Third Division, Twentieth Corjjs. on September 24tb ; was sent to an hosi)ital at Nashville, and on February 7th, 1864, was 
returned to the hospital at Chattanooga, Tennessee, where he died, on March 14th, 1864, of congestive fever. 

Case. — Private Jeremiah K. Putnam, Co. b, 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, aged 42 years, received, in an engage- 
ment before Petersburg, Virginia. June 16th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. A conoidal ball struck over the parietal 
bones in the line of the sagittal suture. He was admitted to the hospital of the Third Division, Second Corps, and thence sent, 
by City I'oint, to tlie Broad and Clierry Streets Hospital, Philadelphia, which he entered on June 30th. He was, on July 2d, 
transferred to the Had<lington Hospital. When admitted the patient suffered from intermittent fever and chronic diarrhoea, 
and was extremely anfcmic and emaciated. He died, on July7tb, 1864, " undoubtedly in consequence of serous efl'usion in brain, 
causing general paralysis.'' 

In thirteen cases of gunshot wounds of the scalp, pneumonia is reported as the cause 
of death; but, in several of them, it is questionable if tlie pulmonary complications were 
not embolic phenomena, indicating the formation of metastatic foci, and whether these cases 
would not have been more properly classified under the head of pyaemia: 

Case. — Private Benjamin D. Cargill, 2d Vermont Volunteers, aged 19 years, received, at the battle of Spottsylvania 
Court House, Virginia, May 8th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the anterior portion of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital 
of the Second Division, Sixth Corps, and, on May 26tli, sent to the Lincoln Hospital, Washington, D. C. Furloughed on May 
24th, he was readmitted on June 23d, and died on August 8th, 1864, of acute bronchitis. 

Case. — Private James R. Coidter, Co. E, 93th Ohio Volunteers, aged 38 years, received, during the siege of Vicksburg, 
Mississippi, June 20th, 1863, a gunshot wound of the scalp, right side, and also a flesh wound of the right forearm. He was 
admitted to the hospital of the Third Division, Fifteenth Corps, where he is reported as recovered for duty. On November 5th, 
1864, he was admitted to the Adams Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, with pneumonia, and died on November 9th, 1864. 

Case. — Sergeant Richard Decker, Co. K, 1st New Jersey Cavalry, aged 22 years, received, at the afiairat Salem Church, 
Virginia, May 28th, 1864, a woinid from a conoidal musket ball, which tore up the scalp over the vertex for the length of an 
inch. No injury to the bone could be detected. The patient was sent to Washington, and admitted to Mount Pleasant Hospital 
on June 4th, 1864. Pneumonic complications supervened, and the patient s.ank into a typhoid condition, which terminated 
fatally on Juno 11th, 1864. Assistant Surgeon H. Allen, U. S. A., recorded the case. 

Casi;. — Private Samuel Healey, Co. C, 25th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 28 years, was wounded at the battle of Cold 
Harbor, Virginia, .Tune 3d, 1864, by a fragment of shell, which caused a wound of the scalp. He was at once admitted to the 
hospital of the Eighteenth Corps, on June 7tli transferred to the Second Division Hospital at Alexandria, and, on June 12th, 
sent to the hospital at Chester, I'ennsylvania. Warm applications were made to the wound to promote discharge, but on the 
19th pleura-pneumonia set in, and death occurred on June 23d, 1864. Surgeon E. Bentley, U. S. V., records the case. 

Case. — Private .John A. Huff, Co. E, 5th Michigan Cavalry, aged 48 years, received, in an engagement near Cold Har- 
bor, Virginia, May 28tb, 1364, a severe gunshot wound of the scalp frora_ a conoidal ball. He was admitted to the Cavalry 
Corps Hospital, and, on June 3d, sent to the Campbell Hospital, Washington, D. C, whence he was furloughed on June 17th, 
1864. He died wliile on furlough, June 23d, 1864, from wound and pneumonia. Surgeon A. F. Sheldon, U. S. V., records the 
case. 



COMPLICATEB GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 87 

Cask. — Private C. W. Johnson, Co. I, 31st Maine Volunteers, aged 25 years, received, at Spottsylvania Court House, 
Virginia, May 12tli, 1864, a sliell wound of tlie scalp. He was admitted to Harewood Hospital, Wa.shington, on May 16th, 
transferred to I'atterson Park, Baltimore, May 18th, thence to David's Island, New York Harbor, May 24th, and, finally, to 
Cony Hospital at Augusta, Maine, on June 3d, where pneumonia supervened, and the patient died, on June 11th, 1864. 

Ca.sk — Private Allen H. Moore, Co. E, 1st Ohio Volunteers, aged 26 years, received, in an engagement near Dallas, 
Georgia, May 27tli, 1864, a gunshot scalp wound of the left side of the head. He was admitted to the hospital of the Third 
Division, Fourth Corps, and, on June 1st, was Bent to the Cumberland Hospital, Nashville, Tennessee, where he died, on 
June 15th, 1864, of typhoid pneumonia. Assistant Surgeon W. B. Trull, U. S. V., records the case. 

Cask. — Private John Porter, Co. D, 35th Indiana Volunteers, aged 32 years, received, in an engagement at Marietta, 
Georgia, June 18th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the First Division, Fourth Corps, 
and, on ,Iune 23d, he was transferred to Hospital No. 2, Chattanooga, and, on June 30th, thence sent to the Cumberland 
Hospital, Nashville, Tennessee. Simple dressings were applied to the wound, but the patient was attacked by pleuro- ' 
pneumonia, and died on July 13th, 1864. Assistant Surgeon W. B. Trull, U. S. V., records the case. 

Case. — Private James Reardon, Co. B, 6th Missouri Volunteers, received, before Vicksbnrg, Mississippi, in the latter 
part of December, 1862, a scalp wound. He was taken on board the Steamer City of Memphis, and, on January 13th, 1863, 
was admitted to the hospital at Paducah, Kentucky, where he died of wound of scalp, with pneumonia, on .Tanuary 18th, 1863. 

Case. — Captain F. W. Sabine, Co. G, 11th Maine Volunteers, aged 25 years, received, in an engagement at Deep 
Bottom, Virginia, August 14th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was, on tlie following day, admitted to the Chesapeake 
Hospital, at Fort Monroe, Virginia. Pneumonia of the right lung existed at time of admission, and tenniuated fatally on 
September 15th, 1864. Assistant Surgeon E. McClellan, U. S. A., records the case. 

Case. — Private James Shields, Co. I, 69th New York Volunteers, received, at the battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia, 
December 13th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the Third Division. Nintli Corps, on 
December 14th, was sent to the Armory Squ.are Hospital, Washington, D. C, and. on December 19tli, transferred to the De 
Camp Hospital, New York Harbor, where he died, on January Dth, 1863, of iineumouia. Surgeon T. Simons, U. S. A., 
recorded the case. 

Case. — Private George M. Snow, Co. D, 25th Wisconsin Volunteers, aged 23 years, received, at the battle of Resaca, 
Georgia, May 14th, 1864, a shell wound of the scalp. He was, at once, admitted to tlie hospital of the Sixteenth Cor])s. On 
May 19th, he was sent to the field hospital at Chattanooga, on May 2l8t, was transferred to Hospital No. 1, Nashville, and 
thence, on May 24th, was sent to the Brown Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky. He died, on June 9th, 1864, of pleuro-pneumonia_ 

Case. — Private William Spencer, Co. F, 51st Ohio Volunteers, received, at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, June 22d, 
1864, a shell woiuid of the scalp. He was conveyed to Nashville, Tennessee, and admitted to the Cumberland Hospital, on 
June 26th. Typhoid pneumonia supervened, and the patient died, on July 3d, 1864. 

Tliree fatal cases of gunshot scalp wounds were complicated by tlie supervention of 
variola : 

Cask. — Corporal Edgar Calkins, Co. D, 5th Michigan Volunteers, received, at the battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia, 
December 13th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the right side of the scalp. He was admitted to the hospital of the First Division, 
Third Corps, and, on December 19th, was sent to Mansion House Hospital, Alexandria, and, on April 10th, 18G3, symptoms of 
small-pox being manifested, he was transferred to hospital for eruptive diseases, at Kalorama, Washington, D. C, where he 
died, on May 27th, 1863, of varioloid with cerebral symptoms. 

Case. — Private John Crandall, Co. K, 64th New York Volunteers, aged 33 years, received, at the engagement at North 
Anna, Virginia, May 18th, 1864, a scalp wound of the occipital region, from a musket hall. He was sent to Washington, and 
entered Carver Hospital on the 24tli, and, on the 27th, was transferred to the Summit House Hospital, Philadelphia. Here he 
had variola. When partially convalescent he was removed, .July 14tb, to Turner's Lane Hospital ; again, on October 10th, to 
Filbert Street Hospital, and again, on February 16th, 1865, to Islington Lane Hospital. Here he died, on February 24th, from 
the effects of the wound, and of the sequelee of small pox. 

Case. — Sergeant Charles Harbstrutt, Co. D, 74th Pennsylvania Volunteers, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, July 
2d, 1863, a shell wound of the integuments on the back of the head. He was admitted, on the same day, to the Seminary 
Hospital, at Gettysburg, to be transf'eiTed on the 18th, to the hospital at York, Pennsylvania. On October 8th, variola super- 
vened, and the patient died, November 6th, 1863, from the conjoined efl'ects of the wound and fever. 

In one case of gunshot scalp wound hepatitis is adduced as the cause of death : 

Case. — Private Edward McDole, Co. G, 7th New York Heavy Artillery, received, in an engagement before Petersburg, 
Virginia, June 16th, 1864, a scalp wound, caused by a fragment of shell. He was admitted to the hospital of the First Division, 
Second Army Corps; on .lune 21st, he was sent to the Lincoln Hospital, Washington, D. C, and, on June 28th, to the 
Satterlee H<ispital, Philadelphia, where he died, on July 9th, 1864, " of hepatitis." 



Diarrhoea is reported as a fatal complication in four cases : 



Case. — Private .loseph Coad, Co. F, 3d Maine Volunteers, aged 35 yeare, was wounded, at the battle of the Wilderness, 
Virginia, May 8th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which lacerated the right side of the scalp. He was sent to Washington, and 
admitted, on May 27th, to Carver Hospital, where simple dressings were applied to the wound. Death occurred on June 18th. 
1864, from "chronic diarrhoea." Surgeon O. A. Judson, U. S. V., recorded the case. 



88 "WOUNDS AND INJUEIES OF THE HEAD, 

Case. — Private A. F. Dana, Co. E, United States Marine Corps, aged 22 years, was wounded, at the assault on Fort 
Fisher, January 15tli, 18(55, by a fragment of shell, which lacerated the right side of tlie scalj) and caused a transitory concussion 
of the brain. He was nuide a prisoner, but was shortly afterwards exchanged, and, on February 3d, 1805, admitted to the 
hospital at Point Lookout, Maryland. Here he died, on July 18th, 1865, of " chronic diarrhoea." Surgeon G.L.Sutton, 
U. S. v., records the case. 

Case. — Private Alvah B. Small, Co. C, 20th Maine Volunteers, received, at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 3d, 1863, a 
gunshot wound of the scalp. He was, at once, admitted to a field hospital, and, on July 8th, was transferred to the Satterlee 
Hospital, at Philadelphia. Simple dressings were applied to the wound, and tonics and astringents were administeredlnternally. 
Chronic diarrhoea, from which he was suifering, persisted, and death ensued August 28tli, 1863. 

Ca.«e. — Corporal Richard H. Van Devine, Co. K, 1st New Jersey Infantry, aged 28 years, received, at the battle of 
Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 12tli, 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalp He was admitted, on June 11th, to the Mount Pleasant 
Hospital, Washington, D. C, and, on June 20th, transferred to the Summit House Hospital, Philadelphia. At the period of 
his admission he was very much reduced, and he died, on July lOtli, 1804, "of diarrhoea.'' Surgeon .J. H. Taylor, U. S. V., 
records the case. 

Privation in prison is assigned as the cause of death in one case: 

Ca.sk. — Private .John A. Brown, Co. B, 73d Illinois Volunteers, was woinided, at the battle of Chickamauga, September 
19th, 1803, by a musket ball, which produced a lacerate<l wound of the scalp. Ho was made a prisoner, and was sent to 
Andersonville, Georgia, where he died, on August 17th, 1804. 

The following case terminated fatally in consequence of the supervention of 
diphtheritis : 

Ca.se. — Private Julius McKnight, Co. D. 27th U. S. Colored Troops, aged 23 years, received, on July 30tli, 1864, at the 
siege of Petersliurg, Virghiia, a gunsh<it woimd of the scalp. He was sent to the hosidtal for Colored Troops, a few miles in 
the rear, at City Point. Here little importance was attached to the wound of the head, and the patient was entered on the 
register as suffering from remittent fever. On August 14th, he was sent to Philadelphia, to the Summit House Hospital, where 
the scalp wound was regarded as serious. As it was progressing favorably, light, simple dressings were applied. In Septem- 
ber, symptoms of diphtheria were manifested, and the disease making very rapid progress, the patient died, on Se|)tembcr 20tli, 
1864. At the autopsy, the mucous coat of the fauces and trachea appeared to be ulcerated and disorganized. A tough tubular 
membrane lined the larynx, trachea, and bronchi, even to the smaller ramifications; and in the larger air passages, this 
pseudo-membrane was detached. It was of a yellowish gray or ash colored hue. The lungs were much engorged. An abscess 
containing half an ounce of pus was found in the right lung. Entangled among the columna; carnea; of the right ventricle of 
the heart was a concretion, half an ounce in weight, very similar in appearance to the membranous exudation in the lung. It 
was very unlike the ordinary fibrinous coagula or heart clots so frequently observed in autopsies, and, under the microscope, 
presented the same histological elements as the exudations in the air passages. Surgeon J. H. Taylor, U. S. V., records the case. 

In another of the one hundred and sixty-two fatal gunshot scalp wounds, the fatal 
result was probably due to delirium tremens: 

Case. — Corporal William Quinn, (!o. A, 95th New York Volunteers, aged 29 years, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, 
July 2d, 1803, a gunshot scalp wound of the frontal legion. After a few days treatment in field hospital, he was sent to Phila- 
delphia, and admitted into Satteilee Hospital on July 11th. He died "from mania a potu" on August 23d, 1863. At the 
autopsy, an extensive discoloration of the forehead and face was observed; but no fracture of the cranium or injury of the 
brain could be detected after nu)St earefid exploration. There was cirrhosis of the liver; but the other viscera showed no 
organic alteration. Surgeon I. I. Hayes, U. S. V., records the case. 

The five following cases are reported as slight gunshot wounds of the head. From 
the evidence derived from prescription books, hospital registers, monthly reports, and 
other sources, it is inferred that the injuries were diagnosticated as gunshot wounds of the 
scalp only, and that no lesions of the bony walls of the skull were discovered after death : 

Case. — Corporal Isaac Foster, Co. H, 98th New York Volunteers, aged 23 years, received, at the battle of Cold Harbor, 
Virginia, Jiuie 3d. 1804, a gunshot wound of the bead. He was admitted to the hospital of the First Division, Eighteenth 
Corps, and was thence tiansferred to hospital Divisicm, No. 2, Alexandria, Virginia, where he died, on June 21st, 1804, from 
wound. Surgeon E. Bentley, (J. S. V., records the ciise 

C.\SE. — Corporal Henry French, Co. I, 173d New York Volunteers, received, on May 12th, 1803, a gunshot wound of 
the head. He was admitted to the Alexander Hospital, Brashear City, Louisiana, where he died, on May 25th, 1863. Surgeon 
C. Powers, 160th N. Y. Vols., reports the case. 

Case. — Private fl'. II. (iriffilh, Co. H, 2Uth Virginia Kegiment, was brought to the Chimborazo Hospital, Richmond, 
Virginia, on December loth, 1804, with a gunshot wound of the head. He died on December 25th, 1864. Assistant Surgeon 
J. B. VV^ilv, C. S. A., records the case. 



GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 89 

Case. — Trivate Charles Russell, Co. B, 37th Massachusetts Volunteers, was wounded at the battle of Winchester, Sep- 
tember 19tli, 18G4, and is reported by Assistant Surgeon Elisha M. White, 37th Massachui^etts Volunteers, as "killed in battle.'' 
He was not killed, however, but was conveyed to the general field hospital of the Sixth Corps, whence the case is reported by 
Surjieon S. A. Holinan, U. S. V., as a fiesli wound of the scalp, produced by a fragment of shell. On October 4th, the patient 
^vas transferi'cd to Sheridan Hospital, where the diagnosis is recorded by Surgeon F. V. Hayden, U. S. V., as a gunshot wound 
of the scalp, involving the integument only, and by Surgeon W. A. Barry. 98th Pennsylvania Volunteers, as a gunshot wound 
of the head with injury of the skull. The patient died on October 7th, 1864. 

Cask. — Private Edward Wilmore, Co. K, 1st MissouriVolunteers, received, at the battle of Wilson's Creek, MLssouri, 
August 10th, 1861, a gunshot wound of the head and the face. He was, on the same day, admitted to the hospital at Spring- 
field, where he died, on August 25tli, 1861. 

As contused or lacerated wounds of the scalp are rarely fatal, unless followed by 
secondary disease of the cranium or its contents, or by haemorrhage, sloughing, pyasmia, 
or tetanus, numerical estimates of the results of gunshot injuries of the integuments of 
the head can teach us little more than the relative frequency and fatality of such compli- 
cations. The foregoing brief abstracts of two hundred cases include thirty-eight recoveries 
and one hundred and sixty-two fatal cases. The tabular statement, on page 70, of 7,739 
cases of gunshot scalp wounds gives a near approximation to the truth regarding tlie 
results of such injuries, every allowance being made for errors in diagnosis and imperfec- 
tion in the returns.* The histories of 3,420 cases have been traced from hospital to 
hospital until the complete recovery of the patients and their return to duty was ascer- 
tained. In like rnanner, the histories of 132 Confederates who recovered and were 
exchanged, released, or paroled, and of 127 United States enlisted men who were sent to 
modified duty, have been . followed to their termination. The terminations of 1,186 
cases in resignation, discharge, dismissal, failure to return from leave or furlough, or in 
desertion, have been ascertained. 1,609 patients have been followed through successive 
transfers to hospitals or convalescent camps; though the records do not furnish evidence 
of the ultimate disposition made of them, it may be inferred that they recovered, since 
their names do not appear upon the alphabetical registers of deaths. Finally, 1,103 
cases are derived from the field casualty lists, and, although they are entered as cases 
in which the terminations are "unknown," it may be inferi'ed, as the names do not 
reappear on any of the hospital registers, that the injuries in these cases were slight, 
and that the patients were returned to duty almost immediately. Grouping those sent 
to active or modified duty, those transferred, paroled, or exchanged, and those who did 
not enter permanent hospitals, in one class, and in another those who were discharged, or 
dismissed, or reported as deserters, the 7,739 cases are accounted for as follows: 162 patients 
died, 1,186 were discharged, and 6,391 recovered But, as 1,186 patients discharged include 
many who were mustered out on the expiration of their term of service, or who failed to 
return from furlough, or who deserted, a nearer approximation to exact truth is attained by 
the statement that 162 died, 522 were discharged on certificates of physical disability, and 
7,055 probably recovered. The death-rate of gunshot wounds of the integuments of the 
cranium during the late war was, therefore, about 2.09, or nearly one fatal case in 48. 

*I am anxious to point out how far each numerical estimate may be relied upon, and to indicate the sources of error. 
The reports of each of the seventy-seven linndred and thirty-nine cases of gunshot wounds of the scalp recorded in Tabi^e III, 
were separately examined and were entered upon the regi.iter of gunshot wounds of the scalp, when the evidence indicated tlie 
probability that the injury was limited to the integument. The tabular statement is a correct transcript from the official records, 
and an index of the average results of the injuries to which it relates. To suppose that no cases of contusion of the skull or 
injm-y to the brain were included in the statement, would imply a precision in diagnosis and perfection in returns that are 
unattainable. In a final revision of the reports, I liave set aside twenty one cases, including eleven that were fatal, recorded 
among the scalp wounds as probably examples of contusion of bone, and have transposed about an equal number from the 
register of contusions and partial fractures of the skull. 
12 



90 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



The Surgical History of the British Army in the Crimea, compiled by Staff Surgeon 
T P. Matthew,* contains a record of 668 gunshot wounds of the liead designated "simple 
flesh contusions and wounds;" 8 of these patients died, 73 were invalided, and 587 were 
returned to duty, a mortality-rate of 1.02, or one in 83. The surgical report of the 
French army in the Crimea, by M. Chenu,^ presents a tabular statement of 1,633 gun- 
shot wounds of the head distinguished from fractures of the cranium and wounds of an 
undetermined nature, and designated "plaies simples et contusions." Of these patients, 
157 died, 17 were pensioned, and 1,459 returned to duty; a death-rate of nearly ten per 
cent. In the Report on the Italian AVar of 1859, the same author J enumerates 308 cases 
of gunshot wounds of the head as "contusions et plaies contuses." Of these patients 19 
died, 4 were invalided, and 285 returned to duty, or about one death in 16. These 
discrepancies are quite explicable. M. Chenu's returns are very incomplete, the slight 
cases being omitted. The British returns include contusions by spent balls and trivial 
injuries; but exclude fatal results from intercurrent diseases. The American returns 
comprise a large series of both slight and severe cases, and include the fatal results due 
to diseases contracted in ho-ipitals. 

The danger of injuries of the skull varies greatly, according to the part involved; 
but in wounds limited to the integument little difference is observed, save that those of 
the temporal and occipital regions are more liable to hajmorrhage. In 5,246 cases of 
gunshot wounds of the scalj), the j^recise location of the wound is not specified; In the 
remaining 2,493 cases the seat of injury is reported as follows: 

Table IV. 

Seat of Injury in Two Thousand Four Hundred and Ninety-three Ca^es of Gunshot 

Wounds of the Scalp. 



Regions. 



Frontal. 



Cases. 



573 



Parietal 1,234 



Temporal 416 

Occipital 270 



TOT.VL 2,493 



Died. 


Disch'd. 


Duty. 


Unkn'n. 


Per cent. 
of death. 


18 


117 


239 


199 


4.8 


37 


237 


586 


374 


4.3 


9 


80 


192 


135 


3.2 


11 


46 


133 


60 


5.7 


75 


480 


1,150 


788 


4.4 



The gunshot wounds of the scalp presented many varieties. There were mere 
scratches of the skin made by the sharp angles of shell fragments, solutions of continuity 
resembling incised wounds superficial injuries analogous to ordinary contusions with 
abrasion of the cuticle furrows or cleanly cut grooves made by balls moving with great 
velocity, lacerations with flaps or with much loss of tissue, long fistulous tracks or tunnel- 
like passages styled by French surgeons plaies en scton, and wounds with lodgement of 
the missile. 

* Medical and Surgical History of the British Army which Berred in Turkey and the Crimea during the War against 
Russia, in the years 1854-"55-'56, London, 1H58, Vol. II, p. 286. 

t Rapport au Cottgeil de Sante des Armies sur les liesultats du Service Medico- Chirurgical pendant la Campagne d'Orient 
en 1854-'5.5-'56. Par J. C. Ciienu, Paris, 1865, p. 134. 

{ Statistique Medico- Chirurr/icale de la Campaijne d' Italic en 1859 c/ 1860. Par J. C. CuENU, Paris, 1869, Tome II, p. 424. 



GUKSHOT WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 



91 



The abrasions and superficial cuts require no other comment than the Hippocratic 
aphorism, that no injury of the head is too slight to be despised; the furrowed wounds, 
because of the rounded form of the head, are usually very limited in length; the 
extended lacerations are commonly produced by shell fragments or by elongated musket 
balls striking sidewAys; long fistulous tracks are made by both round and cylindro-conical 
small-arm projectiles deflected by the dense tissues of the scalp, but the longest occur 
when a round ball strikes obliquely and runs around the head, such cases being rare unless 
attended by contusions of bone; the wounds resembling incisions are not exempt from 
slight loss of tissue and consequent inevitable suppuration. The wounds with lodgement 
of missiles will be noticed presently, after adverting to the relative frequency of wounds 
from the different varieties of gunshot projectiles. 

In the returns of 4,002 cases, the nature of the gunshot projectile inflicting the injury 
is specified in the reports, and in 3,737 cases this particular is not refei'red to, or was 
undetermined: 

Table Y. 
Nature of Missile in Four Thousand and Two Cases of Gunshot Wounds of the Scalp. 



NAME OF MISSILE. 



Couoidal Musket Ball 

Round Musket Ball 

Explosive Musket Ball 

Buck Shot 

Pistol Ball 

Solid Cannon Ball 

Shell Fragments 

Grape Shot 

Case and Canister Shot and Shrapnel. 

Torpedo Fragments 

Piece of Iron 



No. OF Wounds. 



Total. 



2.612 

384 

2 

94 

25 

3 

861 

9 

6 

4 

2 



4,002 



This statement indicates that 72.6 per cent., or nearly three-fourths of the gunshot 
wounds of the scalp, were caused by small-arm missiles, and that, without any attendant 
injury to the skull or concussion of the brain, the scalp may be wounded by the largest 
projectiles from artillery. The form, size, and velocity of missiles have very important 
relations to the nature and extent of fractures, wounds of the great cavities, and some 
classes of flesh wounds; but the soft parts covering the skull are so thin, that distinctions 
referable to the nature of the projectiles causing flesh wounds of this region are not well 
marked, and suggest few considerations of interest. The varieties in gunshot scalp 
wounds depends more upon the velocity than the dimensions or shape of the missile. 
Cleanly cut furrows were made both by musket balls and fragments of shell in rapid 
flight, and very ragged wounds were inflicted not only by shell fragments, but by nearly 
spent or glancing musket balls. . . 



92 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 



In sixty-five cases, or less than one per cent, of the gunshot wounds of the scalp, 



foreign bodies lodged, and were extracted fi'om bcncatli 



the integument. 



They 



were 




Fir.. S7.— Prniec- 
tiles extriiCted from 
a piitit'nt with a 
wound o{ ttie sciilj). 
— '^pec. 'I.")2<i uud 
<S7)('-. 45;7, Sect. I, 
A. M. M. 



chiefly small-arm projectiles, either nearly spent or diminished in velocity by deflection 
that made no exit wounds; but small fragments of shells, iron balls from spherical case, and 
buttons and bits of metal, torn from the soldier's uniform or equipment, were occasionally 
extracted. A few illustrative cases will not be uninteresting: 

Ca.sk. — Private Dii'dricli Dasenbuck, Co. C, 1.51s*t Pcnnsvlvaiiia Voliinfeers, \va.s wounded, at tlie 
liattle of Gettysburg, ,Tuly 1st, 1S63, by a battered conoidal musket ball, wbicli struck tbo scalp au incli 
and a balf bebind tlie rijibt ear, and, passing forward beneath tlie integument, lodged in the right check. 
He received another wound, the entrance being on the right side of the neck, at the border of the 
trapezius, two inches within and above the acroniio-clavicular articulation, the missile passing subcutaue- 
ously and lodging above the middle of the right clavicle, whence it was removed through a button-hole 
incision, on ,July 3d. He was treated for a few days in the Seminary field hospital, at Gettysburg, Penn- 
sylvania, and was then sont to Philadelphia, and admitted, on July 11th, to the hospital in Turner's Lane. 
On July 17tli, the position of the larger foreign body was ascertained, and it was removed from the cheek, 
by an incision through the inner or buccal surface, frimi its lodgement immediately below the orifice of the 
ductofSteno. Both wounds cicatrized promptly, and the patient was returned to duty perfectly well, on 
August 17th, 18(53. The ball removed from the cheek was very much battered, and included iu its folds a 
tuft of hair. The other missile extracted was a flattened jiicce of lead, not improbably a fragment of the 
projectile just described. This, a cylindio-conical ball of English manufacture, had apparently struck 
and split upon some hard surface before inflicting the wound in the scalp. The two projectiles were con- 
tributed to the .\rniy Medical Museum by Acting Assistant Surgeon Charles Carter, and are represented in 
the adjacent wood-cut, (FiG. 27). The notes of the case were furnished by Assistant Surgeon C. H. 
Alden, U. S. A. 

A ball lodged under the scalp is, usually, very readily detected; but, in rare instances 
of lodgement in the temporal fossa or occipital region, there may be some obscurity. The 
next abstract suggests the utility, in such cases, of the probe invented by M. Nelaton : 

Case. — A soldier of the First Brigade, First Division, Fifth Corps, was wounded, on Mpy 20th, 
18G4, in the advance from Spottsylvania towards the North Anna river, by a musket ball, which 
entered the left cheek over the canine fossa of the left superior maxillary, and passed outward and 
backward eight inches, without apparent injury to the bone, and lodged under the scalp above the 
nucha. Tlie discoloration of the porcelain tip of a N61aton probe passed through the long fistulous 
track, revealed the exact location of the ball, which was immediately extracted, on the field, by Surgeon 
T. M. Flandrau, 146th New York Volunteers. The notes of the case, together with the specimen, re])re- 
sented in the wood-cut (Fig 28), were forwarded by Assistant Surgeon .T. Sim Smith, U. S Army. In 
a letter from Dr.. Flandrau, dated Rome, New York, February, 1870, he refers to this case, and mentions 

that, " in a careful examination of the wound, several surgeons were unable to decide whether bone or ball was touched, until 

the porcelain-tipped probe promptly settled the question." 

Very rarely a fragment of shell may lodge under the scalp without injuring the bone, 
as in the following instance: 

Case. — Private G , Co. F, 4l8t New York Volunteers, in the assault on the works on St. 

John's Island, South Carolina, February 11th, 1864, was wounded in the right temple. He walked 
from the battle-field to the field hospital, several hundred yards in the rear, and presented himself to 
Surgeon Samuel Brillantowski, of his regiment. A crucial wound was found in the temporal region, 
three-fourths of an inch from the external angle of the right orbit. An irregularly triangular frag- 
ment of a shell was found beneath the integument, and was speedily extracted. Under appropriate 
treatment the wound healed perfectly in six weeks, the patient recovering without any impairment of 
vision. The specimen, contributed by Surgeon Brillantowski to the Museum, with the foregoing 
notes, is represented in the adjacent wood-cut. (Fig. 29.) 




Fig. 38.— Elongated 
ball extracted from be- 
neath the occipital re- 
(fion of the scalp. — Spec. 
3153, .Sect. 1, A. M. M. 




Fig, 29. — Small cast-iron 
fragment, apparently from 
the base of a cylindrical 
shell.— AJ)«c. 2345; Sect. 1, 
A. M. M. 



Brevet Lieutenant Colonel C. H. Laub, Surgeon U. S. Army, lately informed the 
writer that, during the hostilities with the Seminoles in Florida, the lodgement of small 
rif^e balls under the scalp was not an infrequent occurrence. Surgeon Laub cited three 
instances of removal of such missiles from beneath the frontal integument, in the cases of 
soldiers wounded near Fort Miller. The short incisions necessary for the removal of the 
balls healed within two weeks, and there were no unpleasant con.sequences. 



GUNSHOT "WOUNDS OF THE SCALP. 93 

Gunshot contusions of the head without breach of surfoce, of sufficient severity to 
cause eechymosis, were invariably attended by commotion, concussion, or intracranial 
extravasation, and are classified, and will be described, in connection with injuries of the 
encephalon. 

Among the cases reported as gunshot wounds of the scalp, were many followed by 
vertigo, headache, persistent pain at the point struck, impairment of the special senses — 
amaurosis and deafness being especially frequent — by mental imbecility, by epilepsy, and 
various forms of paralysis; but, as in all of these cases the ulterior effects indicated that 
there must have been some injury to the craniiuxi or its contents, they were nearly all 
excluded from the return on page 70, and will be considered in the next subsection. 

It has not been practicable to ascertain the nature of the disabilities for which one 
hundred and twenty-seven enlisted men were transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, 
after receiving gunshot wounds of the scalp. The reports to this Office afford no informa- 
tion on the subject. The surgeons' certificates, under which the men were transferred, 
were forwarded to the Provost Marshal General, and duplica^tes were sent to the Adjutant 
General; but these certificates only state the seat of injury, without detailing its conse- 
quences, and the degree of disability, without specifying its nature. 

A critical examination of the returns constrains mc to disagree with Xoudorfer,^ 
Denonvilliers," and other modern authorities, in regard to the comparative infrequency of 
gunshot wounds limited to the integuments of the cranium. In gunshot wounds of the 
head, the fractures and penetrating and perforating wounds of the brain undoubtedly 
exceed in number the lesions of the exterior soft parts; but so many of the wounded of 
the first class are left dead on the field, that it may be safely asserted that of the cases 
brought under surgical treatment, the scalp wounds are more numerous than the fractures. 

The return, on page 70, of 7,739 cases of gunshot wounds of the scalp, unquestion- 
ably includes some instances complicated by injury to the skull or its contents ; as, for 
example, the case of Corporal Carpenter, of which an abstract is given on page 83. But 
such examples are few, so that in a final revision of the registers of gunshot injuries of 
the head, made since the preceding pages were printed, I have found but twenty-one cases 
in which the evidence furnished by the reports indicated the probability of any lesion of 
the cranium or brain. There is great difficulty, no doubt, in distinguishing the various 
classes of gunshot wounds of the head, both in practice, and in the analysis of brief and 
often imperfect reports. But, from the evidence offered, it would appear incontestable, 
that in the cases of gunshot injuries of this region which come under the care of the 
surgeon, the wounds of the soft parts outnumber the fractures. 

The divisions here established in classifying gunshot wounds of the head, are, of 
course, in a measure, arbitrary and artificial, and are only justified by the necessities of 
analysis and of study. For these purposes, it is requisite to separate these lesions, and to- 
present particular descriptions of each; but the practical surgeon will never lose sight of 
the fact that, in examining patients, he will constantly encounter complications of disorders 
of every variety. 

' NKUDonFER. "ImKriege kommen derlei Verletzungen der Scliadelbedeckimgen viel seltener vor, als man glauben 
Bollfe, vvcil die meisten Sclmssverlt'tzungen des Kopfes sich nur iiiisserst selten auf die W^eichthcile beschriinken," u. s. w., :n 
Handbuch dcr Kncijschirunjie , Leipzig, 1867. Zweite Haltle, Erstes Heft, S. 6. 

^ DknonVILLIERS et GoSseus. "Earenieut les coups de feu bornent leiir action aux parties molle»." Compendium 
de Ckirurgie Pratique, Art. Lesions Tranmatiques du Crane, T. II, p. 570, Paris, 185L 



94 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

In discussing, on page 89, the ratio of fatality of gunshot wounds of the scalp, deaths 
from intercurrent diseases have been included in the estimates, in conformity with the 
system of reports in the medical department of the United States Army. In one hundred 
and twenty-two of the one hundred and sixty-two fatal cases, death would appear, beyond 
question, to have resulted, either directly or indirectly, from the effects of the wound; 
some form of encephalitis being the proximate cause in ninety-eight cases, and such com- 
plications as erysipelas, gangrene, lifemorrhage, tetanus, and pyrcmia, in twenty-four cases. 
The remaining forty fatal cases include twenty-nine deaths, attributed to typhoid and 
malarial fevers, and pneumonia, in regard to which it is difficult to determine how far the 
febrile or pulmonary symptoms were symptomatic only, and eleven deaths, due to variola, 
diphtheritis, hepatitis, privation, and delirium tremens, the original injury having little, if 
any connection with the fatal event The duration of life after the reception of the 
injury, of the one hundred and sixty-two fatal cases, taking an average from them all, 
was forty days. The mean interval in the cases in wliich the fatal terminations were due 
to encephalitis, was twenty-four days. Bome of the patients who succumbed to secondary 
diseases less directly dependent on the injuries received, survived many months. 

As other examples of tlie more common complications of gunshot wounds of the 
scalp, as hajmorrhage, erysipelas, sloughing, and abscess, will be oflered in the next sub- 
section, it will be more convenient to defer tJie consideration of these subjects. Some 
observations on cerebral irritation and on traumatic encephalitis will be presented at the 
close of the chapter. Remarks upon the cases of tetanus and pytemia will more appro- 
priately find a place in the chapters specially devoted to the discussion of those important 
affections. 

The Army Medical Museum has but a single anatomical preparation^ illustrating 
gunshot wounds of the scalp; but possesses a large collection of photographs of patients 
with such injuries.^ The majority of cases selected for illustration were severe lacerations, 
or were complicated by erysipelas, or sloughing, or injury to the skull. Four of these 
photographs are faithfully copied in Plate III. 

■ The ordinary primary treatment of gunshot wounds limited to the scalp, consisted in 
washing the parts with a warm sponge, shaving the scalp in the vicinity of the wound, 
removing foreign bodies, and suppressing haemorrhage, when necessary, and covering the 
part with a compress dipped in cold water. Many, perhaps the majority, of the surgeons 
were accustomed to approximate the edges of the wounds by adhesive strips, and a few 
even used stitches. It is hardly possible that they anticipated union by first intention ; 
but they probably hoped to abbreviate the stage of granulation by these methods of 
dressing. Other surgeons applied, in place of water dressings, a strip of muslin or lint 
spread with simple cerate, and kept in place by adhesive plaster, and thus avoided the 

' Specimen 13fl2, Section I. — A wet preparation of a portion of the scalp from the right parietal region, perforated by a 
musket ball which fractured the cranium. The opening made hy the ball has been enlarged by two incisions and by the 

sloughing of the contused edges. SiTgeant .J. F . Co. K, IJtli Maine VoUniteere, aged :?4 years, wotuuled at Port Hudson, 

Louisiana, May iJTtli, admitted into hospital at New Orleans, 29th May; died. .June 7th, ISli:!. The sppcitnen was contributed by 
Assistant Surgeon 1*. »S. Conner, U. S. Army. See CiitnIo<tu€ of the Sui';/v-al Sc''tLoii of the Armi/ Medirnl Museum, p. 38. 

- See C.\nD ritoTocij.M'ii.':, A. M. M.. Vol. Ill, p. 1., (Case of Sergeant Coletrap;) Vol. Ill, p. 3, (Case of Private 
Folsom) — for illustrations of lacerations of the integuments of frontal and parietal regions, without injury to the skull. See 
PnoTodRAPll.s OF SrilGlCVL C'asks, Vol. Ill, p. 7, (Case of Ferris,) p. 9, (Case of Van Valkenberg,) p. 10, (Case of Sliafler,) 
Vol. VII, p. 1, (Case of Wheeler,) p. 3, (Case of Scott,) p. 4, (C.ise of Schiller,) p. 5, (C.ise of Bean,) p. 7, (Case of Kinche- 
low,) p. 9, (Case of Henderson), Vol. I, p. 33, (Case of Dougherty) — forafew of the many illustrations of complicated gunshot 
inJMrii's of the scalp. 



GUNSHOT CONTUSIONS OF THE CRANIAL BONES. 95 

necessity of a retentive bandage. It was not customary to lay open the long fistulous wounds 
where there was an aperture of exit; but injections were used to cleanse tlicm from the 
hairs, bits of clothinci; or other foreign bodies that might have lodged in the sinuses. The 
blind fistulous wounds with a missile at the closed end, were treated by a counter-opening 
for the extraction of the foreign body, and were thus assimilated to the variety just men- 
tioned. In some of these "seton wounds" the whole track was laid open by sloughing; 
in others, suppuration was so abundant that the appertures of entrance and exit afforded 
insufficient space for the elimination of eschars and pus, and it was necessary to make one 
or more incisions along the track of the sinus When wounds of the scfilp became 
inflamed, cataplasms of flaxseed meal wore commonly applied, or sometimes bread and 
water poultices, or compresses saturated with warm water. . These emollient applications 
were occasionally medicated by solutions of chlorinated soda, permanganate of potassa, 
spirits of camphor, and infusions of belladonna. Ointments of the iodide of lead, sulphate 
of zinc, and nitrate of mercury are among the other local applications reported. In a 
number of cases where cerebral symptoms impended, besides resorting to general treat- 
ment, ice bladders were applied to the head This method was adopted with advantage 
in numerous cases at the Stanton Hospital, at Washington, under the direction of Surgeon 
John A. Lidell, U S. V. From the Confederate Hospital No. 12, at Richmond, Virginia, 
a number of cases of inflamed scalp wounds, successfully treated by continuous irrigation, 
were reported by Surgeon AV. A. Thom, G S. A. 

Gunshot Contusions of the Cranial Bones. — Among cases returned as gunshot 
wounds of the scalp were many in which exfoliations from the outer table of the skull, 
persistent pain at the point struck, secondary disorders of the brain, pyaemia, and other 
grave results indicated that there had been contusion of the skull without fracture. 

The following forty-seven cases of gunshot contusion of the bones of the skull 
recovered without serious disability, and the men were returned to duty after intervals 
varying from thirty-five days to forty -three weeks: 

Bean, J. W., Lieuten.int, Co I, 5tli New H.impshire Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the teniyioral bone. Fred- 
ericksburg, Virginia, December lotli, 1862. Returned to duty January 9tli, 18G3. 

BowE, John, Corporal, Co. K, 1st Maryland Volunteers. Denudation of frontal bone by a conoidal musket ball. 
Petersburg, Virginia, August 20th, 1864. Returned to duty December Ist, 1864. 

Cheesboro, Heuman, Private, Co. G, 46th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 23 years. Gunshot contusion of the right 
parietal bone. Marietta, Georgia, June 15tb, 18C4. Returned to duty October 2d, 1864. 

Clark, John, Private, Co. B, 116th Pennsylvania Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the frontiil bone. Fredericksburg, 
Virginia, December 13th, 1862. Returned to duty June 18th, 18G3. 

CociiRAXE, John, Private, Co. H, 141st New York Volunteers, aged 19 years. Gunshot contusion of the bones of the 
cranium. Resaca, Georgia, May 15th, 1864. Returned to duty August 19th, 1864. 

Collins, T. J., Sergeant, Co. A, 22d Kentucky Vohuiteers. Gunshot contusion of right parietal bone. June 4th, 1863. 
Returned to duty July 22d, 1863. 

Crouch, James N., Sergeant, 131st Pennsylvania Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the left side of the occipital bono. 
Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 13th, 1862. Returned, to duty May 12th, 1863. 

Corman, Elisha, Private, Co. A. 5th United States Colored Troojis, aged 34 years. Denudation and contusion of the 
cranial bones at the vertex by a fiaguient of shell. Deep Bottom, Virginia, September 29th, 1864. Returned to duty 
December lOth, 1864. 

Crosby, J. W.. Major, 61st Pennsylvania Volunteers. Contusion and denudation of the right parietal bone by a 
conoidal musket ball. Wilderness, May 5th, 1861. Returned to duty .luly 6th. 1864. 

Dablaux, Charles, Private, Co. D, 42d Illinois Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the temporal bone. Chickamauga, 
Georgia, September 19th, 1863. Returned to duty January 1st, 1864. 



96 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OB' THE HEAD, 

DlESZE, August, Private Co. H, 47tli Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 25 years. Contusion and denudation of the 
cranial bones by a conoidal nmsket ball. Cedar Creelc, Virginia, October I'Jtli, 18ii4. Returned to doty January 19th, 1865. 

Dor.i.MKYKi!, IIknuy, I'rivate, 3d Independent Oliio Cavalry, aged '2j years. Gunshot contusion of the cranium by a 
conoidal musket ball. Point Pleasant, Virginia, March 3llth, 1853. Keturned to duty July 5th, 18i34. He recovered rapidly 
from the wound, but renuiiued in liosjjital on account of distressing attacks of asthma. 

Dule, Hiram, Private, Co. U, 14tli Alabama Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the occipital region. Returned to duty 
September 3d, 1862. 

Elwood, Soi.omox, Private, Co. A, 8th New York Cavalry, aged 25 years. Contusion and denudation of the frontal 
bone by a conoidal umsket ball. Fisher's Hill, Virginia, October 7th, 1864. Returned to duty March 15th, 1865. 

I'OOTE, G. W., Corporal, Co. E. 51st Pennsylvania Volunteers. Gunshot contusion and denudation of the right parietal 
bone. Antietam, September 17th, 1862. Returned to duty Juno 17th, 1863. 

Foster, S. M., Private, Co. E, 13th North Carolina Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the skull. Chancellorsville, 
Virginia, May 3d, 1863. Returned to duty. 

Funk, Jonx, Corporal, Co. I, 54tb Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 39 years. Contusion of the parietal bone by a 
musket ball. Newmarket, Virginia, May 15th, 1?64. Returned to duty June 29tl], 1864. 

Galluita, A. JI., Private. Co. II.. 53d Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 23 years. Contusion of the left parietal region 
by a fragment of slieU. Spottsylvania, May lltli. 1864. Returned to duty August 2Gth, 1864. 

Gaud.neu, Wll.l.iAjr. Private, Co. 15, 18th Indiana Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the left parietal bone, Vicksburg, 
Mississippi, June 1st, 186-!. Returned to duty August 17th, 1863. 

Gl.Y.VN', Joiix, Private, Co. G, .57th New Yolk Volunteers, aged 35 years. Gunshot contusion of the cranium. 
Petersburg. Virginia, June 16tb, 1864. Retm-ned to duty October 19tli, 1864. 

HaDFIEI.I), Miciiaei. E., Private, Co. F, 8th Ohio Cavalry, aged 23 years. Contusion of the left parietal bone by a 
conoidal musket ball. Bunker Hill, Virginia, September 5th, 1864. Returned to duty October 28th, 1864. 

Hamilton, Wm. S., Private, Co. D. 14tli New Hampshire Volunteers, aged 21 years. Contusion and denudation of 
the right parietal hone by a conoidal nmsket ball. Winchester, Virginia, September 19th, 1864. Returned to duty, November 
28th, 18G4. 

HvDE, Thoma.s, Private, Co. F., Ist Vermont Cav.alry, aged 18 years. Contusion of the bones of the cranium by a 
fragment of shell. Appomattox Court-house, Virginia, April 8th, 1865. Returned to duty June 29th, 1865. 

Jones, Henry, Private, Co. E, 26th, United States Colored Troops. Contusion of the parietal bone by a conoidal 
musket ball. John's Island, South Carolina, July 7th, 1864. Returned to duty February 17th, 1865. 

Kei.ley, C. T., Sergeant Major, 20th Kentucky Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the bones of the cranium. Atlanta, 
Georgia, July 16th, 1864. Returned to duty September 21st, 1834. 

Lakem.^n, William, employed on the Gunboat Carondelet. Contusion of the bones of the skull by a fragment of shell. 
Fort Henry, Tennessee, February 6th, 1862. Returned to duty May 6th, 1862. 

Lennon, John A., Private, Co. A, 32d Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 23 years. Gunshot contusion of the bones of 
the cranium by a conoidal musket ball. Deep Bottom, Virginia. August 14th, 1864. Returned to duty September 22d, 1864. 

Madore, Edward, Private, Co. M, 11th Vermont Volunteers, aged 17 years. Gunshot contusion of the right parietal 
bone by a conoidal musket ball. Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 4th, 1364. Returned to duty August 31st, 1864. 

Martin, Jacob W., Corporal, Co. K, lOlst Ohio Volunteers, aged 30 years. Contusion of the right parietal bone by 
a conoidal nmsket ball. Franklin, Tennessee, November 3(Jth, 1864. Returned to duty February 1st, 1805. 

Monroe, D. S., Corporal, Co. H, 20th Michigan Volunteers, aged 21 years. Gunshot contusion of the occipital bone 
by a musket ball. Petersburg, Virginia, October 28th, 1864. Keturned to duty December 20th, 1864. 

Osgood, Charles E., Co. A, 4nth Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 32 years. Gunshot contusion of the left parietal 
bone. Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 3d, 1864. Returned to duty March 11th, 1865. 

Ran, C. C, Private, Co. B, 114th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 27 years. Gunshot contusion of the left temporal 
bone, with lodgement of the ball, which was extracted, soon after the reception of the injury. Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. 
Keturned to duty -May 6th, 1864. 

Robinson, William, Private, Co. E. 6th United States Infantry. Gun.shot contusion of the left temporal bone by a 
pistol ball. Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. Returned to duty September 4th, 1863. 

Roth, Peter, Private, Co. E, 4th United States Artillery, aged 35 years. Gunshot contusion of left frontal. Peters- 
burg, Virginia, March 31st. 1865. Returned to duty July 20th. 1865. 

RuG(iLEs, S. N., Private, Co. B, l."i7th New York V<dunteers, aged 23 years. Gunshot contusion of the left parietal. 
Chancellorsville, May 3d, 1863. Returned to duty January 21st, 1864. 

Ru.'i.SELL, George G., Private, Co, E, 15th Maine Volunteers, aged 18 years. Contusion and denudation of the left 
temporal by a conoidal musket ball. Mine Run, Virginia, November 3nth, 1863. Returned to duty April 19th, 1864. 

Russell, Joseph, Private, Co. G, 27th Michigan Volunteers, aged 21 years. Gunshot contusion of the parietal by 
a conoidal musket ball. Petersburg, Virginia, July 23d, 1864. Returned to duty .January 11th, 1805. 



GUNSHOT CONTUSIONS OF THE CRANIAL BONES. 97 

Sally, Ciiari.f.s H., Private, 4tli Maine Battery. Contusion of tlio frontal bono by a frafjimcnt of Hbel). Cednr 
Mountain, Virginia, August 9tli, 1862. Returned to duty, April 3d, 18C3. 

Satterly, William, Corporal, Co. G, 137tli New York Volunteers, aged 43 years. Contusion of tbc riglit parietal by 
a conoidal musket ball. Resaea, Georgia, May 15th, 1864. Returned to duty, June 27th, 1864. 

Sklby, Harlow E., Sergeant, Co. G, 78th Illinois Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the cranium. Chickamaugn, 
Georgia, September 19th, 1863. Returned to diitj', December Ist, 1863. 

Shattuck, C. II., Private, Co. H, 142d New York Volunteers, aged 44 yeare. Contusion of the bones of the skull by 
a conoidal musket ball. Petersburg, Virginia, June 30th, 1864. Returned to duty, September 22d, 1664. 

Shaw, William, Private, Co. G, 100th Illinois Volunteers, aged 21 years. Gunsliot contusion of the skull by a 
fragment of shell. Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 17th, 1864. Returned to duty, December 6tli, 1864. 

Shuey, Daniel, Private, Co. C, 14Sth Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 26 years. Gunshot contusion and denudation of 
the mastoid process of tlie temporal bone. Gettysburg, July 2d, 1863. Returned to duty, September 11th, 1863. 

STAL5IAKKR, M. W., Sergeant, Co. E, 10th West Virginia Volunteers, aged ;!3 years. Gunshot contusion of the frontal 
by a musket ball. Cedar Creek, Virginia, October 13th, 1864. Returned to duty, November 7th, 1864. 

Stephens, J. N., Private, Co. K, 30tli Georgia Regiment. Gunshot contusion of left t('m]i(>ral. Gettysburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, July 3d, 1863. Returned to duty, August 24tli, 1864. 

Sumner, Jacob, Private, Co. D, 67th New York Volunteers, agcil 31 years. Gunshot contusion of right |iarielal 
by a conoidal musket ball. Cold Harbor, June 1st, 1864. Returned to duty, August !)tb, 18C4. 

TiTiTS, George S., Sergeant, Co. F, 9th New Jersey Volunteers, aged 24 years. Gunsliot contusion of tlie skull 
by a fragment of shell. Cold Harbor, June 3d, 1864. Returned to duty, December I3tb, 1864. 

Twenty-two cases are reported of gunsliot contusion of tlic cranial ])ones, in wliicli 
the patients were discharged or mustered out at the expiration of their terms of service 
without any serious physical disability. Brief notes of the particulars of these cases are 
appended : 

Bevebidge, J. G., Captain, Co. F, 2d Rliode Island Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of frontal bone over the right eye. 
Wilderness, May 7th, 1864. Mustered out of service, June 17th, 1864. 

Brown, Charles, Sergeant, Co. G, 58th New York Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the skull. Cross Keyes, 
Virginia, June 8th, 1862. Discliarged from service, July 13tb, 1862. 

Brown, Patrick, Private, Co. H, 6th Pennsylvania Volunteers. Gunsluit contusion of the cranial bones. Second 
Bull Run, August 29th, 1862. Discharged from service, December 2Uth, 1862. 

Creasey, John F., Private, Co. I, 124th Illinois Volunteers. Gunshot contusionof left parietal by a fragment of shell. 
Vickshurg, June 26th, 1863. Treated at Memphis, by Surgeon J. D. Brumley, U. S. V. Returned to duty, and subsequently 
mustered out of service. Became a pensioner, June 29th, 1865, on account of chronic diarrhoea. He died about the 20th of 
August, 1865, having had, according to the report to the Pension OlTice of his attending physician, W. D. Yargan, M. D., no 
head symptoms. 

DoOLiTTLE, Henry, Private, Co. H, 2d Michigan Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of cranium, with denudation of 
bone. Near Knoxville, Tennessee, Noveuiber 16th, 1863. Mustered out of service, July 20th, 1864. 

Gay, William, Private, Co. A, 2d Ohio Cavalry, aged 20 years. Contusion of tlie frontal bone by a conoidal musket 
ball. Petersburg, July 30th, 1864. Treated at Mount Pleasant and Mower Hospitals. Discharged, June 13tli, 1865. General 
Order, A. G. 0., No. 77, 1865. 

Head, Albert, Captain, Co. F, 10th Iowa Volunteers, aged 24 years. Gunshot contusion of right jiarietal by round 
musket ball. Champion Hill, May 16th, 1863. Treated at Officers' Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. Mustered out on expiration 
of term of service, December 17tb, 1884. 

Hensler, Charles, Sergeant, Co. F, 6th Wisconsin Volunteers, aged 23 years. Denudation of right paiietal by 
conoidal musket ball. Southside Railroad, Virginia, March Slst, 1865. Treated at Lincoln and Harvey Hospitals. Mustered 
out of service, July 10th, 1805. 

HoUTZ, JameS, Private, Co. K, 111th New York Volunteers, aged 19 years. Contusion of the frontal bone by a 
conoidal musket ball. Petersburg, Virginia, April 2d, 1865. Discharged from service, June 8th, 1865. 

Knox, E. B., Major, 44tli New York Volunteers. Denudation and contusion of occipital bone by shell. Spottsylvania, 
May 8th, 1864. Treated at Fifth Corps Hospital, and at Washington, by Surgeon T. Antisell, U. S. V. Leave of absence 
granted. May 17th, 1864, and mustej-ed out with his regiment, October 11th, 1864. 

Lloyd, William, Private, Co. G, 122d Ohio Volunteers, aged 28 years. Contusion of os froutis by conoidal ball 
denuding the bone. Accidental, April 15th, 1865. Entirely recovered when discharged June 9th, 1865. 

McConnell, James, Private, Co. A, 9th New York Volunteers, aged 25 years. Gunshot contusion of skull by a 
buckshot. Antietam, Maryland, September 17th, 1862. Discharged, at expiration of term of service, April 24th, 1863. 

13 



98 , WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

MORIHAN, James, Private, Co. C, llOtli Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 20 years. Denudation and contusion of frontal 
bone by fragment of shell. Petersburg, Juno 16tli, 1864. Treated at Harewood. Mustered out of service, June 2lBt, 1864. 

Morton, D. J., Lieutenant, Co. G, 143d Pennsylvania Volunteers. Gun.sliot contusion of the bones of the skull. 
Wilderness, May 6tli, 1864. Treated at the Fifth Corps Hospital and at Washington. Mustered out with his regiment, June 
12th, 1865. 

Murphy, Danif.l, Private, Co. A, 29th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged .54 years. Contusion of the temporal by a 
fragment of shell. Fort Steadman, Virginia, March 25111, 1865. Treated at DeCanip and Dale Hospitals. Mustered out of 
service, September 11th, 1865. Surgeon C. N. Chamberlain, U. S. V., records the case. 

Plymesser, Samuel J., Sergeant, Co. G, 6th Iowa Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the skull. Kenesaw Mountain, 
Georgia, June 27th, 1864. Recovered, and was promoted to a lieutenantcy, and, finally, musten.'d out with his regiment, July 
2l8t, 1865. 

Sands, K. M., Private, Co. I, 1st Maryland Cavalry, aged 34 years. Contusion of cranial bones by a conoidal musket 
ball. Treated at City Point and Beverly Hospitals. Discharged on expiration of term of service, September 28tli, 1864. 

Sprague, Thomas C, Sergeant, Co. C, 155th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 45 years. Contusion of frontal bone by 
a conoidal musket ball, the bone being slightly denude<l of periosteum. Hatcher's Run, Virginia, Marcli 25th, 1865. Treated 
at Lincoln, Satterlee, and McCleJlan Hospitals. Discharged from service, August 14th, 1865. 

Van Valkenberg, E. P., Co. C, 39th Illinois Volunteers, aged 26 years. Gunshot contusion of left parietal. Peters- 
burar, April 1st, 1865. Treated at Harewood and Harvey Hospitals. Discharged July 18th, 18G5. 

Waite, Benjamin, Sergeant, Co. B, 198th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 25 years. Contusion of frontal by a conoidal 
musket ball. Southside Railroad, Virginia, Marcli Slst, 1865. Mustered out of service, May 27th, 1865. 

Walker, Hugh, Private, Co. L, 5th Iowa Cavalry, aged 19 years. Gunshot contusion of the skull. Fort Donelson, 
Tennessee, February 15th, 1862. Discharged from seivice, April Ist, 18G3. 

Way, a. M., Major, 1st New Jersey Volunteers. Denudation of right temporal by a musket ball. Wilderness, May 
6th, 1864. Treated by Surgeon Antisell, U. S. V. Mustered out with regiment .Tune 23d, 1864, and pensioned from that date. 
Pension Examiner A. D. Newell states, September 1st, 1864, that "The blow was so shocking that he cannot stand excitement or 
go out in the sun. He is not able to do any work, but will soon improve. His disability is total. an<l likely to continue about 
six months." Examining Surgeon J. G. Stearns reports to the Pension Bureau, December 12th, 1864, that "The patient is 
one-fourth incapacitated, though less every month." 

In twenty-eiglit cases of gunshot contusion of the cranium, the patients were furloughed 
when convalescent, and no further accounts of them appear : 

Allen, C. A., Private, Co. E, 18tb North Carolina Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the cranium. Chanoellorsville, May 
3d, 1863. Treated in Hospital No. 23, Richmond, Virginia. Furloughed June 2d, 1863. 

Aikens, L., Lieutenant, Co. I, 9tb Georgia Infantry. Gunshot contusion of the right temporal region. July 4tb, 1864 
Furloughed July 14tli, 1864. Surgeon J. B. Read, C. S. A., reports the case. 

Bryan, J. L., Sergeant, Co. E, lltli Florida Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the frontal bone. Treated at Howard 
Grove Hospital, Richmond. Furloughed August 9th, 1864. 

Collins, J., Private Co. A, 1st Minnesota Battery, aged 27 years. Gunshot contusion of the frontal bone. October 
10th, 1864. Furloughed November Ist, 1864. 

Cooper, M. A., Private, Co. E, 4tli Alabama Infantry. Gunshot contusion of the temporal bone. Wilderness, May 5th, 
1864. Treated at Howard Grove Hospital, Richmond. Furloughed June 3d, 1864. 

Coraey. William, Private, Co. I, 47th Alabama Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the skull. Treated at Howard Grove 
Hospital, Richmond. Furloughed June 6th, 1864. 

Cowart, J. L., Corporal, Co. E, 10th Georgia Battalion. Gunshot contusion of the frontal bone. Fai-mville, Virginia, 
May 27th, 1864. Furloughed June 14th, 1864. 

De Gray, James, Lieutenant Co. G, Ist Minnesota Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the cranial bones. Gettysburg, 
July 3d, 1863. Leave of absence granted him on August 15th, 1863. 

Edwards, D. H., Private, Co. A, 12th Georgia Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the skull. Chancellorsville, May 3d, 
1863. Furloughed June 6th, 1863. 

Fannin, A. li.. Lieutenant, Co. F, 61st Alabama Infantry. Gunshot contusion of the cranium. Winchester, Virginia, 
September 19th, 1864. Treated at Hospital No. 4, Richmond, Virginia. Furloughed September 29th, 1864. 

Foley, John W., Sergeant, Co. C, 124th New York Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the cranium. Chancellorsville, 
May 3d, 1863. Furloughed July 10th, 1863. 

Forbes, S. F., Private, Co. K, 7th Tennessee Regiment, aged 21 years. Gunshot contusion of the frontal bone. 
Wilderness, May 6th, 1864. Furloughed May 8tli, 1864. 

Gilbucl; J. M., Private, Co. K, 43d Alabapia Regiment. Gunsjiot contusion of the skull. WildcrnesB, May 7th, 1864. 
Furloughed May 2Cth, 1864, 



GUNSHOT CONTUSIONS OF THE CRANIAL BONES. 99 

Harper, E. F., Private, Co. F, 16th Georgia Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the skull. Chancelloisville, May 3(1, 

1863. FuHoughed July 1st, 1863. 

Ilensley, John C, Captain, Co. G, 59th Alabama Infantry. Gunshot contusion of temporal bone. Wildemess, May 6th, 

1864. Purloughed from Howard Grove Hospital, Richmond, Virginia, May 25th, 1864. 

Hutchinsori, R. M., Private, Co. F, 24th Virginia Cavalry, aged 30 years. Contusion of the right parietal by a conoidal 
musket ha\\, October 7tli, 1864. Treated at Chimborazo Hospital, Richmond. Furloughed October 20th, 1864. 

Jones, J. J., Lieutenant, Co. B, 13th Virginia Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the cranium. Treated at Jackson 
and Howard Grove Hospitals, Richmond. Furloughed June 2d, 1864. 

Knif/ht, Jeff., Private, Co. D, 8th South Carolina Infantry. Gunshot contusion of the frontal bone. Treated at Howard 
Grove Hospital, Richmond. Furloughed August 7th, 1863. 

Lucas, B., Private, Co. H, 17tli North Carolina Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the frontal. Petersburg, Virginia, June 
18th, 1864. Treated in hospital at Farmville. Furloughed July 1st, 18G4. 

McLear, D. B., Lieutenant, Co. I, 24th North Carolina Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the bones of the skull. 
Treated at Howard Grove Hospital, Richmond. Furloughed May 25th, 1864. 

Mansell, S. V., Private, Co. E, 6th Florida Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the skull. Treated at Howard Grove 
Hospital, Richmond. Furloughed June 10th, 1864. 

Saunders, E. I'., Private, Co. D, 12th Mississippi Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the pariet.il. Furloughed June 
20th, 1864. Surgeon F. M. Palmer, P. A. C. S., recorded the case. 

Shealey, J. M., Private, Co. K, Ist South Carolina Regiment. Gunshot contusion of frontal bone. Furloughed from 
Jackson Hospital, Richmond, Virginia, October 29th, 1864, for sixty days. 

Sherwood, J. J., Private, Co. E, 3d Alabama Regiment. Gunshot contusion of skull. Wilderness, May 5th, 1864. 
Furloughed May 25th, 1864, from Howard Grove Hospital, Richmond. 

Sijdnor, T. W., Lieutenant, Co. G, 4th Virginia Cavalry. Gunshot contusion of right temporal bone, August 13th, 1864. 
Furloughed from No. 4 Hospitiil, Richmond, August 25th, 1864. Surgeon J. B. Read, C. S. A., recorded the case. 

Walker, A., Private, Co. A, 43d Alabama Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the frontal. Treated at Howard Grove 
Hospital, Richmond. Furloughed August 11th, 1864. 

Whitley, J. J., Private, Co. C, 8th Alabama Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the parietal. Wilderness, Virginia, May 
5th, 1864. Furloughed May 30th, 1864, for sixty days. 

Wiley, Jacob S., Corporal, Co. K, ISth South Carolina Infantry. Gunshot contusion of right parietal. Petersburg, May 
20th, 1864. Furloughed June 13th, 1864. 

Six patients recovered witliout serious disability, and were transferred to the Provost 
Marshal, or exchanged, or were paroled or released. 

Bodman, IlarOy, Private, Co. K, 2d North Carolina Regiment, aged 21 years. Contusion of the occipital by a conoidal 
ball, which entered near the upper portion of the left ear, and ploughed under the scalp for three inches. Kelly's Ford, November 
7th, 1863. Treated at Lincoln Hospital, Washington, till December 7th, tlience transferred to Old Capita] Prison for exchange. 

Bulloch, N. J!., Private, Co. G, 5th Alabama Regiment. Contusion of right parietal bone by a conoidal musket ball. 
Winchester, Virginia, September 19th, 1864. Transferred for exchange, October 25, 1864. 

Galloway, J. T., Private, Co. E, 25tli North Carolina Regiment, aged 34 years. Contusion of frontal bone by a conoidal 
musket ball. Hatcher's Run, Viiginia, April 1st, 1865. Released June 14th, 1865. 

Glenn, Wade M., Private, Co. A, 14th Tennessee Infantry, aged 25 years. Gunshot contusion of occipital bone. 
Petereburg, Virginia, April 2d, 1865. Transferred to Old Capitol Prison for exchange, April 17th, 1865. 

Fisher, John H., Private, Co. E, 36th North Carolina Regiment. Contusion of the frontal bone by a fragment of shell. 
Fort Fisher, North Carolina, January 15, 1865. Transferred to Provost Marshal, April 8th, 1865. 

Woodbum, W., Private, Co. K, 43d North Carolina Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the skull. Gettysburg, July 3d, 
1863. Treated at DeCamp Hospital, New York Harbor. Paroled September 5th, 1863. 

Nine patients, with gunshot contusions of the cranium, deserted from hospital, and 
it may be inferred that their disabilities were not of a serious nature. 

DiFFENiiAcn, P., Private, Co. A, 7th New York Volunteers, aged 33 years. Contusion of the occipital by a six-pound 
iron ball. Antietani, September 17th, 1862. Treated at Camden Street, Baltimore. Deserted December 4tli, 18G2. 

Eddy, Ai.onzo F., Private, Co. I, 18th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 25 years. Gunshot contusion of the skull. 
Wilderness, May 5th, 1864. Treated at Corps, Campbell, and Beverley Hospitals. Deserted October 15tli, 1864. 

Glenn, Jacob, Private, Co. K, 1st Pennsylvania Rifles, aged 35 years. Contusion of the occipital bone by a fragment 
of shell. Petersburg, Virginia, June 17th, 1864. Treated at Division, Mount Pleasant, and York Hospitals. Deserted 
October 20tli, 1864. 



100 WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THIi HEAD, 

1Iasski.ri.hs, Wii.li.vm, Private, Co. C, 98tli R'nnsylvania Volunteers, aged 30 years. Contusion of tlie frontal hone by 
a fragment of shell. Cedar Creek, Virginia, Ootolier 19tli, 1864. Treated at Division and Cuyler Hospitals. Deserted 
January 8tli. 1865. 

IIOFFMAX, IIknuy, Private, Co. K, 7tli Oliio Vohmteers, aged 23 years. Contusion of right temporal liy a eonoidal 
musket ball. Clianeellorsville, May 3d, 1863. Treated at Douglas and Cincinnati Hospitals. Deserted 2\'ovember ICth, 18(j3. 

McCai.i., Jamk.S, Private. Co. A, 147tli Pennsylvania Vohmteers. Contusion of the temporal by a fragment of shell. 
Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. Treated at Seminary and Satteilee Hospitals. Deserted September ICtli, 1863. 

Mc'Ei.ltoY, Jamks, Private, Co. F, 3(ith Wi.^^consin Volunteers, .aged 40 years. Contusion of the fiontal bone by a 
conoid.ll musket ball. Petersburg, Virginia, June 24tli, 1364. Treated at Division, Lincoln, and York Hospitals. Deserteil 
September SOth, 1864. 

Ryan, TIIO.^fAS, Private, Co. II, 58tli Massaclmsetts Volunteers, aged 35 yeai-s. Contusion of left temporal by a 
eonoidal musket ball. Colli H.irbor, June 3d, 18C4. Treated at Ninth Coips field, llarewood, and Mower Hospitals. Sutlered 
on exposure to the sun. Deserted December 2d, 1864. 

WlSI'KliT, Adam, Private, Co. H. 91st Pennsylvania Volunteers, .aged 23 years. Gunshot contusion of the occijutal. 
Petersburg, Virginia, June 18th, 1864. Treated at Division, Lincoln, and Satterlee Hospitals. Deserted August 9th, 18G4. 

In ten instances, men in whom this form of injury had been diagnosticated, recovered 
and were returned to modified duty in the Veteran Reserve Corps, in accordance with a 
General Order from the Adjutant General's Office. On their discharge, at the close of the 
war, four of them were pensioned, and six had no disabilities. The disabilities of the 
four pensioners appeared to have been of a slight nature, limited to pain and headache on 
exposure. 

]!a1!NIvS, .foil.N K., I'rivate, Co. C, 23d Illinois Volunteers, .aged 27 years. Contusicm of the skull by a eonoidal nuisket 
ball. Winchester, Virginia, July 24tli, 1864. Treated at Jarvis and Mower Hospitals. Transferred to Co. 118, 2d Battalion 
of the Veteran Keserve Corps, January 19tli, 1805. Not on I'ension Koll. 

IlAsriNdS, T. J., Private, Co. E, 3(1 Vennont Volunteers, aged 18 ye.ars. Contusion of the frontal bone by a fragment 
of shell. Cold Harbor, Virginia, Juni^ 3d, 1864. Treated at Lincoln, McKim's, and JJnittleboro' Hospitals. Transferred to 
Co. G, 2d Veteran Keserve Corps, November 26tli, 1804. Discharged July 18th, 1865. Pension Lxaminer C. S. Cahoou, of 
Lyiiden, Vermont, reported, on February 17th, 1867, that this man then complained of giddiness and pain in the head. 

IIeI'LKI!, AVii.i.iam C, Corporal, Co. E, 2d Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery, aged 20 years. Contusion of the frontal by 
a fragment of shell. Petersburg, Virginia, August 2d, 1864. Treated at Field and Satterlee Hospitals. Transferred to the 
Veteian Ueserve Cor])s, 2d Battalion, January 16lh, 1805. Mustered out November 21st, 1865, and pensioned in April, 1867. 
Pension Examining Surgeon R. Simington reported that this pensioner suft'ered from congestion of the brahi on slight exposure 
to the sun or fire heat, and rated his disability at one-half, and probably not permanent. 

McCarthy, J., Private, Co. A, 42d New York Volunteers, aged 20 years. Contusion of the frontal by a fragment of 
shell. Gettysburg, July 2d, 1863. Treated at Field and Satterlee Hospitals. Transferred to Veteran Keserve Corps, 
December 13th, 1863. Mustered out, on expiration of term, June 27th, 1804. Pension Examining Surgeon E. A. Smith 
rci«jrted, December 6th, 1865, that this man was a pensioner and suffered from headache. 

McLauney, I'., I'rivate, Co. G, 69th New York Volunteers, aged 40 years. Contusion of the right temporal by a 
eonoidal musket ball, destroying the sight of the right eye. Cold Harbor, Virginia. June 3d, 1864. Treated at Fairfax 
Seminary and Mower Hosi>ital8. Tnmsferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, January 28tli, 1865. Discharged July 8tli, 1805 
and |)enaione(l. Died in 1868. 

Odkuiioi.tzeI!, S. W., Private, Co. G, .">5th Ohio Volunteers, aged 33 years. Contusion of the parietal by a eonoidal 
nnisket hall. Chancelhu'sviile, Virginia, .May 3(1, 1803. Treated at I'ield, Ale.vandria, Satterlee, Patterson Park, and Camp 
Dennisim Hospitals. Transferred to the Wteran Keserve Corps, November 17th, 1803. Discharged for disability, October 
87th, 1804, and jjcnsioned fr<mi that date. 

Rl.N<i\VAl.i>. W. A.. Private, Co. E. 24th Michigan Volunteers, aged 19 yeare. Gunshot contusion of the occipital. North 
Anna, Virginia, May 23d, 1864. Treated at Field, Fairfax Seminary, Hacjdington, and St. Mary's Hos])it,als. Transferred to 
the 2d regiment Veteran Reserve Corps, August 31st, 1804. Discharged July 17th, 1865, and n.ame not found on Pension Roll. 

Roni-.liTs. E. A.. Private, Co. E, 20th Indiana Volunteers, aged 15 years. Contusion of the left parietal by a fragment 
of shell. Petersburg, Virginia, June 16th, 1864. Treated at Division and Lincoln IIos])it.als. Transferred to the 9th regiment 
Veteran Reserve Corps, December 8th, 1864. Not on Pension Roll. 

SiiArriE, Francis, Private, Co. B, 60th New York Volunteers, aged 19 years. Contusion of the occipital by a eonoidal 
musket ball, which lodged in the back of the neck. Gettysburg, July 2d, 18(i3. Treated at Satterlee Hospital, where the 
nussile was extracted on September 18th. Transferred to the 9th regiment Veteran Reserve Corps, December 31st, 1863. Not 
pensioned. 

Wat-sii, Mi(iiAi;r., Private, Co. K, 5th CVmnecticut Vohmteers, aged 21 years. Contusion of the right parietal bone 
by a eonoidal nuisket ball. Cedar Mountain, Virginia, August 9th, 1862. Transfei-reil to Co. 21, 2d Battalion Veteran Reserve 
Corps, September 1st, 1863. Muttered out, on ex])iration of tenn of service, July 22d, 1864. 



GUNSHOT CONTUSIONS OF THK CRANIAL JiONFR. 101 

The patients named in the following list were discharged from service on account of 
serious disabilities, the nature of which was not specified: 

Hempton, E. M., Co. B, 3d New Hampshire Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the parietal region. Morris Island, 
South Carolina. Discharged from service November 11th, ]8G3. Surgeon A. J. II. liuzzell, 3d New Hampshire Volunteers, 
regarded the disability as total. 

NovKS, Samuel G., Sergeant, Co. A, 40th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 22 years. Gunshot contusion of left 
temporal bone, by a conoidal musket ball. Cold Ilailior, Virginia, June 3d, 18G4. Treated at Field, Slough, York, Mason, 
Boston, and Keadville hospitals. Discharged from the latter, November 17th, 1864, for disability resulting from injury 
to skull. 

O'BniEN, J., Private, Co. C, 28th Massachusetts Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the skull. Treated at Carver 
Hospital. Discharged from sen'ice March 14th, 1863. Disabilit3' considered as total. 

Many of the cases of gunshot contusion of the cranial bones were followed by very 
grave symptoms. Hscmorrhage, erysipelas, and gangrene were the early complications of 
the superficial portions of the wounds; periostitis, caries, and exfoliation often resulted 
from the injury to the bone; and, in some instances, the mischief extended to the mem- 
branes or to the brain itself. The remote eflocts included persistent pain in the point 
struck, vertigo, chronic irritation of the brain, mental imbecility, epilepsy, and impairment 
of the special senses, especially by amaurosis and deafness. 

Hccmorrhage. — Of the cases belonging to this category, one was complicated by 
primary, one by secondary hicmorrhage, and a third, by htcmorrhage in connection with 
extensive sloughing. The brief notes of these cases are as follows: 

Newcomhe, John S., Frivate, Co. E, 50th New York Volunteers. Contusion of the left temporal by a ball accidentally 
discharged from his own nuisket on the Battery, at New York City, September, 18th, 1861. The temporal artery was partly 
divided and there was jirof'.ise hpcmorrhage. When taken to hoB))ital he was insensible. The artery was still bleeding. It was 
ligated near the zygoma, lie died September 21st, 1801, from inliammation of the brain. 

WlllTi"., .John F., Lieutenant, Co. C, 134th Pennsylvania Volunteers. Contusion, by a shell fragment, of the right 
parietal bone, near the sagittal suture. Fredericksburg, December 13th, 1862. Treated at Field, Point Lookout, and Phila- 
delphia Oflicers' hospitals. Free haemorrhage, on two occasions, from branches of the temporal. Tlie bleeding was arrested 
by compression. There was burrowing of jms and an abscess fonued near the ear. The wound healed by the end of January, 
and the patient returned to duty on February 17th, 18G3. 

Iirool'3, John, Private, Artillery, aged 37 years. Gunshot contusion of the temporal. Admitted, August 11th, 

1863, to the Louisiana Hos])ital at Eichmcmd, under the care of Assistant Surgeon H. N. Young, C. S. A. The scalp wound 
was in a gangrenous condition, and soon after a profuse haemorrhage took place from the posterior auricular artery. This 
recurred repeatedly, though temporarily controlled by pressure, and death took place on August 12th, 1863, the following day. 

Erysipelas — Six of the cases of gunshot contusion of the skull are reported to have 
been complicated by erysipelas. Two of these cases were fatal: 

Baker, John C, Private. 104th Ohio Volunteers, aged 22 years, was wounded, at the battle of Franklin, Tennessee, 
November 30th, 1864, by a conoidal ball, which caused a flesh wound of the left side of the head. He was conveyed to Nash- 
ville, and thence sent to Jeffersonville, Indiana, on January 11th, 1865, suffering fnmi erjsipelas. On February 23d, he was 
transferred to Lincoln Hospital, Washington, D. C, and, on June 17th, 1865, was mustered out of service. 

GlLDlciiSl.KEVp:, W.M., Cor]ioral, Co. D, 4()th New York Volunteers, aged 23 years, was wounded, in the engagement 
near Petersburg, Virginia, March 25th, 1865, by a conoidal nuisket ball, which entered the scalp over the lamboidal suture and 
crossing the occipital bone obliquely, emerged three inches from the wound of entrance, gi-azing the bone in its passage. He 
received, at the same time) a wound of the little finger of the left hand. He was, on the following day, admitted to the hospital 
of the 2d division. Second Corps, and, on March 27th, was transferred to the Finley Hospital, Washington, D. C. On 
admission, the symptoms were favorable; but, on March 3l8t, coma, with stertorous breathing, supervened. Sinapisms were 
applied to nape of neck, wrists, and ankles, and, on the following Aay, consciousness returned, and the patient felt much 
improved. On April 4th, erysipelas of the scalp set in, and on April 18th, sympt<mi8 of pneumonia appeared ; but from April 
26th, he gradually recovered and was returned to duty on December 8th, 1865. He was pensioned for one year. Pension 
Examining Surgeon M. D. Benedict reported, August, 1865, that his disabilities would not be permanent. 

King, Geokge D., Private Co. I, 21st Michigan Volimteers, was wounded, at the battle of Stone River, December 31st, 
1862, by a musket ball, which struck behind the left ear and lodged under the scalp, lying against the bone. He was sent to 
Hospital No. 7, Louisville, Kentucky. On Jamiary 15th, 1663, erysipelas supervened. He gradually recovered, and on April 
15th, he was transferred to Hospital No. 19. On the 27th, he was readmitted to Hospital No. 7. Four months after the 
reception of the injury the ball was extracted. The sense of hearing was entirely destroyed. He was discharged from service 



102 "WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

for disability rated at one-lialf, on May 16th, 1863. Surgeon J. L. Teed, 38th Illinois Volunteers, and the Adjutant General of 
Michigan, and Acting Assistant Surgeon W. W. Goldsmith report the case. A year subsequently, Pension Examining Surgeon 
Geo. W. Mears, reports that the wound was still discharging slightly. There was, probably, a scale of the outer table detached. 

Thompson, Jacob, Cook, 11th Illinois Cavalry, aged 26 years, was wounded at Fort Pillow, Tennessee, April 12th, 
1864, by two nuisket balls, one of which crossing the vertex of the cranium, inflicted a scalp wound and contused the bone. 
lie was conveyed to Mound City Hospital, Illinois, on April 16tli. Erysipelas of the head supervened and an abscess formed 
under the integuments, which caused much pain and febrile reaction. The abscess having been opened, the patient steadily 
improved, and on May 20tb, 1864, Surgeon Horace Wardner, U. S. V., reports that he was returned to duty entirely cured. 

Whiti.ock, Gkouge H., Private, Co. G, 109th Illinois Volunteers, aged 37 y<'ars, was wounded before Petersburg, 
July 30th, 1864, by a nuisket ball, which tore up the scalp in the temporal region, and denuding the skull. First treated at tlie 
field liospital of 3d division of the Ninth Corps, he was transferred, on August 2d, to tlio Mount Pleasant Hospital at 
Washington. The register of this hospital states that the outer table was indented but not fractured. Erysipelas of the scalp 
set in, and the case terminated fatally on December 1st, 1864. 

Wrirjht, S. C, Private, Co. G, 8th Florida Eegiment, was, on October 2d, 1863, admitted to Cbimborazo Hospital at 
Eichmond, Virginia, with a gunshot wound of the scalp with coutusion of the skull. An attack of erysipelas supervened; but 
this was readily subdued. After this, the patient suffered from acute dysentery. He died from this complication on December 
5th, 1863. Surgeon J. B. McCaw, P. A. C. S., reports the case. 

Gangrene. — Two cases of gunshot contusion of the cranium were complicated by 
sloughing of the scalp; both ultimately recovered: 

Ai.i.EX, George H., Sergeant, Co. G, 146tli New York Volunteers, aged 20 years, was wounded, at (he battle of Gettys- 
burg, Pennsylvania, July 2d, 1863, by a piece of shell, which tore the scalp over the right parietal, to the extent of two inches, 
denuding the bone of periosteum. He was admitted to the field hospital of the 2d division of the Fifth Corps, and, on the 
lllth, transferred to the Satterlee Hospital at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Phagedenic action in tlio wound was primiptly 
arrested by a lotion of nitric acid. Some exfoliation of the bone occurred in the progress of the case. Tlie patient recovered 
and was returned to duty on the 23d of September, 1863. His name does not appear on the Pension List. The case was 
reported by Acting Assistant Surgeon J. B. Trenor. 

Smith, J. W., of Captain Randolph's Company of Louisiana Infantry, was wounded, at the battle of Chancellorsville, 
May 2d, 1863, by a gunshot projectile which lacerated the scalp and contused the skull. He was conveyed to Kicbmond and 
placed in the Louisiana Hospital. Erysipelas, followed by gangrene, supervened. Detergent lotions were applied, and aiter 
a while the wound presented a healthy granulating surface, and eventually cicatrized. The patient was furloughed on June 
3d, 1863. 

Periostitis. — In a few instances protracted inflammation of the contused pericranium 
was observed: 

CoFFET, Patrick, Private, Co. E, 37th New York Volunteers, received, at the battle of Williamsburg, Virginia, May 
5th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the scalp with injury to the occipital bone. He was, on May 11th, admitted to the Mill Creek 
Hospital, and, on May 22d, was sent to the Ladies' Home Hospital, New York, whence he was returned to his regiment. Ho 
was, however, readmitted on June 12th, 1863, and was discharged from the service on June 23d, 1863. Tlie injury to the bone 
was trivial probably. No application for pension appears on the rolls of the Interior Department. 

Harrick, CnARLES, Private, Co. D, 94th New York Volunteers, aged 25 years, received, at Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863, 
a contusion of the right parietal bone at tlie lower posterior angle, by a conoidal musket ball which lodged under the integu- 
ments. He was admitted to Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, on July 10th, and, on the following day, the position of the ball 
was detected by a probe and the missile was extracted. A slight scale of the outer table necrosed, and the pericranium was 
fiHamed for a while ; but the wound ultimately did well, and the soldier was returned to duty December 3d, 1863. His name 
is not found on the Pension List. 

LfSK, Samuel R., Sergeant, Co. E, 137th New York Volunteers, aged 28 years, received, in the engagement on the 
Wauhatchie River, Tennessee, October 28th, 1863, a gunshot contusion of the right portion of the occipital bone. He was, on 
the following day, admitted to Hospital No. 3, Chattanooga. He probably, shortly afterwards, returned to duty, as in June, 
18GI, he was again admitted to the field hospital of the 2d division. Twentieth (/'orps, suffering from the old injury. He 
was, on June 18th, sent to Hospital No. 2, Chattanooga, Tennessee, on June 20th, to the Cumberland Hospital, Nashville, on 
June 27th, to the Brown Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky, and on July 1st, to Camp Dennison, Ohio, whence he was returned to 
duty on July 18th, 1864. He was discharged on June 28th, 1865. Examining Surgeon J. G. Orton reports, April 19th, 1869, 
that this pensioner was nervous, sleepless, depressed in spirits, and able to work but little. 

PitATT, Thomas D., Private, Co. D, 18th Massachusetts Volunteers, received, at the battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia, 
December 13th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the head. He was admitted to the hospital of the 3d division. Second Corps, and, 
on December 16th, was sent to the hospital at Point Lookout, Maryland. Here it was ascertained that the right temporal bone 
had become necrosed. On May 1st, 1863, the patient was sent to the West's Buildings Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, and, on 
May 18tli, to the Lovell Hospital, Portsmouth Grove, Rhode Island, where he was transferred to tlu^ Veteran ]£eserve Corps, 
on July IStli, 1863. His name is not on the Pension Rolls. 



GUNSHOT CONTUSIONS OF THE CRANIAL BONES. 103 

Exfoliation. — This was frequently observed in gunshot contusions of the skull. 
Many examples are noticed in the categories of other complications. The following 
twenty-five cases were also reported: 

Broxon, C, Prir.ite, Co. F, tltli South Carolina Hattery, received, on July SOtli, 1864, a gunsliot wouiul of the scalp, 
■with provable contusion of the hone. He was admitted into the .Jackson Hospital at Richmond, Virginia, on September 16th. 
Exfoliation resulted, and, after the separation of a scale of bone, he recovered. 

CuiNYAN, James, Private, Co. H, 14th Connecticut Volunteers, aged 48 years, received, at the battle of the Wilderness, 
May 5th, 1864, a contusion of the skull, by a conoidal musket ball. He had already been wounded at Chancellorsville, in the 
left liand, and at Gettysburg, over the left knee, and he was somewhat lame from the latter injury, while the former had caused 
luxation of the thumb. He was sent to Washington, on May 11th, having been treated me-inwhile at the field hospital of the 
2d division of the Second Corps. He was removed, on June !38th, to Sunnnit House Hospital, Philadelphia, on July 17th, 
to Knight Hospital, New Haven, and, on October 17th, to the hospital at Eeadville, Massachusetts, whence he was discharged 
on March lOtb, 1865. During his sojourn at Eeadville, an exfoliation of the outer table of the skull took place. He was 
pensioned, and in June, 1865, Pension Examining Surgeon J. Cumminskey reported that he suffered from headache and 
dizzuiess, and was unfit for the Veteran Reserve Corps. 

DlEHl,, George, Private, Co. E, 100th New York Volunteers, aged 27 years, received, in the engagement at Chester 
Station, Virginia, May 12th, 1864, a gunshot contusion of the left parietal near the temporal suture. On May 15th, he was 
admitted to Hampton Hospital, and, on May 18tli, he was sent to the hospital at Point Lookout, tlience, on .July 12tli, to 
Judiciary Square Hospital at Washington, and, on July 18th, to the Si-sters of Charity Hospital, Buffalo. The outer table of the 
bone had exfoliated, and the wound was granulating and looking well, when, on August 10th, typhoid fever set in, and tlie case 
terminated fatally on August 2iid, 1864. 

Dugr/ins, E., Private, Co. C, 11th South Carolina Regiment, received, on June 18th, 1864, a gun.shot contusion of the left 
parietal bone. He was admitted to the (Confederate hospital at Farmville, Virginia, on June 2l84. The external table of the 
parietal bone exfoliated ; otherwise the case (lid well, and the patient was furloughed on July 8th, 1864, for sixty (Lays. 

Fauck, Albert, Private, Co. K, 94th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 20 years, was wounded, in a skirmish near the 
Rappahannock, by a buckshot, which entered the scalp over the vertex of the cranium and lodged near the skull. The missile 
was extracted on the same day. On September 1st, he was admitted to the Camden Street Hospital, Baltimore. Some slight 
exfoliation, not involving the entire thickness of the outer table, took place; and then the wound healed kindly, and, on 
October lUh, 1862, the patient was sent to the Convalescent Camji at Fort McHenry, Baltimore, for duty. The case is reported 
by Acting Assistant Surgeon Edmund G. Waters. His name does not appear on the Pension Rolls. 

George, J. R., Private, Co. B, 9th Louisiana Regiment, received, on April 30th, 1363, a gunshot wotmd of the head. Ho 
was admitted to the Louisiana Hospital, Richmond. The external table of the bone was contused and exfoliated, yet the 
case progressed favorably, and, on June 10th, 1863, the patient was furloughed. 

Goi.DEY, .Tajii;s H., Private, Co. A, 90th Pennsylvania Volunteei's. Supposed gunshot scalp wound over occipital. 
Autietam, September 17th, 1862. Entered hospital at Washington, September 23d. Transferred to Fort Schuyler Hospital, 
New York, October 7th. Transferred to Fort Hamilton, December 1st. On December 13th, he entered the Satterlee Hosjiital, 
Philadelphia, complaining of pain in the occipital region. The wound was closed, but it reopened on December 18tli. On 
January 13th, 1863, a circular portion of dead bone, an inch in diameter, was detected by a probe. The patient had no pain or 
derangement of the mental faculties, and walked actively about the ward. About February 2d, the discharge from the wound 
was profuse, and the necrosed bone had not separated. There was no change in his condition until February 25tli, when the 
exfoliation was observed to be loose, and it was removed by Acting Assistant Surgeon J. N. Moore through a crucial incision. 
The exfoliation consisted of a portion of the external table, an inch in diameter, and several sm.aller pieces. On March 3d, yet 
another piece of the external table was removed. On March 17th, the wound was nearly healed. The patient felt entirely 
well ; and on May 22d, 186'<!, he was discharged from service. He appears to have had no subsequent trouble, since his name 
does not appear on the list of applicants for pension. 

Handleton, George W., Private, Co. D, 95th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 30 years, was wounded at the battle 
of Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 2d, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which contused the frontal bone. He was conveyed to 
Alexandria, and admitted into the 3d Division Hospital on Jime 6th, and from there sent to the York Hospital, Pennsylvania, 
on June 14th, 1864. He recovered, and was discharged from service on January 12th, 1865. In a communication dated 
January, 1868, the Commissioner of Pensions states that Handleton receives a pension of four dollars per month, his disability 
being r.ated one-half and temporary. On December 20th, 1865, Examining Surgeon Z. Reed reported that portions of the 
outer table of the frontal bone had exfoliated, and that a profuse ill-conditioned pus continued to bo discharged from the 
wound. The patient's general health was much impaired, and about one-half the time he was incapacitated from obtaining his 
subsistence by manual labor. 

KiNNE, Charles, Private, Co. G, 108th New York Volunteers. Contusion of right parietal by a musket ball. Antietam, 
September 17th, 1862. Treated at the field hospital of the 3d division of the Second Corps until the 26th, and then sent to 
the Mount Pleasant Hospital at Washington. On November 2d, he was furloughed, and subsequently returned to duty. He 
was discharged from service at the regimental hospital on December 24th, 1862. Disability reported as "total," by Aseistaut 
Surgeon William Ely, 108th New York Volunteers. He was pensioned, and reported by Pension Examining Surgeon H. M. 
Montgomery, of Rochester, New York, January, 1863, as having had a series of pieces of bone exfoliated. Doctor Montgomery 



101 WOUNDS AKD INJTJIKR OF THE HKAB, 

states that tin- wound was t}i('n discliavging pus. but tliat tlio patient would probalily l)o froo from disability in a few niontbs, 
and tliat hu appt^ared "fat and liearty." In November, 1805, Pension Examining Surgeon J. K. Tlydc reported tliat tliis 
pensioner complained of increase of pain and dizziness on attempting to labor, and that he had ap|ilied fur an increase of liis 
pension, in a letter from Lancaster, Wisconsin; but no disability except dizziness is certified to. In the army such aii])li(^ants 
are regarded as malingerera; but in the civil service a greater latitude prevails. 

lAgc/M, W. J}., Private, Co. G, 18tli Mississippi Infantry, received a giuishot wound of the seal)) in the right parietal 
region. IIo was admitted into the Howard Grove Hospital, Richmond, May 27tli, 18G4. Kxfoliation of the outer table of the 
bone resulted. On July 4th, he was furloughed. 

Lipscomb, W. A., Sergeant, Co. C, 5th South Carolina Regiment, was aihiiitted, on Juno 23d, 1864, to the Confederate 
Hospital at Farmville, Virginia, with a gunshot injury of the right supra orbital region. Gradual exfoliation of the external 
table followed. The patient was furloughed on ,Iidy 8th, 1864. 

Marsh, Geokoe H., Private, Co. I, 14th N(tw York Artillery, aged 18 years. Contusion of left jiarietal, near lamb- 
doidal suture, denuding bone of periosteum. Petersburg. March 25tli, 1865. Treated at Mount Pleasant Hospital, Washington ; 
White Hall, Pennsylvania; and was discharged from service June 19th, 1865. In November, 1869, I'ension Ex.imining 
Surgeon J. G. Pitts reports that a fragment of the external table had been exfoliated, and the pensioner alleged that he suftVred 
dizziness when he stooped at work, and he suffered a stinging sensation in hot weather. Dr. Pitts rated the disability at 
one-quarter, and probably temporary. 

Maxwell, Tiio.MA.S, Private. Co. K, 5tli Michigan Volunteers, received, at the battlt! of Fredericksburg. Vii-ginia, 
December 13th, 1882, a gimshot injiu\v of the right side of the cranium, anterior portion. He w.'is, on December lOth, 1862, 
admitted to the Third Division Hospital at Alexandria. A portion <]f the outer t.able exfoliated, otherwise the case progressed 
favorably, and the patient was returned to duty on May 29tli, 1863. His name does not appear on the Pension List. 

McGuiltE, John, Private, Co. G, 65th New York Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of tlu' frontal bone. Antietam, 
September 17tli, 1862. Treated aX Carver Hospital, Wasliington. Exfoli.ation of both tables of the t'ronlal resulted, and the 
patient suffered from neuralgia. He was discharged from service on October 21st, 18J2. His name docs not .•ip])e,ar on the 
Pension Rolls. 

McNiCllOLS, WiLLrAM, Private, Co. Jv, 69th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 28 ye.ars. Contusion of the left pni-ietal 
by a fragment of shell, which lacemted the scalp for three inches or more. Gettysburg, July 2d, 1863. Treated at Mower 
Hospital, Philadelphia. On August 14th, an exfoliation of the outer table was removed, and the patient i-ecovered and was 
returned to duty on December 16th, 1863. Case rejiorted by Acting Assistant Surgeon R. H. Longwill. The man's name is 
not on the Pension Roll. 

P.VTTERSON, ELLV.S, Private, Co. I, 7th Kentucky Volunteers, received, in the engagement before Vicksburg, Mississippi, 
May 22d, 1863, a gunshot contusion of the cranium. He was taken to a field hospital, and, on June 3d, was admitted to the 
hospital steamer R. C. Wood. On June 8th, he was sent to the Union Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. Three or four small 
pieces of the external table of the cranium came away by exfoliation. He was returned to duty by Surgeon J. D. Brundey^ 
U. S. V. On August 20th, he was sent to Fort Pickering, Tennessee, and was there discharged from service, on September 
21st, 1863, his disability being rated at one-half; Surgeon Daniel Stahl, 7th Illinois Cavalry, certifying that the portion of the 
occipital removed was two inches long and half an inch wide, and that dimness of sight and various nervous affections fidlovved 
the injury, and that the soldier was not fit for the Veteran Reserve Corps. Patterson is pensioned at four dollars per month. 

ScanljVN. John, Private, Co. D, 164th New York Volunteers, aged 33 years, was hit, at the battle of North Anna, 
May 18tb, 1864, by a fragment of shell, over the middle of the left landidoidal suture. Treated at fielil hospital of 3d 
division, Second Army Corps, Carver Hospital, Washington, and Mower Hospital. Philadelphia. At tlie latter hospital the 
wound reopened, and several exfoliations of the outer table came away. On August 25th, this soldier was returned to duty by 
Surgeon J. H. Hopkinsori, U. S. V. He was discharged July 17th, 1865, and pensioned from that date. On January 16th, 
1866, Pension Examining Surgeon J. E. King reported that his disability was permanent, and that he liad dizziness and pain 
in the head, especially when in a stooping posture, and that he could not endure the sunlight. 

Sheffler, John, Private, Co. D, 45th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 44 years, received, at the battle of Cold Harbor, 
Virginia, .Tune 3d, 1864, a gunshot flesh wound of the head. He was on the same day admitted to the hospital of the 2d 
division. Ninth Corps, on June 10th, sent to the Emory Hospital, Washiu^fton, D. C, on Ajiril 9th, sent to the Ciiyler Ho.spital, 
Philadelphia, and, on May lOth, transferred to the Mower Ho.spitid, where he was discharged from the service on ,Tune 22d, 
1865, on account of gunshot contusion of the cranium. Pension Examining Surgeon Edward Smith reports, July 20th, 1865, 
that the ball injured the frontal and right parietal bones, and that several exfoliations of bone had bei^n removed; that the 
patient complained of constant headache and dizziness, and the examiner rated his disability at "three-fourths, and probably 
permanent." 

Soloman, W. S., Private, Co. G, 66th North Carolina Regiment, was, on June 20th, 1864, admitted to the Confederate 
Hospital at Fannville, Virginia, with a gunshot injury of the frontal bone, received on June 18th, 1864. Gradual exfoliation 
of the outer table took place, but the patient did well, and was, on July 8th, 1864, furloughed. 

Stafford, Bf.njamin, Private, Co. I, 26th New York Volunteers, was admitted to the Fairfax Seminary Hospital, 
Virginia, September 29th, 1862, with a gimshot wound over the right side of the frontal bone, received at Antietam. He was 
returned to duty May 8th, 1863. It was found, however, that the outer table of the os frontis was exfoliating, and the man was 
discharged from the service on May 28th, 1863. He was examined at Utica for a pension, by Dr. H. 15. D.av, April 22d, 1864. 
It was found that two frsigments of bone had exfoliated, and that there was a fistulous sinus through which detached bone could 
still be felt. 






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aUNSHOT CONTUSIONS OF THE CRANIAL BONES. 



105 



Scott, Prmhrokk, Pi-ivati', Co. D, I'JStli Pt'iinsylvania VolnntcCTS, apfcil 25, waa wounded, in an en};as<>meiit at 
Gravelly Run, Virginia, Marcli ^yth, 1885, by a conoiilal ball, whicli intlioted a wound in the scalp, three inches in length, across 
the !(^ft temporal and edge of the left parietal bone, and contused tlie outer table of the latter. He was conveyed to the field 
hospital of the 1st division, Fiitli Corps, and thence was transferred to City Point, Virginia, where he remahied in tlw depot 
field hospital of tlie Ninth Corps until the 2d of April, when he was transferred to the llarewood Hospital. Wasliington, D. C. 
By April 29th, the wound was doing well and healini; kindly, and there were no indications of depression nor tonipression. 
On May 15th, he was transferred to the Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. On June 16th, several small pieces of 
the outer table of the skull were removed. The patient improved gradually, and was, on the 6th of July, 18C5, discharged 
from service. The appearance of the wound, while the man was at Harewood Hospital, is exhibited in the third figure of 
Plate III. Scott was pensioned to date from July 5th, 18G5. In April, 1866, Pension Examining Surgeon Wilson Jevyell 
reported that the man's nervous system was much aflfected, and that loss of memory and partial aphasia were especially 
noticeable. Dr. .lewell regarded the disability as permanent. 

Tkee, Franklin, Private, Co. A, SJOth Maine Volunteers. Contusion and denudation of the vault of the skull for one 
inch by a musket ball. Gettysburg, July 3d, 1863. Treated at Seminary and Satterlee Hospitals. A scale of bone exfoliated. 
Tlie wound then healed, and the man was returned to duty October 23d, 1863. His name is not on the Pension Roll. 



W/dtiner, li. M., Captain, Co. G, 3(1 South Carolina Battalion, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 
2d, 1803, a gunshot .scalp wound, witli contusion of the cranium. He was admitted to the Confederate Hospital No. 10, 
Kiclimond, Virginia. Exfoliation of tl>e external table of the bone took place. C'a}itain Whitnier was furloughed on July 
2Uth, 18G3. 

Wilson, J. P., Lieutenant, Co. B, 9tli Virginia Regiment, received, at the battle of Spottsylvania Court-house, Virginia' 
May 10th, 1861, a gunshot injury of the left parietal bone. The wound of the scalii was about two inches in length. He was, 
on May 24th, admitted to the Confederate ho.spital at FarniviUe, Virginia. An exfoliation of the bone took place, otherwise 
the case progressed favorably, anil the patient was furloughed on July 1st, 1864. He was readmitted on October 1st, 1864, 
suflTering from acute dysentery and icterus, and returned to duty on October 29th, 1864, by Surgeon H. I). Taliaferro, C. S. A., 
the medical officer in charge of the general hospital at FarniviUe. Tlie injury of the head gave no further trouble. 

WiLSOJJ, Jarvis C, Sergeant, Co. I, Idtli Wisconsin Volunteers, aged 21 vears. Contusion of the occipital by a 
conoidal musket ball, which lodged beneath the scalp below the semi-circular ridge, henesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 29tli) 
1864. The missile was extracted on the field by Assistant Surgeon R. (!. .Tames, 10th Wisconsin Volunteers. Treated at 
Totten Hosjiital, Louisville, till August 26th. at Harvey Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin, till October 25th, and then sent to 
Milwaukie to be nmstered out. Pension Examiner C. F. Falley reports, May 24th, 1869, that there had been exfoliation of the 
external plate of the occipital, and that the muscles inserted into the curved lines of the occipital were indurated and contracted. 
The head was drown backward somewliat, and the pensioner alleged that loending it forward caused dizziness and pain. He 

was totally disabled for manual -labor ; but Doctor Falley thought 

that he would ultimately improve. 

Gii.KEY. Francis W., Private, Co. K, 10th Pennsylvania 
Reserves, was wounded in one of the earlier battles of the war, and 
made a prisoner. In .January. 1863, he was exchanged, and received 
at the Annapolis General Hospital. He had, to the right of the 
vertex, a large ulcer, resulting from a gunshot wound of the scalp, 
extending over the sagittal suture. The skull was necrosed, and 
I)robably there had been denudation, with contusion of the bone. 
Erysipelas supervened, followed by gangrene. When this was 
arrested, exfoliation ti'ok place, and the brain was exposed. The 
'ragment of the skull exfoli.ated is represented in the adjoining wood- 
cuts (Figs. 30 and 31). copied at natural size from the specimen for- 
warded by the attending physician, Dr. A. V. Cherbonnier. Granu" 
latioiis sprang up, the wound closed, and the patient recovered 
Exfoliation from without any further complications. He was discharged from service 





ElO. 30. — r..xi(iiuii iiP[i iroiii ■" — .' r' — ■ " P" — ■" "" - " ■ T^if T1 T ♦ ■ ' f *1 

theranetalsfoiiowinKKuiishot on January 29th, 1863. His name does not appear on the Pension foreLo'inir sTecin™"''"'^ '° 

contusion, fi^jcc. 5jy7, fsect. 1, "^ *' *"'^h ..hDn.%.iu 
A. M. M. 



Rolls. 



Hay, John W., Private, Co. D, 61st Pennsylvania V<ilunteers, aged 29 years, was wounded, at the battle of Spott- 
sylvania, Virginia, May 11th, 1804, by a conoidal ball, which struck obliquely about the middle of the forehead. He wna 
admitted to the hospital of the 2d division, Sixth Corps, but the injury must have been considered slight, as no record of the 
case was found until July 12th, when the patient was admitted to Mount Pleasant Hospital, on account of a gmishot scalp 
wound near the occipital protuberance, subsequently received in General Early's demonstration against the defences of Wash- 
ington, the day of the patient's admission. Gangrene attacked this later wound. Bromine, nitric acid, yeast, and chiucoal 
poultices were successively applied to the gangrenous wound. The sloughing was checked, and the wound soon assumed a 
healthy appearance. The wound on the forehead was not affected by gangrene, and was supposed to be trifling, and was 
treated with simple dressings. A month after his admission, the man complained of some pain in the forehead. Ice water was 
applied, and morphia was given internally. Death occurred a few hours aft«rward8. On August 7th, 1864, at thepo»t mortem 

14 



106 



WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 





Flo. 3-2. — Sepflnont of os froiitis. sliowiti/j necrosis fol- 
lovvio^ a gunshot cuntuttion. Spec.2iiQi, Sect. I, A. M. M. 



Fiir. 311. Inteniul view of the same sjtooiinen, showing 
the diseased dura mater and the ulceration of the inner table. 



examination, the brain was found to he slightly congested, but no pus was observed between the skull and dura mater; yet th 

latter was detached from 
the inner table of the skull, 
which was carious over a 
surface nearly as large as 
thesurface of the incijiient 
exfoliation on the outer 
table. The scale of dead 
bone of the outer tal)le 
remained in siter. The 
dura mater opposite the 
diseased inner table was 
thickened and had depos- 
its of lymph on the surface 
next the cranium; ctljer- 
wise, the encephalon was 
normal in appearance. 
The specimen was con- 
tributed by Assistant Sur- 
geon C. A. McCall, U. S. 
A., and is represented in 
the foregoing wood-cuts, 
Figs. 3-2 and 33. The 
notes of the case were furnished by Acting Assistant Surgeon F. J. Kern. 

Caries. — Gunsliot contusions of the cranial bones were succeeded, in three instances, 
by caries. This comjolication, common enough in tertiary syphilis, mercuric-syphilis, and 
scrofula, rarely occurs as a result of injury, unless there is some constitutional taint. 
There is no evidence, however, that any such vice of system existed in the cases of which 
abstracts are subjoined. The energetic treatment advised by authors,* such as applications 
of the rugine or trepan, the actual cautery, or chloride of zinc, red oxide of mercury, and 
other potent escharotics, were not employed in any of these cases. 

i'RiCE, William, Private, Co. H, 8th Tennessee Infantry, aged 39 years, received, in the engagement near Atlanta 
Georgia, August 8th, 1864, a slight injury of the left parietal bone, and also a flesh wound of the leg. He was taken to the 
field hospital of the 23d Corps, and, on August 15th, was admitted to the Asylum Hospital, Knoxville, Teimessee. No account 
of the treatment is recorded. He was discharged from the service on June 2(ltli, 1865, and pensioned from thiit date. On 
March Ist, 1869, Pension Examining Surgeon R. P. Mitchell reports that this man was living at Rogersville, Hawkins County, 
Tennessee; that he had caries of the skull, bits of bone passing out iu the purulent discharge. The wouiul was still open and 
suppurating five years subsequent to the injury, and the man was utteily unable to jjerfoim manual labor, or to bear exposure 
to the sun's rays. 

Robinson, J. A., Private, Co. B, 7th South Carolina Battalion, received, on June IStli, 1804, a gunshot contusion of the 
right parietal and right side of the frontal bone. He was admitted, on June 20th, to the hospital at Farraville, Virginia. The 
wound resulted in extensive ulceration of bone. The patient was furloughed July 19th, 1864, by Surgeon H. D. Taliaferro,C. S. A. 

T'mif/han, Gconje W., Assi-stant Sin'geon, Teiuiaiit's Battery, received, at the siege of Atlanta, Georgia, August 19th, 1864, 
a woiuid of the head from a fragment of shell. The scalp was lacerated and the cranium contused, and caries of the occipital 
resulted. He wa.i recommended for furlough, October 11th, 18G4, by a medical examining board. 

Persistent Pain in the Head. — Ten instances are found in the reports of cases of 
gunshot contusions of the skull, in which j^ersistence of pain, either in the cicatrices or iu 
distinct spots of the cranium, constituted the prominent symptom. Some of them belong 
to the class of cases described by Quesnay.-|" All of these patients were spared incisions 
of the scalp, or the application of the rugine or trephine; and five recovered and went to 
duty, while five were discharged for disability, two of whom were subsequently pensioned. 



* BOVEB, Dictionaire dtt Sciences MMicales, T. vii, p. 283, Paris, 1813 ; Pirrie, The J'Tinciphs and Practice of Surgery, London, 1860, p. 381 ; 
SftDll.l.oT, Traiti de Midecine Opiratoire, Paris, 1865, T. ii, p. 3 : Faxo, Traiti £lementaire de Chiruryie. Paris, 18lii), T. i, \\ Ii84. The latter author 
even advises the abl.ition of the entire bone, citing Lapej-ronie'a case of removal of the whole frontal, and suggests the gou^e and chisel and mallet as 
saitable instruments. 



tQUESNAY. Memoir's de VAcadimie Royale de Chirurgie. Nouv. cd., Paris, 181ii, T. I, p. 169. 



GUNSHOT CONTUSIONS OF THK CRANIAL BONKS. 107 

Bruxnei.lo, Pietro, Private, Co. F, 55tli New York Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the vertex of the cranium by a 
fragment of shell, with much laceration of tlie scalp. Malvern Hill, Virginia, ,Iuly 1st, 18R2. Treated at Carver Ilosjiital, 
Washington, and returned to duty August 13th, 1862. On November ISJth, 1862, he was admitted to Episcojial Hosjiital, 
PInla<lelphia, under the care of Doctor W. S. Forbes. He was suffering from seveie local p.iin at the seat of injury. He was 
discharged from the service on February 25th, 1863. His name does not appear on the Pension Roll. 

EPENETiat, CllARl.ES J., Captain, 7th United States Colored Artillery, received, at the capture of Fort Pillow, 
Tennessee, April 12th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the anterior portion of tlie ti'm|)oral ridge of the right parietal bone. At the 
end of four months the wound had closed, but it opened again spontaneously several times. There was always more or less 
pain extending backwards from tlie seat of injury, nearly parallel with the median line. Witli every change to bad weather 
the pain would become intolerable, and exposure invariably aggi'avated it. Captain Epeneter resigned on March 16th, 1865. 

Hant.s, Enoch W., Private, Co. C, 9th New .Terpey Volunteers, aged 23 years, was wounded, at the battle of Kinston, 
North Carolina, December 14th, 1862, by a conoidal musket ball, which apparently only involved the scalp. He was admitted 
to the Stanley Hospital at Newbevne on the 20tb, whence lie was furloughed and sent north in February, 1864. On the 8th of 
April, 1864, he was admitted into the Balfour Hospital, Portsmouth, Virginia, still suffering from the wound in the head. In 
the latter part of April he was transferred by steamer to the De Cam]) Hospital, in New York Harbor, where the case is 
reported as a contusion of the skull. He was returned to duty on May 27th. 1864, but was again admitted to the Hampton 
Hospital, Fort Monroe, on June 11th, 1864, suffering from cephalalgia. On June 21st, he was transferred to the Mower 
Hospital at Philadelphia, and finally sent to Trenton, New Jersey, on September 22d. 1864, to be mustered out of service. His 
name does not appear on the Pension List. 

Hayes, AVii.i.iaji A., Private, Co. A, 28th Massachusetts Vohmteers, received a slight wound of tlie scalp by a fragment 
of shell, with contusion of tiie skull over the sagittal suture. Fredericksburg, Decenibiu' 13th, 1802. Treated at Point Lookout 
till May 1st, 1863, West's Building, Baltimore, till May 9th, Lovell llosjiital, Rhode Islanil, till October 7th, 1863, when he was 
transferred to the 2d Battalion of the Veteran Reserve Corps. He suffered greatly from pain in the cicatrix, which, on May 
13th, 1867, was reported by the pension examiner to be very sensitive on pressure. It was particularly painful in warm 
weather and after exposure to the sun. 

King, Samuel, Private, Co. H, 49th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 33 years, received, at the battle of Cold Harbor, 
Virginia, June 4th, 1864, a severe wound of the left side of the scalp by a conoidal musket hall. H(! was admitted into the 
Soldiers' Rest Hospital at Alexandria, .June 6th, and a few days later sent to Philadelphia, ,and admitted, on .June 16th, into 
the 16th and Filbert streets Hospital. On July 16th, he was sent to the Sattcrlee Hospital. He suffered from constant pain in 
his head. The wound healed gradually. On September 2i)th, he was transferred to Camp Curtin at Harrisburg, and, on 
October 6th, 1864, returned to duty. The case is reported by Surgeon I. 1. Hayes, U. S. V. 

Laronte, S. D. M., Sergeant, Co. K. 23d South Carolina Regiment, was admitted to the South Carolina Hospital, 
Charlottesville, Virginia, September 6th, 1862, with a gunshot injury a little to the lei> of the median line and midway between 
the eye and the root of the hair. There was an indentation of the bone, but no perceptible fracture. The ])eriosteuni was 
gone to the extent of about one square inch. No operation was jierformed. In July, 1863, the man was at his luune, not yet 
recovered, and suffering constantly with intense pain in the head, regretting that he had not been operated upon. Tlie case is 
reported by Assistant Surgeon B. W. Allen, P. A. C. S. 

Maeshaix, James, Private, Co. H, 28th Pennsylv.ania Vohmteere, received, at the battle of Antietam, Maryland, 
September 17th, 1862, a jjunshot injury of the frontal bone. He was, on October 30th, 1862, admitted to the Carver Hospital, 
Washington, D. C, and, on .January 8th, was transferred to the Patterson I'ark Hospital, Baltimore. He was treated in the 
hospitals of the latter city for cephalalgia and neuralgia, until August 29th, 1883, when he was returned to duty. 

Rate, Edward, Private, Co. C, 17th New York Volunteers, aged 21 years, was wounded, at the battle of Frederickg- 
burg, Virginia, December 13th, 1862, by a fragment of shell about two inches in length, which produced a wound of the scalp 
on the left side of the head. He was prostrated, and, in this condition, inmiediately conveyed to a field hospital, where his 
wounds were dressed. After the troops recrossed the river, he was sent to Point Lookout, Maryland, where he was admitted 
to Hammond Hospital, on December 16tb. He suffered for one month from a sevei'e jiain at the ]ioint struck, and also, after 
his entering the hospital, from a malarial fever, to which was attributed the slow manner in which the wound healed. He was 
transferred, on February 13th, 1863, to New York, and there admitted on the 17th. to Ladies' Home Hospital, where he 
remained until returned to duty on March 3llth, 1863. 

Russell, W. P., Private, Co. L, Gth Alabama Regiment. Gunshot contusion of the left parietal, received at the battle 
of Fair Oaks, May 31st, 1862. Neuralgia supervened, ,and constant pain in the cicatrix tor a long period after the injiu'y. The 
patient was examined by Surgeons Welibrd, Thom, and (Jabell. of the Confederate service, and for a long tinu- he was unfit for 
duty. He finally recovered, and returned to duty March 5th, 1863. 

Young, Thomas, Piivate, Co. F, 17th United States Infantry, received, at the battle of Antietam, September 17th, 1862, 
a gunshot contusion of the vertex. Treated at Washington and Baltimore, and discharged February 14th, 1863. He was 
pensioned, and, in September, 1866, Pension Examining Surgeon F. P. Fitch, of Milford, New Hampshire, reported that he 
had continuous pain in the cicatrix, a very irritable temper, and impaired memory. 

Vertigo. — Dizziness, giddiness, or vertigo, are among the commonest complaints of 
the pensioners who have recovered from contusions of the skuU. The cases of Hastings 
(p. 100), of Kinne (p. 103), of Marsh, Scanhxn, Sheffler (p. 104), and of Wilson (p. 105), 



108 WOUNDS AND INJUIKS OF THE HEAD, 

liavc been ulready cited. In tlie following cases, also, this result is specially commented 
on by tlie Surgeons from whose reports the abstracts have been compiled: 

Blood, J. C, Private. Co. G, 27th Missouri Volunteers, received a contusion of the right frontal eminence by a conoidal 
musket l>all, at the siege of Vicl<sbMrg, .Iiuie 17tli, 1S63. He wiis {liscliarg^'d from service Jidy 9th, 18G5, and pensioned. On 
January lOtli, 18G6, he was reported by Doctor J. T. Wliite, at Edina, Missouri, as suifering greatly from vertigo, being 
entirely unfit to labor at his trade of brick-laying. 

Gai.mi.SII, Gkorge, Private, Co. H, l.JOth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Gunshot contusion of the right parietal, at 
Gettysburg, July 2d, Irfli^. Treated at Gettysburg and Pl]iladel[)hia, and discharged fronx service .September 2Ht!i, 1863, and 
pensioned. At this date, Pension Examining Surgeon H. Lenox Hodge reports tliat during his treatment this man had sufl'ered 
from convulsions, with umch cerebral disturbance, and was then trout)led with impaired vision and he-aring, and had an unsteady 
gait and constant dizziness and vertigo, and rated his disabilities at three-fourths, and probably temporary. 

Hkllogg. L. M., Private, Co. B, 14th New York State Militia, aged 29 years, received, at the battle of Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania, July 1st, 1863, a gunshot wound of the left occipital region by a nmsket ball. He was admitted into the field 
hosjiital on the same day, and subsequently transferred to New York, and admitted, on July 27tli. into the Central Park 
Hospital. He sufi'ered from headache and vertigo. Simple dressings were used. He graduallj- recovered, and was returned 
to duty, November 2yth, 1863. 

Leigiitox, Cii.\i;i,i;.s W., Corporal, Co. E, 11th -New Hampshire Volunteers, aged 23 years, was wounded at the battle 
of Petersburg, Virginia, June 16, 1864, by a ccmoidul nmsket ball, which contused the occii)ital hone. Ho was admitted to the 
hospital of the ^d division. Ninth Corps, and thence conveyed to Annapolis, Maryland, and admitted, on the 20th, into 
the First Division Hospital. After several transfers, he was admitted into the Webster Hospital, in New Hampshire, on 
December 2d. On May 27th, 1865, he was discharged from service. In JIarcb, 1868, the Commissioner of Pensions reported 
that this man's disability was rated at one-half and permanent, and that he had been gi'eatly troubled with vertigo since the 
reception of the wound. 

MaG.N'KS.s, W. a.. Musician, ('o. 15., fith Maryland Volunteers, aged 29 years, was wounded in front of Petersburg, 
July 6tli, 18C4, by a conoidal musket ball, which tore up the pericranium over the right Jiarietal protuberance. Treated at 
field hospital of the Eighteenth Corps, lialfour Hospital, Lovell Hosiiital, Patterson Park Hospital, and Hicks Ilos])ital, and 
discharged from service Jane 27tli, 18(i.'>, and pensioned. On August 29th, 1869, Pension Examining Surgeon A. W. Doilge 
reported him as totally disabled, his sulfei'ing from vertigo and cephalalgia being aggrav.ated by chronic diarrhoea; hut his 
disabilities were not regarded as permanent. 

S/iulcr, 1). A., Corporal. Co. K, 2d South Carolina Infantry, received a gunshot contusion of the cranium. He was 
adnntted into the Chimborazo Hospital, No. 3, Kichmond, on February 22d, 1863. Vertigo and general debility resulted from 
the injury. On February 26th, he was fnrloughed. 

WOODBORNE, Gev)RGE W., Sergeant, Co. B, 13th Ohio Cavalry, aged 31 years. Contusion of the right parietal, near 
the sagittal suture, by a conoidal musket ball. Deep Bottom, Virginia, August 16th, 1864. Treated at Ninth Corps Field, 
Beverley, and While Hall Hospitals. Discharged May 19th, 1865. In April, 1868, he was a pensioner, and his disability was 
regarded as permanent. Pension Examining Surgeon W. F. Sharp reported that he was much troubled with vertigo, pain in 
the head, and partial loss of memory. 

Headache. — Ten cases are reported, in which, after gunshot contusions of the skull, 
headache was the most troublesome symptom. To these might be added the cases of 
McCarty (p. lUU), and Crinyan (p. 103): 

England, Samuel, Sergeant, Co. C, 9th Pennsylvania Reserves, was wounded at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
July 2d, 18ti3, by a buckshot, which entered about tlie centre of the occipit:d region. He was admitted to the field hospital 
of the 3d division, Fiftli Corps, on the day of the receipt of injury, and, m\ the following d.ay, was sent to the field hospital at 
Gettysburg, whence he was transfeired, on the 7th, to Satterlee Hospital at Philadel'))hia. Although the patient stated that the 
ball was still in the wound, it healed kindly. During the progress of the case, he eomi)hiined of headache. He remained in 
hospital until April 27th, 1864, when he was returned to duty. 

HaYNES, Owen, Private, Co. C, 28th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 27 years, was wounded at the battle of Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania, .July 2d, 1863, by a conoidal nmsket ball, which divided the scalp in the right occipital region for a distance of 
two and a half inches, gnizing the skull. He was at once admitted to the hospital of the 1st division, Second Corps, and, on 
June lull, sent to the Turners Lane Hospital, Pliiladeljihia. His general health was good, but he suffered considerable pain 
in the head. The wound, which gaped very much, healed gradually, the headache ceased, and. on September 11th, 186;>, the 
IHitieiit was returned to duty. The case is reported by Acting Assistant Surgeon David Burpee. 

Helmkeicii, Peter, Private, Co. A, 41th Illinois Volunteers, aged 29 years, received, at the battle of Peach Tree 
Creek, Georgia, July 2Utli, 1864, a gunshot contusion of the right parietal region. He was admitted into the field hospital of 
the 2d division, Fourth Corps, on the same day, and, a few days later, was sent to the general field hospital. On .July 27fh, 
the patient was sent to Niishville, and admitted into the Ccnnherliind Hospital. On Angu.st 6th, he was transferred to Louisville, 
and admitted into tlie Brown Hospital, and, subsequently, to the Mound City Hospital, in Illinois. The wound was disch.arging, 
and he had occasional headache. On September 24th, he was .admitted into the general hos])ital at Qiiinc^'. He was 
discharged from service, .June HI, 18(i5. The case is reported by Surgeon Horace Wardner, U. S. V. The name of this patient 
does not appear on the Pension List. 



GUNSHOT CONTUSIONS OF THE CRANIAL BONES. 109 

Lakk, JosnuA, Sergeant. Co. R, 2(1 Delaware Volunteers, aged 19 years, received, at the battle of Antietam, Maryland, 
Scptenilier, 17tl], 1802, a gunsliot contusion of tlie right parietal. He -was admitted, on September 24tli, to Walnut street 
hospital, at Harrisbiirg. and, from there, transferred on tlie 27tli, to Pliiladelpliia. where lie was first admitted to Race street 
hospital, and there remained until January 14th, 1863, wlien he was transfsrred to Mower Hospital. During the progress of 
tlio case, the patient complained of headache, the cause being at»ibuted to the wound. On February Sid, a part of the ball, 
still remaining lodged, was removed, after whicli he did well, and, on the 25th of the same month, was able to do light duty, in 
the performance of which he was engaged at the latest report. 

IjAUfiiii.iN, Jo.siAH D., Private, Co. G, 91st Ohio Volunteers, aged 16 years, was wounded in an engagement at 
Winchester, Virginia, July 20, 1864, by a revolver ball, which contused the skull at the junction of the sagittal and lambdoidal 
sutures. He was admitted into the hospital at Cumberland, Maryland, July 23d. There was cephalalgia and slight impairment 
of audition. The wound liealcd rapidly under the application of simple dressings, and the patient was returned to duty, 
August 18, 1864. 

McClung, George JV., Private, Co. G, Pith Virginia Volunteers, aged 22 years, was wounded, March 6th, 1864, by a 
pistol ball, which entered the scalp near the intei'secting angle of the frontal, parietal, and temjioral bones on tl.e left side, and 
made its exit four inches above the meatus auditorious externus, two inches from point of entrance, and contused the skull. 
Admitted to Cumberland hospital, Maryland. He had headache and ringing in the ear, which continued for some days. He 
was returned to duty. May 26th, 1864. 

MOAivLY, E., Private, Co. A, 14th New York State Militia, aged 26 j'ears, received, at tlie battle of Gettysburg, Penn- 
sylv.'uiia, July lst-3d, 1^63, a gunshot contusion of the skull. He was, on July 6th. admitted to the Cu^'ler Hospital, 
Geriuantown, Pennsylvania. The injury was jiainful and caused much headache, and at times the patient was delirious. In a 
few weeks the wound began to heal, and in September it had closed. The patient was returned to duty on February lUtli, 1864, 
but he still complained of much headache after exerticjn. The case is rejiorted by Acting Assistant Surgeon C. K. Prall. 

Jfason, Alexander, Corporal, Co. C, 1st Alabama Artillery, aged 28 years, was wounded, at the capture of Fort Pillow, 
Tennessee, April 12tli, 1861, by a conoidal musket ball, wliich struck the right side of the heail, immediately above the ear, 
contusing but not fracturing the bone. He was, on April 14th, admitted to the hospital at Mound City, Illinois, and lor weeks 
he suffered from headache, restlessness, and fever. On May 18tli, he had entirely recovere<l, and, June 22d, 1864, lie waa 
returned to duty. 

Spurr, Wll.r.t.^Jl E., Sergeant, Co. A, 56th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 23 years, received, in an engagement 
befon! Petersburg, V'irginia, June ITtli, 1861, a gunshot contusion of the skull. He was taken to the hospital of the 1st 
division, Ninth Corps, and, on June 3(ltli, sent to the Mount Pleasant Hospital, Washington, where he was treated for concussion 
of the brain. On July 24d, he was transferred to tlu^ Mo\v(^r Hospital, I'hihuU-lphia, Pennsylvania. He was then suffering 
from headache. He was discharged from the service on January 3Utli, 18i)5, on account of phthisis pulmonalis. His name 
does not appear on the Pension List. 

Weiss, Francis S., Private, Co. F, 54th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 27 years, was wounded, in an engagement 
near Piedmont, Virginia, June 5th, 1864, by an explosive musket ball, which tore a triangular ilap, horizontally, about two 
inches in length and one inch above the occipital protuberance, and contused the bone. The wound was first dressed, on .Tune 
7tli, by Assistant Surgeon Reuben IIunter,54tli Pennsylvania Volunteers, who extracted five or six fragments of the ball, wliich 
were imbedded beneath the integument, and apjilied cold water dressings. He was admitted into hospital at Cumberland, 
Maryland, on June 2tlth, and on June 23d the wound was nearly cicatrized ; suppuration had ceased, and the general symptoms 
were good, with the excejition of an occasional headache. The patient's appetite and digestive powers were unimpaired. On 
Jidy 20tli, he left the hospital on furlough, but, not returning, was reported as a deserter, August 3d, 1864. His name does not 
appear on the Pension Rolls. 

Chronic Irritability of the Brain. — The cases of Hefler (p. 100), and of Lusk 
(p. 102), and several of those of which abstracts are given furtlier on, under the heading 
3fental Aberration, were exanij^lcs of that condition described as cerebral irritation, 
characterized at the outset by restlessness and a general tendency to persistent flexion of 
the voluntary muscles, with contraction of the pupils, cool surface, feeble and slow pulse, 
and mental irritability, and, subsequently, by mental decay or complete fatuity, by 
paralysis or epilepsy. This conditign has been supposed to be associated with lacerations 
of the gray matter of the brain. The following case was regarded as an example of this 
pathological condition at the time, though the autopsy proved that it was accompanied by 
grave structural lesions : 

Farnham, NoAn L., Colonel, 11th New York Volunteers (1st Fire Zouaves), was wounded, at the battle of Manassas, 
July 21st, 1861, by a musket ball, which made a superficial forward wound over the left parietal. He was much stunned, 
and fell from his horse. He was conveyed to the E Street Infirmary, Washington, and placed under the care of Assistant 
Surgeon Vf. J. H. White, II. S. A. The wound healed promptly, and his condition was hopeful until August lOtli, when gravt 
cerebral symptoms appeared, temiioatiug in hemiplegia, followed by coma and death on August 14th, 1861. At the autopsy. 



110 "WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE HEAD, 

made by Assistant Surgeon J. \V. S. Gouley, IT. S. A., an abscess, the size of an English walnut, was found at the seat of 
injury, with extravasation of blood in the neighboring sulci of the brain. The following description of tliis case was prepared 
by Surgeon John A. Lidell, U. S. V. :» 

* * * "It cannot be doubted that, in at least some instances, this ecchymosis, this extravasation of blood beneath the 
yisceral arachnoid membrane into the meshes of the pia mater (connective tissue), denotes a genuine contusion of tlie brain or 
Bpinal cord, as the case maybe; and that, in this way, a positive pathological lesion, perceptible to the unaided vision, is 
superadded to the concussion. These cases of concussion, complicated witli contusion of the nerve tissue, when the cerebrum 
happens to be the part involved, exbibit a marked tendency to tlie occurrence of meningo-cerebral inflammation and cerebral 
abscess. The following case strongly corroborates this statement : * * Colonbl Farnliam, of the New York City Fire 
Zouaves, was wounded, at the battle of Manassas, July 21st, 1831, by a spent ball, which hit bis head and knocked him off his 
horse. He was picked up insensible. The wound was small in size, superficial in character, and situated on the left side of 
the head, three inches above the meatus auditorius. It healed without any dillictilty. The principal symptoms in his case, 
until near the close, were referable to concussion and irritation of the brain. He died on the e%-ening of August 14th, twenty-four 
days subsequent to the infliction of the injury. It was thought that he would recover, until about four days before death. He 
was partially paralyzed 'm the right side (hemiplegia) toward the last. He was comatose in the last moments. At the autopsy, 
made August loth by Doctor Gouley, U. S. A., we found that the external wound was superficial ; that the skull was not injured ; 
that there was copious subarachnoidian effusion; that there was an imusual quantity of yellow-colored serum in the ventricles, 
and that there was an abscess (jf the cerebrum, situated directly beneath the wound of the scalp. This abscess was about the 
size of an English \valnut, superficial in situation, and surrounded by softened cerebral tissue. The visceral and parietal 
arachnoid over the abscess were glued together, to some extent, by adhesive inflammation, so that, in endeavoring to turn back 
the dura mater while making the autopsy, though it was carefully done, the abscess was torn open. There were also traces of 
an extravasation of blood, three or four weeks old, in the sulci of the brain, beneath the visceral arachnoid membrane over the 
scat of the abscess, and likewise at the anterior extremity of the left cerebral hemisphere. There was a flattened clot of blood, 
black in color, and apparently three or four weeks old, in the fossa, at the base of the middle lobe of the left cerebral 
hemisphere. The dura mater, in relation with it. was somewhat thickened, roughened, and opacified.'' » » # 

Medical Inspector F. H. Hamilton, U. S. A., has described this case as follows: t 

"First, I would remark, that you may have an injury of the scalp of .an exceedingly trivial character, which may, in the 
end. prove fatal. A ball may simply tear off the hair of the scalp, and create a very slight abrasion of the skin, yet, the bone 
being so near, and the brain so close to the bone, it is very ]irobable that serious mischief has been done. The bone in that 
situation may be so injured as to lead to necrosis, or a suflieient shock m,ay be given to the brain and its envelopes to bring on 
inflammation. I will mention a very remarkable illustration of this fact. Colonel Farnham, after the death of Colonel 
Ellsworth, took command of the Ist Zouave Regiment, At the battle of Bull Kun, July 21st, 1861, he received an injury of the 
character referred to, and which I examined myself. It was a very slight and superficial wound, which seemed to have taken 
off very little more than the hair. He was transferred from the field to the Washington Infirmary, where he was reported as 
doing very well, the wound being considered as a very slight and insignificant one; but, notwithstanding all this, he kept his 
bed. He did actually seem to be improving until about tlie ninth day after the reception of the wound, when grave symptoms 
suddenly supervened, and, in a d.ay or two after, he died. I should notice that, during all the tiuje he was in the hospital, he 
was very easily disturbed by visitors, and it was his desire to be left alone, showing that there was some cerebral disturbance. 
I ought also to mention that he was ill before he received the wound, and was unfit to perform duty at the time the battle took 
place; but, being a gallant officer, he was determined to lead liis regiment to the charge. But his previous condition I do not 
think had much, if anything, to do with his death, which, in my opinion, and in the opinions of many other surgeons who saw 
him, was due directly to the apparently slight wound which he received during the fight." * * " Next, I called your attention 
to those injuries of the scalp produced by smaller missiles; for example, where a rifle ball had slightly impinged upon the 
surface of the scalp, producing a slight abrasion of the integument, which accident is usually accompanied by some degree of 
concussion, either to the skull, to the meninges of the brain, or to the brain itself, and which I have said you are not to regard 
as trivial accidents. Although the patient may not seem to have suffered any severe injury, you are to anticipate that sooner or 
later there may be an ulceration along the track of the ball, or that there may result necrosis, or meningitis, or cerebritis, and 
that the patient may ultimately die. And I cited, as an illustration of injuries of this class, the case of Colonel Farnham, 
who assumed command of the Ellsworth Zouaves after the death of Colonel Ellsworth. He received an injury of such a 
character, which was exceedingly slight and superficial, I saw him n)yseU', and examined him particularly, and all that was 
visible was a very trivial scalp wound. He was taken into a hospital in Washington, and there I saw him again, at the 
expiratiim of seven or eight days. He was then very irritable, and bad been quite ill, but still his friends all thought that his 
recovery was certain. Three or four days after this, if I remember correctly, the symptoms became nmre grave, and he died, 
evidently from the injuries which his brain had received " # • » 

Meningitis. — This formidable affection was one of the most common causes of death 
after gimsliot contusion of the cranium: 

Cutting, A, H., Private, Co. K, 13th Massachusetts Volunteers, was wounded, at the battle of Gettysburg, July 2d, 
18f)i{, by a conoidal musket b.all, which causi'd a contusion of the frontal bone, just above and external to the right parietal 
eminence. He was admitted to Camp Lettemian, and thence was sent to the McDougall Hos|)ital, New York, on July 12th. 
Alenhigitis supervened, and death ensued on July 30th, 1863, twenty-seven days from the recej>tion of the injury. The specimen 



* Amcricaji Journal of (he Medical Sciences, vol. xlviii. p. '^•2'^. f American Medical Times, vol. viii, |tp. 73-85. 



GUNSHOT CONTUSIONS OF THE CRANIAL BONES. 



Ill 




Fig. 3-1. — Kcfiults of contusion oftho frontal 
bone by st conoidal ball, twenty-seven days 
after the injury. Spec. lUGO, Meet. I, A. M. M. 



iR copied in the adjacent wood-cut (Fig. 34). The injured portion of the external 
table is porous aud p))ongy, and a small scale of bone was evidently in process of 
exfoliation. The internal table shows no trace of injury beyond the most trivial 
discoloration. The specimen and notes of the case were contributed by Acting 
Assistant Surgeon A. E. M. Purdy. 

JonxsoN, C. E., Captain, Co. F, IGtli MassachuBetts Volunteers, received, at 
Gettysburg, July 2d, 1663, a scalp wound from a minie ball, which produced a con- 
tusion of the cranium. He was taken to the field hospital of the 2d division of the 
Third Corps, when meningitis supervened, and he died on July 17th, 1863. 

Larkixs, Daniel, Private, Co. H, 188th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 19 
years, received, at the battle of Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 3d, 1864, a gunshot scalp 
wound, with contusion of the left parietal. He was carried to the hospital of the 
Eighteenth Corjis, and, on June 6th, was transferred to the Harewood Hospital at 
Washington, and thence, on June 11th, to the convalescent hospital, Philadelphia, where he died, on June 26th, 1864, from 
meningitis, following the wound of head. 

MOHIJI.S, James, Private, Co. I, 150tli Pennsylvania Volunteers, was admitted, on July 12th, 1863, to the McDougall 
Hospital, Fort Schuyler, New York, with compression of the brain, following a gunshot wound of the scalp, with contusion of 
the skull. He died on July 18th, 1863. 

TllUHJiAN, C, Private, Co. E, 42d Pennsylvania Volunteers, was, on May oOth, 1863, admitted to a hospital in Richmond, 
Virginia, with a gunshot wound of the scalp, involving the cranium. He died on January 7th, 1864, of pneumonia and 
meningitis. 

Wateuman, William A., First Sergeant, Co. H, Michigan Cavalry, aged 27 years, was wounded, in the action at Salem 
Church, Virginia, May 28th, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, wliich struck the frontal region and laid the bone bare for one 
inch. He was admitted into tlie field hospital of the Ist division, cavalry corps, on the same day. The patient was transferred 
to the Mt. Pleasant hospital, Washington, on June Ist. Simple dressings were used. Meningitis supervened, and death 
resulted June 14tli, 1864. Assistant Surgeon C. A. McCall. U. S. A., reported the case. 

WlilGllT, Harklso.n, employed in the Quarterniastei-'s Department, aged 45 years, was wounded, July 15th, 1864, by 
a fragment of shell, whicli injured the scalp and contused the skull. He was, on August 15th, admitted to the hospital for 
colored troops at City Point, Virginia, and, on August 17th, was transferred to the Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, where 
meningitis supervened, from which he died on August 26th, 1864. 

JE/icephaMtts. — The following cases were recorded, in which the fatal results were due 
to inflammation of the brain following gunshot contusions of the skull. Other examples 
will be found among the cases classified further on ; 

BoWDi.E, Charles W., Co. K, 1st Ohio Volunteer s received, at the battle of Stone river, Tennessee, December 29th, 
1862, a gunshot wound, with contusion of the vault of the skull. He was admitted into the No 1 Hospital, Nashville, on 
January 9th. Death resulted April 2d, 1863, from inilammation of the brain. 

Kennedy, Thomas, Private, Co. M, 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, aged 30, was wounded, at the battle of 
Petersburg, Virginia, June 16th, 1864, by a conoidal pistol ball, which contused the right parietal bone, near the right descending 
branch of the lambdoidal suture. He was conveyed to Washington, and admitted, on the 21st, into the Lincoln Hospital. 
Simple dressings were applied, as the injury was considered slight. He was furloughed on .July 16th, but returned on the 29th 
of the same month. He stated that during his absence from the hospital he had suffered fi'om ague, and, for the last ten daj's, 
had experienced a chill daily. A careful examination of tlie wcnnid was now made, and a roughness of the external table of 
the skull was detected. He was mnch prostrated, but complained of no pain or uneasiness about the head. His pulse was 
frvquent and feeble, tongue dry and red, and the abdomen tympanitic and painful. Three grains of calomel, with one-fourth of 
a grain of opium, were ordered every three hours, until the third dose had been taken ; meantime, tonics and stimulants were 
given, and afterwards continued in liberal doses. Sinapisms were applied to the epigastric region and extremities. No 
perceptible improvement in his condition, however, was obtained. He died on the afternoon of the 31st, remaining fully sensible 

and able to answer questions intelligently until within two or three hours of 
his death. At the autopsy, the seat of injury was found to be near the middle 
of the posterior edge of the right parietal bone. The missile had glanced 
downward and forward, and was found lying against the skull, two inches 
from the point of injury. The pericranium was separated a distance of three 
and three-quarter inches along the track of the missile, and beneath it the 
bone was spongy and porous. The line of separation from healthy hone was 
well-marked. U))on the removal of the skull-cap, a slight sponginess of the 
internal table, beneath the point of impact, was observed. (See Fig. 35.) The 
meninges, for some distance around the seat of injury, were very much 
thickened and blackened, an<i firmly adherent to the calvaria. The brain 
Fir.. 3.^.— siioiviiip the e.\-tont of necrosis in a calviiria substance was softened, and the vessels very much congested. The heart, 
i'^a^i'm*''''"*"'^""*'"'*"""*"*'""' '*«^-"^2"'^"='- liver, and spleen were flahhy. The case is reported by Acting Assistant 

Surgeons Dean and Atwater. 




112 WOUNDS AND INJUEIES OF THE HEAD, 

Rf.imek, William, Private, Co. B., KUli New York Heavy Artillei-y. aged 44 j-ears, was wounded, at Fort Fisher, 
North Carolina, January loth, 1805, hy a conoidal musket liall, whicli contused the frontal and tonipoial l)ones. He was taken 
on board an hospital steamer, and convoyed, on January ^4th, to the McDongall Hospital, New York Harbor, where he died, 
on February Oth, 18G5, from intlanunatiiin of the Ijrain. 

SheubON, Thomas, Private, Co. A, 15tli Virginia Volunteers, aged 20 years, received, at the battle of Hatcher's Run, 
Virginia, M.irch 31st, I860, a gunshot eontusi(m of the cranium. He was admitted to tlie hospital <if the '2il division of the Ninth 
Corps, and, on April 3d, was sent to the hosjiitul at Fort Monroe, Virginia. Death occurred on April ICth, 18G5, from 
nieuingitia and encephalitis. 

Sunday, Jacoi! C, Corporal, Co. C, 34th Hlinois Volunteers, wa.s, on May 9th, 1864, admitted to hospital No. 1, 
Chattanooga, Tennessee, with a gLuishot contusion of the skull. He died on June 18th, 1864, from cerebritis. 

Wklcii, CnAP.LES, Private, Co. D, 8th Maine Volunteers, aged 21 year.*, was wounded, at the battle of Cold Harbor, 
Virginia, June 5th, 1864, in the forehead, by a conoidal musket ball, which denuded the os frontis, though producing no 
apparent fracture. He was admitted to the hospital <if the Eighteenth Corps, and thence conveyed to Washington, and 
admitted, on the 10th, into Harewood Hospital. The ease seemed to be progressing favorably. The patient was sent, on June 
Itith, to Xew York City, but, having stopped at Philadelphia on his way, he died suddenly at a refreshment saloon, on June 
2l8t, 1864. 

Intracranial Extravasation. — The cases of Colonel Farnham, on p. 109, Private 
Rea, on p. 120, and that of Private Poster, recorded among the instances of trephining, 
afford illustrations of haimorrhage within the cranium following gunshot contusions of the 
skull. 

Intracranial Abscess. — The following are instances of sup])uration following gunshot 
contusions of the cranium, and other illustrations will be found among the cases of 
trephining: 

CliANK, Ethan, A., Musician. Co. K, 44th New York Volunteers, was wounded, at the battle of Cold Harbor, Virginia, 
June 3d, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which struck the frontal bone on the right si e, near the median line, and glanced, 
apparently causing only a tlesli wound ; the bone was barely bruised. He was admitted to the hospital of the Fifth Corps, 
and, on .June lOtli, was sent to the Carver Hos|)ital at Washington. The case ])rogressed favorably until June 20th, when 
grave cephalic symptoms came on. The patient became comatose, and died on .June 22d, 1864, from cerebral complications. 
The autopsy revealed a large abscess in the right anterior lobe of the brain, with meningitis beneath the seat of injury. The 
external table of the bone was slightly discohu-ed and cribriform, while the internal presented a faint attempt at the formation 
of a circuniBcribed area of the eft'ects of osteitis. The diploe was found of a dark yellowish gray color, as in cases of osteo- 
myelitis in long bones. The pathological specimen was sent to the Army Medical Museum, and is numbered 1393 in Section I. 
The specimen and history were contributed by Assistant Surgeon H. Allen, U. S. Army. 

Smith, William, Private, Co. 6, 4th New York Heavy Artillery, aged 18 years, was wounded, at the battle of Hatcher's 
Run, Virginia, March 31st, 1865, by a conoi<lal ball, which caused a contusion of the left parietal bone. He was, on the 
following day, admitted to the hospital of the Second Corps. On April 5th, he was transferred to the Emory Hospital, Wash- 
ington, D. C, and on April 9th, sent to the Cuyler Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. On admittance no osseous lesion 
could be detected. The case progressed favorably until April 16th, when the patient bad two or three slight convulsive paroxysms, 
lying in a somewhat soporose condition during the intervals. He afterwards became delirious, and finally almost completely 
comatose. The muscles of the left side of the bod}' were observed to be in a state of spasmodic contraction, and a large 
collection of pus formed beneath the left side of the scalp, anterior to the wound, and was opened on A]iril 29th. The path- 
ological condition was supposed to be, that an abscess, resulting Irom the original shock to the brain substance, was exciting 
irritation, and would probably eventually hurst into one of the lateral ventricles. Mercurials, tartarized antimony, and the 
fluid extract of veratrum viride were exhibite<l internally, while the head was kept somewhat elevated. Death ensued on the 
night of April 30th, 18i)o, one month from the reception of injury. An autopsy was made about fourteen hours .after death, with 
the following results: there was no fracture of the skull to be detected when the scalp was removed, and the bone was not 
bared beneath the abscess, which has been described as liaving formed a few hours before death, but was manifestly necrosed 
just below the original wound. On removing the skull cap it was found that a plate of bone, about one inch long and three- 
quarters of an inch broad, bad been separateil by exfoliation from the inner table, and was adherent to the dura mater 
immediately beneath the pcisition of the original scalp wound. The brain was removed with the membranes entire, but a moderate 
quantity of blood and serum being found beneath the dura mater and the skull. On rellecting the dura mater of the right 
hemisphere, the arachnoid over the middle lobe of the cerebrum was found to be acutely inflamed, presenting an abund.ant 
deposit of soft coagulable lymph. The membranes of tlie left side presented merely a slight pearliness, and the adhesion of the 
dura mater to the sequestrmn, alrea<ly referre<I to. The brain substance on the right side was healthy; on the left side, it was 
softened beneath the po.-sition of the wound, and, at the depth of about three-quarters of an inch, was a small abscess, not 
larger than a small hickory-nut. All other parts of the body exandned appeared normal. The muscular contrac^tion on the 
Bame side of the body as the wound was now accoimted for by the existence of intracranial disease upon the opposite side. 
The case is reported by Henry S. Schell, Assistant Surgeon U. S. Army. 



GUXSHOT CONTUSIONS OF TIIK CRANTAL TiONF.S. 1 ] ."> 

Epilepsy, mental imbecility, derangements of the special s^enses, and various paralyses 
were the not infriHpient results of guiisliot contusions of the cranium. 

Paralysis. — Twenty-three cases are referred to in this class: 

Adams, .T. E., Corporal, Co. F, 15th Massaclmsetts Voluiitoers. received, at the battle of Ball's Bluff, Virginia, October 
21st. ISGl, a gunshot wound of the scalp, with contusion of the right parietal bone. A report of a medical examining board, 
dated February 2(lth, 18()2, states that there is atrophy of the left arm, with partial ])aralysi8 of the sensory nerves and 
diininnti(m of the temperature. He was discharged from the service, March 8tli, 18(12. His name is not upon the Pension Itolls. 

Arend, John, Private, Co. F, 46th New Yoi-k Volunteers, received, at the battle of South Mountain, Maryland, 
September 14th, 1862, a ginishot wound of the scalp, with contusion of the frontal bone. He was admitted to No. 1 Hospital 
at Frederick, on the 17th, and from there, on the 20th. was transferred to Stewart's Mansion Hospital at Baltimore. He was 
discharged from the service, March 17tli, 18()3. on which date Assistant Surgeon De Witt C. Peters, U. S. A., reports him as 
being greatly debilitated, and suffering from sjiinal irritation, with partial paralysis of the lower extremities, for which, treatment 
had afforded very little benefit. His name does not appear on the Pension List. 

Booth, John, Private, Co. E, 55th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 29 years, received, at the battle of Drury's Bluff, 
Virginia, May 16th, 1864, a gunshot wound of the upper and posterior right parietal region, by a conoidal musket ball. He 
was taken ])risoner, but subsequently exchanged, and admitted, on August 14th, into the First Divison Hospital at Annapolis, 
Maryland. The patient was afterwards sent to Camp Parole, and, on November 5th, transferred to the general hospital at 
Pittsburg. Paral,vsis of tlie left leg resulted, and he wiis discharged from service. May 2llth, 1865, and pensioned. Tlic case 
is reported by Assistant Siu'geon H. R. Sillinian, U. S. A. In Augu.st, 1837, Pension Exaniiriing Surgeon G. McCook reported 
that this pensioner was totally incapable of earning a living by maiuial labor, on account (/f j)artial heniijilcgia, and that hia 
disabilities were jiermanent. 

Brown, Pricslky I., Corporal, Co. B, 102(1 Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 24 yi>ars. received, at the battle of the 
Wilderness, Virginia, May 6th, 1864, a gunshot wound of seal]), a conoidal ball entering at middle of left parietal bone, passing 
backwards, making a flesh wound two inches in length, denuding the heme. He was admitted to Lincoln Hospital. Washington, 
J). C, on May 11th, and, on M.ay 16th, was transferre<l to Patt.M-son Park Hospital, ISaltimore, Maryland: thence, on May 21st, 
to hos])ital at York, Peini.^ylvania. Acting Assistant Surgeon H. S. Smyser, under whose care tlie patient came at the latter 
hospital, reports thiit the ]iatient stated that there was loss of sensation in rigbt arm and hand from the monn'nt he was struck 
by the ball. On .Jiuie 10th, the arm was recovering, aiul, on June Lith, the patient was transferred to the hospital at Pittsburg, 
Pennsylvania, wiience he was returned to duty on May !hh, 18G5. 

Bush, Aahon C, Lieutenant, 4th Wisconsin Cavalry, was, in February, 1864, shot in the head, the hall inllicting a 
scalp wound and contusion of the right parietal, and concussion of brain. He fell from his horse, and was conveyed to 
the regimental hospital very much depressed, but otherwise doing well. Tlie regimental report for March, lsi64, states that 
"Bush is in a fair way of recovery, although a long time will elapse before he will be able to return to duty." He was 
discharged on August 30th^ 1864, and pensioned for partial hemiplegia of the left side. 

Carson, J. M., Captain, Co. A, 25th South (^'arolina Regiment, aged 27 years, received, at the assault on Fort Fisher, 
North (!!arolina, .January 15th, 1865, by a conoidal ball, a wound of the scalp, with contusion of the skull, causing a paralysis 
of the right arm. He was admitted, on the 22d, to Chesapeake Hospital, near Port Monroe, .and, on .January liOtb, was 
transferred to military prison, after wliich all trace of him is lost. The case was reported by Assistant Surgeon Ely 
McClellan, U. S. A. 

Cooke, R. H., Private, Co. D, 12th Alabama Regiment, was examined, on July 24th, 1862, by Surgeon John G. Mooi-e, 
93d Alabama Regiment. He was suffering from an untiealed gunshot wotmd of the scalp, and probably the skull had been 
severely contused. He complained of numbness of the left leg. He was reported as imfit for duty. 

CuuiiY, .JoilX, Private, Co. A, 142d Pennsylv.ania Volunteers, w.as wounded, .at the battle of J'>ederickshurg, Virginia, 
December 13th, 1862, by a buckshot, which injured the lefl parietal bone. He w.as treated in a field hos]iital ; on I >eceniber 23d, 
admitted to the Lincoln Hospital, Washington, D. C, and discharg(ul from the service on February 21st, 1863. His riglit side 
and limbs were paralyzed. His name is not on tlie Pension Rolls. 

l>oiT.r,A.'!, Ai.fri:d F., Private, Co, I, 6th Vermont Volunteers, aged 19 years, received, at the battle of the Wilderness, 
Virginia, May fitli, 1864, a wound of the right side of the scalp, by a coTioidal musket ball, witli contusion of the parietal. He 
was admitted into the Finley Hospital at Wasliington. May lltli. Parti.al p.aralysis of the lower e.xtremities resulted. On 
August llth, the patient w.as sent to the Smith Hospital at Brattleboro', Vernuuit, and, on September 11th, was transferred to tlie 
Baxter Hospital at Burlington. He was returned to duty, November 21st, 1864. The case is reported by Assistant Surgeon 
S. W. Tliompson. U. S. V. 

Garland, Jamfss W., Coi-poriil, Co. G, 5th W^isconsin Volimteers, aged 23 j'ears, was wounded at the battle of Cold 
Harbor, A'irginia. .June 1st, 1864, by a fragment of shell, which grazed tlie top of the head, on the mediiin line, about five and 
a half inches from the margin of the hair on the forehead, inllicting a severe wound of the scalp, about two inches in length 
by one inch in width, and contusing the cranium. He was unconscious for .about ten minutes, the control of the lower extremities 
was lost, and sensation w.a8 impaired, Spa.sins and temporary partial paralysis of the upper extremities supervened. On 
.June (ith, he was admitted to First Division Hospital at Alexandria, Virginia. On .June 23tli, he was transferred to MeClell.an 
Hos])ital, I'hiladelphia, and thence, on .July 6tli, to Turner's Lane Hospital. At the latter date, the p.atient suffered fi-oni severe 
headache, and the power of motion of the left leg was still impaired, though his general health was good On July 20th, a 
15 



114 WOXTNDR AND IXJURTES OF THE HF^AD, 

small piece of bone exfoliated, and was removed. Patient was gradually regaining the use of left leg. On November l.'itli, 
the wound was reported as being healed. During; the treatment, he had three paroxy.«ms of intermittent fever. The patient 
was transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps on March 17th, 18115. Tlie case is reported by Surgeon Robert A. Chi'istian, 
II. S. V. He was discharged from service, Se])ti'mbcr 2Cth, 18(55. In 1866, Pension Examining Surgeon J. H. Gallagher 
reported tliat he liad slight paralysis of the left leg, and headache and faiutness on exposure to the sun. Any excitement or 
study aggravated these symptoms. The examiner regarded the.xe symptoms as lilv<'ly to increase in severity. 

Ilcnshii, If. S., Sergeant, Co. C, Ifitli North Carolina Kegiraont, aged 'H years, was wounded, on May 22d, 1S64, by a 
eonoidal ball, which inHicted a severe woimd of the scalp, and probably, a contusion of the skull. Paralysis of the lower 
extremities ensued. He was admitted to the field hospital of the 1st division, Fiftli Corps, and, on May 29th, was transferred 
to Mount Pleasant Hos]iital, Washington; thence, on July 14tli, to Lincoln Hospital, wlience he was transferred to Old Ca))itol 
Prison on August liOth, 18G4, and finally exchanged. 

lN(iKl!S()i.i„ Fii.iNK D., Private, Co. E, 26th New York Vcdimteers, was, on September 24th, 1862. admitted to the 
Carver Hospital, Washington, 1). C, with a shell \V(mnd of the head, lacerating tlie scalp and contusing the outer table of the 
skull. He was discharged on January 12th 1863, on acc(nmt of debility and deranged innervation. His name does not apjjear 
on the I'ension List. 

Kf.sf.r, W.m.laci:, Private, Co. F, 126th New York Volunteers, aged 25 years, received, in the engagement at Har|)ei''s 
Ferry, Virginia, September KStli, 1862, a gunshot wound in the head, at the junction of the occipital witli the parietal bones. 
He was. on December 2'Jth. ailniitted to Camp Parole, Maryland. He was subject to vertigo, and suffered from pai'tial 
paralysis of the right lower limb. He was discharged from service on January 7th, 1863. He is not reported as being an 
applicant for a pension. 

McFoLEY, Jamk.s, Private, Co. A., lltlj Pennsylvania Reserve, aged 35 year.s, was wounded at the battle of Spoft- 
sylvaiiia, Virginia, May 10th, 1864, by a eonoidal ball, which ])assed through the scalp, grazing the left parietal Imne near 
tlie sagitlal suture. He was conveyed to the Mount I'leasant Hospital, Washington, and, on May 19th, was sent to the Camden 
Street Hospital at I!altinu)re. IIenn]ilegia (if the right side had sii|)erveneil. He was transferred to Annajiolis. ,Tune 22d. and, 
on August lUth. to Pittsburg, where be was discharged from the sei'vice, December 24th, 18(i4. Paralysis of the riglit arm still 
existed. He lias not applied for a pension. 

JIcKKN'Di.'lf'K, .Joiix P.. Co. I, 12th New Hamp.shire Volunteers, received, at the battle of C'hancellorsville, Virgini.a, 
May 3d, 186.'!, a gunshot coiilusion of the skull, posterior aspect. He was admitted to tbe field liospital of the 3d division, 
Tliird Corps, on the following day, and from there sent to Alexandria, where he was admitted, on .June 14th, to Mansion House 
Hospital, whence he w;is transferred, on the Kith, to hospital at Concord. New Hampshire. Paralysis of both lower extremities 
ensued, and the patient suffered from constant uneasiness and jKiin in the head. He wasex.amined by Surgeon ,J. W. liuchanan^ 
U. S. v., and discharged fiom the service on the 12tli of August, 1863. His name does nut appear on the Pension List. 

Mii.KS, Levi. Private, Co. C, 52d Indiana Volunteers, aged 50 years, was wounded at Fort De Russy, Louisian.a, 
March 14th, 1864, by a eonoidal ball, which entered through the lobule of the left ear, and emerged at the nape of tbe neck, 
below the occipital bone, contusing in its course, but not fracturing, the temporal bone. He was sent, on March 16th, to the 
hospital steamer Woodford, and, on April 30th, was transferred to the hospital steamer R. C. Wood. On May 8th, he was 
sent to New Orleans, and thence to the Overton Hospital at Memphis, Tennessee. He was returned to duty on September 
5th, 1864. On February 13th, 1865, he was admitted to the Washington Hosjntal at Memphis, suffering from frequent 
attacks of trembling, and other symptoms of paralysis. The wound had not yet healed. He was discharged from service on 
April 2Uth, 1865. 

I'oi'K, Theodore, Private, Co. C, 9th Ohio Volunteers, received, at the battle of Chickamauga, Georgia, September 
19tli, 1863, a gunshot contused wound of scalp. He was admitted into Hospital No 1, Nashville. Tennessee, on September 25tli, 
and, on Septend)er 27th, was sent to Louisville, and admitted into Hospital No. 4, where his wound was found to be complicated 
by c<mtusion of the left parietal bone. On December 30th, 1863, he entered Washington Park Hospital. Cincinnati, and, on 
January 8tli, 1864. was sent to Camp Dennison, where he was discharged from service by reason of (lartial liemiplegia of the 
right siile of the body. His name does not appear on the list of pensioners. The case is reported by Surgeon William 
Varian, U. S. V. 

Kemic'k, JI.MtTiN', Private. Co. I, 79th Illinois Volunteers, aged 19 years, was wounded, at the battle of Murfreesboro', 
Tennessee, December 31st, 1862, by a round musket ball, which struck about the junction of the occipital and parietal bones, 
and passed laterally through the integument, making a furrow nearly three inches in length, and touching and bruising, without 
fracturing, the bone. He was, on January 25th. 1863, admitted to Hospital No. ,5, Murfreesboro'; (m February 16th, be w.as 
sent to Hospital No. 8. Nashville; on March 1st. to Hospital No. 13, Louisville, Kentucky; .and, on Marcli 8th, to the hospital at 
(^uincy, Illinois. He suffered occasionally from tremors, more or less paro.xysmal, but in February. l''^64, the wound had 
healed. He still complained of pain in the head, and was subject to many nervous symptoms. He w.as discharged from the 
service on May 18th, 1865. He is not an applicant for a pension. 

SxYDER, .lo.SKPii, Colonel, 7th West Virginia Volunteers, received, at the battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 
13th, 1862, a severe gunshot contusion of the skull. The bone was denuded of periosteum, and slight paralysis of the left arm 
supervened. The i)atient \vas treate<l in private (piarters, was furloughed on December 18th, 1862, and finally discharged from 
the service on September 7th, 1863. His imme does not appeal' on the Pension List. 

Sffinlri/, J. />.. Private, Caskie's Virginia Battery, was admitted into Confederate Hospital No. 1, Richmond, Virginia, 
with a gunshot woimd of the scalp, with contusion of the cranium, received on September 24th, 1863. Hemiplegia resulted 
from the njury, and the patient was furloughed for sixty days on November 24th, 1863. 



GUNSHOT CONTUSIONS OK THK CRANIAL BONES. 115 

S'lKRi-ixii, William, Private, Co. B, 44tli Illinois Volunteers, aged 32 years, was wounded, at tlie battle of Keiicsaw 
Mountain, Georfria, June 27th, 1864, by a fragment of sliell, which struclc the right supraorbital ridge, injuring tlie frontal 
bone and ilostroying the right eye. He had ]n'eviously received, at tlie battle of Chiekaniiuiga, Teiniessee, September 19tb, 1HG3, 
a lle.sh wound of the right arm. He was, on Novend)er 29th, 1864, admitted to the hospital steamer K. C. Woo<l, and, on 
Peeember 1st, transferred to the ho.spital at Mound City. Illinois. Chronic neuralgia of the right supraorbital nerve followed. 
The patient was discharged from the service on February 16th, 1865. The strength and usefulness of the right arm were 
impaired. His name does not mipear on the Pension Rolls. 

SiiioiiiDAX, Thomas, Private, Co. li, 3d United States Cavalry, aged 27 years, was wounded, near Little Rock, 
Arkansas, October 16th, 1864, in the head by a conoidal b.all, which lodged beneath the scalp, near the right ear. He was 
admitted, on October 23d, to the hospital at Little Rock. Convulsions su|)ervened, and deatli occurred on December 23d, 1864. 

Thompson. Kund, Private, Co. I, H2d Illinois Volunteers, aged 3(i years, received, at the battle of Chancelloi«ville, 
Virginia, May 3d, 1863, a wound by a pistol ball, which struck the head and denuded the left parietal of periosteum. He was 
admitted to the field hospital of the 3d division of the Eleventh Corps on May 4th, 1863, and transferred to Douglas Hospital 
at Washington on .Inly 21st. During the progress of the case, parajilegia ensued. The patient also suffered from a general 
and constant pain in the head. He was transferred to Christian Street Hos])ital at Philadelphia on September 15th, 1863. 
Assistant Surgeon W. W. Keen, U. S. Army, reports that, on the date of his di.^charge, although suffering from an evident 
disease! of the brain, he had so far improved as to be able to walk. Discharged February 17th, 1864. His mime does not 
appear on the I'ension Rolls. 

AVagoni'.u, .jKliK.MiAH, Private. Co. G, 85th Illinois Volunteers, aged 25 years, wiis wounded, in an engagement at 
Peach Tree Creek, Georgia, July IDth, 181)4, by a musket ball, which entered at the upjier part of the frontal region, and 
passing directly backward over the vertex, grazing the bone in its passage, made its e.\it at a distance of three inches from the 
point of entrance. He was received, on July 23d, into No. 2 Hospital at Chattanooga, Tennessee, and from there successively 
transferred to Nashville, Jeffersonville, St. Louis, and Mound City, Illinois. He was aduntted to the hospital at the latter 
place on Septendier 4th, 1864, at which time the wound was discharging freely, but gradually healing. There Wiis also 
paralysis of the right arm, which the jiatient stated had began on receipt of injury, anil gradindly increased until tiie lind) Inid 
l)econu! useless. He was transferred on September 23d, and, on the following day, admitted to liospital at (^inncy, Illinois, 
where lie remained until returned to duty, April 12th, 1865. 

Loss or Impair'nieni of Vision. — Many forms of iiiipainiieiit of vision resulted from 
gunshot scalp wounds, with contusion of bone and lesions of the nerves, or secondary 
disorders of the hrain. Conjunctivitis, ptosis, amblyopia, and amaurosis were the consec- 
utive eye diseases most commonly obser\"ed. The following cases and those of McLarney 
(p. 100), and Patterson (p. 104), belong to tliis class: 

AuT, .Tames, I'rivate, Co. E, 2d Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 19 years, was wounded, in an engagement before 
Petersburg, Virginia, June ISth, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which struck the frontal region one .and one-lialf inches above 
the left eye, contusing the bone. He was admitted into the field hospital on the 19tli. and. a few days, later sent to the Chesapeake 
Hosiiital at Fort Monroe. On July 4th, the p.atient w.as trauBt'erred to Philadelphia, and a<lmitted into the McClellan Hospital. 
On August 8th, he was sent to Turner's Lane Hospital. There was jitosis of the eyelids of both eyes, and loss of vision for 
some days. On May 10th, he was again received into the MctJlellau llos])ital, e.iid on July 13th, 1855, was mustered out of 
service. The case is reported by Surgeon Lewis Taylor, U. S. A. The name of this patient does not appear on the Pension List. 

BlizZELL, HiRAM H., Private, Co. G, 40th Massachusetts Volunteers, aged 38 years, received, in an engagement before 
Petersburg, Virginia, in .June, 1864, a contusion uf the skull, by a fragment of shell. He was admitted into the hospital of the 
Eighteenth Army Corps on July 1st. On July 2d, he was transferred to the general hospital at Fort Monroe, Virginia. 
Conjunctivitis supervened. He was returned to duty, July 29tli, 1864. 

Cole, Jacou, Private, Co. I, 64th Illinois Volunteers, aged 24 yeai-s, received, at the battle of Nashville, Tennessee, 
December 13th. 1864, a gunshot wound of the scalj), with contusion of the bone. He was ailmitted, on the following day, to 
hospital No. 1, Nashville, and, on May 3d, 1865, transferred to hospital No. 2, of the same city. For a time he suffered from 
chronic conjunctivitis, but he recovered and was returned to duty on July 16tli. 1865. 

Emehick, Jacoh, I'rivate, Co. A, 148th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 23 years, received, at the battle of Chancellorsville, 
Virginia, May 3d, 1863, a contusion of the right jiarietal bone, by a fragment of shell. He was admitted into the field hospital 
of the Ist division of the Secoiul Corps on the following day, and, .about .June 13tli, was sent to tlie hospital at I'oint Lookout, 
Maryland On September 29th, he was transferred to the Mower Hospital at Philadelphia. Vision was much impaired. On 
December 22d, 1863, he was returned to duty. 

Graham, Michael, Corporal, Co. H, 103d Ohio Volunteers, aged 23 years, received, during the siege of Knoxville, 
Tennessee, November 18th, 1863, a gunshot contusion of the right parietal. He w.as admitted on the same day to hospital No. 
3, Knoxville; on March 8tli, 1864, he was sent to the hospital at Clevel.and, Ohio, and. on April 7th, 1864, transferred to the 
Veteran Reserve Corps. On July 6th, he vpas .admitted to the Satterlee Hospital, Philadelphia, suffering from granular 
conjunctivitis. He was discharged from the service on July 6th, 1865, on account of impaired vision, the result of gunshot 
wound of the head. His name is not upon the Pension Roll. 

Says, E. B., Private, Co. H, 21st Mississippi Regiment, was admitted into Jackson Hospital, Richmond, Virginia, with 
a gunshot wound of left temporal region, received March 25tli, 1865. Vision was impaired. 



116 WOUNDS AND IN.IUEIES OF THE HEAD, 

H.\(;an, Thomas, C'liptain, Co. G, 71st remieylviuiia Volunteers, received, at tlie liattle of Aiitietam, Septenilier ITili. 
1863, a guimliot wound over lelt parietal bone, causing,' amaurosis of both eyes. He was unable to do duty until November Ititli, 
when he joined hi.s regiment, but was coniiicUed to apply for siek leave again on December 19th, 18C'^. He resigned on 
February 7th, 18C:i. The loss of vision was almost complete in the left eye, and the right eye was only impaired. In April. 
1865, I'ension Kxaminer T. F. Smith, of New York, reports that the left iris was very much dilated; that he could not read 
other than tlie very largest type. 

Jamk.«, \V. J.. Sergeant, Co. F, 83d Ohio Volunteers, was wounded at the battle of Arkansas Post, Arkansas, .January- 
11th, 18(i3, by a conoidal musket ball, which struck against tlie left frontal eminence, and glanced backwards as far as the 
central jiortion of the left parietal, denuding tlie bone to the extent of threi' inches. The vision became impaired, and was, for 
a short time, nearly lost. He was taken to tlie hospital ytcainer D. A. January, on January 13th, and conveyed to Memphis, 
Tennessee, wliere he was admitted, on the 23d of the month, into Hospital No. 3. In the course of two or three days, he was 
seized with convulsions, which recurred at intervals of three or four weeks. The vision of the right eye was more aU'ected than 
that of the leil, and seemed to vary with the condition of the wound. He was discharged from service on the 4th of April. 
The wound had healed to some extent, and looked healthy. Thus far. no exfoliation of bone liad taken place. The patient 
walked with a feeling of giddiness and insecurity, the cerebral symptoms not being in any degree alleviated, though bis general 
health was good. In July, 18()8, James was a ]iensiouer at six dollars per month, his disability being rated at three-fourths. 

Lanigan, Jami:s, Private, Co. E, 2.">th Massachusetts Volunteers, received, in an engagement before Petersburg, Virginia, 
June ■23d, 1864, a gunshot contusion of the skull. He was admitted to hospital at Hampton, Virginia, <m June 2i3tli, and, on 
July 4th, sent to Filbert Street Hospital, Philadelphia. On July 24th, lie was transferred to Sunnnit House Hospital; thence, 
on August 24th, to Satterlee Hospital, where, on May 2Uth, 1865, he was discharged from service, by reason of impaired vision. 
His name does not appear on the Pension List, i'lie case is reported by Surgeon John E. MacDonald, U. S. V. 

MoOKK, J. C, Sergeant, Co. H, 99tli Pennsylvania V<dunteers, aged 37 years, received, at the battle of the Wilderness, 
Virginia, May Sth, 1864, a wound of the fnnital region by a conoidal musket ball, which scraped the bone. He was admitted 
into the Held hospital of the 3d division, Second Army Corps, and, a few days later, sent to AVashington, and admitted, on May 
11th, into the Fiiiley Hospital. Sini]ile di-essings. Tlu' patient was transferred to riiiladel]diia on May 18tli.and was admitti'd 
into the South Street Hospital. On May Kith, 1865, he was sent to the Summit House Hosjiital, and, on July 5tli, 1865, he 
was discharged from the .service. The case is ri']iorted by Surgeon S. J. Y. Mintzer, U. S. V. He was pensioned July 6tli, 186.5, 
and, in May, 1867, Pension Examiner T. U. liead reiiorted that his eyesight was much impaired, and that he suifered from 
giddiness and headache, and he thought the pensioner's disabilities permanent, though some amelioration might be anticipated. 

Nkil, Wm. H., Captain, Co. D., 26th New Y'ork Volunteers, was wounded at Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 13th, 
1862, by a conical ball, which passed across his forehead about an inch above his e3'ebrows, making a very slight wound, hardly 
sufficient to draw blood, but probably contusing the os frontis. He was instantly rendered totally blind; at the same time, the 
motor nerves near the eye were paralyzed, so that the lids drooped, notwithstanding every efl'ort he made to raise them. The 
eye-halls were entirely <levoid of expression. He was admitted to regimental hospital, and thence sent to general hospital. 
Surgeon W. B. Coventry, who reports the case, states that he incidentally learned afterwards that the patient commenced to 
recover the sight of one eye. This officer's name does not appear on the rolls of the Pension Bureau. 

Newson, John G., Sergeant, Co. B, 30th North Carolina Eegiment, aged 18 years, was wounded, in an engagement at 
Kelly's Ford, Virginia, November 7th, 1863, by a conoidal musket ball, on the back and ujiper part of the scalp, contusing the 
skull. He became unconscious, and remained so until the next day. On November 9th, he was adniitt<'d to the Douglas 
Hospital, Washington, D. C. He was weak and giddy, his eyes were red and injected, and very sensitive to light. He lia<l 
no appetite, felt stupid, and had constant inclination to vomiting. These symptoms continued for some days, but, on November 
23d, he was free from pain and able to walk about. His appetite had improved, and the discharge from the wound looked 
healthy. He was transferred to the Lincoln Hosjiital, and, on December 7th, 1863, sent to the Old Capitol Prison. The case is 
reported by Acting Assistant Surgeon Carlos Carvallo. 

Plott, Lewis, Sergeant, Co. A, 71st Ohio Volunteers, aged 25 years, was wounded in an engagement in front of Nashville, 
Tennessee, December 15th, 1864, by a conoidal musket ball, which contused the frontal bone, and destroyed the vision of the 
right eye. He was admitted, on the 17th, into Hospital No. 1, Nashville, and, on the 22d, transferred to Hospital No. 15, of the 
same city. On the 4th of Janiiar.v, 1865, he was sent to the Hrown Hospital at Louisville, Kentucky, and, in March, transferred 
to Cam]) Dennisou, Ohio. Simple dressings constituted the main treatment. He recovere<l, and was discharged from service 
on the 13th of June, 18!i5. The Commissioner of Pensions reports, December lltli, 1869, that Plott is a pensioner at four dollars 
per month. The sight of the right eye is destroyed, and the hearing impaired as well. 

SoiDKl!, Anduiow, I'rivate, Co. C, 3d Michigan Volunteers, aged 30 years, in the action at Groveton, Virginia, August 
27th, 1862, received a gunshot contusion of the left tenijioral region. He was admitted into the Georgetown College Hospital, 
D. C, <m December 13th. and, on January 2d, was transferred to Philadel|)hia, and admitted into the Mower Hospital. Loss 
of vision of the left eye resulted. He was discharged from service, February 21st. 1803, and pensioned, The wound cau.sed 
arthritis of the tenijioro-maxillary articulation, ending in partial anchylosis, so that, according to the report of Pension 
Examining Surgeon Wilson Jewell, the patient was unable to open his mouth more than lialf an inch. 

Deafneiss — The cases of Iving (p. 101), and of Chambeelaxn (p. 11!*), and those 
detailed in the fourteen following abstracts are examples of deafness following gunshot 
contusions of the skull: 

Aiat'N, ClIAlil F.s, Private, Co. I, 15th New Y'ork Aitilleiy, aged 30 years. Contusion of the left (eniporal by a piece 
/if shell. Weldon K'ailroad. August 20th, 1864. Tieated at field hospital of Fifth ('or|is. and Mount Pleasant, Washington. 



GUNSHOT CONTUSIONS OF THE CKANIAL BONES. 117 

Discliai"g9<l from service, June 20th, 1865, on account of deafness of tlie left ear and facial ne\iralgia, by Assistant Surgeon H. 
Allen, U. S. A. His name does not ajipear on the I'ensiou List. 

Bkxson, Stki'HEN D., Sergeant, Co. A, 31st Miiine Volunteers, aged 20 years, was woundijd at the battle of Spottsyl- 
vania C'om-t House, Virginia, May 12tli, 186-1, by a eonoidal ball, which entered tlie left side of the head, one inch behind the 
meatus auditorius externus, on a line with its opening, and emerged clo.se to tlie acromion process of the right scapula. He 
wus entirely uncon-scious for several lioui's, but had some realization of pain in the evening, when he made an iiieifectual effort 
to get on his feet. He was admitted to the hospital of the 2d division of the Ninth Corps, and, on May 24th, was sent to the 
Harewood Hospital, Washington. For about three weeks there was much mental aberration, especially at night. Assistant 
Surgeon Sumner A. Patten, who reports the case, examined the patient on June 20th, 1864. The wounds of entrance and of exit 
discharged freely. There was ninnbness of the left side of the head, and deafness of the left ear. Tlie scalp in the vicinity 
of the wound was much swollen. On rising to his feet, he was so dizzy that he was compelled to lay hold of something to avoid 
falling. Occasionally small ])ieces of necrosed bone were discharged from the left ear. Sergeant Benson, commissioned as 
lieutenant, on August 1st, returned fo ids regiment, but, on December oth, 1864, resigned. On April 2d, 1866, Doctor I'atten wrot« 
tliiit this oflicer had not been able to labor since the reception of the injury ; that there was a constant feeling of weakness, 
although his a])p(^tite was generally good. Confusion of thought and impairment of memory were also well-marked effects 
of the injury. His general health was deteriorated, and he weighed but 144 pounds, having weighed 163 when he enlisted. In 
September, 1868, Examining Surgeon K. F. Sanger reported that this pensioner, residing in Bangor, Maine, had total deafness 
of the left ear, and that his general health was very poor, and his disabilities total. lu a previous communication. Pension 
Examiner J. C. Weston reported that frequent abscesses formed about the mastoid process, due probably to caries. 

Bkvelheimei;, Geoikje W., Private, Co. A, 19th Indiana Volunteers, was wounded at the second battle of Bull Run, 
Virginia, August 30tli, 1862. The missile entered over the inferior curved line of the occipital bone, two inches to the lef^ of the 
median line; it then passed forward, immediately below the auditory foramen, and produced a large lacerated exit wound in 
front of the ear. He was admitted on September 6th to Judiciary Square Hospital, at Washington, D. C. At the end of the 
third week, although his wounds had nearly closed, there was an entire loss of hearing on that side, the recovery of which the 
probabilities were very unfavorable. He was discharged from the service, December 16th, 1862. His name does not appear on 
the Pension List. This case is reported in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, volume 67, page 493. 

DUXGAX, T. J., Private, Co. F, 46tli Pennsylvania Volunteers, received, in an engagement at Cedar Mountain, Virginia, 
August 9th, 18R2, a gunshot wound of the right tenijile. The bone near the auditory foramen was contused, and the facial nerve 
was implicated. He Avas admitted, on August 13lh, to the 2d division hos]iital, at Alexandria, and, on August 3l8t, transferred 
to the Judiciary Sc)uare Hospital, Washington, whence he was dischargeil from the service on November 12th, 1862. The seii.se 
of hearing was imjiaired, and the right side of the face paralyzed. In March, 18():i, Peiision Exainiiier ti. Mc('ook, of Pittsburg, 
Pennsylvania, reported this man's disaliilities permanent and incurable. In Xoveniber, 1867, Pension Examiner E. Switl 
reported that the sense of hearing on the right side was almost entirely lost, and that facial paralysis existed, together with an 
inability to close the right cj-elids. 

Goodrich, James D., Private, Co. F, 12lth Ohio Volunteers, aged 21 years, received, at the battle of Buzzard Roost, 
Georgia, May 9th, 1864, a contusion of the Icit parietal by a eonoidal musket ball. He was treated in a field hosjiital until 
May 16tli, when he was transferred to Nashville, Tennessee, and remained in Hospital No. 19, until May 19th, when he was 
sent to Clay Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky, and thence, on June 29th, to Camp Dennison, Ohio, from whence he was discliarged 
from the service, August 2Ttli, 1864, by reason of deafness and impaired mind. His name does not appear on the Pension List. 
Surgeon A. P. Varian, U. S. V., reports the case. 

GitEGOJiY, Adam, Corporal, Co. H, 18th Ohio Volunteers. Shell contusion of the skull. Chickamauga, September 19th, 
1863. Treated at Cumberland Hospital, Nashville. Slight deafness resulted. Returned to duty September 28th, 1863. He 
does not appear to be a pensioner. 

Havens, Charles P., Private, Co. F., 144th New York Volunteers, aged 28 years. Contusion of the left temporal 
region by a eonoidal musket ball. Honey Hill, South Carolina, November 30th, 18()4. Treated at regimental, Hilton Head, 
MoDougall, and Elmira Hospitals, and discharged from service May 25th, 1865, and pensioned. In September, 1868, 
Examining Surgeon John S. Pfouts reports that this man had coni)dete deafness of the left ear. 

Khoesex, Cyrus, Private, Co. A, 77th Illinois Volunteers, was wounded at the battle of Arkansas Post, January 11th, 
1863, by a round ball, which struck the leit side of the head, contusing the frontal bone, ])assed baekwai'ds above the base of 
the ear, making a track three inches in length beneath the scalp. He was cimveyed to Menipliis, Tennessee, by the lurapital 
steamer D. A. January, and admitted, on January 22d. to tlie .\dams Hospital. Audition of the left car was entirely destroyed; 
that of the right ear is perfect. The wound healed without any untoward syrajitom. He was returned to duty July 2d, 1863. 
His name does not appear on the Pension Rolls. 

Peppers, Maiitix, Private. Co. D, 3d Iowa Volunteers, Avas, on November 4tli, 1862, admitted to the hospital at Keokuk, 
Iowa, suffering partial deafness and disease of the frontal sinus, right side, caused by an ex))losion of a shell in the engagement 
at Big Hatchie, Tennessee, October 5th, 1862 The injury was followed by aViscess of the frontal sinus. The patient was 
discharged from the service on March 30th, 1863. His name does not appear on the Pension List. 

Plii.l.lAM, Er.ljAlT C, Private, Co. H, 32d Illinois Volunteers, received, at the battle of Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6th, 
1862, a wound of the scalp in the occipital region, with contusion of bone, by a buckshot. His hospital history previous to 
August 6th, the date on which Ik? was admitted to House of Refuge Hospital at St. Louis, Missouii, is wanting. Erysipelaa 
supervened. The patient suffered several relapses of tlie disease, which finally terminated in abscesses behind both ears, 
causing temporary deafness on the left side. He was discharged from the service on October 15th, 1862. His name is not 
recorded on the Pension Rolls. 



118 WOUNDS AND INJURIKS OF TIIK HKAD, 

Kawdox, Jamf.s, Corporal, Co. K, 154th Massacliiisetts VoliintecTs, aged 18 yeai-s, was wdimded, at tlic hattlo of Nnv 
Markot, Virginia, May 15th, 1864, hy a fragiiK.'iit of shell, which lacerated the scalp over the posterior horder ot the left parietal 
bone to the extent of two inches, and contused the bone. He was conveyed to the hospital at Cuinherland, Maryland. The 
wound healed favorably, hut the patient sufl'ercd for two months with pain and partial deafness. On October :;J5th, the headache ' 
ceased and the hearing was restored, and, on October '2()th, 1864, the man was returned to duty. His name does not ajipear 
upon the list of pensioners. 

liisa, A. H., Private, Co. I, 11th North Carolina Infantry, received, .July 1st, 1S63. a gunshot scalp woiuid of the 
temporal region, with contusion of the bone. He was admitted into the Moore Hosjiital No. 24, Kiclimond, October ".JSth. 
Audition impaired. On November 4th, 1863, he was furloughed for sixty days. 

TiluiiSTOX, William F., Surgeon 1st Ehode Island Artillery, was wounded, at the battle of I'air Oaks, .Tune 28th, 
1862. by a ball from a spherical case shot, which struck his lelt parietal bone, contusing but not fracturing it. Notwithstanding 
his injury, he continued to attend the wounded of his regiment till a few days after the battle, when he had a leave of absence 
for twenty days. Deafness came on gradually, and Surgeon Thurston finally became incap.able of performing duty in the field. 
On April 6th. 1863, he was nuistered out of service, and pensioned. In A))ril, 18G9, Pensicm Examining Surgeon C. Hoppin 
reported that he was conij)letely deaf, and a great sufl'erer fi-om vertigo. 

Wix.sou, \V. 11., Cajitain, Co. F, 18th Massachusetts Volunteers, received, at the battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia, 
December 13th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the head. He was admitted, on the sanu? day, to the field hospital cjf the 1st division 
of the Fifth Corps. On December 17th, 1862, he reported to Sui'gcon Thomas Antisell. at Washington, D. C, who reported 
the injury as a scal)i wound, with contusion <if the left temple, with loss of hearing on that side. He was furlougbed on 
December 19th for twenty days. Resigned March loth, 1863. His n.anu! is not fouiul on tlie Pension Rolls. 

Aphasia. — This obscure and curious ali'ection was observed in three cases, as a sequence 
of gunshot contusions of the skull. One instance is citetl on p. 105: 

C/i(tj>iiiaii, If. r.. Private, Co. A. 5th Virginia (,'avalry, aged 29 year.s, received a wound, by a pistol ball, on October 
11th, 1863, above the left superciliary ridge. The woiuid was contused, and the ball passed out from under the ligaments about 
the left jaw, after causing a concussion of the brain, resulting in aphasia. He was admitted to the Chimborazo Hospital, 
KichuKUid, October 23d, 1863, and was fnrloughed on the 17th of the following mouth, his speech being iiarlially regained, 
though he could not fonnulate sentences in his mind. 

J/ehiies, J. ('., Private, Co. F, 48th Xoi'th Caroliiui Infantry, receivi'd a gunshot wound of the scalp, contusing the skull. 
He was admitted iutcj the No. 8 Ilosijital, Riclunond. on Se]ite[nber 28th, 13G2. Aphiisia resulted. On November 1st he was 
furloughe<l. 

Ejnhpsy. — Nine cases are reported to have resulted in epilepsy, as a remote effect 
of gnnsliot contusions of the cranium: 

Ander.sC)N, Alexanuku, Private, Co. I, 24th Massachusetts Volunteers, was discharged from the service on October 
19th, 1862, at Camp Convalescent, Fort McHenry, Maryland. He had been wounded in the head in March, 1862, near 
Newberne, North Carolina, by a fragment of shell, which lacerated the scalp and contused the left i)arietal. Twice afterwards, 
he was attacked by epileptiform convulsions. He was pensioned and, December 27th, 1862, I'ension E,\amining Surgeon 
G. S. Jones reported that he suft'ered from convulsion, that bis memory was impaired, and that he was unable to labor. 

Davis, Williaji E., Private, Co. C, 28th Kentucky Volunteers, aged 21 years, was wounded in the eng.agement before 
Marietta, Georgia, June 27th, 1864. The missile entered just abov(^ the left, and escaped above the right superciliary ridgi^, 
contusing the frontal. He was admitted to the field hospital of the Fourth Corps, and, on the next > ay, sent to the general 
field hospital at Hig Shanty ; on July 18th, to hosi)ital No. 2, Chattanooga, Tennessee ; on July 20th, to the Cumberland Hospital, 
Na.sliville ; on August 3d. to the Foundrj' H<ispital Kentucky ; and, on October 12th, to the Brown Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky, 
whence he w.as returned to duty on March 8th, 18C5. In the various hospitals, he is reported as suffering from epilepsy. His 
name does not appear on the Pension RcjIIs. 

Hahmon', Gll.liKRT J., Si-rgeant, Co. F., Ist New York Cavalry, aged 18 years, was admitted into the hospit.al at 
Parkersburg, Virginia, September 26th, 1864, with a gunshot contusion of the skull. He was pale, emaciated, and weak, and 
sidyect to epileptic convidsions. He had not done duty for sixteen months, and being unfit for the Veteran Reserve Corps, he 
was discharged from the service on November 18lh, 18g4. His name is not ou the Pension List. 

Mll.l.KU, NoAli, Private, Co. H, 91st, Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 33 years, received, in the battle of Fredericksburg, 
Virginia, D<'ci'mber 13th, 1862, a gunshot wound of the seal]>, with denudation of the cranium. He was conveyed to Wasli- 
ingtiMi, and admitted, on the 17tli, into the Mt. Pleasant Hospital. On Jaiuiary 5th, 1S()3, the patient w.as transferred to the 
Mower Hospital. Philadelphia. On May 2d, he was seized with an epileptic convulsion, which contuuied two hours. He also 
suffered from rheumatism. Discharged from service, September 21st, 1863. Surgeon Joseph Hopkinson, U. S. V., reports the 
case. The name of the patient is not upon the records of the Pension Office. 

Pi:ki.s.'<, CllAIil.KS, Sergeant, Co. A, 4lltb New York Vohmteers, was wounded .it the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
July 2d, 18()3, by a conoidal ball, which caused a gunshot seal)) wound over the occipital, with coiitusion of the outer table. 
He was taken to the hospital of the Ist division. Third Corps, and, ou Se])tember .5tli, 1863, was .admitted to the Ladies' Home 
Hospital, New York, lie was discharged from the service on December 12th, 1863, suffering from epilepsy. His name is not 
on the records of the Pension (lltice. 



GUNSHOT CONTUSIONS OF TIIK CRANIAL BONES, 119 

Stroud, n. M., Private, Co. F, 4th Soutli Caroliiiii Iiifimti-y, aged 23 years, received, on May 20th, 1864, a gunshot 
wound of the left ."iilc of the head. He was admitted into tlie Jaclison Hospit.al. Ifichmond, Virginia, on the 24tli. Frequent 
attack.^ of epilepsy followed, and he was retired upon a surgeon's certificate of disahility, March 25th, 1865. 

SiTixiVAN, TiMfrrnY, I'rivate. Co. D, 2d Massachusetts Cavalry, was admitted to the field hospital at Sandy Hook, 
Maryland, after the battle of Cedar Creek, Virginia, October lOtli, ISIi."), where he was treated for epilepsy. From here, he 
was transferred, suceessively, to .larvis Hospital at Biiltimore; Cuyler Hospital at (iermantown, Pennsylvania; Turners' Lane 
Hospital at Philadelphia ; and finally, on May 10th. 1865. to McClellan Hospital. Here the cause of the disease was attributed 
to a gunsliot wound of the scalp, with contusion of the skull, but as his name does not appear on the list of casualties, and as 
his wound is not mentioned in the reports of the hospitals in which he had been previously treated, it is not certain that his 
disease can be traced to this cause. He was discharged from service, June 25th, 1865, and pensioned. Pension Examiner G. 
S. Jones reports, in July, 1865. that this pensioner luid depressed cicatrices on the top of tlie head, and suffered greatly from 
epilepsy, and that his disabilities were probably permanent. 

Wallace, Wll.l-rA^l, Private, Co. A, 23d Ohio Volunteers, received, at the battle of Antietani, Maryland, September 
ITtli, 1862, a gunshot scalp wound, implicathig the pericranium. He w.is admitted, on September 21st, into the Capitol Hospital, 
W^ashiugton, and, on the 25th of the same month, transferred to the Ward Hospital, Newark, New .Jersey. He is reported as 
returned to duty on March 26th. 1863; but. on July 25th, he was admitted into the general hospital at Gallipolis, Ohio. 
Epileptiform convulsions supervened upon long-continui'd exertion. He was transferred to the Veteran' Reserve Corps, 
October 3(lth, 1363. The case is reported by Acting Assistant Surgeon James R. Beel. The name of this patient is not upon 
the Pensi(m Rolls. 

Jl'alters, Georr/e W., Private, Co. C, 51st Virginia Infantry, aged 24 years, received, at the aifair at Fayetteville, Virginia, 
September 10th, 1862, a wound at the anterior and superior portion of the right temporal region by a fragment of shell. 
Epilepsy resulted, and he was discharged from tlie service ujion a certificate of disability, February 14th, 1865. The case is 
reported by Surgeon James Thomas Crop]), 51st Virginia Infontry. 

Mental Aberration. — In tlie following cases, gunsliot contusions of the cranial bones 
produced such lesions of the brain as led to insanity: 

CuAMniciiLAiN, CoRNKLH'.s W., Corporal, Co. B, 10th New Hampshire V(dunteers, aged 28 years, in an action near 
Fort Harrison. Virginia, September 30th, 1864, received contused woun<l8 of the Iiead, trunk, and upper extremities, by 
fiagnicnts of shell. He was admitted into the general hospital of the Eighteenth Corps, at Point of Rocks, Virginia, on 
October 9th. and. on October 26th, sent to the hosi)ital at Fort Monroe. On November 4th, he was fnrlouglied, and, on the 
18th, examined for discharge, at Concord, New Hanijishire. Partial paralysis of the right side resulted. There was a purulent 
discharge from the right ear, and amlitiou was impaired. There was, likewise, constant aberration of the mind. He was 
discharged from service. .Tanuary 16tli, 18G5, with a degree of disaliility rated total. He receives a jiension of eight dollai-s 
per month. 

COLVIX, Pi'.isilY, Private, Co. C, 47th Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged 30 years, received, at the battle of Cedar Creek, 
Virginia, October 19th, 18()4, a contusion of the left parietal by a fragment of shell, about an inch from the median line. He 
was admitted into the Mower Hospital, Philadelphia, from the field, on October 23d, About two weeks after the reception of 
the injury, a ha;n)orrhage of blood, which afterwards became purulent, took place from the right, and, subsecjuently, from the 
left ear. Two months later, a piece of bone, about five-eighths of an inch in diameter, came away from the external table. 
Simple dressings were used. On January 24th, the patient was transferred to the Satterlee Hospital. The wound was healed, 
but deafness remained. He was discharged on June 14tli, 1865. by I'eason of impairment of the mental faculties. He was 
pensioned on this account. He is quite iucajiacitated from transacting business, according to the account of I'ensiou Examiner 
Wm. H. Cornell. 

Crawfobd, Quimby H., Private, Co. D, 4th Michigan Volunteers, aged 21 years, was wounded, at the battle of 
Gettysburg, Penns^-lvania, July 3