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Communism too) will soon become a strong rival of the old theistic
systems in this field. It is also probable lliat with the growth of in-
tolerant socialized feeling, both in Communistic and Fascist societies,
the pioneers of such a Humanism will be those most exposed to
religious persecution, but also those who will be doing most for
their form of socialized religion and for religious progress in
One final prophecy, and 1 have clone. It seems evident that as the
religious impulse conies to create these new outlets of expressions,
whether by way of the Socialized State or by way of Humanism, it
will he increasingly confronted by psychological problems—as indeed
will the Socialized State itself. Men will realize that economic and
social planning will not solve their problems so long as ignorance and
absence of control obtain in regard to their own minds. Psychological
science will then come into its own, with social psychology as its
dominant branch. And this will mean a new understanding of
religious phenomena, and new possibilities of integrating them with
the life of the community.
To sum up, I would say first that the so-called u conflict between
science and religion" has been a conflict between one aspect of science
and one aspect of religion. These; aspects have both been concerned
with man's relation to his external environment. The systems of
religion which are in danger of collapse grew out of man's ignorance
and helplessness in face of external nature; the aspect of science
which is endangering those religious systems is that which has pro-
vided knowledge and control in this same domain.
In the near future, the religious impulse will find its main outlet in
relation to the internal environment of the human species—-social,
economic, and psychological—for it is the forces of this internal en-
vironment that are now causing distress and bewilderment and are
being felt as Destiny to be propitiated or otherwise, manipulated.
Meanwhile science will find its main scope for new endeavour in this
same field, since it is here that our ignorance and our lack of control
are now most glaring.
There will again be a race between the effects of ignorance and
those of knowledge: but with several new features. For one thing,
the growth of science in the new field will this time not lag by many
centuries behind that of the new modes of religious expression; and
for another, the facts concerning the religious impulse and its ex-
pression will themselves fall within the scope of the new scientific drive.,
The probable result will be that in the Socialized State the relation
between religion and science will gradually cease to be one of conflict