ON LIVING IN A REVOLUTION
because of the progressive change to be seen, In the nineteenth
century charity did its best to alleviate obvious distress. The new
outlook was first expressed in Britain by the recognition that badly
undernourished children could not possibly profit by education, and
the consequent provision of cheap or free school meals for them.
To-day the provision of free meals has been considerably extended
and has been combined with the scheme for providing cheap dinners
to a steadily increasing proportion of all children in State-aided
schools. Free or undercost milk for children and for all expectant
and nursing mothers is also being provided on a much more generous
scale than before the war.
In general, the motives that have become dominant or are tending
to do so are those of social security, health and housing, education
and culture, recreation and amenity, and national prestige and
military power; in special cases economic considerations have been
overridden for almost mythological considerations, as in the Nazi
persecution of the Jews as an inferior and enemy race, and the
expulsion from Germany of some of the best German brains, in the
interests of uncritical acceptance of orthodox Nazi doctrine.
Other apparently inevitable trends are those toward more planning
and toward a greater degree of social unity or self-consciousness.
The trend toward planning is so universal and obvious that little
need be said on the subject. It is inevitable because, with the end of
the era of primary industrial expansion, laisser-faire was defeating itself
and unregulated private and sectional interests were corning into
disastrous conflict with one another and with the common good.
The trend is not merely toward more extensive planning in more
fields; it is also toward a greater initiative and authority at the
centre. Here again the totalitarian countries have gone farther;
but the U.S.A. contains some remarkably developed examples of
planning, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the war has
forced a planned economy on every belligerent country.
Social unity and self-consciousness perhaps demand a little more
discussion. The Nazi doctrine of " Aryan " and Germanic superiority
and Jewish inferiority and evil is a myth encouraging permanent
and super-patriotic unity. In all totalitarian nations, and in the
U.S.A. as well, the Government has encouraged art and other
cultural activities on a large scale until they provide a much fuller
and more intensive expression of society's awareness of itself and its
ideals than in other countries. In Britain the war has produced
C.E.M.A. to fill the cultural gap. In the U.S.S.R. the subsidiary
nationalities have been deliberately encouraged to develop their