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own traditional cultures. The organized youth and health move-
ments of the totalitarian countries and of pre-war Czechoslovakia,
the fostering of the belief in a peculiar <£ German science," the great
prestige and publicity given in Russia to scientific and geographical
achievement are also symptoms of (he same trend, as is the tendency
to see in education not merely an intellectual., a moral, or a practical
function, but a social one—the function of projecting the character,
the ideals, the needs, and, in general, the social consciousness of the
nation into the next generation.
In international a Hairs one inevitable trend is toward a higher
degree of international organisation. This has gone much farther
in totalitarian countries—largely theoretically in Japan's u Kast Asian
Co-Prosperity Sphere/3 very practically in the unification of Europe in
Hitler's iron<c new order." In the democratic countries it is beginning
to appear under the stress of war. I ..end-Lease, the leasing and shar-
ing of strategic bases, organizations like, the Middle I'last* Supply
Council, the various organizations for unified strategy and supply—
these are important beginnings.
The second international trend is the greater concern with the
organized exploitation of the resource's, both material and human,
of backward areas. This, like the* first, is an inevitable outcome of
that shrinking of the world to which Mr. H. G. Wells has so forcibly
drawn attention. The world has become; a unit, its frontiers arid
empty spaces are filling up.
The exploitation may be exploitation in the bad sense, like that of
occupied and dominated Europe* by Germany at the present moment,
or like that of the mineral resources of helpless or dependent peoples
by powerful foreign financial interests. Or it may be exploitation in
the good sense, like the encouragement given by the United States to
the political development of the Filipinos, or certain aspects of native
development in British colonies like Uganda or the Gold Coast.
Another symptom of the trend is the widespread talk about the need
for investing very large sums in the development of backward regions,
even if this be uneconomic in the short-range terms of private finance.
The logical conclusion of these various inevitable trends is a
world where nations or federations put non-economic aims into first
place, and exhibit a high degree of central planning, extending (o
every main activity of life, and a high degree of social integration in
education, cultural expression, and social self-consciousness; but also
a world where nations are getting tied together more closely in inter-
national organizations, and where the resources of backward areas
are being more consciously exploited and developed.