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the capital of a colonial power. They have their own governors and
legislative councils; but there is almost invariably an "official
majority" on the Council, consisting of local Civil Servants and ad-
ministrators; and there is normally little representation of the native
population on the Council, and that little is in most cases indirect,
often through a white missionary (as well as via the Commissioner
for Native Affairs).
Colonies may be best classified by political type. In the first place,
there are the relatively advanced colonies which are clearly destined
in the near future to follow countries like Iraq and to emerge from
political dependence into the condition of partial or complete self-
government. Syria, Palestine., and the Philippines are obvious ex-
amples, while Ceylon (like non-colonies such as India and Burma)
is a clear candidate for a fairly speedy attainment of Dominion status.
Ethiopia, after its brief interlude as an Italian colony, has now been
restored to independence, but (as with other somewhat backward
territories) its independence will be qualified for .some time to come
by a certain amount of advice and help and tutelage from the white
Northern Africa constitutes a special area. Already before the war,
Algeria and Northern Libya were for most purposes integral parts of
France and Italy respectively: Algeria, in fact, was virtually a French
departement. In any case, the whole of the North African littoral,
with its hinterland back to the Sahara, is historically a part of the
Mediterranean economy and culture, and may be expected to become
linked with increasing closeness to the general European system.
Among the remainder, a number have been retained as colonies
wholly or mainly for strategic reasons. Gibraltar, Malta, and Hawaii
are the most obvious cases, while Aden, Guam, Hong Kong, and the
illicitly fortified Japanese mandates in the Marshall and Caroline
Islands are other examples. Cyprus, British Malaya, Dakar, and
many other territories are of value as much for strategic as for other
reasons. The strategic importance of the West Indies and New-
foundland for the Western hemisphere has been acknowledged in the
arrangements made for leasing bases to the United States, and the
Anglo-American occupation of Iceland has de facto converted that
island into a strategic colony of the United Nations, the Malta of
the North Atlantic.
The future of strategic colonies will depend primarily upon the
arrangements made after the war for guaranteeing international
security. The most likely guess seems to be that they will develop,
through a stage of pooled strategic strong-points shared by some or