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estate until he comes of age. Largely under the influence of Lord
Lugard, this simple idea of trusteeship was gradually replaced by
what he called the Dual Mandate. Under this concept the trustee
preserves a dual responsibility—toward the native inhabitants, to en-
courage their progress toward greater prosperity and self-government,
and toward the rest of the world, to make the resources of the area
generally available.
The Mandatory Powers had to give an annual account of their
stewardship to the Mandates Commission of the League, a body
which included representatives of non-colonial as well as of colonial
The mandate system did produce certain valuable results. It has
on occasion prevented undesirable action. The French, for instance,
made one or two attempts to extend to their mandates their strongly
protectionist imperial system, with the trade of the colonies tied to
that of the metropolitan country, but this has always been successfully
resisted by the Mandates Commission. The standard of administra-
tion demanded in a mandated territory has inevitably had reper-
cussions on the colonies of the same power. It has always aided
public opinion, both at Geneva and perhaps even more in the home
Parliaments, in keeping Governments up to the mark.
The suggestion has therefore been made that all colonies should be
given the status of Mandates, and that at the same time the Mandates
Commission should be strengthened both in its research and secre-
tarial staff and in its powers.
There are, however, a number of objections to this course. In many
quarters, not only in ex-enemy countries, the Mandate system as in-
troduced in 1919 was regarded as little more than a pious veneer for
annexation. Then the term has become, rightly or wrongly, associ-
ated with the idea of transfer of territories from one power to another,
which would be bitterly resisted by various colonial powers as well
as being undesirable in itself. Again, in certain quarters, including
the educated natives of various colonies, it has acquired a connotation
of inferior status. And finally the principle of trusteeship itself is re-
garded as inadequate to modern conditions. Lord Hailey, the author
of the great African Survey., has said in recent addresses that the idea
of trusteeship is too legalistic and negative, too much a survival from
the laisser-faire epoch. Government to-day must be positive, must
take the initiative in an active policy of development and welfare.
The trustee, in fact, must be replaced by the educator and the
guardian, and the concept of trusteeship be supplemented by that
of partnership.