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Full text of "Man In The Modern World"

territories, first and foremost for the benefit of their own inhabitants,
but also for that of the rest of the world. Fourthly, the guardianship
is to be exercised jointly by all the nations adhering to the Charter,
but its administrative responsibilities are to be delegated to powers
with colonial experience. Fifthly, colonial status implies no inherent
or permanent inequality: no such inequality exists, and equal status
and equal opportunity for all peoples and races is the goal to be realized
as quickly as possible. Sixthly, all posts in the permanent colonial ser-
vices, up to the highest, shall be open to the local inhabitants, subject
only to selection for efficiency; and the educational system of the
colonies shall have as one of its prime functions the training of men
of local race for such posts. Seventhly and finally, all nations adher-
ing to the Charter shall have equality of economic opportunity in the
colonies, and also equality of all other types of opportunity, subject
only to the need for maintaining efficiency of administration, and to
the primacy of the claims of the native inhabitants.
The best method of implementing the Charter will probably be by
a series of international conventions. The organization for handling
such conventions lies ready to hand, in the shape of the International
Labour Office (though in some cases other types of international in-
strument, such as the Congo Basin Treaty, may be preferable). The
I.L.O. already has a colonial section, which would merely require
strengthening. If it be asked what the conventions would cover, we
can answer: forced labour, labour conditions, social security, and
welfare in general, and opportunities for employment and education.
The great advantage of the method is that it is a progressive one,
which can contribute to a steady raising of standards in relation to
changing world conditions. Its effectiveness would be increased if
means were found to associate local organizations, such as agricultural
co-operatives, say, or bodies concerned with social welfare, with the
detailed application of the conventions to particular areas.
Secondly, even if executive responsibility is left in the hands of
powers with colonial experience, their administration can be to some
extent internationalized. A small proportion of technical posts should
immediately be thrown open to qualified men of any nationality, and
the proportion should be gradually but steadily increased. The actual
selection should be left in the hands of the power concerned, for other-
wise it could not well continue to assume executive responsibility.
As time went on and the system proved workable, it could be ex-
tended to administrative posts as well. Meanwhile an increasing
number of increasingly important posts would become filled by in-
habitants of the colonies themselves.