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necessary to protect the State against aspects of group-sentime
which induced hostility to foreign elements. The Bible is full
allusions to such checks. "The stranger that dwelleth with you shj
be unto you as one born among you, and thou shalt love him as th
self; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the Lord yoi
God" (Leviticus xix. 34). "One ordinance shall be both for you
the congregation, and also for the stranger that sojourneth with yo
an ordinance for ever in your generations: as ye are, so shall tl
stranger be before the Lord" (Numbers xv. 15). One of the mo
gracious parables of Jesus is devoted to the discussion of who is 01
neighbour (Luke x. 25-37), and the very basis of Christianity is tl
proclamation "There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bor
nor free: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus" (Galatians iii. 28).
Throughout the history of civilization the establishment and regul;
tion of group-sentiment among those who are held together mainly t
political bonds has been one of the chief aims of statecraft. To achta
this the idea of kinship has been pressed into ever wider service. '.
has been expanded beyond the family, to embrace the tribe, the
the loosely knit federation of tribes, and the yet more extensh
aggregate, the nation.
The Brotherhood of Mankind
When religions and philosophies have claimed and empires ha\
sought to be universal, the idea of kinship has been extended beyon
the limits of the nation-state. Prelates have been the shepherds c
many flocks, and commonwealths have become families of natiom
In all ages law, reason, and religion alike have laid emphasis on th
brotherhood of all mankind. It was an ancient philosopher-poet wh
said, " I am a man, and nothing that is human do I deem alien fror
myself"; and a murderer who yet earlier asked, "Am I my brother
But the common elements that all men share have been especiall
the theme of the great spiritual leaders. Malachi's question "Hav
we not all one Father? Hath not one God created us? ", the beautift
treatise on the love of God as inseparable from the love of our fello\v
men, known as the First Epistle General ofjohn> and St. Paul's assertion
" He hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on a]
the face of the earth," have all been echoed by a myriad voices. Th
community of mankind is a sentiment which has particularly appeals
to teachers. "The same sky covers us all, the same sun and star
revolve about us, and light us all in turn," said the great Czecl
educator Comenius.