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Full text of "Manual_Of_Explosives_Military_Pyrotechnics_And_Chemical_Warfare_Agents_"

Manual of 



EXPLOSIVES 

MILITARY PYROTECHNICS 

and 

CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS 

Composition • Properties • Uses 



BY JULES BEBIE, Ph.D. Consulting 
Chemical Engineer • Professor of Chemical Technology 
Washington University 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY • NEW YORK 



19 4 3 



Preface 

It is the chief aim of this book to be of service to scientific 
and technical workers in the field of explosives and war 
chemicals and to students who are beginning to specialize in 
these subjects. In preparing for Engineers' Defense Train- 
ing Courses in " The Chemistry of Powders and Explosives," 
the author recognized the need for a book of this sort. 

The nomenclature in the field of explosives and war chem- 
icals is perplexing. Most of the chief explosives are known 
under many different names and designations, including the 
correct chemical name, chemical synonyms, American and 
foreign trade names, and warfare symbols. In literature on 
the subject sometimes one term is used, and sometimes 
another. Unless one knows the meaning of all of the terms, 
it is often necessary to make a search for information; and 
this, in the literature on explosives, is a time-consuming pro- 
cedure. For instance, in a technical article on detonators, a 
chemist may find a reference to Dinol. He knows this is a 
trade name; and if he does not know the chemical composi- 
tion of the product and wishes to find it out, he has to know 
its correct chemical name. He may spend quite a bit of 
lime before he establishes the fact that Dinol is the com- 
mercial term for dinitrodiazophenol. 

Or, in a scientific journal, a chemist may see a reference 
to the exceptionally high rate of detonation of cyclotri- 
methylenetrinitramine. If he wishes to know if this product 
is made and used under some trade name, how much time 
will he spend before he finds out that it is "Cyclonite" for 
which he has been looking? 

For the purpose of providing information of this sort 
quickly, tbe author started to assemble a dictionary of ex- 
plosives and explosive mixtures, including all of the various 



viii PREFACE 

terms with cross references. This arrangement was found 
tfl he very useful and time-saving; and it was later extended 
tfl include some of the physical and chemical properties, 
particularly those which are of significance in connection 
with the application of the products as explosives. The 
final interest to the worker in this field is the use of these 
explosives for industrial and military purposes. Explosives 
are often used in different forms and mixtures for various 
and specific effects, and here again the information is scat- 
tered. It was therefore decided to expand the dictionary to 
a manual comprising composition, properties, and' uses of 
industrial and military explosives and explosive mixtures. 
The list also includes all other chemicals and modifying 
agents which may be present in explosives and in (ammuni- 
tion, but it does not include raw materials which are used to 
manufacture these products. This arrangement makes it 
possible to find out quickly why and where certain chemicals 
find application in the field of explosives for such purposes 
as deterrents, oxidizers, binding agents, fusion- and flash- 
point depressants, cooling agents, fuel components, gelati- 
nizers, rust-preventing and coating agents, lubricants, ab- 
sorbents, etc. 

With no claim for completeness, an earnest effort has been 
made to list all of the more important explosives, explosive 
mixtures, modifying and addition agents, and particularly 
those which are actually heing used or which have been 
used as far back as World War 1. Some of the older ex- 
plosives and compositions have also heen included in order 
to give a picture of the gradual development of the field or 
because they are of particular historic interest. 

Military pyrotechnics are closely connected with the field 
of military explosives; they are used in many special types 
of ammunition and munition and also in such devices as 
flares, rockets, and smoke pots. With the tremendous de- 
velopment of the military air forces the importance of 
obscuring smokes and incendiary activities has been greatly 



PREFACE 



enhanced. Hence it was considered appropriate to include^n 
this manual all of the more important chemicals which are 
finding application as pyrotechnics, incendiaries, and 
smoke-producing agents. 

Finally, in view of the renewed intense interest in chem- 
ical warfare agents, this group of chemicals, which may 
again become of vital significance, has also been included in 
the book. Hundreds of products have been proposed as 
toxic or irritant chemical agents, and a considerable number 
have heen put to the test during World War I. As a result 
only a few dozen of those used are still considered to be 
generally effective and suitable to application under combat 
conditions. It is mainly the latter group which is included 
in the manual. A few chemical agents have been hsted as 
being of historic interest, and some others which have not 
been tried in battle but which are generally expected to be 
very effective. 

In this connection it seems appropriate to make some 
comments in respect to confidential information. Ordnance, 
Chemical Warfare Service, and other government labora- 
tories have no doubt accumulated a large amount of in- 
formation which is not generally known and which is con- 
sidered confidential. Munition and explosives plants also 
have certain process and manufacturing features which are 
secret. The author thoroughly recognized the importance 
of tliis matter, particularly at this time, and he has been 
extremely careful not to publish any information whatso- 
ever which migbt be considered to be confidential. He 
therefore has limited himself to subjects and data for which 
there is reference in generally available literature, which 
can be found in the quoted Bibliography. 

For the convenience of the reader the Bibliography has 
been subdivided into several groups: books, bulletins and 
manuals, catalogues, articles in periodicals, and patents. It 
comprises principally the publications whicb bave been used 
in the preparation of this manual. The h'st of books on ex- 



PREFACE 



plosives is very small but fairly complete, indicating the 
dearth of comprehensive literature on this subject in the 
English language. As a matter of fact only one modern text 
is available, the excellent publication of Professor Tenney L. 
Davis, The Chemistry of Powder and Explosives, Vol. 1, 
1941, comprising properties of explosives, black powder, 
pyrotechnics, and aromatic nitro compounds. A second 
volume is expected to cover nitric esters, smokeless powder, 
dynamite and other high explosives, ammonium nitrate, 
and nitroamines. I wish to make grateful acknowledgment 
for the valuable assistance which has been afforded in the 
preparation of this manual through the publication of 
Dr. Davis' most useful and welcome book. 

In the field of chemical warfare agents we have fortu- 
nately one modern comprehensive text which covers the 
subject most thoroughly and effectively, namely, Chemicals 
in War, a Treatise on Chemical Warfare (published in 1937), 
by Lt. Col. Auguslin M. Prentiss. Grateful acknowledgment 
is also made to this publication as having been the main 
source of information on war gases and smoke-producing 
and incendiary agents. As a check-up in European experi- 
ence on toxic agents, the book on Chemical Warfare by 
Curt Wachtel has also been very helpful. 

In the group of "Bulletins and Manuals" the literature 
is extensive; ouly few have been quoted. For further refer- 
ences attention is called to the list of publications of the 
U. S. Bureau of Mines, which can be secured from the 
Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 

The literature on explosives in scientific and technical 
journals is overwhelming, and the numbers of patents issued 
annually throughout the world are legion. The references in 
the Bibliography have been limited mostly to pnblications 
which have appeared within the last fifteen years and par- 
ticularly to those which served to illustrate certain points 
raised in the text or some important developments in the 
explosives field. 



PREFACE il 

No doubt a great many other significant publications 
could have been found which would have led to a further 
expansion of the manual. However, rather than to strive for 
perfection it was considered more important to bring the 
manual to completion and to publish it now. In the present 
emergency, time is of paramount importance, and the 
author hopes that this book will not only be a time-saver 
but that it will be of service generally to the professional 
men who are concerned with explosives and particularly to 
the thousands of new workers who are entering this field. 

Many thanks are due to Mr. Louis Frederic Du Bois for 
reading the entire proof with the author. 

Comments from readers regarding additions, corrections, 
or improvements will be most welcome. 

J. B. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
December, 1942 



Nomenclature, Arrangement, and Abbreviations 

For the purpose of quick reference the articles in the man- 
ual have been arranged in alphabetical order. Products 
which are definite chemical compounds are listed aid dis- 
cussed under their correct chemical names. If they are 
also known by chemical synonyms, trade names, or service 
symbols, these will be found as cross references to the chem- 
ical term. A few exceptions have been made, however. In 
the explosives field, for instance, the name nitroglycerine 
has been adopted by tradition for general use, rather than 
the correct chemical name of glyceryl nitrate. Therefore, ibe 
article will be found under nitroglycerine. Similarly, the 
name nitrocellulose is thoroughly established, and the cor- 
rect term cellulose nilrale is mostly limited to scientific 
publications. In this case an article is written under both 
names, but in the text the term nitrocellulose is used 
throughout. 

Further, in the group of chenucal warfare agents the 
products are listed under tbe names which have been 
adopted by the Chemical Warfare Service. These names 
may or may not be identical with the modem terms of 
chemical nomenclature. An example of this would be 
phenacyl chloride. Phenacyl chloride is the correct name, 
but the chemical warfare agencies of all countries use the 
chemical synonym chloracetophenone, under which the prod- 
uct is more generally known; and this is the term under 
which it is listed in this manual. 

This brings up still another point. Even if the article is 
written under chloracetoplienone, the modern chemical spell- 
ing would be chloroacetophertone. However, since the term 
chloracetophenone is official in the service aud since this book 
is of a technical rather than of a scientific nature, it seemed 



NOMENCLATURE, ARRANGEMENT, AND ABBREVIATIONS xiii 

to be in order to list the chlorine and bromine derivatives 
under the official names. The chloro- and bromo- terms will 
be found under cross references. Generally, nomenclature 
and spelling follow the rules of the American Chemical 
Society, as used in Chemical Abstracts, with the exceptions 
stated above. 

Symbols usually refer to U. S. and Chemical Warfare 
designations; for some of the more important explosives and 
warfare agents some of the foreign symbols are also listed. 

Explosive mixtures which are known only under a trade 
name are, of course, found under the latter; but cross refer- 
ence is usually made to the group of explosives to which 
they belong. 

The arrangement of the Bibliography has already been 
referred to in the Preface. Many of the data of the manual 
have been obtained from books, and it would not be feasihle 
to give a reference for every item. Moreover, much of the 
information given can be found in several of the quoted 
books. However, quite a number of statements made in 
the manual contain references to articles in periodicals or 
to recent patents which have been listed in the Bibliog- 
raphy. References to journal articles are designated by a 
numeral, and to patents by the letter P and a numeral. 

Abbreviations: All temperatures are given in degrees C; 
therefore the C has been omitted in temperature readings. 
As far as available, specific gravities are designated at 
definite temperatures. Vapor densities are always stated in 
comparison to vapor density of air = 1. 



d. 


= density 


mm. 


= millimeter 


Sp. gr. 


= specific gravity 


sec. 


= second 


VI. P. 


= melting point 


H. E. 


= high explosive 


It. P. 


= boiling point 


L. E. 


= low explosive 


in. 


= meter 


NH 


= non-hygroscopic 


nig. 


= milligram 


FNH 


= flashless non- 
hygroscopic 



Manual of 

EXPLOSIVES, MILITARY PYROTECHNICS 

and CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS 



INTRODUCTION 



oped methods for measuring the velocity of detonations 
and projectiles. 

In the latter part of the nineteenth century new raw 
materials for the chemical industries became available from 
city gas and by-product coke oven operations. Benzene, 
toluene, xylene, naphthalene, phenol, cresols, and xylenols 
served as crudes for conversion to various intermediates 
used in the growing new synthetic dyestuff industry. Many 
of these intermediates and finished products were nitro 
compounds and found their way into the explosive industry. 

Picric acid, trinitrophenol, was used for some time as a 
dyestuff before it was found to be also a powerful explosive. 
It was first adopted as a military high explosive by the 
French Government in 1886. Nitro derivatives of benzene 
and toluene found application as ingredients of blasting 
explosives. In the beginning of the twentieth century trini- 
trotoluene was adopted as a bursting charge for shells. 
Besides picric acid it waa generally and extensively used as a 
bursting charge during World War I. 

Quite a number of other high explosives were introduced 
during this period; nitro derivatives of aniline, anisole, 
diphenylamine, cresols, xylenols, etc. Some of these were 
used as bursting charges and some as boosters, the out- 
standing representative of the booster explosives being 
trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (Tetryl). 

The manufacture of smokeless powder and high explo- 
sives required tremendous quantities of mixed acid. Gen- 
eral introduction of the contact process for making sulfuric 
acid provided a convenient method for the production of 
highly concentrated and fuming sulfuric acid and greatly 
facilitated nitration operations. Nitric acid was generally 
produced from Chile saltpeter except in Germany, where 
towards the end of the war the nitric acid was obtained by 
air oxidation of synthetic ammonia. This process and its 
modifications have in the meantime revolutionized nitric 
acid manufacture in the explosive industry of all countries. 



INTRODUCTION 



During the past twenty years much progress has been 
made in various ways. New very powerful high explosives 
have been developed, such as Penthrite and Cyclonite. 

Mercury fulminate has no longer a monopoly as a primer. 
In some of its uses it has been replaced by azides, particu- 
larly lead azide; in some others chlorate primers have taken 
its place. Chlorates and perchlorates are also being used in 
industrial explosives and can now be readily manufactured 
by means of electrochemical processes. 

New sources of raw materials for explosive manufacture 
have been made available from acetylene and from natural 
gas and petroleum products. In TNT manufacture, for 
instance, we no longer depend solely on toluene from cok- 
ing operations. Even greater quantities are being provided 
by the petroleum industry. 

Much progress has been made in the development of 
permissible and other blasting explosives. They are now 
"tailor-made" and based on scientific principles. Dozens 
of types of dynamites and dozens of grades of each type 
are manufactured in order best to fit any one of the many 
specific uses. 

It is not the purpose of this book to discuss the chemistry 
of explosives. However, a few general and elementary 
statements seem to be in order as a guide for better under- 
standing of this manual. 

With the exception of a few azides and acetylides, which 
find use as initiators, most explosives contain oxygen and 
oxidizahle elements. Oxygen is usually present in the form 
of labile radicals such as the nitric acid radical — 0N0 5 or 
the nitro group — N0 2 . Such groups are characteristic for 
explosives, and they are called explosophore groups. Other 
oxygen-containing explosophore groups are the chlorate 
radical — C10 3 , the perchlorate radical — ClO^, the fulmi- 
nate radical — ONC, and the nitramine group — NHN0 2 . 
The inorganic nitrates (potassium, sodium, ammonium, 
barium) are used as components of explosive mixtures in 



INTRODUCTION 



combination with oxidizable materials such as charcoal, 
sulfur in elementary or combined form, nitro compounds 
having insufficient oxygen for complete combustion, metals, 
metal alloys (such as silicides), etc. The organic nitrates 
(nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, nitrostarch) contain the oxy- 
gen and the oxidizable elements carbon and hydrogen 
within the same molecule; they are self-contained explo- 
sives. The same is true for the aromatic nitro explosives 
(trinitrotoluene, trinitrophenol). Some explosives, like 
nitroglycerine and ammonium nitrate, have an excess of 
oxygen; others, like trinitrotoluene, have not a sufficient 
amount of oxygen for oxidation of the oxidizable ele- 
ments which are present. A negative oxygen balance can 
be corrected hy addition of substances which have an excess 
of oxygen, such as ammonium nitrate. 

In the explosion of nitrate and nitro explosives nitrogen 
is set free in the elementary form, and the oxygen combines 
with the oxidizahle elements, forming great volumes of 
gases (CO, C0 2 , H 2 0) and a large amount of heat. All ex- 
plosion reactions are highly exothermic. Those hot gases 
occupy a volume 10,000 to 15,000 times as large as the vol- 
ume of the exploded material. The temperature of the 
explosion may be 3000° C and over. When metals are pres- 
ent in explosives, the heat of formation of the metal oxides 
contributes to further expansion of the hot gases. 

Some explosophore groups, as for instance the azide 
group — N 3 , contain no oxygen. In the explosion of lead 
azide the only explosion gas is nitrogen. A few explosives, 
the acetylides particularly, contain neither oxygen nor 
nitrogen. In this case the explosion is simply a heat effect. 
Heat of explosion, maximum temperature of explosion, 
volume of explosion products, and pressure developed in a 
closed chamber are the chief factors related to the total 
energy of an explosive. The effectiveness of an explosive, 
however, is primarily dependent upon the rate at which its 
energy is liberated. The rate of detonation of a high explo- 



INTRODUCTION 



sive is a measure of its brisance and is therefore of great 
significance. Velocity of detonation of high explosives in- 
cludes the range of about 2000-8000 m/sec. 

The above-mentioned characteristics of explosives are of 
basic importance. There are others, which are also of great 
significance, such as sensitivity to heat, friction, and im- 
pact, stability, and intensity of initial impulse required. A 
thorough knowledge of those properties is necessary to 
determine where and how any particular explosive may be 
used. These properties are functional rather than absolute. 
Tbey may vary, for instance, with the physical form of the 
explosive, such as crystal form, crystal length, particle size, 
density, etc. This indicates, of course, the great importance 
of uniformity of the physical as well as of the chemical 
properties of explosives. Finally, we should keep in mind 
that it is feasible to adjust the explosive properties not only 
by variation of physical form and chemical composition but 
also by the use of modifying agents incorporated into the 
explosives or applied as coatings. 

The following chronology will serve as a review of the 
statements made in the Introduction. The events listed in 
the chronology are by no means of equal importance. They 
include revolutionary discoveries and inventions as well as 
advances made from year to year. The chronology is in- 
tended to present a bird's-eye view of developments and 
trends in the explosive industry and of their relationship 
with advances in the science of chemistry and explosives. 

Chronology 

1250 

and earlier Black powder used by Arabs, Hindus, and Chinese, 

particularly for pyrotechnic purposes. 
1270 Black powder mentioned by Roger Bacon. 

1328 Black powder described by Berthold Schwarz. 

1346 Black powder (gunpowder) used in the battle of 

Crecy as propellant in wooden cannon. 
1125 First record of graining or granulating gunpowder. 



8 INTRODUCTION 



1435 First powder-stamp mill in Niirnberg. 

1525 Classification of powder grains by screening reported 

in France. 

1540 large-grain powder base adopted for cannon. 

1696 First blasting operations with black powder, Albula 

Road, Switzerland. 

1800 Fulminate of mercury discovered and described by 

E. Howard in England. 

1804 E. I. du Pont de Nemours Co. produced its first run 

of powder at Wilmington, Delaware. 

1814 J. Shaw, Philadelphia, devised a steel cap filled with 

mercury fulminate. 

1816 Copper cap filled with mercury fulminate came to be 

used. 

1831 Bickford patented a safety fuse for use on land or 

under water. " Bickford Fuse." 

1833 Pelouze prepared the first nitrocellulose by treating 

cotton with nitric acid, 

1836 Pinfire breech-loading shotgun in France. 

1841 Needle gun adopted in Germany with disk of ful- 

minate on inside of base. 

1845 Schoenbein nitrated cellulose with a mixture of 

nitric acid and sulfuric acid and started the promo- 
tion of nitrocellulose as a military explosive. 

1847 Sobrero discovered nitroglycerine. 

1847 Plant explosion in England in connection with manu- 

facture of nitrocellulose. 

1855 Von Lenk, Austria, introduced boiling in the nitro- 

cellulose manufacturing process for the purpose of 
stabilization. 

1860 Rodman, U. S. Army, discovered the principle of the 

progressive combustion of gunpowder and proposed 
perforated grains in prismatic form. 

1863 Potassium nitrate made from Chile saltpeter. 

1864 Abel, England, introduced intermittent boiling and 
pulping in the nitrocellulose manufacturing process 
for the purpose of stabilization. 

1865 Nobel discovered that nitroglycerine could be made 



INTRODUCTION 



to detonate by the explosion of a very small quan- 
tity of mercury fulminate. 

1866 Nobel found that liquid nitroglycerine when ab- 
sorbed in kieselguhr could be packed conveniently 
and safely into paper cartridges. Discovery of 
Guhrdynamite. 

1867 Oblssen and Norrbin patented a mixture of am- 
monium nitrate and charcoal or other carbonaceous 
material as an explosive. 

1867 First Swedish and British Nobel patents on dyna- 

mites. 

1867 Trauzl and Abel proposed a dynamite with an active 

base consisting of guncotton and charcoal for absorp- 
tion of the nitroglycerine. 

1873-77 Sprengel and Turpin introduced nitrated hydrocar- 
bons as explosives. 

1875 Nobel invented and patented blasting gelatine, one 
of the most outstanding developments in the explo- 
sive field. 

1876 Nobel patented low-freezing dynamites. 

1877 Trinitrophenylmethylnitramiiie (Tetryl) first ob- 
tained by Mertens. 

1879 Nobel patented ammongelatine-dynamite, using am- 

monium nitrate. 

1883 Von Romburgh determined constitution of trinitro- 
phenylmethylnitramine (Tetryl). 

1884 Petri, Fallenstein, and Duren patented chlorate ex- 
plosives for blasting purposes. 

1884-5 Vieille, investigations on gelatinized nitrocellu- 

lose. 

1884-89 Berthelot, Sarrau, and Vieille investigated the 
explosive properties of nitroinannite. 

1886 Picric acid adopted by the French Government as a 

high explosive under the name of Melinite. 

1886 Vieille produced the first satisfactory smokeless pow- 
der from nitrocellulose by colloiding it with ether 
and alcohol. 

1887 Miiller patented the first safety explosives. 



10 INTRODUCTION 



1888 Nobel patented a double-base propellant produced 

by gelatinizing nitroglycerine with nitrocellulose. 

1888 Use of ammonium picrate as an explosive patented 
by Nobel. 

1889 Abel and Deware patented a double-baae powder 
(Cordite) composed of nitrocellulose and nitro- 
glycerine, colloided with acetone. 

1890 Mendeleeff, investigations on nitrocellulose which 
established definite procedure for manufacture of 
pyrocellulose. 

1891 Berthelot made the first determinations of velocities 
of detonation. 

1891 Lead azide first prepared by Curtius. 

1891 Trinitrotoluene used in industrial explosives. 

1893 ' Will and Lenze investigated lead azide as a military 

explosive. 

1893 Munroe patented for U. S. A. a powder called " In- 

durite " composed of guncotton colloided with nitro- 
benzene. 

1893 " Pyro " manufacture on large scale iu Russia. 

1893 Maxim and Schupphaus developed perforated black 
powder grain and the subsequent perforated pris- 
matic cocoa powder. 

1894 Pentaerytliritol tetranitrate proposed as an addition 
to smokeless powder (German patent). 

1895-1909 U. S. Army used double-base powder for small arms. 

1897 Linde introduced "Oxyliquit," the first explosive of 

liquid-oxygen type, prepared from charcoal satu- 
rated with liquid air and enclosed in an insulating 
paper wrapper. 

1897 Beranadoti, U. S. Navy, patented a powder of uni- 

formly nitrated cellulose (about 12.45 per cent N) 
colloided with ether-alcohol. 

1899 First important use of "Oxyliquit" in driving the 

Simplon Tunnel in, Switzerland. 

1901 First use of ammonium picrate in American artil- 
lery, introduced by Dunn. 

1902 TNT used in Germany for filling shells. 



INTRODUCTION 11 



1903 Nitrostarcb manufactured by the Trojan Powder Co. 

1904 German patent for use of glycol dinitrate to lower 
freezing point of nitroglycerine. 

1904 TNT adopted in U. S. A. for military purposes. 

1906 Dautriche introduced a simplified method for deter- 

mination of velocities of detonation. 

1908 Diphenylamine generally adopted as a stabilizer for 
nitrocellulose and smokeless powder. 

1909 U. S. Bureau of Mines erected a testing gallery and 
established standards for permissible explosives. 

1909 U. S. Army adopted a single-base powder. 

1910 The French Explosives Commission recommends 
substitution of dinitro glycol for 1/8 of the nitro- 
glycerine in authorized nitroglycerine blasting ex- 
plosives to render the latter nonfreezing, 

1912 Pentaerythritol tetranitrate proposed as a component 
of blasting-cap compositions (German patent). 

1913 Claessen patented tetranitroanisole as an explosive. 
1913 Verge patented low-freezing dynamites containing 

liquid aromatic nitro compounds. 

1913 Hartmann patented bexanitrodiphenyl sulfide as an 
explosive. 

1914 Woodbury patented a means of varying the velocity 
of detonation of explosives containing ammonium 
nitrate by using large grains of ammonium nitrate 
when it is desired to make a mixture of low velocity 
of detonation and smaller grains when a higher 
velocity of detonation is desired. 

1915 Wohler patented a detonator mixture of lead azide 
with three parts mercury fulminate, which mixture 
does not become "dead pressed" even when sub- 
jected to 2000 atm. pressure. 

1916 Calvert patented a mixture of copper thiocyanate or 
lead thiocyanate with potassium chlorate or potas- 
sium perchlorale as a detonating explosive for 
charging primers. 

1916 Runge patented a detonator composed of TNT or 

other explosive not detonated directly by flame from 



IB INTRODUCTION 



a fuse, with an overlying detonating mixture con- 
taining chiefly lead azide. 

1916 Gin patented cyanimides or their derivatives rich in 

nitrogen, mixed with substances yielding oxygen, 
such as ammonium nitrate and ammonium chromate. 

1916 Nobel's Explosives Co., Ltd., patented an explosive 

for ballistic purposes from nitrocellulose and nitro- 
glycerine with the aid of nonvolatile gelatinizing 
substances. 

1916 Sprengstoff Akt.-Ges. patented Hexanitrodiphenyl 
as an explosive. 

1917 Perchlorate Safety Explosives, Ltd., patented an 
ammonium perchlorate explosive containing finely 
divided zinc and combustible materials. 

1917 Sadtler patented and produced nitrostarch and pro- 
posed it as a substitute for nitroglycerine in blasting 
explosives. 

1918 Matter patented detonators made by using penta- 
erythritol tetranitrate in conjunction with a det- 
onating substance. 

1918 Canadian Explosives, Ltd., patented use of hexa- 

nitrodiphenyl sulfide in making cap compositions for 
primers. 

1920 Eschbach patented priming compositions made by 

mixing lead azide with lead trinitroresorcinale. 

1920 Marshall investigated the explosive properties of 
h exan itrodipheny lamine. 

1921 Woodbridge patented surface coating of smokeless- 
powder grains with dia Iky Idiaryl urea. 

1922 Rintoul and Cross patented gelatinized blasting ex- 
plosives with small amounts of accelerants for gelat- 
inizatioii (urethans, anilides, substituted ureas). 

1923 Shilling patented a propellent explosive powder con- 
taining nitrocellulose and nitroguanidine, superfi- 
cially impregnated with a deterrent material such as 
dinitrotoluene. 

1924 Harle patented a primer of lead azide desensitized 
with 12-14 per cent paraffin. 



INTRODUCTION 13 



1924 Fidlar patented a flashless propellent explosive 
formed of nitrocellulose, starch, and dinitrotoluene. 

1925 Grotta patented compound detonators with a prim- 
iug charge formed of mercury fulminate, a heavy- 
metal azide, and a secondary charge formed of a 
mixture of equal amounts of Tetryl and potassium 
chlorate. 

1925 Brown patented nitroguanidine as a sensitizer in 
various perchlorate explosives. 

1926 Swint patented a low-density dynamite containing 
nitroglycerine (7-15 per cent) and finely divided 
balsa wood (5-15 per cent) used with ammonium 
and sodium nitrate. 

1926 Rathsburg patented an explosive primer composi- 

tion of guanylnitrosaminoguanyltetrazene with chlo- 
rates, nitrates, peroxides, etc. 

1926 Franklin patented a nitrocellulose powder containing 
nitroguanidine and an oxidizing agent such as bar- 
ium nitrate, and superficially impregnated with a 
deterrent material such as dinitrotoluene. 

1927 Du Pont Co. patented a flashless cannon powder of 
colloided nitrocellulose containing grains of a mix- 
ture composed of charcoal and a nitrate. 

1927 Swint patented a low-velocity, low-density dynamite 
consisting of 50-80 per cent coarse ammonium 
nitrate, bagasse pith, and 7-15 per cent of a liquid 
explosive ingredient. 

1928 Naoum patented a pourable explosive obtained by 
mixing pentaerythritol tetranitrate (at least 50 per 
cent) and aromatic nitro compounds, especially 
TNT. 

1929 Wyler patented an explosive composed of ammonium 
nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine, with or with- 
out nitrostarch, sodium nitrate, zinc oxide, hydro- 
carbon oil. 

1929 Pritham patented pyrotechnic or projectile tracer 

ammunition containing salts of thorium and cerium, 
such as tbe nitrates, used with calcium resinate as a 



14 INTRODUCTION 



binder, and with or without magnesium and stron- 
tium nitrate. 

1929 McNutt patented a noncorrosive priming composi- 

tion composed of mercury fulminate, a melal dioxide 
(barium peroxide), and a silicide such as that of cal- 
cium. 

1929 Nobel and Co. patented ethanolamine nitrates as 

explosives, 

1929 Stettbacher proposed a mixture of 80 per cent 

Penthrit and 20 per cent nitroglycerine under the 
name of Penthrinit as explosive for industrial and 
military uses. 

1931 Snelling patented propellent powder grains formed 

by compressing nitrostarch granules rendered smoke- 
less and flashless by admixture with guanidine 
nitrate, ammonium nitrate, urea nitrate, or nilro- 
guanidine, and superficially colloided. 

1931 Werme patented a propellent powder in which lead 

dust is intermixed in a quantity sufficient to form a 
corrosion-preventing coating in the bore of the 
gun. 

1931 Boyd patented an explosive containing nitrated 
glycerol and nitrated sugar. 

1932 Stettbacher patented a high explosive composed of 
pentaerythritol tetranitrate and nitroglycerine to- 
gether with a small proportion of collodion cotton. 

1932 Naoum patented a blasting explosive composed of 

calcium nitrate and nitroglycerine, with or without 
addition of charcoal, sawdust, or TNT. 

1932 Crater patented nitroinositol as an explosive. 

1933 Clark investigated the preparation and explosive 
properties of trinitrophenylnitraminoethy (nitrate 
(Pentryl). 

1933 Crater patented inulin nitrate as an explosive. 

1933-41 Olsen patented simplified process for stabilizing and 
gelatinizing nitrocellulose powder and for producing 
it in spherical form, with or without deterrents, 
coatings, and other modifying agents. 



INTRODUCTION 15 



1934 Clark investigated the preparation and explosive 
properties of hexanitrodiphenylammoetbylnilrale. 

1935 Johnson and Lewis patented a pulverulent dynamite. 
1935 "Nitramon" introduced by the du Pont Co., "the 

safest blasting agent available." 

1939 Crater patented a guanidine nitrate blasting explo- 

sive. 

1941 Von Herz patented explosives for explosion rivets. 

1941 Allison patented a smokeless powder the grains of 

which are coated with phthalide, which serves as a 
deterrent. 

1941 Roth investigated mixtures of tetramtromethane and 

nitrobenzene. 

1941 Wyler patented trimethylolnitromethane for use in 
explosives. 

1942 Allen patented an explosive device containing a 
shattering charge and two liquefied gases capable 
of explosive combination when intermingled. 

1942 Quantity production of ball powder (Western Car- 

tridge Co.) for small arms ammunition. 

1942 Friederich patented tetrazylazides as disruptive 

explosives. 

1942 Denues patented liquid oxygen explosives containing 

phosphoric acid as fire retardant. 

1942 Tetrytol, a mixture of TNT and Tetryl, adopted as a 

military high explosive. 



Explosives, Military Pyrotechnics and 
Chemical Warfare Agents 

ABBOTE 

Composition: An ammonia dynamite containing a rela- 
tively large amount of an alkali chloride. 

PER CENT 

Ammonium nitrate .... 58 

Nitroglycerine 8 

Dinitrotoluene . ..... 2 

Sodium chloride 23 

Wood meal 9 

Properties: This is an example of explosive mixtures in 
which sodium chloride has been incorporated for the 
purpose of reducing brisance and heat of detonation in 
order to reduce the risk of fire-damp explosions. 

Uses: As blasting explosive in coal mining. 

See Ammonia Dynamite, Permissible Explosives. 

ACARDITE 

Technical term for diphenylurea (See). 

ACTIVATED CHARCOAL (ACTIVE CARBON) 

Composition: A more or less pure form of carbon char- 
acterized by a high adsorptive capacity. The chemical 
composition varies with the source. 

Properties: The true density of active carbon, when 
free from tarry matters and other impurities, is approx- 
imately 2.1; the apparent density varies, depending on 
the source and treatment. 

17 



18 ADAMSITE 



Uses: In granular form and in combination with soda 
lime as gas-mask canister filling. Only chars of con- 
siderable density, specially prepared for such uses, are 
suitable for gas masks. 9 * 
See Soda Lime. 

ADAMSITE 

A chemical warfare agent named after Roger Adams, 

its American discoverer. 

See Diphenylaminechlorarsine. 

AJAX POWDER 

Composition: A representative of the earlier permissible 
dynamites, used particularly in England and contain- 
ing ammonium oxalate as a cooling agent. Composed 
of wood flour, potassium perchlorate, nitroglycerine, 
ammonium oxalate, and small quantities of collodion 
cotton and nitrotoluenes. For properties and uses, see 
Permissible Dynamites. 

ALPHA-NFTRONAPHTHALENE 
See Nitronaphthalene. 

ALPHA-TRINITROTOLUENE 

Chemical name for TNT. 
See Trinitrotoluene. 

ALUMINUM, FLAKES OR POWDER 

Symbol: Al 

Properties: Light, malleable, and ductile metal with 
good resistance to corrosion. Sp. gr. 2.705 at 20°, 
M.P.659°.t B. P. about 1800°. Soluble in hydrochloric 

* Numerals refer to articles quoted in the bibliography, section "Articles 
in Periodicals." 

t All temperatures Eire given in degree Celsius, therefore the letter C has 
been omitted. 



AMATOL 19 



acid, sulfuric acid, and caustic alkalies. When ignited 
in mixture with strong oxidizing agents, such as ni- 
trates, chlorates, or perchlorates, aluminum powder 
burns with great heat and with an intensely hright 
light. 

Uses: The fine powder is used as component of explo- 
sive mixtures and primer compositions, in flares and 
various other pyrotechnic devices. The coarse powder 
is used in incendiary bombs. Aluminum flakes are also 
used as an ingredient of explosive mixtures for detonat- 
ing rivets, P. 9 - 10 * 
See Aluminum Flares, Ammonal, Thermite, F8. 

ALUMINUM FLARES 

Composition: Mixtures of chlorates, perclilorates, or 
nitrates, with aluminum powder or flakes, and a binder, 
such as shellac, and with or without addition of sulfur. 

Properties: Burn with an intensely brilliant light, 
white or colored, according to composition. 

Uses: In aviation for signaling and for illuminating 
landing fields and military objectives. 
See Potassium Chlorate, Potassium Perchlorate, Stron- 
tium Nitrate. 

AMATOL 

Composition: Mixtures of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 
ammonium nitrate in various proportions. 

AMMONIUM NITBATE TNT KATE OF DETONATION 

80 20 5100 m/sec. (d = 1.5) 

50 50 7000 m/sec. (d = 1.6) 

Properties: The ammoninm nitrate in Amatol acts as 
an oxidizer and provides more complete combustion of 

* The letter P with a numeral ov numerals refers to patents quoted in the 
bibliography, section "Patents. " 



SO AMERICAN 



the oxidizable elements. Amatol explodes without 
smoke, whereas TNT on explosion produces a black 
smoke. If smoke is desired, special smoke boxes have 
to be included in the shell charge. Amatol is cheaper 
and produces more gas than straight TNT. The 50/50 
mixture has approximately the same strength as TNT 
but gives much less smoke, which makes range-finding 
more difficult. Mixtures containing up to 50 per cent 
ammonium nitrate are cast directly in the shell; Ama- 
tol containing 80 per cent ammonium nitrate is 
pressed into the shell by a device known as an extruder. 

Uses: Widely used as a bursting charge for high-explo- 
sive shells and bombs, particularly under conditions of 
actual or potential toluene shortage. Use of Amatol in 
place of straight TNT permits stretching the available 
toluene supplies. 
See Phosphorus Red, Trinitrotoluene. 

AMERICAN 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives, manu- 
factured by American Cyanamide and Chemical Cor- 
poration, New York, N. Y. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

AM1DPULVER (AMID POWDER) 

Composition: A powder containing: 

PEB CENT 

Potassium nitrate 40 

Ammonium nitrate .... 38 
Charcoal 22 

An improved Amidpulver has the composition: 

PER CENT 

Potassium nitrate ..... 14 
Ammonium nitrate .... 37 
ChaTcoal 49 



AMMONIA 21 



Properties: Gives a flashless and almost smokeless 
discharge when fired from a gun but has the disadvan- 
tage of being highly hygroscopic. 

Uses: Was used by German Army as cannon powder 
in World War I. 

AMMONAL 

Composition: Explosive mixtures containing alumi- 
num, ammonium nitrate, and TNT. 
Example of mixture used in World War I: 

PEB CENT 

TNT 15 

Ammonium nitrate .... 65 

Charcoal 3 

Aluminum powder ... .17 

Properties: Explosion of Ammonal makes a brilliant 
flash and develops great heat and correspondingly high 
pressure. 

Uses: Was used in World War I as shell-filler, and for 
blasting and tunneling. 1 

AMMONDYNAM1TE 

A French Ammonia Dynamite. 

Composition: 

peb cent 
Ammonium nitrate .... 45 

Nitroglycerine 40 

Wood or cereal meal .... 10 
Sodium nitrate 5 

Properties: Loose, moist, greasy powder. 

Uses: See Ammonia Dynamite. 

AMMONIA 

Composition: NH 3 

Properties: Colorless gas, pungent odor. Vapor den- 
sity 0.78.* B. P. —33.4°. Liquefies under pressure. 
Readily soluble in water (ammonia water). 
* Vapor densities are stated in comparison to vapor density of air = 1. 



22 AMMONIA DYNAMITE 

Uses: For producing smoke and fog. 

See Silicon Tetrachloride, Titanium Tetrachloride. 

AMMONIA DyNAMITE 

Composition: Dynamite in which ammonium nitrate 
is substituted for a portion of the nitroglycerine. The 
remaining nitroglycerine serves as a sensitizer for the 
detonation of the ammonium nitrate. Example for a 
40 per cent ammonia dynamite: 

PEE CENT 

Explosive oil 15 

Ammonium nitrate .... 32 

Sodium nitrate ..... 38 

Sulfur 4 

Vegetable meal 9 

Antacid 1 

Moisture 1 

"Ammonia Permissibles" have commonly contained: 

PER CENT 

Nitroglycerine 10-15 

Ammonium nitrate . 60-80 

and a relatively low percentage of absorbent material 
together with occasional small amounts of so-called 
safety ingredients, such as hydrated salts, sodium 
chloride, and sodium nitrate. 23 
Example of a low-density dynamite, P 3 *. 

PER CENT 

Nitroglycerine 15 

Ammonium nitrate .... 58 

Sodium nitrate 9 

Cornstalk pith 18 

Properties: Of granular nature, not readily resisting 
the absorption of moisture. Not as quick and shatter- 
ing as the corresponding grades of straight dynamite. 
Speed range from 9100-13,000 ft/sec. Strength range 



AMMONITE S3 



from 15-60 per cent. A 30 per cent ammonia dynamite 
will release the same energy as a 30 per cent straight 

dynamite. 

Uses: For work in soft rock, or in hard rock where a 
shattering effect is not desired; also in sand, clay, and 
earth excavation where the material is a little too hard 
for blasting powder. Has to a large extent displaced 
the straight nitroglycerine dynamite. 
See Dynamite, Straight Dynamite, Permissible Explo- 
sives. 

AMMONIA GELATINE DYNAMITE 

Composition: A gelatine dynamite containing ammo- 
nium nitrate. 
Example of composition: 





PERCENT 


Ammonium nitrate 


. . 45 


Nitroglycerine . 


. . 45 


Gelatinized with 




Collodion cotton 


, . . 2.5 


Balance wood flour 





Properties: Slightly less water-resistant than the 
straight nitroglycerine grades but productive of smaller 
volumes of obnoxious fumes. Speed range confined, 
14,500-17,500 ft/sec. Strength range from 30-90 per 

cent. 

Uses: For underground quarrying and mining opera- 
tions in hard rock, and for tunneling. 

AMMONITE 

A group of safety explosives consisting of ammonium 
nitrate, often with some potassium nitrate, and nitro 
compounds of naphthalene or toluene. The oldest am- 
monites did not contain any nitroglycerine; they there- 



34 AMMONIUM CHLORIDE 

fore had low sensitiveness and defective propagation. 
Later types had small amounts of nitroglycerine added, 
which provided not only higher sensitivity and better 
propagation, hut it also changed the physical nature of 
the explosives, to the effect that they were easier to 
work and had less tendency to form dust. 

Composition: Example: 

PER CENT 

Ammonium nitrate, of which 
up lo 10 per cent of the 
total explosive may be re- 
placed by potassium ni- 
trate 77-87 

Vegetable meal and/or solid 

hydrocarbon 1-6 

Nitro derivatives of toluene, 
naphthalene, or diphenyla- 
mine 10-18 

Niliog-lycerine (also gelati- 
nized) 3-4 

Uses: Ammonites are the main types of explosives 
used in industrial practice in U. S. S. R. They are 
mechanical mixtures of ammonium nitrate with nitro 
derivatives such as dinitronaphthalene or with com- 
hustihle materials such as coal or sawdust. They have 
low sensitivity to shock or friction. Hygroscopicity 
and deterioration are their main disadvantages. 2 

AMMONIUM CHLORIDE (SAL AMMONIAC) 

Composition: NH 4 G1 

Properties: Colorless crystals or white powder, some- 
what hygroscopic. Sp. gr. 1.53 at 17°. Sublimes with- 
out melting. 

Uses: In smoke mixtures and in some permissible gela- 
tine dynamites. See HC Mixture. 



AMMONIUM NITRATE EXPLOSIVES 35 

AMMONIUM NITRATE 

Composition: NH4NO3 

Properties: White crystals. Sp. gr. 1.725. M. P. 155- 
166°. Decomposes at 210°. Very hygroscopic. Explo- 
sives containing ammonium nitrate may be protected 
from moisture by suitable coating, such as oily nitro 
compounds, or by selection of waterproof material for 
cartridges (paraffin). It is a high explosive, very in- 
sensitive to impact and difficult to detonate, requiring 
a combination of an initiator and a high explosive 
(reinforced detonators). 

Uses: In combination with TNT or other nitro hodies 
it is one of the major high explosives in war usage for 
filling shells. It is widely used as a component of Am- 
monia Permissihles and of Ammonia Dynamites and 
is also a component of many pyrotechnical mixtures. 
It is used as a granular blasting explosive in combina- 
tion with smokeless powder, P 3 , and in low-density 
dynamites in combination with balsa meal, cork, corn- 
stalk pith, P«.33.3M0. 

See Amatol, Ammonal, Ammonia Dynamite, Ammonia 
Gelatine, Dinitrobenzene, Dinitronaphthalene, Trini- 
trocresol, Trinitroxylene, Guanidine Nitrate, P 15 . 

AMMONIUM NITRATE EXPLOSIVES 

Types of explosives containing large amounts of am- 
monium nitrate. The oldest of these explosives (see 
Roburit, Favier Explosives) contain no nitroglycerine; 
they consist of ammonium nitrate, often with some 
potassium nitrate, and aromatic di- and trinitro prod- 
nets. Their disadvantages are low sensitiveness and 
defective propagation. Later improved ammonium 
nitrate explosives contain small amounts of nitroglyc- 
erine. The nitroglycerine permeates the pulverent 



S6 AMMONIUM OXALATE 

explosive and "moistens" it somewhat, ensuring det- 
onation and propagation. Velocity of ammonium ni- 
trate explosives can be varied by control of the parti- 
cle size of the ammonium nitrate, lower velocities 
heing obtained by using coarser particles, P 25 . Am- 
monium nitrate permissibles are the most popular 
type, constituting more than 70 per cent of the permis- 
sibles used in this country . 

Uses: As safety and permissible explosives. 
See Astralit, Ammonit, Monobel. 

AMMONIUM OXALATE 

Composition: (NHOaCaO* . H 2 

Properties: Colorless crystals. Sp. gr. 1.5. 

Uses: In permissible dynamites (See). As dehydrating 
agent in blasting explosives, P 14 . 

AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE 

Composition: NH4CIO4 

Properties: Colorless crystals. Sp. gr. 1.95. M. P, 
decomposes. Soluble in water. Less sensitive than 
chlorates. May explode in a lire. 

Uses: In detonating and pyrotechnic compositions. 17 
See HC Mixture. 

AMMONIUM PICRATE (EXPLOSIVE "D") (DUNNITE) 

Composition: Ammonium salt of 2,4, 6-trinitro phenol, 
CH»(ONH 4 )(NQ,) s 

ONH, 

2 N/"\N0 3 




ANILITE 37 

Properties: Yellow to red crystals or granules. Does 
not melt on heating but explodes when heated to 300°. 
It must be loaded in projectiles by pressing or tamping. 
Ammonium picrate absorbs moisture and in wet condi- 
tion reacts slowly with metals, particularly copper and 
lead, to form picrates which are sensitive and danger- 
ous. Its explosive strength is inferior to that of TNT, 
but it is very valuable because of its extreme resist- 
ance to impact, shock, and friction. It is not detonated 
by fulminate. Commonly used with a booster of picric 
acid or Tetryl. Rate of detonation 6500 m/sec. 
(d = 1.45). 

Uses: Standard bursting charge for armor-piercing 

shells. 

AMMONPULVER 

Composition: A mixture of 80-90 per cent ammonium 
nitrate and 10-20 per cent charcoal, with or without 
addition of potassium nitrate. 

Properties: Cheap, flashless, smokeless, but very hy- 
groscopic. Comparable in ballistic properties with 
smokeless powder. 

Uses: Was used as propellent powder in World War I 
in Germany and Austria. 

ANILITE 

Composition: Mixture of liquefied nitrogen dioxide 
with carbon disulfide or gasoline. 

Properties: Powerfnl, readily exploded by shock. 

Uses: Used in World War I in bombs having two com- 
partments and a special device for mixing the previ- 
ously separated components after bomb was released 
from the airplane. 7 



28 ANTHRACENE 



ANTHRACENE 

Composition: High-boiling coal-tar hydrocarbon, 
CnHio 




Properties: Colorless solid with blue fluorescence. 
Sp. gr. 1.147. M. P. 218°. B. P. 342°. 

Uses: Was used in trench warfare for producing gray 

smokes. 

See Zinc Dust 

ANTHRACITE 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by Independent Explosive Company of Penn- 
sylvania, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

ANTIMONy SULFIDE 

Composition: Sb 2 S 3 

Properties: Lustrous crystalline masses or grayish- 
black powder in mineral form, or orange-red crystals 
(precipitated). Sp. gr. 4.64. M. P. 550°. 

Uses: In combination with mercury fulminate and 
potassium chlorate as fuel component in percussion 
primer compositions. This mixture provides a more 
prolonged blow and a bigger flame than can be given 
by mercury fulminate alone. In incendiary projectiles, 
P 5 . As rust-inhibitor in smokeless powder, P 17 . 

APACHE COAL POWDER 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by Apache Powder Co., Benson, Ariz. 
See Permissible Explosives. 



ASTRALIT » 

_____ 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by Atlas Powder Co., Wilmington, Del. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

AOUINITE 

French name for Chlorpicrin (See). 

ARSENIC TRICHLORIDE 

Composition: AsCl 3 

Properties: Yellowish, oily liquid. Sp, gr. 2.20 at 0°. 
M. P. 18°. B. P. 130°. Decomposed by much water 
into Asa0 3 and HC1. 

Uses: For stabilizing chemical warfare agents contain- 
ing the cyanogen group. As smoke-producing agent. 
See Cyauogen Chloride, Vincennite. 

ARSENIOUS OXIDE (ARSENIC TRIOXIDE) 

Composition: As 2 3 

Properties: White glassy mass or powder. Sp. gr. 3.865 
at 25°. Sublimes. 

Uses: In smoke-producing compositions. 
See Phosphorus Red. 

ASTRALIT 

One of the first improved ammonium nitrate explo- 
sives, contaiuing a small amount of nitroglycerine. 

Composition: Example: 

PEH CENT 

Ammonium nitrate .... 80 

Trinitrotoluene 12 

Vegetable meals 4 

Nitroglycerine 3 

Charcoal ....... 1 



30 AURAMINE 



For properties and uses, see Ammonium Nitrate Ex- 
plosives. 

AURAMINE 

Composition: 

(CH,),N— ^^-C=<^><=N<CH,), 

NH 2 CI 

Properties: Bright-yellow dye. 

Uses: To produce yellow-colored smoke for military 
signaling from shells, rockets, or pots. In mixture with 
indigo for producing green-colored smoke. 

AUSTIN RED-D-GEL 

A brand of gelatinous permissible explosives manufac- 
tured by Austin Powder Co., Cleveland, O. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

AUSTIN RED DIAMOND 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by Austin Powder Co., Cleveland, 0. 
See Permissible Explosives. 



BA 



British and Chemical Warfare symbol for Bromace- 
tone (See). 



BAGASSE PITH 

A low-density combustible material used as absorbent 
for low-density permissibles, 23 P M . 
See Permissible Explosives. 

BALLISTITE 

One of the first military smokeless powders, invented 
by Nobel, composed of about 59 per cent nitrocelhi- 



BARIUM PEROXIDE 31 



lose (mostly collodion cotton with some guncotton) 
and 41 per cent nitroglycerine. 
See Double-Base Powders. 

BALL POWDER 

Composition: A nitrocellulose smokeless powder pro- 
duced in spherical form by a simplified process in 
which stabilization, gelatinization, and solvent recov- 
ery are carried out in one operation, P' 1 ^-' 7 , 

Uses: As propellant for ammunition up to 37-mm. 
caliber. 

BALSA MEAL 

A low-density combustible materia! used as absorbent 
for low-density permiBBibles, 23 P 24 . 
See Permissible Explosives. 

BARIUM NITRATE 

Composition: Ba(N0 3 ) 2 

Properties: Colorless crystals or white powder. Sp. 
gr. 3.244 at 23°. M. P. 575°. Gives green hght on 
burning. Grade A (99.8 per cent purity) for use in 
priming compositions. Grade B (99.0 per cent purity) 
for use in pyrotechnic compositions. 

Uses: In place of potassium chlorate in percussion 
primer compositions, with the object of prodncing 
noncorrosive primers, P 4 . Also in pyrotechnic com- 
positions, in blasting explosives, and in some componnd 
propellants. See Double-Base Powders, E. C. Powder, 
Poudre B. N., Tonite, Strontium Nitrate, F8. 

BARIUM PEROXIDE 

Composition: BaOa 

Properties: Grayish-white powder. Sp. gr. 4.96. 



32 BELGIAN PER MITE 



Uses: Primer in combination with aluminum for ther- 
mit bombs. In tracer ammunition, P 3 . 

BELGIAN PERMITE 
Composition: 

PEH CENT 

Ammonium nitrate .... 78 

TNT 8 

Calcium silicide 14 

Properties: Dark-gray powder readily set off by serv- 
ice detonators. 

Uses: Used in World War I by Belgians. 1 

BELLITE 

Composition: A series of high ammonium nitrate ex- 
plosives used for coal mining. Originally they con- 
tained nitrobenzene. This was later replaced by dini- 
trobenzene, which is preferable because it is solid and 
more effective. 

PER CENT 

Ammonium nitrate . . . 82-93 
Dinitrobenzene .... 18-7 

BICKFORD FUSE 

Composition: A safety fuse, having a core of black 
powder enclosed within a tube of woven threads, sur- 
rounded by various layers of textile, waterproof mate- 
rial, sbeathing, etc. 

Properties: When ignited on one end it burns compar- 
atively slowly (about 1 ft/min.). When the lire reaches 
the other end, a spit of flame shoots out. 

Uses: As miners' fuse, for igniting black powder or for 

firing a blasting cap. 

See Cordeau Bickford, Primacord-Bickford. 



BLACK POWDER 33 



BIG COAL D 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by Liberty Powder Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

BIG RED 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by Equitable Powder Manufacturing Co., 
and Egyptian Powder Co., East Alton, 111. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

BITUMINITE 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington, Del. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

BLACK DIAMOND 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosiyes manu- 
factured by Illinois Powder Manufacturing Co., 
St. Louis, Mo. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

BLACK DIAMOND NU-GEL 

A brand of gelatinous permissible explosives manufac- 
tured by Illinois Powder Manufacturing Co., St. Louis, 
Mo. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

BLACK POWDER (GUNPOWDER) 

The original standard military propellant. Now obso- 
lete for this purpose. 

Composition: 

PER CENT 

Potassium nitrate .... 70-75 

Charcoal 14-16 

Sulfur 10-14 



34 BLACK POWDER 



Properties: Black, granular powder. Burns with ex- 
plosive rapidity when ignited under confinement. It 
is a deflagrating powder, in distinction from high ex- 
plosives which detonate. 

Uses: See Black Powder (With Potassium Nitrate) 
and Black Powder (With Sodium Nitrate). 

BLACK POWDER (WITH POTASSIUM NITRATE) (U. S. 
ARMY BLACK POWDER) 

Composition: 

PERCENT 

Potassium nitrate .... 74.0 

Charcoal 15.6 

Sulfur 10.4 

Properties: Readily ignited by flame. Evolves about 
700 calories of heat and 300 cc. of gas per gram. Vari- 
ous grades, specified by fineness. The fuze powder for 
loading time-train rings is the finest grade (passing a 
140-mesh screen). 

Uses: It was the standard propellent powder prior to 
the introduction of smokeless powder. It is now used 
as bursting charge in 37 mm. Low-Explosive shells. As 
expelling charge for shrapnel shell. In ignition charges, 
primers, and igniter bags ; in time- train rings, combina- 
tion fuzes, and safety fuses. It may be noted here that 
it is now customary to spell safety fuse with s, whereas 
for mechanical fuzes the spelling is with z. A safety 
fuse is the medium used to carry fire to a blasting cap. 
The fuse consists of a core of fine black powder en- 
closed in wrappings of yarn or tape and is waterproofed 
to a degree which is variable according to brand and 
quality. A fuze is a mechanism for igniting or detonat- 
ing the bursting charge of a projectile. This function 
is being performed either npon impact or at a certain 



BLASTING GELATINE 35 



time during flight. A combination fuze combines both 

percussion and time elements. 

See Blasting Powder A, Cocoa Powder, Fuse Powder. 

BLACK POWDER {WITH SODIUM NITRATE) (U. S. ARMy 
BLACK POWDER) 

Composition: 

PER CENT 

Sodium nitrate .... 71.0 

Sulfur 12.5 

Charcoal 16.5 

Properties: Slightly less water-resistant, weaker and 
slower tban black powder with potassium nitrate, hut 
less expensive. 

Uses: Class A (in pellet form) for saluting charges, and 
Class B (in powder form) for practice bombs. 
See Blasting Powder B. 

BLASTINE 

Composition: 

PER CENT 

Ammonium perchlorate ... 60 

Sodium nitrate 22 

Paraffin wax 7 

TNT U 

Wax provides combustible material for excess oxygen 
in chlorate and nitrate. 

Uses: Used in World War I for mining. 1 

BLASTING GELATINE (NITROGLVCERINE GELATINE) 
(TORPEDO EXPLOSIVE NO. 1) 

The most powerful explosive used industrially, intro- 
duced by Alfred Nobel. 

Composition: A colloid of nitroglycerine and soluble 
nitrocellulose (collodion cotton), containing about 
7-8 per cent of the latter. 



36 BLASTING OIL 



Properties: A translucent material with an elastic 
texture like para rubber. Strongest, quickest, and 
most waterproof explosive. It has an extremely high 
velocity and is rated at 100 per cent strength. It is 
sometimes sold under the name, "Torpedo Explosive 
No. 1." Rate of detonation 7800 m/sec. (d = 1.63). 

Uses: For special cases of tunnel-driving, shaft-sink- 
ing, deep-well shooting, and submarine work. 

BLASTING OIL 

Industrial term for nitroglycerine (See). Now obsolete. 

BLASTING POWDER A 

Composition: A grained black powder, containing po- 
tassium nitrate, prepared in grains closely resembling 
fine lumps of high-grade coal. 

Properties: Slightly more moisture-resistant, stronger, 
and quicker than Blasting Powder B, which contains 
nitrate of soda instead of the saltpeter. 

Uses: In certain cases of difficult blasting, as in quarry- 
ing fine-dimension stone. 
See Black Powder (With Potassium Nitrate). 

BLASTING POWDER B 

Composition: A grained black powder, containing so- 
dium nitrate, and glazed with graphite for protection 
from moisture. 

Properties: Produced in standard granulations from 
fine to coarse, the burning-speed increasing with the 
fineness. Mnch cheaper than Blasting Powder A, there- 
fore more generally used for blasting. 
See Blasting Powder A. 



'BOOSTERS 37 

Uses: In stripping, where material is not too hard, in 
coal mines that are nongaseous, and in general excavat- 
ing in light ground where a slow, heaving action is de- 
sired and where the work is dry. 
See Black Powder (With Sodium Nitrate). 
See Pellet Powder. 

BLEACHING POWDER (CHLORINATED LIME) 

Composition: Variable, approximately CaCl2Ca(OCl) 2 . 

Properties: White powder with strong chlorine odor. 
Slightly soluble in water, with decomposition. Sp. gr. 

2.08. 

Uses: For decontamination of surfaces exposed to 
mustard gas or Lewisite. 

BLUE CROSS (BLAU KREUZ) 

German designation for irritating chemical agents 

(sneeze gases, sternutators). 

See Diphenylchlorarsine, Phenyldichlorarsine. 

BOOSTERS 

A class of relatively sensitive high explosives, the chief 
representative of which is Tetryl. 

Properties: More sensitive and powerful than those 
high explosives which are used as main bursting charge, 
but less sensitive than primary explosives. 

Uses: In the explosive train of H. E. shell between the 

primary explosive and the main bursting charge to 

insure complete detonation of the bursting charge and 

to permit the use of a smaller amount of the dangerous 

primary explosive. 

See Tetryl, Hexanitrodiphenylamine, Tetranitroani- 

line. 



38 BRIMSTONE 



BRIMSTONE 

Commercial term for Sulfur (See). 



BROMACETONE 

American and British: BA. 
French: Martonite. 
German: B Stoff. 

Composition: BrCHzCOCH 3 

CH S 

CO 

,H,Br 



i, 



Properties: Colorless liquid. B. P. 136°. Sp. gr. 1.64 at 
20°. Vapor density 4.75. M. P. -54°. Not decomposed 
by water. Polymerizes on long standing and under the 
influence of heat and light. 

Uses: Powerful lacrimator; was used in artillery shells 
and other weapons throughout World War I. Was 
beginning to be replaced by the more effective brom- 
benzylcyanide toward the close of the war. It was also 
used for testing of gas masks in gas chambers. 

BROMBENZYLCYANIDE 

American: CA. 
French: Camite. 

Composition: CeHnCHBrCN 

CN 




BUTYL RICINOLEATE 39 



Properties: Oily Liquid, yellowish crystals when pure, 
soured fruity odor. Decomposed by heat and during 
distillation. Corrosive to metals. M. P. 29°. B. P. 232°. 
Vapor density 6.8. 

Uses: Most powerful lacrimator used in World War I. 
First used by French in July, 1918. Tactical possi- 
bilities limited by its technical properties. 

First aid: Wash eyes with boric acid. 

Field neutralization: Alcoholic sodium hydroxide spray. 

B STOFF 

German name for Bromacetone (See). 

BURSTING-CHARGE EXPLOSIVES 

Are characterized by being relatively insensitive and 
by having high brisance or shattering power. 
See Trinitrotoluene, Picric Acid, Ammonium Picrate, 
High Explosives. 

BURTON A 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by American Cyanamide and Chemical Cor- 
poration, New York, N. Y. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

BUTYL RICINOLEATE 

Composition: C1SH33O3C4H9 

Properties: Yellow, oleaginous liquid. Sp. gr. 0.916 at 
20°. Flash point 220°. 

Uses: As deterrent coating in smokeless powder, P 16 . 



40 CA 

CA 

Chemical Warfare symbol for Brombenzylcyanide 

(See). 

CALCIUM CARBONATE (PRECIPITATED CHALK) 

Composition: CaC0 3 

Properties: White powder. Sp. gr. 2.71-2.95. 

Uses: As stabilizing and neutralizing agent in explosive 

mixtures or in compositions which tend to develop 

acidity. 

See HC Mixture, Dynamite. 

CALCIUM NITRATE MONOHYDRATE 

Composition: Ca(NO g ) 2 ■ H 3 

Properties: White deliquescent granules. Melts at about 
560°. Soluble in water and alcohol. 

Uses: In pyrotechnics and in blasting explosives, P 13 . 

CALCIUM RESINATE 

Composition: Calcium salt of the acid constituents of 

resin. 

Properties: Sp. gr. 2.5. 

Uses: As binder in manufacture of tracer powders. 

CALCIUM SILICIDE 

Composition: CaSii 

Properties: Sp. gr. 2.5. 

Uses : In detonating and primer compositions. 

CAMITE 

French name for Brombenzylcyanide (See). 



CARBON BLACK 41 



CAMPHOR 

Composition: Ci Hi 6 O 

H 9 C -C(CH 3 ) CO 

C(CH 3 ) 2 

H,C CH — CH, 

Properties: Colorless crystals with characteristic odor. 
Sp. gr. 0.999 at 9°. M. P. 175°. B. P. 204° (snbliines). 

Uses: Addition of 3-5 per cent camphor to blasting 
gelatine rednces the sensitiveness to detonation and 
makes it more resistant to mechanical influences. It 
is used for the same purpose in double-base powders 
containing nitroglycerine, where it also acts as a stabi- 
lizer. 

CANNON POWDER 

Large-size grains of smokeless powder used in separate- 
loading artillery ammunition. 
See Pyrocotton. 

CARBAZOLE (DIPHENYLENE IMIDE) 

Composition: (CsH 4 ) s NH 

Properties: White to reddish-white crystals. Soluble 
in alcohol and ether. M. P. 244°. B. P. 352°. 

Uses: As stabilizer in smokeless powder. M 

CARBOLIC ACID 

Synonym for Phenol (See). 

CARBON BLACK 

Composition: Fluffy, extremely finely divided form of 
carbon. 

Uses: See Liquid-Oxygen Explosives. 



4S CARBOK DIOXIDE 



CARBON DIOXIDE (CARBONIC ACID) 

Composition: C0 2 

Properties: Colorless, odorless gas. Also comes in 
liquid form. Sp. gr. Gas 1.53 

Liquid 1.06 

Solid 1.56 
M. P. -65°. B. P. -80°. 

Uses: For providing pressure in cylinders containing 
silicon tetrachloride (See). 

CARBONITE 

A mixture of nitroglycerine, oak. bark, and sodium or 
potassium nitrate. Was used in Germany and England 
as a permissible explosive. 

CARBONYL CHLORIDE 

Synonym for Phosgene (See). 

CASTOR OIL 

Composition: A vegetable oil consisting chiefly of 

glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids. 

Properties: Pale-yellow oily liquid with characteristic 
odor. Sp. gr. 0.95 at 25°. Solidifies -10° to -18°. 

Uses: For coating magnesium particles which are to be 
used for pyrotechnic purposes, as a protection from 
moisture, F-. 
See also Chlorate Explosives, Cheddite. 

CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) 

Composition: NaOH 

Properties: White lumps, pellets, or flakes. Sp. gr. 
2.13. Hygroscopic and very caustic to tissue. Strong 
base, capable of neutralizing any acidic substance. 

Uses: See Pbenate Haxamine and Soda Lime. 



CENTRAUTE 1 AND II 43 



CDA 

Chemical Warfare Symbol for Diphenylcyanarsine 

(See). 

CELLULOSE NITRATE 

Correct chemical term for what is commonly but erro- 
neously called nitrocellulose. The product formed by 
action of a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids on cellu- 
lose is an ester and not a nitro compound, having the 
empirical formula [CgHyO^ONOa^I*. 
Since the exact molecular weight of cellulose is un- 
known and since degradation of the cellulose molecule 
takes place during the reaction, it is not possible to 
assign absolute formulas to cellulose derivatives. It 
has been customary to express the degree of esterifica- 
tion ("nitration") in terms of a unit of six, twelve, or 
twenty-four carbon units. The custom today is to dif- 
ferentiate products by nitrogen content rather than by 
formulas. The products of various degrees of nitration 
are grouped from the point of view of their properties 
and commercial utilization. 

For composition, properties, uses of representatives of 
the various groups, see Nitrocellulose, Dodekanitro- 
cellulose, Hexanitrocellulose, Trinitrocellulose, Gun- 
cotton, Pyrocotton, Collodion Cotton, Blasting Gela- 
tine. 

CEMENT 

Composition: A binding material consisting essentially 
of calcium aluminum silicate. 

Properties: Fine, gray powder. Mixed with a small 
quantity of water, it sets to a hard, tenacious mass. 

Uses: In gas masks. See Soda Lime. 
CENTRALITE I AND II 

Commercial names for Diphenyldiethylurea and Di- 
phenyldimethylurea (See). 



44 CG 

CG 

Chemical Warfare symbol for Phosgene (See). 

CHARCOAL (WOOD CHARCOAL) (ACTIVATED CHAR- 
COAL) 

Composition: Black powder or lumps consisting chiefly 
of carbon and containing 2-5 per cent ash. 

Properties: Ease of ignition varies with temperature 
of carbonization. 

Uses: Chief combustible ingredient of black powder. 
Component of gas-mask material. For the latter pur- 
pose an activated product is being used. 
See Activated Charcoal, Red Charcoal. 

CHEDDrTE 

French chlorate explosives used for industrial and mili- 
tary blasting operations. 

Composition: Chlorates or perchlorates hi combina- 
tion with aromatic nitro compounds such as nitro- 
naphthalene. 
See Chlorate Explosives. 

CHILE SALTPETER 

Common name for Sodium Nitrate (See). 

CHLORACETOPHENONE (CHLOROACETOPHENONE) 
(PHENACYL CHLORIDE) (PHENYLCHLOROMETHYL- 
KETONE) 

Chemical Warfare Symbol: CN 
Composition: CeHsCOCHaCl 

COCHsCl 



CHLORAMINE-T 45 



Properties: Colorless, crystalline mass. Odor resem- 
bling apple blossom. M. P. 58-59°. B. P. 245°. Re- 
sistant to beat and moisture and does not corrode 
metals. Soluble in ordinary organic solvents. Very 
powerful lacrimator, irritating effect equaling tbat of 
brombenzylcyanide. 

Uses: Was developed by Chemical Warfare Service 
late in 1918 but was not used during World War I. 
Can be used in explosive shells or bombs or in burning 
compositions which distill the irritant gas into the air 
without explosion. 

Field neutralization: Strong, hot solution of sodium 
carbonate. 

CHLORACETOPHENONE SOLUTIONS 
Chemical Warfare Symbol: CNB 

Composition: Solntion of chloracetophenone in carbon 
tetrachloride and benzol. 
Chemical Warfare Symbol: CNS 

Composition: Solution of mixture of chlorpicrin and 
chloracetophenone in chloroform. 

Properties: Harassing agents. 

Uses: Suitahle for use in small airplane bombs and 
sprays, artillery and chemical mortar shells, hand 

grenades. 

CHLORAMINE-T (SODIUM p-TOLUENESULFONCHLOR- 
AMIDE) 

Composition: CHsCaHiSOaNClNa 

CH S 




SOiNClNa 



46 CHLORATE EXPLOSIVES 

Properties: White crystals or powder, slight chlorine 
odor. Soluble in water. 

Uses: As decontaminating agent for mustard gas. 

CHLORATE EXPLOSIVES 

Manufacture of these explosives received great impetus 
in Germany and France during World War I, probably 
on account of the lack of nitrogen compounds. 

Composition: The chief constituent, 60-80 per cent, is 
a chlorate or perchlorate of ammonium, sodium, or 
potassium. The other ingredients are combustible 
products such as charcoal, sulfur, aluminum powder, 
or mixtures of vegetahle meals; iritro derivatives of 
benzene, toluene, naphthalene, phenol; and as de- 
sensitizers solid hydrocarbons (paraffin) and castor 
oil may he added. The addition of the nitro compounds 
serves to improve the propagation. 
Similar mixtures were later used in Germany but with 
further addition of small amounts of nitroglycerine or 
collodion cotton, which served to raise the brisance. 
See Coronite, Percoronite. 

Properties: More sensitive than the modern Permissi- 
ble Explosives. The Perchlorate Explosives are less 
sensitive to detonation and therefore safer than 
the Chlorate Explosives. The plastic mixtures con- 
taining nitroglycerine are somewhat less sensitive to 
shock and friction, in spite of the nitroglycerine pres- 
ent, than the drier explosives with no nitroglycerine. 

Uses: See Cbeddite, Coronite, Percoronite, and P". 

CHLORINATED LIME 

See Bleaching Powder. 

CHLORINE 

Symbol: Ch 

Chemical Warfare Symbol: CI 



CHLORSULFONIC ACJD— SULFUR TRIOXJDE SOLUTION 47 

Properties: Greenish-yellow gas or liquid. 
Gas: Vapor density 2.49 at 0°. Highly pungent, suf- 
focating odor. 

Liquid: Sp. gr. 1.468 at 0°. B. P. -34.6°. Critical 
temperature 146°. 

Uses: Was the first toxic gas used in World War I. 
German chlorine attack near Ypres, April 2, 1915. 
Later replaced by more effective gases. May be used 
in cylinders and shells in mixture with phosgene or 
chlorpicrin. 

Field neutralization: Alkaline solutions. 

CHLORPICRIN (CHLOROPICRIN) (TRICHLORONITRO- 
METHANE) (NfTROCHLOROFORM) 

Chemical Warfare Symbol : PS 
British : Vomiting Gas 
German: Klop 
French: Aquinite 

Composition: CCLN0 2 

Properties: Colorless liquid; sweetish, highly pungent 
odor. Sp. gr. 1.66 at 20°. M. P. 69°. Vapor density 
5.6. B. P. 113°. Lung irritant; has also strong Iacrima- 
tory properties; is absorbed by charcoal. 

Uses: First used in World War I by Russians in 1916, 
later generally adopted. 

Protection: Gas mask. 

Field neutralization: Alcoholic solution of sodium 
sulfite. 

CHLORSULFONIC ACID-SULFUR TRIOXIDE SOLUTION 
Chemical Warfare Symbol: FS 

Composition: A mixture containing about 55 per cent 
by weight of sulfur trioxide (S0 3 ) and 45 per cent of 
chlorsulfonic acid (HC1S0 3 ). 



48 CHLORVINyLDICHLORARSINE 

Properties: A liquid reacting with moisture of air to 
form dispersions of fine droplets, producing a white 
smoke, which causes prickling of skin, flow of tears. 

Uses: Smoke-producing material. Was used by the 
German Navy in tbe battle of Jutland. 

CHLORVINyLDICHLORARSINE 

(LEWISITE) (BETA-CHLORVINyLDICHLORARSINE) 
(CHLORVINyLDICHLOROARSINE) 

Chemical Warfare Symbol: M-l 

Composition: Chlorvinyldichlorarsine containing some 
dichlordivinylchlorarsine and trichlortrivinylarsine. 

H H CI 
C=C— As 

ii A, 

Properties: Oily liquid having a geranium odor. Sp. 
gr. 1.88. B. P. 190°. A persistent, violent vesicant, 
highly toxic (arsenical poison). Can be used in liquid 
or vapor form, in other words, in shells, bombs, or as a 
spray. Decomposed by hydrolysis. Alcoholic sodium 
hydroxide spray used as means of destroying the prod- 
uct in the field, after first washing down with water. 

Uses: Mauufaclure was started by Chemical Warfare 
Service, October, 1917, at Edgewood Arsenal. Was 
not used dnring World War I. 

Protection: Gas mask and full protective clothing. 

CHRySOIDINE 

Composition: Aniline azo-m-phenylenediamine cHor- 
hydrate. 

NH 2 

^~\ N=N ^^^NH 2 HC1 



COLLIER 49 

Properties: Crystal powder or large black crystals. 

Uses: To produce yellow-colored smoke for signaling 
from shells, rockets, grenades, or pots. 

CLARK I 

See Diphenylchlorarsine. 

CN, CNB, CND, CNS 

See Chloracetophenone. 

COALITE 

A brand of nongelalinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by the Atlas Powder Co., Wilmington, Del. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

COCOA POWDER 

Composition: Similar to black powder except for the 
use of a brown in place of a black charcoal. Approx- 
imate composition: 

PER CENT 

Saltpeter 78 

Brown charcoal 19 

(incompletely carbonized char- 
cool) 
Sulfur 3 

Properties: A cocoa-colored powder grained into single 
perforated hexagonal or octagonal prisms. It repre- 
sented the most successful form of black powder for 
use m long-range rifled guns. 

Uses: Was used as propellent powder up to the time 
of the Spanish War, 1898. 

COLLIER 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington, Del. 
See Permissible Explosives. 



50 COLLINGITE 



COLLONGITE 

French term for Phosgene (See). 

COLLODION COTTON 

Composition: Cellulose nitrate mixture containing 
11.2-12.2 per cent nitrogen. The product used for 
dynamite as a rule has a nitrogen content of 12.1- 
12.2 per cent. 

Properties: White, pulped libers, soluble in ether- 
alcohol and in nitroglycerine. 

Uses: As gelatinizing agent for nitroglycerine in manu- 
facture of Blasting Gelatine and Gelatine Dynamite. 
See Nitrocellulose, Oktonitrocellulose, Tetranitrocel- 
lulose, Enneanitiocellulose, Dekanitrocellulose. 

COLOPHONY 
See Rosin. 

COLUMBIA 

A brand of nongelatinons permissible explosives manu- 
factured by Columbia Powder Co., Tacoma, Wash. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

COLUMBIA-GEL 

A hrand of gelatinous permissible explosives manufac- 
tured by Columbia Powder Co., Tacoma, Wash. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

COPPER ACETYLIDE (CUPROUS ACETYLIDE) (CUPROUS 
CARBIDE) 

Composition: C 2 Cu 2 

C— Cu 

C — Cu 



CORDITE 51 



Properties: One of the very few commercial explosives 
containing neither nitrogen nor oxygen and producing 
no gas on decomposition. Explosion is due only to 
production of large amount of heat. Red-brown solid, 
detonates by percussion or when heated over 100°. 

Uses: In ignition composition for commercial electric 
detonators. 

COPPER FULMINATE 

Composition: Cu(ONC) 9 

Uses: As detonator in gassy coal mines. 

CORDEAU-BICKFORD 

Composition: A detonating tube (cordeau) made of 
lead, containing TNT as core, manufactured by the 
Ensign-Bickford Company at Simsbury, Conn. 

Properties: Detonates with a velocity of about 
5200 m/sec. 

Uses: For firing blasting charges. As a standard for 
determining rate of detonation of other high explosives 
by the Dautriche method. 
See Primacord-Bickford, Bickford Fuse. 

CORDITE 

Composition: Combination of nitrocellulose and nitro- 
glycerine containing 30^0 per cent of the latter and 
rendered more stable by addition of about 5 per cent 
mineral jelly (Vaseline). 

Properties: Soluble in acetone, whicb is used for col- 
liding the above mixture. Manufactured in form of 
cords. 

Uses: Important military propellant (British Service 

Powder) . 

See Smokeless Powder, Double-Base Powders. 



52 CORDITE MD 

CORDITE MD 
Composition: 

PEB CENT 

Nitroglycerine 30 

Guncotton 65 

Mineral jelly 5 

Properties: See Double-Base Powders. 

Uses: British rifle powder. 

CORNSTALK PITH 

A low-density combustible material used as absorbent 
for low-density permissibles, 23 P 2 *-". 
See Permissible Explosives. 

CORONITE 

A. type of German blasting explosive based on chlo- 
rates. 

Composition: Example: 

PEB CENT 

Sodium chlorate ..... 72 

Vegetable meal 1 

Tri- and dinitrotoluene ... 20 

Paraffin 4 

Nitroglycerine 3 

Uses: In stone quarries and mines. Has been replaced 

by Percoronite (See). 

For other properties and uses see Chlorate Explosives. 

CRESYLITE (CRESSYLITE) 

Composition: Mixtures of picric acid and trinitrocresol, 
for instance, 60/40. 

Properties: Yellow solid. Sp. gr. 1.77. Can be loaded 
in molten condition. 

Uses: As bursting charge, particularly in France. 
See Trinitrocresol. 



CYANOGEN CHLORIDE 33 

CRUDE OIL 

Chemical Warfare Symbol: CO 

Composition: Mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. 

Properties: Viscous, highly colored oils. Sp. gr. 0.8. 
B. P. about 200°. Produces colloidal carbon by partial 
combustion. 

Uses: For incendiary purposes in bombs and shells 
and for dark smoke screens by spraying it with an in- 
sufficient amount of air below the stacks of destroyers. 

C STOFF 

German term for Methylcblorsulfonate (See). 

CUPROUS ACETyLIDE 

See Copper Acetylide. 

CYANOGEN BROMIDE 

Composition: CNBr 

Properties: White crystalline solid. Sp. gr. 2.02. 
M. P. 52°. B. P. 61.5°. Vapor density 3.6. It polymer- 
izes on storage into a physiologically inert substance 
and decomposes on contact with metals. A systemic 
poison, but rather unsuitable for use as a chemical 
warfare agent on account of its instability. 

Uses: Used during World War I by the Austrians in 
combination with other chemicals in CE shells. 

CYANOGEN CHLORIDE (VITRITE) 
Composition: CNC1 

Properties: Colorless liquid. Sp. gr. 1.22. B. P. 14.0°. 
Vapor density 2.0. Volatility 3300 mg/liter at 20°. 
Polymerizes on storage, forming a less effective prod- 
uct. In mixture witb arsenic trichloride it is far more 
stable. Systemic poison and very irritating. 



54 CYCLONITE 



Uses: With addition of arsenic trichloride as stabilizer 
in the French Vitrite shells. 

CyCLONITE 

Common term for Trimethylenetrinitramine (See). 

CYCLOTRIMETHyLENETRINITRAMINE 

Chemical synonym for Trimethylenetrinitramine 

(See). 

DA 

Chemical Warfare symbol for Diphenylchlorarsine 

(See). 

DAIS1TE 

A thermit composition containing sulfur as a binder. 
See Thermit. 

DD 60/40 

Composition: A French explosive with the following 
composition : 

PER CENT 

Picric acid ...:.... 60 
Dinitrophenol 40 

Properties: Smaller-size crystals and lower melting 
point than straight picric acid, therefore more suitable 
for shell-loading. 

Uses: As bursting charge for shellB. 
See Dinitrophenol. 

DDNP 

Symbol for Diazodinitrophenol (See). 



DfAZODIKITftOPHENOL 55 

DECANITROCELLULOSE 

Composition: Cs 4 HsoOio(N03)io. Based on cellulose 
unit, CaJIjcO^o. Represents a degree of "nitration" 
of cellulose about equivalent to that of pyrocotton. 

Properties: White, matted mass. 12.76 per cent nitro- 
gen. 

Uses: Chief constituent of smokeless powders. 
See Pyrocotton, Nitrocellulose, Smokeless Powder. 

DETERRENT 

An ingredient of a propellent powder added for the 
purpose of retarding the deflagration of the powder in 
order to develop the maximum pressure in the desired 
location in the gun barrel, P'°> 19 ' 21 . 
See Dinitrotoluene, FNH and NH powder. 

DIAZODINITROPHENOL (DINOL) 
Symbol: DDNP 
Composition: C 6 H 2 ON 2 (N0 2 )2 

N0 2 

Properties: Bright-yellow crystals or amorphous pow- 
der or granules. Sp. gr. 1.63. Explodes when heated 
to a temperature of 130°. Less sensitive to impact 
than either lead azide or mercury fulminate, much 
less sensitive to friction than the latter, and does not 
get dead-pressed. Cannot be detonated under water 
with a No. 8 electric detonator. The strength (sand- 
bomb test) is about twice that of mercury fulminate 
or lead azide. The initiating power is greater than 




56 DIBUTyL PHTHALATE 

that of mercury fulminate and similar to that of lead 
azide. 6 

Uses: In commercial blasting caps and as a substitute 
for mercury fulminate. 

DIBUTYL PHTHALATE 

Composition: CeH.CCOOCJI,), 

/Nco . OC 4 H 9 
LJCO . OC 4 H 9 

Properties: Colorless oily liquid. Sp. gr. 1.05 at 20°. 
B. P. 340°. 

Uses: As a plasticizer and flash-reducer in propellants. 
As deterrent surface-treating agent in smokeless pow- 
ders, P 19 . 

DICHLORDlETHyL SULFIDE 
See Dichlorelhyl Sulfide. 

DICHLORDIVINyLCHLORARSINE 
See Vinylchlorarsine. 

DICHLORETHyL SULFIDE (DICHLOROETHyL SULFIDE) 
{DICHLORDlETHyL SULFIDE) 

Chemical Warfare Symbol: HS 
American and British: Mustard Gas 
French: Yperite 
German: Gelb Kreuz (Yellow Cross) 

Composition: Cl(CHs) 2 S(CH s )iCl 
CHa—CH,— CI 

/ 

CHa— CHa— CI 



DINITROBENZENE 57 



Properties: Oily liquid, having an odor like mustard, 
garlic, or horse radish. M. P. 13.5°. B. P. 215.5°. 
Readily soluble in fatty oils and lipoids. In liquid and 
gaseous state it readily penetrates clothing and leather. 
In presence of water it undergoes hydrolysis, and it is 
easily decomposed by bleaching powder and Chlo- 
ramine-T. Powerful vesicant (blister-producer); very 
persistent, causing eye irritation, conjunctivitis, and 
inflammation of respiratory tract which may lead to 
pneumonia. 

Uses: Was first used in World War I by the Germans 
near Ypres in July, 1917, and was later produced in 
France and in the U. S. Was the most efficacious war 
gas used during the war. 

Protection: Gas mask and full protective clothing. 
Field neutralization: Bleaching powder; 3 per cent 
sodium sulfide solution (Na 2 S) ; bury under moist earth. 

DICK 

See Ethyldichlorarsme. 

DIETHyLDIPHENyLUREA 

See Diphenyldiethylurea. 

DINITROBENZENE (m-DINlTROBENZENE) 

Composition: C fl H 4 (N0 2 ) 2 
N0 2 

JNOj 

Properties: Yellowish crystals. M. P. 90°. B. P. 302°. 
Toxic. 

Uses: In bursting charges for shells in mixtures with 
more powerful explosives or with an oxygen-carrier. 



58 DINITROCELLULOSE 



In mixture with ammonium nitrate for industrial ex- 
plosives. 
See Bellite, Tonite, Roburite. 

DINITROCELLULOSE 

Composition: CeHsCVNCMa 
Based on cellulose unit, GjHio0 5 . 

Properties: White malted mass. 11.11 per cent nitro- 
gen. 

Uses: See Collodion Cotton. 

See Nitrocellulose, Tetranitrocellulose, Oktonitrocel- 

Julose. 

DINITROCHLORBENZENE (2,4-DINITROCHLORBENZENE) 

Composition: C e H s (N02) 2 Cl 

CI 

NO, 

Properties: Yellow crystals. Sp. gr. 1.69. M. P. 52- 
54°. B. P. 315°. 

Uses: Constituent of some ammonium nitrate and 
chlorate explosives (See). 

DINITROGLYCOL (GLYCOL DINITRATE) (ETHYLENEGLY. 
COL DINITRATE) (NITROGLYCOL) 

Composition: (CH 2 ) 2 (NO s )i: 

CH 2 ON0 2 
CH*ONO a 



DINITRONAPHTHALENE 59 

Properties: Slightly syrupy liquid. Sp. gr. 1.496. Be- 
haves like nitroglycerine but is more volatile and less 
sensitive, a disadvantage as well as an advantage in 
comparison. 

Uses: In safety and permissible explosives. In Low- 
Freezing Dynamite (See). 

DINITROMONOCHLORHyDRIN 

Composition: C B H 6 C1(N0 3 ) 2 
Mixture of 2 isomers : 

CH 2 ON0 2 CH 2 ON0 2 
CHON0 2 and CHC1 
CH,C1 CHsONOs 

Properties: Colorless liquid. Sp. gr. 1.54 at 15°. 
Miscible with nitroglycerine. 

Uses: In Low-Freezing Dynamite (See). 
Was also used in the manufacture of safety and permis- 
sible gelatinous explosives. 

DINITRONAPHTHALENE 

Composition: A mixture of several dinitronaphtha- 
Ienes, mostly 1, 5 and 1, 8 isomers. 

N0 2 a N N0 2 
and 

N0 2 

Properties: Yellow crystalline solid, M. P. about 138- 
140°. Weak explosive. 





60 DINITROPHENOL 



Uses: Was used in World War I as shell-filler in com- 
bination with ammonium nitrate (Schneiderite), also 
in combination with chlorates and perchlorates, and 
in combination with picric acid (MDN). As ingredient 
of permissible explosives. 

See Ammonite, Schneiderite, Chlorate Explosives, 
MDN. 

D1NITROPHENOL (2,4-DlNITROPHENOL) 
Composition: C»H 3 OH(N0 2 ) 2 

OH 

)N0j 

N0 2 

Properties: Yellowish crystals. Sp. gr. 1.68. M. P. 
112-113°. Specification M. P. 110.5-112°. 

Uses: As component of some shell and bomb charges; 
for instance, in mixture with picric acid. 
See Tridite, DD 60/40. 

DIN1TROTOLUENE (2,4-DINITROTOLUENE) (DINrTRO- 
TOLUOL) 

Symbol: DNT 

Composition: CHsC&Hj^NCMs 

CH 3 

lN0 2 



Properties: Lemon-yellow crystals. Sp. gr. 1.32 at 15°. 
M. P. 70°. B. P. 300° (decomposes). Soluble in con- 



DIPHENYLAMINE 61 



centrated sulfuric acid (means of separation from 

TNT). 

Uses: As an ingredient of FNH and NH smokeless 
powder, acting as deterrent and cooling agent, P 19 ' 20 . 
It is also used in some permissible and chlorate ex- 
plosives. 

For small-grain double-base powder, P 18 . 
As gelatinizer for propellent powders, P 27 . 
See Cheddite, Blastine, FNH Powder, Abbcite, Di- 
Oil. 

DINOL 

Commercial name for Diazodinitrophenol (See). 

DI-OIL (COMMERCIAL DINITROTOLUENE) 

Composition: Composed mostly of 2,4-diiritrotoluene. 

Properties: The crude product consists of yellow crys- 
talline cakes or powder. M. P. 66-68°. Toxic. 

Uses: For plastic explosives in combination with 

nitrates or chlorates, P 3B . In pulverulent dynamite, 

P 22 . 

See Dinitrotoluene, Mono-Oil. 

DIPHENYLAMINE 

Composition: (CaHs^NH 



O nh O 



Properties: Grayish to pale-yellow crystals. Sp. gr. 
1.16 at 20°. M. P. 53°. B. P. 302°. Converted iu suc- 
cessive stages to nitroso and nitro derivatives by 
action of oxides of nitrogen. This accounts for its 
action as a stabilizer. 



62 DIPHENYLAMINEARSiNE CHLORIDE 

Uses: Standard stabilizer for smokeless powder and 
compound propellanls in the proportion of 0.8-1 per 
cent, P 20 . 

DIPHENYLAMINEARSINE CHLORIDE 
See Diphenylaminechlorarsine. 

DIPHENYLAMINECHLORARSINE (ADAMSITE) <DIPHEN- 
YLAMINEARSINE CHLORIDE) (PHENARSAZINE 
CHLORIDE) 

Chemical Warfare Symbol: DM 
Composition: (CeH^uNHAsCl 

CI 

As 



NH 



Properties: Odorless, yellow crystalline solid. Sp. gr. 
1.648 at 20°. M. P. 195°. Boils with decomposition at 
410° under normal pressure. Corrosive to metals. A 
nonpersistent, very violent sternutator, similar to 
diphenylchlorarsine but much simpler to manufacture. 
Requires dust filter in gas-mask protection. 

Uses: Particularly effective for cloud attacks. Was 
ahout ready for use by the British and American 
forces by the end of World War I. Also used for sup- 
pressing riots. For this purpose it is usually mixed 
with tear gas (chloracetophenone) and loaded in hand 
grenades. 

Field Neutralization: Bleaching powder solution. 

DIPHENYLARSINE CHLORIDE 
See Diphenylchlorarsine. 





DIPHENYLCYANARSINE 63 

DIPHENYLCHLORARSINE (DIPHENYLARSINE CHLORIDE) 

Chemical Warfare Symbol: DA 
German: Blue Cross, Clark I 

Composition: (C 6 H 5 )2AsCl 

CI 

Properties: Colorless, crystalline solid when pure, 
M. P. 38°. B. P. 333°. If heated it forms vapors or 
fogs; these aerosols penetrate ordinary charcoal canis- 
ters. Needs a filter for absorption. 

Uses: First used by Germans in September, 1917, 
against the Russians as a sternutator (sneeze gas), 
combined with Green Cross (lung irritant and vesi- 
cant). Used by spraying solutions containing it so as 
to obtain a fine state of subdivision in burning-type 
munitions. Can also be dispersed by means of higb 
explosives, or hy means of irritant gas candle. 

Protection: Gas mask. 

Field neutralization: Bleaching powder solution. 

DIPHENYLCyANARSINE (DIPHENYLARSINE CYANIDE) 
Chemical Warfare Symbol: CDA 
German: Clark II 

Composition: (C 6 H & ) 2 AsCN 

CN 

Properties: Colorless solid. Sp. gr. 1.45 at 20°. M. P. 
31.5°. Vapor density 8.3. Boils with decomposition at 
350°. Forms foggy vapors. Smells like a mixture of 



64 DIPHENYLDIETHYLUREA 

bitter almonds and garlic. Extremely irritant. Re- 
quires smoke filter in gas masks. 

Uses: Was used by the Germans in 1917 and 1918. 



DIPHENyLDIETHYLUREA (CENTRALITE I) (MOLLITE) 

Composition: [C a H s (C 2 H 6 )N] 2 CO 

C2H5 



CO 



N— C 6 H 6 

^N— C«H B 
CaHft 

Properties: Almost colorless solid. M. P. 79°. Soluble 
in alcohol and ether. Readily converted to nitro deriv- 
atives by means of oxides of nitrogen. 

Uses: As a stabilizer and as a deterrent for smokeless 
powder. To facilitate the gelatinization of collodion 
cotton with nitroglycerine. 

DIPHENyLDIMETHyLUREA (CENTRALITE II) 

Composition: [CH 6 (CH 3 )N] 2 CO 

CeH fi 
N— CHa 

«/ 

\ 
N— CH 3 

\ 
CaH.6 



DIPHOSGENE 65 



Properties: Almost colorless solid. M. P. 121.5°. Solu- 
ble in alcohol and ether. 

Uses: Same as forDiphenyldi-ethylurea (See). 

DIPHENYLENE IMIDE 

See Carbazole. 

DIPHENYLUREA (ASYMMETRIC DIPHENYLUREA) (ACAR- 
DITE) 

Composition: NH 2 CON(C 6 H 6 ) 2 

N(C 6 H 6 ) 2 

CO 

\ 

NH 2 

Properties: Almost colorless solid. M. P. 189°. 
Uses: As stabilizer for smokeless powder. 

DIPHOSGENE (TRICHLOROMETHYL CHLOROFORM ATE) 

American: Superlite 
French; Surpalite 
German: Perstoff 

Composition: Perchloromethyl formate. ClCOOCCb- 
Properties: Colorless liquid of anise-like odor. Sp. gr. 
1.65 at 15°. M. P. -57°. Vapor density 6.9. Vola- 
tility 26 mg/h'ter at 20°. B. P. 127°. Can be filled into 
shells in the field. In contact with air is decomposed 
into hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Lung 
irritant, causes coughing and painful breathing. Tox- 
icity about same as that of phosgene. 

Uses: Was first used by Germans in shells at Verdun 
in May, 1916. Was used in combination with chloro- 
picrin (25 per cent) to disperse the latter. 

Protection: Gas mask. 

Field neutralization: Alkali. 



66 DM 

DM 

Chemical Warfare symbol for Diphenylaminechlor- 
arsine (See). 

DNB 

Symbol for Dinitrobenzene (See) 

DNT 

Symbol for Dim'lrotoluene (See). 

DODECANITROCELLULOSE 

Composition: C 2 ,fH.. 8 0s(N03)i2. Highest degree of 
"nitration" theoretically possible, based on cellulose 
unit of C 2 4H4oOm- 

Properties: 14.14 per cent nitrogen. Has not been pro- 
duced so far in a stable form on a large scale. The 
nearest to it is guncotton (13.5 per cent nitrogen). 
See Guncotton, Nitrocellulose. 

DOUBLE-BASE POWDERS 

Composition: Compound propellants containing nitro- 
cellulose and nitroglycerine (15^40 per cent) as princi- 
pal constituents. Some double-base powders also con- 
tain small percentages of potassium or barium nitrate, 
which salts serve the purpose of reducing flash and 
rendering the powder more igm'tible. 

Properties: Have greater potential than the single 
base powders, and a smaller weight of charge may be 
used to attain a specified muzzle velocity. More cor- 
rosive than single-base powders. 

Uses: British Service Powder. Used in trench mor- 
tars, where rapid burning is required, and m high- 
velocity weapons (antiaircraft). 
See Ballistite, Cordite, Maxim Powder. 



DYNAMITE 47 



DUNNITE 

See Ammonium Picrate. 

DUOBEL 

A. brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wil- 
mington, Del. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

DYNAMITE 

The first high explosive used for blasting purposes, in- 
vented and introduced by Alfred Nobel. 

Composition: The original dynamite was composed of 
nitroglycerine, absorbed in an inert material (infu- 
sorial earth, kieselguhr; this explains the now obsolete 
term, Guhr Dynamite). In modern dynamites the 
nitroglycerine is absorbed in active, combustible mate- 
rials, such as wood- or cereal meal, starch, wood pulp, 
etc., with addition of oxidizers (sodium or potassium 
nitrate) for their combustion. This increases the ex- 
plosive strength as compared with a dynamite con- 
taining an inert absorbent. A small amount of an 
antacid is added (calcium carbonate) to neutralize any 
acid which may be present. Practically all commercial 
dynamites contain also a freezing-point depressant, 
such as nitroglycol. The latter has about the same 
explosive strength as nitroglycerine, and the mixture 
of the two is called explosive oil. 
Only dynamites with an active base are manufactured 
in the U. S. Dynamites containing nitroglycerine or 
explosive oil, and inactive or active base are called 
Straight Dynamites. Commercial Straight Dynamites 
contain 15-60 per cent nitroglycerine or explosive oil. 
Example of composition for a 40 per cent Straight 
Dynamite: 



68 E. C POWDER 



PER CENT 

Explosive oil 40 

Sodium nitrate 44 

Antacid 1 

Carbonaceous material ... 14 

Moisture 1 

Special dynamites also contain ammonium nitrate, 
gelatinized nitroglycerine, cooling salts, etc. A rela- 
tively recent development is free-flowing dynamites. 
They can be poured into a vertical bore hole in the 
same manner as granular black powder. They have 
the advantage of exploding with much higher velocity 
and of being much safer to use because of their freedom 
from the hazard of ignition by sparks, P 22 ' 23 . 

Properties: The strength of Straight Dynamites is 
rated on the basis of percentage of nitroglycerine or 
explosive oil. 

Uses: Straight dynamites are not recommended for 
close, underground work because of the obnoxious 
fumes which develop upon explosion. 
For other properties and uses see Straight Dynamite, 
Ammonia Dynamite, Gelatine Dynamite, Low -Freezing 
Dynamite, Permissible Dynamite, Semigelatine Dyna- 
mite. 
See also P"-m.« 



E. C. POWDER 

Composition: A smokeless powder not completely col- 
loided and mixed with inorganic nitrates for the pur- 
pose of granulation. A nitrocellulose of approximately 
13.15 per cent nitrogen is mixed with about 16 per cent 
of a mixture of equal parts of potassium nitrate and 
barium nitrate and a small amount of diphenylamhie 
as stabilizer. 



ENNEANITROCELLULOSE 69 

Properties: The granulation is regulated so that the 
powder will pass a 12-mesh screen and remain in a 
50-mesh screen. 

Uses: For loading blank cartridges and hand grenades. 

ECRASITE (EKRASITE) 

Composition: C e HCH 3 (N0 2 )30NH4. Ammonium salt 
of trinitro-m-cresol. 

CH 3 
OiNf^NO, 

N0 2 

Properties: Yellow crystals melting at about 100°. 

Uses: Was used in Austria in combination with am- 
monium nitrate for large-caliber shells in World War I. 
See Trinitrocresol. 



ED 



Chemical Warfare symbol for Ethyldichlorarsine (See). 



ENDECANITROCELLULOSE (HIGH-GRADE GUNCOTTON) 

Composition: C^H^O^NOs)!!, based on cellulose unit 
C^HwOjo. Represents about the highest degree of 
"nitration" of cellulose which is commercially avail- 
able. 

Properties: White, pulped fibers, 13.47 per cent nitro- 
gen, soluble in acetone. 

Uses: See Guncotton, Improved Military Rifle Powder. 

ENNEANITROCELLULOSE 

Composition: C2^H 3 iOn(N0 3 ) 9 , based on cellulose unit 

of CaiH^Oso. 



70 ETHYLARS1NE DICHLORIDE 

Properties: White solid, 11.96 per cent nitrogen. Chief 
constituent of collodion cotton. Soluble in ether- 
alcohol. 

Uses: See Nitrocellulose, Collodion Cotton. 

ETHYLARSINE DICHLORIDE 
See Ethyldichlorarsine. 

ETHYLDICHLORARSINE (ETHYLDICHLOROARSINE) 
(ETHYLARSINE DICHLORIDE) 

Chemical Warfare Symbol: ED 
German: Dick 

Composition: C 2 H & AsCl2 

Properties: Colorless, mobile liquid; stinging, like pep- 
per in nose. Sp. gr. 1.74 at 14°. Vapor density 6. 
B. P. 156°. Decomposed by water, forming ethylarsine 
oxide and hydrochloric acid. Lung irritant and vesi- 
cant; causes vomiting, paralysis of hands. 

Uses: Was used hy Germans in World War I in com- 
bination with Blue Cross (sternutator) . 

Protection: Gas mask and full protective clothing. 

Field neutralization: Cover with earth, caustic soda 
solution. 

ETHYLENEGLyCOL DINITRATE 

Correct chemical term for what is commonly called 
Dinitroglycol (See). 

ETHYLMONOBROMACETATE 

Composition: CH 2 BrCOOC 2 H 5 

Properties: Transparent, colorless liquid. Sp. gr. 1.5 
at 4°. M. P. -13.8°. Vapor density 5.3. B. P. 168°. 
Slowly hydrolyzed by water. 



FNH POWDER Tt 



Uses: As lacrimator in hand bombs for police work. 
Was used in 1914 by the French Army as a filler for 

gas-rifle grenades. 

ETHyLPICRATE 

Synonym for Trinitrophenetole (See). 

EXPLOSIVE D (DUNNITE) 

A high explosive developed in U. S. by Lt. Col. 
. B.W.Dunn. 

See Ammonium Picrate. 

FAVIER EXPLOSIVES 

Composition: A group of explosives containing various 
combinations of ammonium nitrate and mono- or dini- 
tronaphthalene (See). The disadvantage of this type 
of explosives is low sensitiveness and defective propa- 
gation. 

F8 

Chemical Warfare symbol for a flare consisting of 
aluminum and barium nitrate. 

Uses: For igniting incendiary containers consisting of 
magnesium. 

FLOWERS OF TIN 
See Tin Dioxide. 

FM 

Chemical Warfare symbol for Titanium Tetrachloride 

(See). 

FNH POWDER (FLASHLESS NON-HYGROSCOPIC 
POWDER) 3 * 

Composition: A type of smokeless powder obtained by 
adding to the powder base certain materials for the 
purpose of reducing the flash at the muzzle of the gun 



78 FOG 

and reducing the hygroscopicity of the powder. Flash 
reduction is achieved by cooling of the gases of com- 
bustion by the addition of substances such as mineral 
salts, powdered metals, esters of high boiling point, 
nitroguanidine, hydrocellulose, dinitrotoluene, etc. 
Non-hygroscopicity is achieved hy incorporation of 
certain materials or by application of a non-hygro- 
scopic coating (See NH Powder). The same powder 
may be non-hygroscopic and Cashless non-hygroscopic, 
depending npon the gun in which it is to be used. A 
longer barrel, with consequent greater expansion and 
coohng of the gases, reduces flash, p1s.1s120.21.27 

FOG 

See Silicon Tetrachloride, Titanium Tetrachloride. 

FS 

Chemical Warfare symbol for Chlorsulfonic Acid- 
Sulfur Trioxide Solution (See). 

F STOFF 

See Titanium Tetrachloride. 

FUEL OIL 

See Crude Oil. 

FULMINATE OF MERCURY 

See Mercury Fulminate. 

FUSE POWDER (FUZE POWDER) 

Composition: A very fine hlack powder. 

Properties: Fineness: 140-mesh or finer. 

Uses: For safety fuses (Miner's fuse, Bickford fuse). 
For time-train rings and combination fuzes. (In me- 
chanical devices the spelling is ;.) 
See Black Powder (With Potassium Nitrate). 



GELATINE DYNAMITE 73 

GELATINE DYNAMITE 

Composition: Nitroglycerine, gelatinized with 2-6 per 
cent of collodion cotton, is absorbed in a vegetable 
meal for the purpose of tempering its action, with 
addition of enougb saltpeter or other nitrates to burn 
the wood meal completely. The mixture of meal and 
nitrates is called the dope. It may also contain a small 
amount of antacid. Composed of 45-65 per cent blast- 
ing gelatine and 55-35 per cent mixed dope. 
Example : 

FEB CENT 

Nitroglycerine 62.5 

Collodion cotton .... 2.5 

Saltpeter 27.0 

Wood meal 8.0 

In some types of gelatine dynamite the voluminous 
wood meal is replaced wholly or in part by heavier 
materials, such as aromatic nitro compounds; and in 
other types the saltpeter is replaced by a perchlorate, 
which decomposes more easily and is denser. 
Example : 

PER CENT 

Nitroglycerine 36 

Nitrocellulose 2 

Vegetable meal 2 

Nitro compounds of toluene, 
naphthalene, or dipheny la- 
mine 8 

Nitrates and/or perchlorates. . 52 

As nitro compounds of toluene the low-melting drip 
oils from TNT manufacture containing di- and trini- 
trotoluenes may be used. 

Properties: Waterproof and plastic; can be loaded 
solidly in bore holes. Does not evolve mucb poisonous 
gas on detonation, and is therefore suitable for under- 
ground work. 
Strength from 20-90 per cent. 



74 GEL-COALfTE 



Uses: Most effective in hard, tight work, in operation 
where a maximum shattering effect is desired, and also 
in varieties of wet wort and submarine blasting. 

GEL-COALITE 

A brand of gelatinous permissible explosives manufac- 
tured by Atlas Powder Co., Wilmington, Del. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

GELIGNfTE 

Composition: A type of nitroglycerine explosive, con- 
taining for example: 

PER CENT 

Ammonium nitrate .... 70 

Nitroglycerine 29.3 

Gelatinized with 
Nitrocotton 0.7 

Uses: As initiator for less sensitive explosives, such as 
Ammonal. Also for blasting. 1 

GENITE A 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by American Cyanamide and Chemical Cor- 
poration, New York, N. Y. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

GIANT LOW-FLAME POWDER 

Composition: A type of American permissible dyna- 
mite similar in composition, properties, and uses to 
Grisoutite (See). 

GLASS POWDER 

Finely powdered glass, used in percussion-cap composi- 
tions, P». 



GLYCERYL TRIACETATE 75 

GLMITE 

Composition: Mixture of liquid oxygen and carbon. 

Properties: Effective as explosive for short time period 
only because of vaporization of liquid oxygen. 

Uses: Was tried as a drop-bomb charge. 7 
See Liquid Oxygen Explosives. 

GLUE 

Composition and Properties vary with the source from 
which the glue is obtained (animal, vegetable). 

Uses: As binder for pyrotechnic compositions such as 
smoke candles. 

GLYCEROL (GLYCERINE) (TRIHYDROXYPROPANE) 

Composition: C 3 H 6 (OH) s 

CH 2 OH 



CHOH 
2 OH 



CH 2 



Properties: Colorless, syrupy liquid. Sp. gr. 1.26 at 
20°. M. P. 18°. Solidifies at much lower temperature. 
B. P. about 290°, with slight decomposition. Misci- 
ble witb water. 

Uses: In pads for gas protection. 

See Sodium Thiosulfate, Phenate-Hexamine. 

GLYCERYL TRIACETATE (TRIACETIN) 

Composition: C 3 H5(C02CH 3 )3 

CH 2 . OCCH 3 



i 



HO . OCCH* 
CH.0 . OCCH 3 



76 GLYCERYL TRINITRATE, GLYCEROL TRINITRATE 

Properties: Colorless liquid. Sp. gr. 1.16 at 20°. M. P. 
-78°. B. P. 258-260°. Soluble in 14 parte water; 
soluble in alcohol, ether, etc. 

Uses: As deterrent in propellent compositions, P 31 . 

GLYCERYL TRINITRATE, GLYCEROL TRINITRATE 

Correct chemical term for the explosive commonly 
called nitroglycerine (See). 

GRAPHITE 

Composition: A naturally occurring, more or less im- 
pure form of native carbon. It is now also made artifi- 
cially from other forms of carbon. 

Properties: Gray or black flakes or powder. Sp. gr. 
2.2. Hardness 1-2. 

Uses: Grade A graphite (artificial) is intended for use 
as a glazing agent for smokeless powder. Graphite 
coating is applied to promote ease in pouring grains 
and to prevent the collection of electrostatic charges. 
Blasting Powder B is coated with graphite for protec- 
tion from moisture. Grade B graphite (natural) is 
intended for use as a binder and lubricant in pelleting 
explosives. 

GREEN CROSS 3 

See Ethyldichlorarsme. 

GRENfTE 

A nitrostarch explosive. 
Composition: 

PER CENT 

Nitrostarch 95.5-98 

Petroleum oil 0.8- 2 

Gum arable 0.8- 2 

Moisture 0.0- 1 



GR1SOUT1TE 77 

Properties; White granules. Less sensitive than 
straight nitrostarch. 

Uses: Was used in World War I for grenades only, and 

was considered too sensitive as a trench-mortar shell 

explosive. 

See Nitrostarch. 

GRISOU-DYNAMITE-COUCHE 

A French Permissible Explosive. 
Composition: 

PER CENT 

Nitroglycerine 12.0 

Collodion Cotton .... 0.5 

Ammonium nitrate .... 82.5 

Potassium nitrate .... 5.0 

Properties and Uses: See Permissible Explosives. 

GR1SOUNITE 

Composition: Dynamites and safety explosives con- 
taining nitrated naphthalenes or tolnenes m combina- 
tion with ammonium nitrate (France). 

GRISOJTITE (GRISOUTINE) 

Composition: A type of the earlier French and Belgian 
permissible dynamites containing, for example: 

PER CENT 

Nitroglycerine 42 

Magnesium sulfate . . . . 46 
Wood meal or kieselguhr . 12 

Properties: The water of crystallization of the mag- 
nesium sulfate is vaporized on explosion and cools the 
gases. 
See Magnesium Sulfate. 

Uses: For blasting in coal mines. Similar American 
permissible dynamites were called Giant Low-Flame 
Powder, "Hydrated Explosives" (See). 



78 GUANIDINE NITRATE 

GUANIDINE NITRATE 

Composition: H 2 NC(NH)NH 2 HN0 3 

Properties: Wliite granules. M. P. 206-212°. Stable, 
non-hygroscopic, and flashless. 

Uses: In combination with charcoal and nitrates as 
blasting explosive, P 15 . 

GUANIDINE PICRATE 

Composition: H 2 NC(NH)NH a C 6 H,{NO a )30H. 

Properties: Yellow crystals. Melts with decomposition 
above 300°. Detonation rate (d = 1.50) 6500 m/sec. 
Extremely insensitive to blow and to shock (even less 
sensitive than ammonium picrate). 

Uses: For armor-piercing shells. 

GUM ARABIC (ACACIA GUM) 

Properties: Yellowish solid, slowly soluble in two parts 
of water. 

Uses: As binder in pyrotechnic compositions (smokes). 

GUNCOTTON 

Composition: Cellulose nitrate of high "nitration." 

Properties: White, pulped fibers, having a nitrogen 
content of 13.2-13.5 per cent, only partly soluble in 
ether-alcohol, completely soluble in acetone. Dete- 
riorates under heat, but is stable in moist condition. 
In fiber form it is a high explosive ; gelatinized, it is a 
low-order explosive. The dry fiber can be detonated 
with mercury fulminate. Dry guncotton can be used 
as initiator for the detonation of wet guncotton. Rate 
of detonation (13 per cent nitrogen) 6300 m/sec. 
(d = 1.7). 



HC MIXTURE 19 



Uses: In uncolloided form as flame carrier in central 
tube of shrapnel shell to connect the fuze with the base 
charge of black powder. Formerly the principal charge 
for torpedo war heads and sea mines, now being re- 
placed by TNT. In colloided form in the manufacture 
of high-grade smokeless powder, in mixture with pyro- 
cotton (See). 

See Cellulose Nitrate, Smokeless Powder, Dodekanitro- 
cellulose, Hexamtrocellulose. Trinitrocellulose. 

GUNPOWDER 

Composed of potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur. 
Had been for 550 years the only military explosive 
available as a propellant; now replaced by smokeless 
powder. For properties and present military and in- 
dustrial uses, see Black Powder (With Potassium Ni- 
trate), Blasting Powder A. 

HARASSING AGENTS 

Irritant warfare agents, including Lacrimators, Sternu- 
tators, and Irritant Smokes (See). 

HC MIXTURE 

Chemical Warfare Symbol: HC 

Composition: A smoke mixture containing zinc dust, 
hexachlorethane, ammonium perchlorate, ammonium 
chloride, and calcium carbonate. 

Properties: On ignition, reaction between zinc dust 
and hexachlorethane produces zinc chloride and free 
carbon, both of which pass off in the smoke. The am- 
monium perchlorate keeps the reaction going, ammo- 
nium chloride readily volatilizes and controls the rate of 
burning, and calcium carbonate stabilizes the mixture 
by taking up any hydrochloric acid which may be pres- 
ent. The smoke is harmless. 



80 H. E. 

Uses: As a screening smoke in burning type of muni- 
tions (grenades, candles, smoke pots, smoke floats, 
special air bombs). 
See Zinc Dust, Hexachlorethane. 

H. E. 

Abbreviation for High Explosives (See). 

HELIUM 

Symbol: He 

Properties: Colorless, inert gas. Liquefies at —269°. 
Nonexplosive, noninflammable, twice as heavy as 
bydrogen. 

Uses: For fillin g dirigibles and observation balloons. 

HERCOAL 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington, Del. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

HERCOGEL 

A brand of gelatinous permissible explosives manufac- 
tured by Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington, Del. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

HEXACHLORETHANE 

Composition: C^Cle. 

Properties: White crystals. Sp. gr. 2.09. M. P. 185°. 
Sublimes 183-185°. 

Uses: In smoke bombs. 
See Zinc Dust. 



HEXAN1TROCELLULOSE 



81 



HEXAMETHYLENE TETRAMINE (METHENAMINE) (URO- 
TROPINE) 

Composition: (CH 2 ) fl N., 

N 

'CHj 



H,C 




Properties: Colorless crystals or white powder having 
irritating action on the skin. Sublimes at 263°. Readily 
takes fire in contact with a flame. Soluble in water. 

Uses: In compositions for protection against phosgene 
gas. In incendiary compositions. 22 
See Phenate Hexamine. 

HEXAMETHYLENE TRIPEROXIDE DIAMINE 
Symbol- HMDT 
Composition: [N{CH 2 3 CH2) 3 N] 
Uses: In detonator compositions. 

HEXAMINE 

See Hexanitrodiphenylamine. 

HEXANITROCELLULOSE 

Composition: C 12 Hi40 4 (NOa)6. Highest degree of 
"nitration" theoretically possible, based on cellulose 
unit of Cj 2 H2oO !0 . 

Properties: 14.14 per cent nitrogen. 



62 HEXANITRODtPHENyL 

Uses: Not produced in stable form; the nearest com- 
mercial product is guncotton of 13.5 per cent nitrogen. 
See Nitrocellulose. 

HEXANITRODIPHENYL 

Composition: (0 2 N) s C 6 H i . . C 6 H 2 (N0 2 ) 3 

N0 2 NO, 

I l_ 

0,N-/~\ / V-NO. 



■O 



N0 2 N0 2 

Uses: In detonating compositions. 

HEXANITRODIPHENYLAMINE (HEX1L, HEXITE, HEXA- 
MINE) 

Composition: (0 2 N) 3 CeH 2 . NH . C 6 H 2 (NO a ) 3 " 

N0 2 N0 2 



2 N— < >— NH— ■ 





Properties: Yellow needles, melts with decomposition 
above 238°. 

Rate of detonation {d = 1.58) 6900 m/sec. 
(d = 1.67) 7150 m/sec. 
Satisfactory as a booster explosive; for this purpose it 
is superior to TNT but somewhat inferior to Tetryl. 
Hexil is extremely stable and safer to handle than 
Tetryl. 12 Toxic. 

Uses: As booster; perhaps also in hursting charges (in 
Germany). 

HEXANITRODIPHENYLAMINOETHYLNITRATE 
Composition: [C 6 H 2 (NO 2 ) 3 ],N(CH a ) 2 ON0 2 . 



HEXANITRODIPHENyL SULFIDE 83 

N0 2 NO, 

2 N-< ^>— N— { ^-NO, 








NT5 2 

CH 2 CH 2 ON0 2 

Properties: Yellow crystals. Sp. gr. 1.69. When rap- 
idly heated it ignites at 390-400°. Slightly less sensi- 
tive to impact than Tetryl or Pentryl, but about same 
sensitivity to detonation. About same explosive 
strength as Tetryl, 20 per cent greater than that of 
TNT. The addition of an oxygen-bearing salt, such as 
potassium chlorate, enhances its explosive strength.- 5 

Uses: Possible nses same as for Tetryl, as a booster or 
as a component of reinforced detonators. 

HEXANITRODIPHENYLOXIDE 

Composition: (0 2 N) s C 6 H,OC 6 H,(N0 2 ) 3 
N0 2 N0 2 



2 N— < >— O— 





Properties: White plates. M. P. 269°. It is stable, has 
very low sensitivity, and is more powerful than picric 
acid. 

Uses: In detonating compositions. 

HEXANITRODIPHENYL SULFIDE (PICRYL SULFIDE) 

Composition: (0 2 N) 3 C 6 H 2 SC 6 H 2 (N0 2 ) 3 
NO a NO, 

0*N— <^~\— S— < >— N0 2 
N0 2 




84 HEXANITRODIPHENYL SULFONE 

Properties: Golden-yellow leaflets. M. P. 234°. Power- 
ful explosive. The explosion gases contain irritating 
sulfur dioxide. 

Uses: During World War I, the Germans used drop 
bombs containing mixtures of TNT or trinitroanisole 
and hexauitrodiphenyl sulfide. It is also suitable for 
detonating compositions. 

HEXANITRODlPHENyL SULFONE 

Composition: (O s N),C e H^O i C (1 H,(NOi), 

NO* N0 2 

I I 

2 N— <(^>— S0 2 — <^>— N0 2 

I I 

NO* N0 2 

Properties: Yellowish crystals. M. P. 307°. Stable 
and very powerful explosive. 

Uses: In detonating compositions. 

HEXAN1TROMANNITE (HEXANITROMANNITOL) 
See Mannitol Hexanitrate. 

HEXANITRO-OXANILIDE 

Composition: (0 2 N) 3 C a H 2 (NHCO) a C fl H 2 (N0 2 ) 3 
N0 2 N0 2 

2 N— <^y— NH— CO— CO— NH— ^^>— N0 2 

N0 2 ' N0 2 

Properties: Yellow solid, melting at about 300°. Is 
about as powerful as TNT. 

Uses: Could be used as a shell-filler. 



HIGH EXPLOSIVES 89 



HEXIL 

See Hexanitrodiphenylamine. 

HEXITE 

See Hexanitrodiphenylamine. 

HEXOGEN 

See Trimethylene Trinitramine. 

HEXONE T-4 

See Trimethylene Trinitramine. 

HEXONIT 

Composition: A mixture of nitroglycerine, Penthrite, 
and Trimethylene Trinitramine containing at least 
10 per cent of the latter. 

Properties: One of the meet powerful high explosives 



17 



HEXYL 

See Hexanitrodiphenylamine. 

HIGH EXPLOSIVES (H. E.) 

In high explosives explosion proceeds with extreme 
rapidity and is transmitted practically instantaneously 
throughout the mass. This is called detonation, or 
high-order explosion, to differentiate it from low-order 
explosion, such as rapid combustion of propellants. 
High explosives are not only characterized hy their 
rapidity of chemical transformation but also hy the 
great amount of energy released. High explosives 
differ greatly in sensitivity. High explosives which 
are sensitive to flame, heat, or shock are in a class 
by themselves; they are called primary explosives 
because they are used to initiate the detonation of less 



86 HIGH EXPLOSIVES 



sensitive high explosives. The latter are used as burst- 
ing charges for shells, bombs, mines, and torpedoes; 
and it is these that are generally known as high explo- 
sives. This group includes picric acid and trinitrotolu- 
ene. The latter is the most generally satisfactory high 
explosive and is universally used except for armor- 
piercing shells. It is, however, not readily detonated 
by mercury fulminate, or it would require too large an 
amount of this sensitive initiator for complete detona- 
tion. Accordingly, a more sensitive high explosive, a 
booster, is incorporated in the train of explosives be- 
tween the detonator and the bnrsting charge. The 
standard booster explosive is Tetryl. 

Composition: See Trinitrotoluene, Trinitrophenol, Tet- 
ryl, Nitroglycerine, Ammonium Picrate, Amatol, 
Dynamite, Penthrite, Cyclonite. 

Properties: The high explosives do not function by 
bnrning; they detonate at very high velocity, 3000- 
9000 m/sec. They are not readily detonated by heat, 
flame, or shock. Their detonation is initiated under 
the influence of the shock of an exploding primary ex- 
plosive. Their detonation results in almost instanta- 
neous molecular rearrangement, usually with formation 
of a large volume of hot gases, snch as carbon monox- 
ide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane, nitrogen, etc. 
The explosive strength depends upon the quantity of 
gas and heat produced, whereas the shattering power 
(brisance) is dependent on the velocity of the reaction 
and is indicated by the rate of detonation. The latter is 
affected somewhat by the degree of confinement, but not 
to the same extent as in the case of the low explosives. 

Uses: As bursting charge for shells, bombs, torpedo 
war heads, aud mines. As component of blasting ex- 
plosives. Some of the more sensitive H. E. are used as 
boosters in detonating compositions. 



HYDROCYANIC ACID 87 



HIGH-GRADE GUNCOTTON 

See Nitrocellulose, Endecanitrocellulose. 

HMTD 

Symbol for Hexamelhylene Triperoxide Diamine (See) . 

HNM 

Symbol for Hexanitromannitol. 
See Mannito] Hexanitrate. 

HS 

Chemical Warfare symbol for Dichlorethyl Sulfide 

(See). 

"HYDRATED EXPLOSIVES" 

Composition: A type of American permissible ex- 
plosives containing various percentages of salts with 
water of crystallization, such as Magnesium Sulfate, 
MgS0 4 . 7H 2 0. For Properties and Uses, see Grisou- 
tite, Magnesium Sulfate, Permissible Dynamites. 

HYDRATED LIME (CALCIUM HYDROXIDE) 

Composition: Ca(OH) a 

Properties: Wlute granules or powder. Sp. gr. 2.34. 
Absorbs acid gases. 

Uses: In gas masks. 
See Soda Lime. 

HYDROCYANIC ACID 

Composition: HCN 

Properties: Colorless gas. Liquid below 26°. Lighter 
than air, therefore difficult to obtain heavy concentra- 
tion under field conditions. Systemic poison. Tends to 
polymerize. 



88 HYPO 

Uses: Was used by the French in chemical shells, 
mixed with other products (because of bigh volatility 
and to prevent polymerization). 
See Vincennite. 

HYPO 

Trade name for Sodium Thiosulfate (See). 

IMPROVED MILITARY RIFLE POWDER (I. M. R. POWDER) 

Composition: An extruded powder prepared from two 
types of nitrocellulose, blended to give average nitro- 
gen content of 13.15 per cent and a solubility in ether- 
alcohol of 40 per cent or greater. Components: Pyro- 
cotton, 12.6 ± 0.1 per cent; Guncotton, 13.2 per cent 
or greater. 

I. M. R. POWDER 

See Improved Military Rifle Powder. 

INCENDIARIES 16 

Chemical agents which cause ignition of combustible 
Bubstances by flame or generation of heat. They also 
may cause casualties if they come in contact with the 
human body. 

See Magnesium, Phosphorus White, Thermit, Crude 
Oil, Solid Oil. 

INDEPENDENT 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by Independent Explosive Company of 
Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
See Permissible Explosives, 



INFUSORIAL EARTH B9 



INDEPENDENT-GEL 

A brand of gelatinous permissible explosives manufac- 
tured by Independent Explosive Company, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. 
See Permissible Explosives. 




Properties: Dark blue, lustrous powder. Can be sub- 
limed. Sublimes at 300", decomposes at 392°. 

Uses: To produce blue-colored smoke for military sig- 
naling, from shells, rockets, or pots. To produce green- 
colored smoke in mixtures with Auramine. 

INDURITE 

Composition: A smokeless powder, formerly used in the 
U. S., consisting of 40 per cent guncotton, colloided 
with 60 per cent nitrohenzene. 

INFUSORIAL EARTH (KIESELGUHR) (DIATOMtTE) 

Composition: A siliceous earth consisting of diatoms. 

Properties: Whitish powder, resistant to heat and 
chemical action, absorbs liquids readily. Sp. gr. cal- 
cined 0,34. 



90 INITIATORS 



Uses: As an absorbent in the manufacture of explo- 
sives. 

See Dynamite. 

Provides porosity in gas-mask material. 
See Soda Lime. 

INITIATORS 

See Primary Explosives. 

IRON OXIDE 

Composition: Fe 2 3 

Properties: Reddish-brown, he»vy, amorphous pow- 
der. Sp. gr. 5.12-5.24. M. P. 1560°. 

Uses: As component of incendiary mixtures. 
See Tbennit. 

IRRITANT SMOKE 

A sternutator type of irritant chemical agent that can 
be disseminated in the air as extremely small solid or 
liquid particles. 
See Diplienylaminechlorarsine, Diplienylchlorarsine. 

KIESELGUHR 

See Infusorial Eartb. 

KING, KING SPECIAL 

Brands of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by King Powder Co., Cincinnati, O. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

KJ 

British symbol for Tin Tetrachloride (See). 

KLOP 

German symbol for Chlorpicrin (See). 



LEAD AZIDE 91 



LACRIMATORS (TEAR GASES) 16 

Harassing agents causing copious flow of tears and in- 
tense eye irritation. 

See Chloracetone, Bromacetone, Brombenzylcyanide, 
Chloracetophenone, Chlorpicrin. 

L. E. 

See Low Explosives. 

LEAD AZIDE 

Composition: PbN«. 

/ N 



/ \ivr / 

Pb jj or Pb 



It is one of the few commercially produced explosives 
which do not contain oxygen. 

Properties: White to buff-colored crystalline powder. 
Sp. gr. 4.80. One of the most stable initiators. Less 
sensitive to blows than mercury fulminate. Too in- 
sensitive to be used alone where initiation is by impact 
of firing pin. Not easily decomposed by heat. Instan- 
taneous flash point over 350°. Forms a supersensitive 
explosive in contact with copper. 

Uses: In loading fuze detonators and in the manufac- 
ture of priming compositions. Substitute for mercury 
fulminate. On account of its high temperature of igni- 
tion, lead azide is not easily ignited by the spit of a 
safety fuse. Adding lead styphnate, which is more 
readily ignited, overcomes the difficulty. It is loaded 
into detonators made of aluminum. 10 It is also used in 
detonating rivets, with addition of silver acetylide or 
tetracene to lower the ignition temperature, P 7 ' 8 . 



9i LEAD NITRATE 



LEAD NrTRATE 

Composition: Pb(N0 3 ) 3 

Properties: White crystals. Sp. gr. 4.53. Does not 
melt. Decomposes above 205°. In contact with or- 
ganic matter promotes combustion. 

Uses: As oxidizing agent in percussion priming com- 
positions. 

LEAD PEROXIDE (LEAD DIOXIDE) 
Composition: Pb0 2 

Properties: Brown powder. Sp. gr. 9.38. Evolves oxy- 
gen when heated. Powerful oxidizing agent. 

Uses: As oxidizing agent in detonating compositions. 

LEAD STyPHNATE 

Composition: Lead Trinitroresorcinate, Lead Salt of 
Styphnic Acid. C s H(N0 2 ) 3 (0 2 Pb) 
O 

2 N 




N0 2 

Properties: Explosion temperature 310°. 

Uses: In commercial priming compositions and blast- 
ing caps, hi combination with lead azide to facilitate 
its ignition. 

LEAD SULFOCYANATE (LEAD THIOCYANATE) 

Composition: Pb(CNS) 2 

Properties: White crystals. Sp. gr. 3.82. Decomposes 
at 190°. 

Uses: As fuel component in percussion primer composi- 
tions, P«m«. 



LIQUID OXyGEN 93 



LEWISITE 

A powerful chemical warfare agent, named after W. Lee 
Lewis, its American discoverer. 
See Chlorvinyldichlorarsine. 

L F. DYNAMITE 

Commercial designation for Low-Freezing Dynamite 

(See). 

LIBERTY-GEL 

A brand of gelatinous permissible explosives manufac- 
tured by Liberty Powder Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

LINSEED OIL 

Composition: Glycerides of various saturated and un- 
saturated fatty acids. 

Properties: Yellowish oil, gradually thickens on expo- 
sure to air. Sp. gr. 0.93. 

Uses: For coating magnesium particles which are to 
be used for pyrotechnic purposes, as a protection from 
moisture, P 2 . 

LIQUID OXYGEN 

Symbol: 2 

Properties: Colorless or slightly bluish liquid. B. P. 
— 183°. Since it cannot exist at ordinary temperature, 
it must be given a chance to evaporate when used in 
explosive mixtures. Gradual evaporation of the oxy- 
gen maintains the required low temperature to keep it 
in liquid form; the explosive strength diminishes as the 
oxygen evaporates. Liquid-oxygen explosives, there- 
fore, have a short life and must be prepared at the 
point of consumption. 



94 LIQUID-OXyGEN EXPLOSIVES 

Uses: As blasting explosive in mixture with combusti- 
ble absorbent materials. Cannot be used in bombs. 7 
See Liquid-Oxygen Explosives. 

LIQUID-OXYGEN EXPLOSIVES (L. O. X.) 

Composition: They consist of an absorbent carbona- 
ceous material in a canvas wrapper soaked with liquid 
oxygen. 

Properties: Tbey are highly inflammable, and inflam- 
mation may be followed by detonation. This hazard 
may be reduced by addition of lire-retarding sub- 
stances such as phosphoric acid. The cartridges are 
fired with cap or electric detonators, or cordeau, in 
much the same way as other blasting explosives. 

Uses: For quarrying, strip mining, and open-cut ore 

mining. Use underground or in confined places is not 

recommended by U. S. Bureau of Mines hecause of 

large percentage of carbon monoxide in the explosion 

gases. 

See Liquid Oxygen. 

LOW EXPLOSIVES (L. E.) 

See Propellents. 

LOW-FREEZING DYNAMITE (L. F. DYNAMITE) 

Composition: Dynamite with addition products to 
lower the freezing point of the nitroglycerine. 
Addition products: Dinitromonochlorhydrin 
Dinitroglycol 
Tetranitrodiglycerine 

Properties: The addition products prevent the solidi- 
fication of the nitroglycerine at low temperatures. All 
dynamites produced in the U. S. are now low-freezing; 
they will not freeze under exposure to such atmos- 



MAGNESIUM 95 



pheric temperatures as may be met with in this coun- 
try. 

Uses: See Dynamite. 

L. O. X. 

See Liquid-Oxygen Explosives. 

LUNG IRRITANTS (TOXIC SUFFOCANTS) ie 

Chemical agents whose physiological action is limited 
to the respiratory tract, causing irritation and inflam- 
mation of bronchial tubes and lungs. 
See Chlorine, Phosgene, Diphosgene, Chlorpicrin, 
Ethyldichlorarsine. 

LYDDITE 

British term for picric acid. 

Composition: A series of high explosives composed 
principally of picric acid, usually with about 10 per 
cent of other aromatic nitro compounds added to it for 
the purpose of lowering the melting point to a safe 
range for shell-loading. 
See Trinitrophenol. 

M-1 

Chemical Warfare symbol for Chlorvinyldichlorarsine 

(See). 

MAGNESIUM 

Symbol: Mg 

Properties: Silver-white, lustrous, malleable metal. 
Sp. gr. 1.74. M. P. 650°. B. P. 1120°. In powdered or 
flake form it burns readily with a brilliant, bluish- 
white light and with evolution of great heat of com- 
bustion. Powder liberates hydrogen when iu contact 
with water. 



96 MAGNESIUM CARBONATE 

Uses: In tracer powder (P 2 ) and in incendiary shells, 
also as casing of incendiary bombs. 8 For pyrotechnic 
purposes for the production of dazzling white light and 
for use in colored fires, for signaling, and for illuminat- 
ing landing fields, P 2 ' 3 . 

MAGNESIUM CARBONATE 

Composition: MgC0 3 . Found as mineral (Magnesite). 

Properties: Very light, white powder. 

Uses: As antacid in dynamites. 
See Dynamite, Super Excellite. 

MAGNESIUM FLARES 

Composition: Mixtures of potassium perchlorate or 
barium and strontium nitrate with magnesium pow- 
der or flakes, P 2 . 

Properties and Uses: In aviation for signaling and for 
illuminating landing fields and military objectives. 
See Aluminum Flares. 

MAGNESIUM SULFATE 

Composition: MgS0 4 . 7H 2 

Properties: Colorless crystals. Sp. gr. 1.678. 
When incorporated into safety explosives, tbe water of 
crystallization and the steam resulting from it have the 
effect of cooling the explosion gases. 

Uses: In the earlier types of safety explosives. 

See Grisoutite, Giant Low-Flame Powder, "Hydrated 

Explosives." 

MAGNETITE (MAGNETIC IRON OXIDE) 

Composition: Mineral consisting mostly of FeaO*. 

Properties: Black crystalline powder. Sp. gr. 5-5.4. 
M. P. 1538°- Magnetic. 



MANNITOL HEXANITRATE 97 

Uses: As component of incendiary mixtures. 
See Thermit. 

MAIZE STARCH 

Component of granular detonating blasting explo- 
sives, P S3 . 

MANGANESE DIOXIDE (MANGANESE PEROXIDE) 
(MINERAL FORM, PYROLUSITE) 

Composition: Mn0 2 

Properties: Brown or black powder, Sp. gr. 5.03. 
Oxygen carrier. Decomposes on heating. 

Uses: In detonating compositions and for pyrotechnic 
purposes. 

MANNITOL HEXANITRATE (HEXA NITROMANNITE) 

Symbol: HNM 

Composition: CH 2 N0 3 (CHN0 3 ) 4 CH 2 N0 3 
CH 2 ONOs 

CHONOs 

CHON0 2 

CHON0 2 

CHON0 2 

CHiONOs 

Properties: Colorless crystals or white powder. M. P. 
112-113°. Sp. gr. 1.604. Soluble in ether and bot alco- 
hol. 

Uses: As a substitute for mercury fulminate in prim- 
ing compositions for percussion caps. Used in com- 
bination with tetracene for explosive charges of det- 
onating rivets, P 9 ' 10 . 



98 MARTONITE 

_____ 

French term for a Bromacetone composition (See 

Bromacetone). 

Composition: 

PEB CENT 

Bromacetone 80 

Chloracelone 20 

"MAUGUINITE" 

French term for Cyanogen Chloride (See). 

MAXIM POWDER 

Composition: A double-base powder composed of both 
soluble and insoluble nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, and 
castor oil. 

MD 

Chemical Warfare symbol for Methyldichlorarsine. 

MDN 

Composition: A mixture of 1 part dinitronaphthalene 
and 4 parts picric acid. 

Properties: Yellow crystalline mass. Melting point 
between 105° and 110°. 

Uses: As bursting charge. The dinitronaphthalene is 
added to the picric acid for the purpose of lowering the 
melting point of the latter for shell-loading. 

MDPC 

A French mixture of high explosives. 
Composition: 

PER CENT 

Picric acid 55 

Dinitrophenol 35 

Trinitrocreaol 10 



MERCURY FULMINATE 99 

Properties: Melts between 80° and 90°. 

Uses: As bursting charge. The dinitrophenol and 
trinitrocresol are added to the picric acid for the pur- 
pose of lowering the melting point of the latter for 
shell-loading. 

MELINITE 

French name for picric acid and a series of picric acid 

explosives. 

See Trinitrophenol. 

MERCURY AZIDE (MERCUROUS AZIDE) 

Composition: HgN s 

A 

Hg— N or Hg— N=N=N 

\ N 

Properties: Claimed not to give rise to a supersensitive 
explosive in contact with copper, such as is the case 
with lead azide. 

Uses: For initiating compositions. 

MERCURY FULMINATE 

For nearly a century it has been used universally for 
firing propellent powders and for initiating the detona- 
tion of high explosives. 

Composition: Hg(ONC) 2 

,ON=C 
Hg 
\ON=C 

Properties: Crystals of sparkling appearance, white, 
gray, or light gray with yellowish tint. Sp. gr. 4.42. 
M. P. explodes. Very sensitive to flame, impact, and 
friction when dry. Must be kept moist until used.* 1 Be- 



100 METHEN AMINE 



comes "dead-pressed" (not capable of being exploded 
by flame) at pressures higher than 600 kg/sq. cm. Sub- 
ject to some deterioration when stored in hot climates. 
It detonates completely and with great violence on 
ignition by means of a flame such as a "spit" from a 
fuse or by means of an electrically heated wire. 

Uses: As initiator or primer for bringing about the 
detonation of high explosives or the ignition of powder. 
Commonly used in combination with substances which 
provide a more prolonged blow and a bigger flame than 
mercury fulminate alone, such as potassium chlorate. 
In the reinforced booster type detonators, the fnlmi- 
nate is made more effective by a charge of a fairly 
sensitive and very powerful high explosive, such as 
Tetryl. Generally used in the manufacture of caps and 
detonators for initiating explosions for military, indus- 
trial, and sporting purposes. 

METHENAMINE 

See Hexamethylene Tetramine. 

METHyLCHLORSULFONATE (METHyLSULFURyLCHLO- 
RIDE) 

German: C— Stoff 

Composition: CH 3 0S0 2 C1 

/CI 
SO* 
\OCH 3 

Properties: Transparent, viscid liquid. Pungent odor. 
Sp. gr. 1.49 at 10°. Vapor density 4.5. B. P. 133°. 
Lacrimates hi concentration as low as 1:750,000. De- 
composed by water. 

Uses: Of historic interest only. It was the first war- 
fare agent to be successfully used in projectiles. The 



MILITARY GUNCOTTON 101 

Germans employed it in trench-mortar bombs and 
hand grenades in June, 1915. 

METHYLDICHLORARSINE 

Chemical Warfare symbol: MD; German name: 
Methyldick 

Composition: CHaAsCI 2 

CI 

[ 
CH 3 — As 



i, 



,« 



Properties: Colorless liquid. Sp. gr. 1.838 at 20' 
B. P. 132°. Vapor density 5.5. Decomposed by water. 
Vesicant and lung irritant. Low persistency. 

Uses: Was under investigation at the end of World 
War I. Appeared promising for producing rapid vapor 
burns in offensive activities. 

METHYL PICRATE 

Synonym for Trinitroanisole (See). 

METHYLSULFURYL CHLORIDE 

Synonym for Methylchlorsulfonate (See). 

METHYLTETRANITRANILINE 

Sometimes erroneously used as chemical name for 
Tetryl. See Trinitrophenyknethylnitramine. 

MILITARY GUNCOTTON (M. G. C.) 

Composition: Nitrocellulose containing 13.0-13.3 per 
cent nitrogen. 

Properties: Can be plasticized with acetone, amylace- 
tate, or nitroglycerine. 



102 MINERAL JELLY 



Uses: In gelatinized form as propellant for small arms, 
and in the fiber form as high explosive in contact mines. 
See Guncotton, Nitrocellulose. 

MINERAL JELLY {SOFT PARAFFIN) (PETROLATUM) 
(VASELINE) (PETROLEUM JELLY) 

Composition: A mixture of high-hoiling solid petro- 
leum hydrocarbons (paraffin) mixed with some liquid 
hydrocarbons which bave not been removed in the 
refining. 

Properties: Semisolid, colorless or pale-yellow, trans- 
lucent mass. Sp. gr. 0.82-0.86 at 60°. Melts 38-54°. 

Uses: As component of powders and explosives to de- 
crease sensitiveness and flash. 
See Cordite, Double-Base Powders, FNH Powder. 

MINER'S FUSE 

See Fuse Powder. 

MMN 

Composition: A mixture of 3 parts mononitronaphtha- 
Iene and 7 parts picric acid. 

Properties: Very insensitive to impact. Can he cast. 

Uses: Was nsed for drop bombs in World War I. 
See Trinitropbenol. 

MOLL1TES 

Original German term for Centralites. 
See Diphenyldimethyhirea. 

MONOBEL 

A type of permissible improved ammonium nitrate 
explosive, containing a small amount of nitroglycerine, 
used in England and U. S. 



MONOOIL 103 

Composition: Example: 

PER CENT 

Ammonium nitrate .... 70 

Nitroglycerine ...... 10 

Common salt 10 

Rye flour 2 

Wood pulp 8 

For Properties and Uses, see Ammonium Nitrate Explo- 
sives. 

MONOBEL 

A brand of nongelalinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wil- 
mington, Del. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

MONONITROBENZENE (OIL OF MIRBANE) 

See Nitrobenzene. 

MONONITRONAPHTHALENE 
See Nitronaphlhalene. 

MONONITROTOLUENE 
See Mono-Oil. 

MONO-OIL (COMMERCIAL M. N. T.) 

Composition: Mixture of about 62 per cent ortho-, 
34 per cent para-, and 4 per cent meta-nitrotoluenes. 

Properties: Yellow oil with pungent odor. Sp.gr. 1.16. 
Distills between 220-240°. 

Uses: In low-freezing dynamites. As plasticizer for 
nitrocellulose. In blasting explosives in combination 
with chlorates or nitrates. Such plastic explosives 
have the desirable property of completely filling the 
bore hole by using only a light pressure. The oily 



104 MTTC 



nitro compound also serves as a protection againat 
dampness, and it has the advantage of being an active 
ingredient in comparison with paraffins and greases 
which have previously been used as plasticizers. 

MTTC 

A French mixture of high explosives. 
Composition: 

PER CENT 

Picric acid 55 

Trinitrotoluene 35 

Dinitrophenol 10 

Properties: Yellow crystalline mass, melting between 
80° and 90°. 

Uses: For bursting charges. The dinitrophenol and 
TNT are added to lower the melting point of the picric 
acid in order to facilitate the shell-loading. 

MUSTARD GAS 

See Dichloretbyl Sulfide. 

NAPCOGEL 

A brand of gelatinous permissible explosives manufac- 
tured by National Powder Co., Eldred, Pa. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

NAPHTHALENE 

Composition: CiuH s 




Properties: White scales. Sp. gr. 1.45 at 20°. M. P. 
80.2°. B. P. 218°. Insoluble in water. When heated, 
yields inflammable vapors. 



NITRAMON 105 



Uses: For producing smokes. 
See Zinc Dust. 

NAPHTHALITE 

Composition: Dynamites and safety explosives con- 
taining nitronaphthalenes (France). 

NATIONAL 

A hrand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured hy National Powder Co., Eldred, Pa. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

NH POWDERS (NON-HYGROSCOPIC POWDERS) 

The straight nitrocellulose type of powder is suhject 
to change on storage due to volatilization of residual 
solvents or to absorption of moisture. Such changes 
affect the ballistic properties of the powders and are 
therefore objectionable. By addition of modifying 
materials powders are now being produced which are 
substantially nonvolatile, non-hygroscopic, and flash- 
less. They are designated FNH if flashless, or NH if 
used in weapons in which fiashlessness is not attained. 
See FNH Powders. 

NITRAMON 

Composition: An explosive (du Pont Co. brand) con- 
taining around 92 per cent ammonium nitrate and no 
nitroglycerine. 

Properties: Very insensitive to shock and characterized 
by an unusually high degree of safety. Its detonation 
requires a high- velocity primer of TNT or dynamite in 
addition to the initiator. Very safe to handle. 

Uses: For blasting in wet and dry work. Blasting 
agent for quarries. 



106 NITROBENZENE 



NITROBENZENE (MONONITROBENZENE) (OIL OF 
MIRBANE) 



Composition: CflH 6 N0 2 

N0 a 



Properties: Yellow oil. Sp. gr. 1.205 at 18°. M. P. 5.3°. 
B. P. 210.8°. Nitrobenzene alone is not an explosive, 
but in combination with genuine explosives it can be 
detonated and it then exerts a retarding effect. Toxic 
if its vapors are inhaled or if it is absorbed through the 
skin. 

Uses: In combination with tetranitromethane. 10 
See Indurite, Double-Base Powders, Sprengel Explo- 
sives, Belhte, Back-a-Bock. 

NITROCELLULOSE 

Nitrocellulose is the universal basis of all propellent 
powders and is therefore of tremendous military impor- 
tance. The development of nitrocellulose explosives 
covers a period of nearly one hundred years, and much 
further progress may be looked for. 
Pelouze prepared the first nitrocellnlose in 1838. 
Schoenbein started its promotion as an explosive in 
1845. The early attempts resulted in disastrous explo- 
sions due to the instability of the manufactured 
product. 

In 1864, Abel greatly improved the stability by alter- 
nately boiling and pulping the nitrocellulose; he also 
tried to control the speed of combustion of the finished 
explosive by compressing it. In about 1884, Schultze 
introduced a partially colloided nitrocellulose in com- 
bination with metallic nitrates, and at about the same 



NITROCELLULOSE 107 



time a similar product (E. C. Powder) was introduced 
in England. 

In 1836, Vieille placed the art of smokeless-powder 
manufacture on a real foundation by producing the 
first thoroughly colloided nitrocellulose powder in 
the form of square flakes of uniform size and 
thickness. 

In 1393, Mendeleeff introduced an improved process 
for the manufacture of pyrocotton. During the last 
two years of the World War the Germans used wood 
pulp as cellulosic raw material instead of cotton h'nters. 
After the war, improved flashless and non-hygroscopic 
powders were developed in the U. S. In recent years 
Olsen (Western Cartridge Co.) introduced a method 
which greatly simplifies the washing and stabilization 
operations in the process and which produces the 
powder in a uniform spherical form (Ball Powder). 

Composition: Chemically, nitrocellulose is a nitric ester 
of cellulose and not a nitro compound. The correct 
chemical name, therefore, is cellulose nitrate. How- 
ever, the term nitrocellulose has been adopted by tradi- 
tion and is generally used. Nitrocellulose is not a single 
definite compound, but a mixture, the degree of nitra- 
tion being measured by the percentage of nitrogen. 
The nomenclature is confusing, because in the old liter- 
ature it is based on cellulose CbHioO s , in later litera- 
ture on CiaHsoOio, and in the more recent on C24H40O20. 
Depending on which basis is being used, the product of 
highest nitration would be Trimtrocellulose, Hexani- 
trocellulose, or Dodekanitrocellulose, respectively, all 
three products representing the same nitrocellulose of 
14.14 per cent nitrogen. Recent practice is to desig- 
nate nitrocelluloses by per cent nitrogen rather than 
by chemical terms, or to use commercial terms which 
refer to nitrocelluloses of certain percentages of nitro- 



108 NITROCHLOROFORM 



gen. The commercial products of interest in the ex- 
plosive field are : 

PER CENT NITROGEN 

Guncotton 13.0 and over 

Pyrocotton 12.6 

Collodion Cotton . . . 11.2-12.2 

For approximate chemical composition, see Endekani- 
trocellulose, Dekanitrocellulose, Oktonitrocellulose, 
Enneanitrocellulose. 

For Properties and Uses, see Guncotton, Pyrocotton, 
Collodion Cotton, Smokeless Powder, Single-Base 
Powder, Double-Base Powder, Ball Powder. 

NITROCHLOROFORM 

Synonym for Chlorpicrin (See). 

NITROGEN DIOXIDE 

Composition: N0 2 

Properties: Reddish-yellow gas. Vapor density 1.49. 
M. P. - 9.6°. B. P. 21.6°. An oxidizing gas which is 
easily liquefied. 

Uses: See Anilite. 

NITROGLYCERINE (GLYCERYL TRINITRATE) {colloq. SOUP) 
(BLASTING OIL) 

One of the most important prodncts in the explosives 
industry. For most purposes it is too sensitive to be 
used alone. It became the first high explosive for blast- 
ing purposes when Nobel made its use comparatively 
safe by absorbing it in infusorial earth (See Dyna- 
mite). It was also Nobel who provided for maximum 
utilization of the explosive strength of nitroglycerine 
hy gelatinizing it with nitrocellulose (See Blasting 
Gelatine) . 



NITROGLyCERlNE 109 



Dynamites and Blasting Gelatines form the founda- 
tion of the modern high-explosives industry, and it was 
again Nobel who provided for safe and satisfactory 
initiation of these types of explosives by inventiou of 
the Copper Capsule Mercury Fulminate detouator. 

Composition: C 3 H 5 (ONOi) a 

CH 2 ON0 2 

CHON0 2 

CH 2 ON0 2 

Nitroglycerine, just as nitrocellulose, is a misnomer. 
The correct chemical name is glyceryl trinitrate, be- 
canse the product is a nitric ester of glycerol and not a 
nitro derivative. However, the term nitroglycerine 
has been established by tradition aud is generally used. 

Properties: Pale-yellow, oily liquid. Colorless in pure 
condition. Sp. gr. 1.60 at 15°. M. P. 13°. Becomes 
appreciably volatile above 50°. Explosion point 
around 200°-260°. Rate of detonation 7450 m/sec. at 
d = 1.60. Soluble in most organic solvents. Slightly 
soluble in water. Very sensitive to shock and friction. 
Difficult to detonate in frozen condition. When used in 
dynamite, the freezing of the nitroglycerine would 
cause the miners to thaw out the explosive; and since 
they used unsuitable equipment, many fatal accidents 
occurred. This led to the addition of other explosive 
oils for the purpose of lowering the freezing point 
of the nitroglycerine. See Low-Freezing Dynamites. 
Causes severe headaches wheu breathed or when ab- 
sorbed by the skiu. 

Uses: In dynamite, blasting gelatine, gelatine dyna- 
mite, double-base powder, permissible explosives. 
Also used for shooting oil wells. 



110 NITROGLyCERINE GELATINE 

NITROGLYCERINE GELATINE 

See Blasting Gelatine. 

NITROGLYCERINE POWDERS 
See Double-Base Powders. 

NITROGLYCOL 

Synonym for Dinitroglycol (See). 

NITROGUANIDINE 

Composition: 2 NNHC(NH)NH 2 
NH=C— NHN0 2 

NH 2 

Properties: Pale needles. M. P. 230-231°. A cool and 
flashless explosive, about as powerful as TNT. Mixed 
with colloided nitrocellulose it yields a propellent pow- 
der which gives no flash from the muzzle of the gun. 

Uses: Flashless, smokeless powder. Was used in Ger- 
many in World War I in mixture with ammonium 
nitrate and paraffin wax as trench-mortar ammuni- 
tion. As sensitizer in perchlorate explosives, P 42 . 

NFTROMANNJTE 

Synonym for Mannitol Hexanitrate (See). 

NITROMETHANE 

See Tetranitromethane. 

NITRONAPHTHALENE (ALPHA-NFTRONAPHTHALENE) 
(MONONITRONAPHTHALENE) 
Composition: C10H7NO2 

NO, 




N1TROSTARCH 111 



Properties: Yellow crystals. Sp. gr. 1.33. M. P. 61°. 
B. P. 304°. Insoluble in water. Decomposes above 
300°. Becomes an explosive only when mixed with oxy- 
gen carriers such as ammonium nitrate. 

Uses: In mixture with picric acid to reduce its melting 

point. 

See Trimonite, MMN. 

In mixture with ammonium nitrate. 

See Favier Explosive. 

NITROSOGUANIDINE 

Composition: ONNHC(NH)NH 2 
NH=C— NHNO 

NH 3 

Properties: Yellow powder. Decomposes without 
melting at 160-165°. 

Uses: As fuel component in percussion priming com- 
positions. 

NITROSTARCH (STARCH NITRATE) 

Composition: Nitric ester of starch. It is not a definite, 
single compound, but rather a mixture of various esters 
of different degrees of "nitration," measured by the 
percentage of nitrogen. Like nitrocellulose, nitrostarch 
is a nitrate and not a nitro compound; and the correct 
chemical name is starch nitrate. However, the term 
nitrostarch has been generally adopted. 

Properties: White powder, soluble in acetone and ether- 
alcohol. 12.5-12.7 per cent nitrogen. Highly inflamma- 
ble. Can be detonated by No. 8 commercial blasting 
cap. Stability on storage decreases with slightly ele- 
vated temperatures. Decomposes above 100°. 

Uses: As ingredient of blasting explosives for quarry- 
ing, P 35 . Has been considered for manufacture of 



112 NITROXyLENE 



smokeless propellent powder. Satisfactory as demoli- 
tion explosive. 21 
See Trojan Explosive. 

NITROXYLENE 

Composition: A mixture of three nitroxylenes, consist- 
ing largely of the nitro-meta-xylene. 

Properties: Yellow oil. Sp. gr. about 1.35. 

Uses: As gelatinizing accelerator for pyroxylin. In 
blasting explosives, in combination with tetranitro- 
methane and nitrostarch, P 36 . 

NOVIT 

Composition: A mixture of Hexyl (hexanitrodiphenyl- 
amine) and TNT. 

NYSOL 

Composition: Mixture of nitronaphthalenes and nitro- 
xylenes. 

Uses: As freezing-point depressant in dynamite. 

OIL OF MIRBANE 

Commercial name for Nitrobenzene (See). 

OCTONITROCELLULOSE 

Composition: C^HsaO^NOsJs 

Based on cellulose unit C^HwOa,. Represents a degree 

of nitration of cellulose within the range of Collodion 

Cotton. 

Properties: 11.11 per cent nitrogen. 

Uses: See Collodion Cotton. 

OPACITE 

French term for Tin Tetrachloride (See). 



PELLET POWDER 113 



OXYGEN 

See Liquid Oxygen. 

PARAFFIN 

Composition: Mixture of solid paraffin hydrocarbons, 
having the general formula Cr,H 2 n + 2. 

Properties: White, translucent, waxy solid. Sp. gr. 
0.88-0.91. Soft and hard brands are available with 
M. P. range from 42-60°. The M. P. is indicated for 
specific uses. Burns with a luminous flame. 

Uses: In smoke boxes for TNT shells. 

See Phosphorus Red. 

As component of pyrotechnic compositions. In chlorate 

explosives. 

See Cheddite. 

As incendiary agent in artillery shells, trench-mortar 

and drop bombs. 

See Thermite. 

PARANITRANILINE RED (PARATONER) (PARA RED) 

Composition: 2 NC 6 H 4 N 1 C 1 oH 6 OH 




2 N<^>N=N' 

OH 

Properties: Red powder. 

Uses: To produce red-colored smoke for military sig- 
naling from shells, rockets, or pots. 

PELLET POWDER 

Composition: Approximately the same in composition 
as Blasting Powder B, modified slightly by the addi- 
tion of various ingredients to control the physical and 
explosive properties of the respective grades. 



114 PENTAERYTHRITOL TETRANITRATE 

Properties: Pressed cylindrical pellets of approximately 
two-inch length, and varying in diameter from Y% to 
2j^ inches, with perforation % inch in diameter. Two, 
three, ot four of these pellets are wrapped in paraffined 
paper to form a standard-size cartridge 4, 6, or 8 inches 
in length. The wrapper provides protection for the 
powder from open flames. Pellet powders are safer to 
handle and more convenient to load than granular 
powders. 

Uses: Different grades for various types of blasting, 
particularly in mining coal where permissible explosives 
are not needed. Can be used in relatively wet wort. 
See Blasting Powder B. 

PENTAERYTHRITOL TETRANCTRATE (PENTHRITE) (TETRA- 
NITROPENTAERyTHRlTOL) (PENTAERYTHRITE TETRA- 
NITRATE) 

Symbol: PETN 

Composition: C(CH 2 OTN"0 2 )t 

0N0, 

CH 2 

2 NO— H 2 C— C— CH a — ON0 2 
CH 2 

ON0 2 

Properties: Fine granular powder, white or of a light- 
buff color. M. P. 141°. Quite sensitive to blows, is 
more readily detonated than tetryl. Detonation rate 
(d = 1.63) 8000-8300 m/sec. One of the most power- 
ful modern high explosives. 30 

Uses: In detonating and priming compositions, as base 
charge in antiaircraft shells, and in mixture with TNT 



PENTRINIT 113 



(30 per cent TNT, 70 per cent PETN) as H. E. charge 
for sea mines, drop bombs, and torpedoes in World 
War II. 
See Pentritol. 

As charge for detonating tubes. 
See Primacord-Bickford. 

It is one of the most effective high explosives for dem- 
olition purposes. It is used in blasting caps in com- 
bination with diazodinitrophenol, P 13 ; with lead 
azide, P 3 . As component of pulverulent dynamite, 

PENTAN1TROCELLULOSE 

Composition: CiiHi S 6 {NOs)5 
Based on cellulose unit C12H20O10. 

Properties: 12.76 per cent nitrogen. Soluble in 2:1 
ether-alcohol mixture. 

Uses: See Pyrocotton, Dekanitrocellulose. 

PENTHRINITE (PENTRINIT) 

Composition: A mixture of Penthrite and nitroglycer- 
ine (20-30 per cent). 

Properties: This is one of the most, if not the most 

powerful explosive. It is claimed to be more sensitive 

than picric acid and therefore not suitable as a military 

explosive in shells. 38 

Penthrinite containing about 10 per cent Hexogen is 

another extremely powerful explosive and is called 

Hexonit. 27 

PENTHRITE 

See Pentaery thritol Tetxanitrate. 

PENTRINIT 

See Penthrinite. 



116 PENTRITOL 



PENTRITOL 

Composition: Mixture of about equal parts of Pen- 
thrite and trinitrotoluene, P 11 . 

Properties: One of the most powerful bigh-explosive 
mixtures. 

Uses: As bursting charge for shells, bombs, sea mines, 

and torpedoes. 18 

See Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate. 

PENTRYL 

Commercial name for Trinitrophenylnitramine-ethyl- 
nitrate (See). 

PERCHLOROMETHyL FORMATE 

Chemical name for Diphosgene (See). 

PERCORONITE 

A type of German blasting explosive based on perchlo- 
rates and used in ore mines and stone quarries. 

Composition: Example: 

PER CENT 

Potassium perchlorate ... 65 

Aromatic nitro compounds . . 25 

Nitroglycerine 5 

Vegetable meal 5 

See Chlorate Explosives. 

PERMIGEL 

A brand of gelatinous permissible explosives manufac- 
tured by American Cyanamide and Chemical Corpora- 
tion, New York, N. Y. 
See Permissible Explosives. 



PERMISSIBLE EXPLOSIVES 117 

PERMISSIBLE DYNAMITES 

Composition: One of the earlier types of permissible 
explosives, now largely obsolete. Dynamites contain- 
ing certain amounts of salts with water of crystalliza- 
tion or salts which give off a large amount of gas on 
explosion, such as bicarbonates and oxalates, added 
for the pnrpose of cooling the explosion gases. 
For additional information on composition, properties, 
and uses, see Ajax Powder, Hydrated Explosives, 
Giant Low-Flame Powder, Grisontite. 



PERMISSIBLE EXPLOSIVES 

British: Permitted Explosives 

Permissible explosives are explosives which have been 
tested and approved by the U. S. Bureau of Mines and 
passed as safe for blasting in gaseons and dusty mines. 
Their use is subject to certain specific conditions. 

Composition: Practically all permissible explosives con- 
tain ammonium nitrate, sensitized with suitable 
amounts of either nitroglycerine or gelatinized nitro- 
glycerine, so that tbey can be detonated with a No. 6 
electric detonator. They usually contain 10-15 per 
cent nitroglycerine or gelatinized nitroglycerine, with 
up to 10 per cent carbonaceous absorbing material, 
50-80 per cent ammonium nitrate, and a small amount 
of cooling salts, such as sodium nitrate or sodium 
chloride, to aid in flame suppression. In some of the 
permissible explosives the ammonium nitrate is sensi- 
tized with m'trostarch or TNT instead of nitroglycer- 
ine. 

In some of the low-density permissibles part of the 
wood meal is being replaced by low-density combusti- 
ble materials such as bagasse pith, balsa meal, corn- 
stalk pith, 23 P 84 . 



118 PERMISSIBLE EXPLOSIVES 

Properties: Permissible explosives are either nongelat- 
inous or gelatinous; the latter have a more shattering 
effect and are more water-resistant. Permissible explo- 
sives are characterized by having short flames of short 
duration and comparatively low temperature. Their 
rate of detonation is on the average about 3000 m/sec. 
" Low- Velocity " grades, for production of lump coal, 
have detonation rates of 1500-2100 m/sec.; "High- 
Velocity" grades, for production of fine coal, have 
detonation rates from 2200-4100 m/sec. The detona- 
tion temperature of penmssibles is reduced by a proper 
choice of ingredients. Secondary flames (due to explo- 
sion gases which are combustible, such as CO) are 
repressed by the addition of alkaline salts. 

Uses: As blasting explosives in "gassy" or "dusty" 
coal mines which have inflammable atmosphere of 
gas-air or coal dust-air mixtures. The nongelatinous 
grades are largely used for blasting coal, and the gelat- 
inous grades for blasting rock in coal mines. 

BRANDS OF EXPLOSIVES ON PERMISSIBLE LIST AS OF 
JUNE 30, 1941 

From "Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 3583." 



NONGELATINOUS 


GELATINOUS 


M ANUF A CTURER 


PERMISSIBLE 


FERMISSIBLES 




American 
Burton A 
Genile A 


Permigel 


American Cyanamide and 
Chemical Corp., N. Y. 


Anthracite 
Independent 


Independent-Gel Independent Explosive Co. of 
Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, 

Pn 


Apache Coal Powder 




Apache Powder Co., Benson, 
Aril. 


Apcol 

Coalite 


Gel-Coalile 


Atlaa Powder Co., Wilmington, 
Del. 



PERSTOFF 



119 



Austin Red Diamond Austin Red- 
D-Gel 



Big Coal D 


Liberty-Gel 


Big Red 




Bituminite 

Collier 

Hercoal 

RedH 


Hercogel 


Black Diamond 


Black Diamond 
Nu-Gel 


Columbia 


Columbia-Gel 


Duobel 
Monobel 


Gelobel 


King 

King Special 

Red Crown 





Trojan Coal Powder 

National 

U.S. 

U. S. Special 

Wesco Coal Powder 



Napcogel 



U. S. Nu-Gel 



Austin Powder Co., Cleveland, 
0. 

Liberty Powder Co., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa, 

Equitable Powder Manufac- 
turing Co. and Egyptian 
Powder Co., East Alton, 111. 

Hercules Powder Co., Wilming- 
ton, Del. 



Illinois Powder Manufactur- 
ing Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Columbia Powder Co., Ta- 
coma, Wash. 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & 
Co., Wilmington, Del. 

King Powder Co., Cincinnati, 
0. 

Trojan Powder Co., Allen- 
lown, Pa. 

National Powder Co., Eldred, 
Pa. 

United States Powder Co., 
Terre Haute, Ind. 

West Coast Powder Co., 
Everett, Wash. 



PERMfTE 

See Belgian Permite. 

PERMITTED EXPLOSIVES 

British term for Permissible Explosives (See). 

PERSTOFF 

German term for Diphosgene (See). 



120 PERTITE 



PERTITE 

Italian term for Trinitrophenol (See). 

PETN 

Symbol for Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (See). 

PETROLATUM 

See Mineral Jelly. 

PETROLEUM JELLY 

See Mineral Jelly. 

PHENACYL CHLORIDE 

Synonym for Chloracetophenone (See). 

PHENATE HEXAMINE (P. H.) 

Symbol: PH 

Composition: A mixture of caustic soda, phenol, glyc- 
erine, and urotropine (hexamethylene tetramine) in 
water solution. 

Properties: Readily neutralizes phosgene. 

Uses: Was used in World War I in the so-called P. H. 
helmels as a protection against phosgene gas. 

PHENOL (CARBOLIC ACID) 
Composition: C5H5OH 

OH 



Properties: White crystalline mass with characteristic 
odor. Corrosive and toxic. Sp. gr. 1.07 at 25°. M. P. 
42°. B. P. 182°. 

Uses: See Phenate Hexamine. 



PHOSGENE 121 



PHENYLARSINE DICHLORIDE 

Synonym for Phenyldichlorarsine (See). 

PHENyLCHLOROMETHyL KETONE 

Synonym for Chloracetophenone (See). 

PHENyLDICHLORARSfNE (PHENyLARSINE DICHLORIDE) 

German: Blue Cross, when used as solvent for di- 

phenylarsine cyanide. 

French: Sternite, when in mixture with 40 per cent 

diphenylchlorarsine. 

Composition: CaH&AsCli 

Properties: Somewhat viscous hquid. Sp. gr. 1.65 at 
20°. M. P. -20°. B. P. 255°. Vapor 7.75 times 
heavier than air. Decomposed by water. More toxic 
than phosgene. 

Uses: Was first used by the Germans (September, 
1917), and was the first toxic lung irritant used in 
World War I. 

PHOSGENE (CARBONyL CHLORIDE) 

Chemical Warfare Symbol: CG 
British-American: CG 
French: Collongite 
German: D-Stoff 

Composition: COClj 

Properties: Colorless gas, odor of musty hay. Vapor 
density 3.4. B. P. 8°. More inert and much more 
toxic than chlorine gas. In contact with water it 
decomposes into hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. 
Very powerful lung irritant; causes collapse and heart 
failure. 



1S2 PHOSPHORIC ACID 



Uses: First used by Germans in World War I (Decem- 
ber, 1915) in cylinders. Later used by the French 
(1916) as an artillery shell filler (Collingite). During 
the remainder of the war it was the Allies' principal 
war gas, used also in trench mortars, bombs, and pro- 
jector drums. Also used as solvent for dispersing and 
spraying diphenylchlorarsine. 

Protection: Gas mask. See also Phenate Hexamine. 

Field Neutralization: Alkali. 

PHOSPHORIC ACID 

Composition: H 3 P0 4 . The commercial grades contain 
various proportions of water. 

Properties: Acid of 85-88 per cent H s PO, is a syrupy 
liquid of Sp. gr. 1.71. 

Uses: Proposed as fire-retardant in liquid-oxygen ex- 
plosives (See). 

PHOSPHORUS (RED) 

Symbol: P 

Properties: Reddish-brown powder, odorless, nonpoi- 
sonous. Sp. gr. 2.2 at 20°. Does not melt; ignites in 
air above 200°. Mixtures of red phosphorns and potas- 
sium chlorate explode from shock and from fire. 

Uses: In combination with potassium chlorate for det- 
onating compositions " and for pyrotechnic purposes 
(Railway fuses and torpedoes) . 
In combination with arsenious oxide and paraffin for 
smoke boxes in shells containing high explosives which 
produce no smoke (See Amatol). Production of 
smoke when a shell explodes helps the artilleryman to 
direct his firing. 



PITCH 183 

PHOSPHORUS (WHITE PHOSPHORUS) (yELLOW PHOS- 
PHORUS) 

Chemical Warfare Symbol : WP 

Symbol: P 4 

Properties: Pale-yellowish, translucent, crystallizable 
solid of waxy consistency. Sp. gr, 1.82 at 20°. M. P. 
44.1°. B. P. 230°. Spontaneously inflammable in air 
at normal temperature; gives off dense white smoke, 
consisting of phosphorus pentoxide and phosphoric 
acid. The former has a very high obscuring power. 
White phosphorus has the greatest total obscuring 
power (T. 0. P.) of all smoke agents. 

Uses: Powerful incendiary; burning pieces adhere to 
skin and clothes and have a limited casualty effect. 
Was largely used by Allies in World War I for screen- 
ing smokes in hand grenades and mortars. It is now 
also extensively used for incendiary purposes, in shells, 
bombs, and incendiary leaves, P 5 . 

PICRAMIDE 

Synonym for Trinitroaniline (See), 

PICRIC ACID 

Synonym for Trinitrophenol (See). 

PICRYL SULFIDE 

Synonym for Hexanitrodiphenyl Sulfide (See). 

PITCH 

Composition: A mixture of bituminous or resinous sub- 
stances of various origins. 

Properties: Dark-colored, thick, tenacious, fusible, 
more or less solid material, having characteristic 
"tarry" odor. 



1S4 POTASSIUM CHLORATE 

Uses: In torches and other smoke-producing devices. 
See Sulfur. 



POTASSIUM CHLORATE 
Composition: KC10 3 

Properties: Colorless crystals or white granules. Sp. gr. 
2.34. M. P. 357°. Decomposes at 400°, giving off oxy- 
gen. Soluble in hot water. Releases oxygen readily on 
heating with oxygen acceptors. Explodes on friction 
when mixed with sulfur and other combustible sub- 
stances." 

Uses: As oxidizing agent in primer caps in combina- 
tion with mercury fulminate and with red phosphorus, 
antimony sulfide, and other combustible substances," 
P 36 . In pyrotechnic mixtures as component of air- 
plane flares, stars for aerial bombs and for signaling, 
maroons, white and colored smokes. As component of 
Permissibles. In incendiary projectiles, P 5 . 
See Antimony Sulfide, Cheddite, Phosphorus (Red), 
Chlorate Explosives, 

POTASSIUM NITRATE 

Composition: KNO a 

Properties: Colorless crystals or white powder. Sp. gr. 
2.11 at 10°. M. P. 337°. Decomposes at about 400° 
with deflagration. Very soluble in hot water. Oxygen 
carrier. 

Uses: Class A, Refined Potassium Nitrate, is intended 
for use in the manufacture of black powder and may 
also serve as constituent of compound propellants. 
Class B, Potassium Nitrate, is intended for use as an 



POTASSIUM SULFATE 1S5 



ingredient of pyrotechnic compositions, for colored 

lights, rockets, and smokes. 

See Double-Base Powders, E. C. Powder. 

POTASSIUM PERCHLORATE 

Composition: KC10 4 

Properties: Colorless crystals or white crystalline pow- 
der. Sp. gr. 2.524 at 11°. Decomposes at 400°. Also 
decomposed by concussion, organic matter, and oxi- 
dizable substance." Less reactive than potassium 
chlorate, therefore replacing the latter in various of its 
uses. 

Uses: In primer compositions and in chlorate explo- 
sives. Also used to supply oxygen in aluminum and 
magnesium flares, smokes, stars, railway torpedoes. 
In combination with sulfur or antimony sulfide to pro- 
duce a loud report (Maroons). As component of Per- 
missibles, P u . 

See Chlorate Explosives, Aluminum and Magnesium 
Flares. 

POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE 
Composition: KMnOj 

Properties: Dark-purple crystals with blue metallic 
sheen. Sp. gr. 2.70. Decomposes at 240°. Strong oxi- 
dizing agent. 

Uses: In gas-mask canisters for destruction of toxic 
gases. As detonator ingredient, P". 

POTASSIUM SULFATE 

Composition: K.2SO4 

Properties: Colorless or white crystals, granules, or 
powder. M. P. 1072°. Sp. gr. 2.66. 

Uses: A primer composition material. 



136 POUDRE B 



POUDRE B 

Composition: A French rifle powder composed of; 

PBB CENT 

Guncotton 68 

Collodion cotton 29 

Vaseline 2 

VolatBes 1 

POUDRE B. N. 

Composition: A French rifle powder composed of 



about: 

PER CENT 

Guncotton 41 

Collodion cotton 28 

Barium nitrate 19 

Potassium nilrate 8 

Soda ash 2 

Volaliles 2 

PRECIPITATED CHALK 

See Calcium Carbonate. 

PRIMACORD-BICKFORD 

Composition: A detonating tube (cordeau) made of 
waterproof textile, containing PETN as core. 

Properties: Detonates with a velocity of about 
6200 m/sec. compared with a velocity of about 
5200 m/sec. for the TNT Cordeau Bickford. 

Uses: Fired by blasting caps and used for firing 
blasting cartridges and charges. 

See Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate, Cordeau Bickford, 
Bickford Fuse. 

PRIMARY EXPLOSIVES 11 

A group of sensitive explosives or mixtures used in 
primers, detonators, and caps to initiate the explosion 



PVROCOTTON 187 



of hlasting, propellent, and bursting explosives at the 
desired moment. In order to be suitable for this pur- 
pose, they must be sensitive to shock and friction, but 
not too sensitive. Only a few explosives come within 
the required range of sensitivity. Mercury fulminate 
alone or in combination with potassium chlorate bas 
been the universal initiator for many years. More 
recently some other initiators have been developed. 

Composition: See Mercury Fulminate, Lead Azide, 
Mercury Azide, Lead Styphnate, Nitrosoguanidine, 
Potassium Chlorate, Hexamtromannite, Tetryl, Gun- 
cotton. 

Properties: They are high explosives and are charac- 
terized by relatively great sensitivity to beat or shock. 
Tbey detonate wben subjected to heat or shock and 
are set off by the "spit" of a black-powder fuse, by 
the heat of an electrically heated wire, by percussion 
(firing pin), or by friction. Their detonation produces 
flame and shock, which are used to initiate the defla- 
gration of powder or the detonation of high explosives. 25 

Uses: In priming compositions: for igniting charges of 
smokeless powder (small arms) ; for igniting the black 
powder in primers of artillery ammunition, and for 
igniting the black-powder igniters in separate-loading 
ammunition. 

In initiating compositions: for initiating by pressure 
wave the detonation of high explosives in blasting 
cartridges, shells, bombs, mines, and torpedoes. 



PS 



Chemical Warfare symbol for Chlorpicrin (See). 



pyROCOTTON ("PyRO") 

Composition: A cellulose nitrate having essentially the 
composition of Decanitrocellulose C 24 H3oOio(NOj)io. 



1SS PYROLUSITE 



Properties: White, pulped fibers. 12.6 per cent nitro- 
gen. Soluble in ether-alcohol (2 : 1) and in acetone. 
Less corrosive on bore of gun than guncotton. For con- 
version to smokeless powder it is colloided with volatile 
solvents with or without addition of some non-volatile 
solvents. 

Uses: In gelatinized form as the basis of all propel- 
lants; either alone, particularly for cannon powder, or 
in mixture with guncotton in the smaller-caliber guns 
(See Smokeless Powder), or in mixtnre with nitro- 
glycerine in double-base powders (See). 

PYROLUSITE 

Composition: A mineral containing 80-85 per cent 
manganese dioxide (MnOi). 

Properties: Steel-gray in lumps, black when powdered. 
Sp. gr. about 4.8. Strong oxidizing agent; evolves 
oxygen when ignited, therefore should not he heated 
or rubbed with organic matter or oxidizable materials. 

Uses: In scratch mixtures and other pyrotechnic com- 
positions. 
See Manganese Dioxide. 

PYRONITE 

Commercial name for Trinitrophenyhnethylnitramine 

(See). 

PYROXYLIN 

General term for the lower nitrates of cotton, containing 

11-12.6 per cent nitrogen, including collodion cotton 

(11-12 per cent nitrogen) and pyrocotton (12.6 per cent 

nitrogen). 

See Nitrocellulose, Pyrocotton, Collodion Cotton. 



ROSIN 189 

RACK. a -ROCK (RACKRACK EXPLOSIVE) 

Composition: A combination of nitrobenzene and 
potassium chlorate in proportion of about 1 : 4. 

Properties: Efficient explosive, particularly under 
water. 

Uses: Was used for blasting the Hellgate Rocks at the 
entrance to New York Harbor. 

RED CHARCOAL 

Composition: Incompletely carbonized wood. 

Uses: Sporting powders. 
See Charcoal. 

RED CROWN 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by King Powder Co., Cincinnati, O. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

RED H 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington, Del. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

ROBURITE 

Composition: A type of smokeless and flameless safety 
mining explosive containing about 86 per cent am- 
monium nitrate in combination with either dinitro- 
benzene or dinitrochlorobenzene. The disadvantage of 
this type of explosive is low sensitiveness and defective 
propagation. Later improved similar explosives con- 
tain small amounts of nitroglycerine. 

ROSIN (COLOPHONY) (GUM ROSIN) 

Composition: Consists largely of abietic acid 
Ci 9 H 2 flCOOH and its anhydride. 



130 RYE MEAL 



Properties: Yellow or amber amorphous lumps of brit- 
tie fracture. Sp. gr. 1.08. Melts readily on heating to 
100-140°. Gives off inflammable vapors when heated. 

Uses: Imbedding material for steel balls in shrapnel 
shells. As binder in pyrotechnic compositions to pre- 
vent segregation. 22 
See Sulfur. 

RYE MEAL 

A vegetable meal used as an absorbent for nitro- 
glycerine in the manufacture of dynamites (See). 

SABULITE 

See Belgian Permite. 

SAFETY EXPLOSIVES 

Composition: A type of explosive, originally containing 
ammonium nitrate and charcoal, introduced for the 
purpose of preventing explosions in coal mines. Hun- 
dreds of Safety Explosives of various combinations 
have been on the market, containing a great number 
of different products, including: ammonium nitrate, 
nitroglycerine, gelatinized nitroglycerine, mineral salts, 
aromatic nitro compounds, wood meal, wood pulp, etc. 

Properties: Flame of explosion relatively short and of 
short duration; explosion temperature relatively low 
and enduring only a short time. 

Uses: As blasting explosives for mining. For blasting 
in gaseous and dusty coal mines only approved Safety 
Explosives may be used; they are called Permitted 
Explosives (England) or Permissible Explosives (U. S.). 
Term Safely Explosives now obsolete. 
See Permissible Explosives. 



SHELLAC 131 



SAL AMMONIAC 

Technical term for Ammonium Chloride (See). 

SAL SODA 

See Washing Soda. 

SCHNEIDERITE 

Composition: A combination of 1 part dinitronaphtha- 
lene and 7 parts ammonium nitrate. 

Uses: As shell-filler in France and Italy during World 
War I. 

SCREENING SMOKES 

Chemical agents which produce an obscuring smoke. 
See Titanium Tetrachloride, Silicon Tetrachloride, 
Chlorsulfonic Acid-Sulfur Trioxide Solution. 

SEMIGELATINE DYNAMITE 

Composition: The principal explosive ingredient is 
ammonium nitrate sensitized by a small quantity of a 
gelatinized explosive oil. Tbis dynamite contains 
about 0.3 per cent collodion cotton. 

Properties: More water-resistant than ammonia dyna- 
mites. Commercial strength 45-60 per cent. 

Uses: For blasting rocks and ores of moderate hard- 
ness, such as limestone and gypsum. 

SHELLAC 

Composition: A complex mixture consisting mostly of 
resins. 

Properties: Yellowish-brown leaflets. Sp. gr. 1.08- 
1.13. Soluble in alcohol and many other organic 
solvents. 



13! SHIMOSE 



Uses: The solutions are used as binder, for coating and 
cementing in munitions and pyrotechnic devices. 
See Aluminum Flares. 

SHIMOSE 

Japanese name for Trinitrophenol (Picric Acid). Was 
used in the Russo-Japanese War. 

SILICON TETRACHLORIDE 

Composition: SiCl 4 

Properties: Colorless, fuming liquid. Suffocating odor. 
Sp. gr. 1.5. M. P. -70°. B. P. 57.6°. Decomposes 
with the moisture of the air, forming a dispersion of 
silicic acid and hydrogen chloride. 

Uses: For producing screening smokes (British attack 
on Zeebrugge). In combination with ammonia vapor 
it forms smokes which resemble natural fog and which 
are effective for camouflaging troop or sliip move- 
ments. The smoke is generated from a smoke funnel. 
One cylinder contains liquid ammonia; the other 
cylinder is charged with silicon tetrachloride contain- 
ing about 10 per cent carbon dioxide under a maximum 
pressnre of 550 lb/sq. in. at 55°. 

SILVER ACETYLIDE 

Composition: Ag 2 Ci 

Properties: One of the very few explosives containing 
neither nitrogen nor oxygen, and producing no gas on 
explosion. The explosion is a heat effect only. 

Uses: For detonating compositions. In combination 
with lead azide for detonating rivets, for the purpose 
of reducing the flash point of the lead azide, P 7 . 



SMOKE 133 

SILVER PERMANGANATE 
Composition: AgMnO* 

Properties: Violet, crystalline powder. Decomposes in 
light. 

Uses: In primer compositions. 

SINGLE-BASE POWDER 

Composition: A straight nitrocellulose powder, with 
nitrocellulose as the only explosive constituent. 

Properties: Degree of nitration as measured by per cent 
nitrogen determines energy and gas liberated. Pyro- 
cotton (12.6 per cent nitrogen) is the lowest in nitrogen 
ordinarily used; guncotton (13.0-13.5 per cent nitro- 
gen) is the highest. Most powders are blends of these 
two. 

Uses: Standard service powder of U. S. Army and 

U. S. Navy. 

See Smokeless Powder, Cellulose Nitrate, I. M. R. 

Powder. 

SMOKE 
See: 

Aur amine 

Chlorsulfonic Acid-Sulfur Trioxide Solution 
Chrysoidine 
Indigo 

Paranitranih'ne Red 
Phosphorus (Red) (White) 
Potassium Chlorate 
Potassium Perchlorate 
Silicon Tetrachloride 
Strontium Nitrate 
Sulfur 

Sulfur Trioxide 
Tin Tetrachloride 
Zinc Dust 



134 SMOKELESS POWDER 

SMOKELESS POWDER 

The universal propellant, with nitrocellulose as chief 
explosive ingredient. Nitrocellulose in its natural 
fibrous form, either loose or compressed, has too high a 
rate of combustion to be suitable as a propellant. Gun- 
cotton, the nitrocellulose of highest nitrogen content, 
is a high explosive. In 1886 Vieille introduced nitro- 
cellulose smokeless powder. He treated nitrocellulose 
with ether and alcohol, which acted as colloiding agent, 
forming a gelatinous mass. When rolled into sheets, 
cut into small squares, and then dried, the product had 
the progressive burning characteristics required for a 
propellant. Shortly afterwards, Nobel gelatinized the 
nitrocellulose with nitroglycerine and introduced the 
first double-base smokeless powder. The U. S. Army 
and U. S. Navy have adopted single-base, or straight 
nitrocellulose, powder for standard service ammuni- 
tion. For special types of ammunition, however, a 
double-base powder is being used. More recent de- 
velopments have led to the development of NH (non- 
hygroscopic) powders and FNH (flashless non-hygro- 
scopic) powders. 

Composition: Single-base powder is composed of gelat- 
inized nitrocellulose. It is not a single definite com- 
pound but a mixture of products nitrated to varying 
degrees. Small amounts of modifying agents are added 
for specific purposes. Nitrocellulose decomposes very 
slowly in long-continued storage, causing deterioration 
of the powder. About 1 per cent of diphenylamine is 
incorporated in the powder as a stabilizer to retard the 
rate of decomposition and prolong the life of the 
powder. A coating of graphite is applied to rifle pow- 
der for the purpose of facilitating the pouring of the 
grains in loading operations and for preventing the 
collection of electrostatic charges. Small amounts of 



SO 135 

other substances are incorporated in the powder as 
deterrents to regulate the burning of the powder; as 
either cooling or oxidizing agents to reduce smoke and 
muzzle flash; and as plastic, or moisture-resistant, 
materials to reduce hygroacopicity of the powder. 

Properties: Smokeless powder is not used in powder 
form. It is grained into solid cylindrical particles 
(cords, Cordite) or into cylindrical perforated parti- 
cles (U. S. Service Powder). Rifle powder has one 
perforation; all other grains have seven perforations. 
The grains are produced in many sizes for use in guns 
of different caliber. The nitrocellulose used is pyro- 
cotton containing 12.6 per cent nitrogen, which pro- 
duces a superior colloid with a mixture of ether and 
alcohol. Guncotton of IS per cent nitrogen and over is 
only partially soluble but can be colloided and grained 
together with suitable proportions of pyrocotton. 
Fast and slow powders are produced for various pur- 
poses. They differ in composition and physical size 
and shape of the grains. The powders burn under 
confinement with progressive rapidity (deflagration), 
evolving about 1000 calories of heat and about 900 cc. 
of gas per gram. 

Uses: Has universally replaced black powder as prc- 
pellant for practically all types of weapons. 
See Propellents, Single-Base Powders, Double-Base 
Powders, I. M. R. Powder, Sporting Powder, Nitro- 
cellulose, Pyrocotton, Guncotton, Ball Powder, P 1 ' 12 - 27 . 
See also pi*"^."^.^" 

SNEEZE GAS 

See Stemutators. 

SO 

Chemical Warfare symbol for Solid Oil (See). 



136 SODA LIME 



SODA LIME 

Composition: A mixture of caustic soda (NaOH) and 
hydrated lime (Ga(OH)i). 

Properties: White or gray granules or powder. When 
used for gas masks additional agents are used: such as 
cement, to provide sufficient hardness of the granules 
to withstand service conditions; kieselguhr, to increase 
porosity; and sodium or potassium permanganate, for 
removal of oxidizable gases. 9 

Uses: In gas masks for the absorption of volatile acid 

gases. 

SODATOL 

Composition: Mixture of TNT and sodium nitrate. 
Properties: Yellow crystalline mass. 
Uses: See Trinitrotoluene. 

SODIUM BICARBONATE 

Composition: NaHCOj 

Properties: White crystals, powder, or granules. Sp. 
gr. 2.2. Begins to lose carbon dioxide at about 50°. 

Uses: Component of cooling-sheath compositions for 
blasting explosives, P 28 ' 29 . 

SODIUM CHLORATE 

Composition: NaClOs 

Properties: Colorless crystals. Sp. gr. 2.5. M. P. 250°. 
Begins to liberate oxygen at about 300°. Its hygro- 
scopicity is a disadvantage; can be corrected with 
suitable coating. 24 

Uses: As oxidizer in explosive and pyrotechnic com- 
positions. 



SODIUM PERMANGANATE 137 

SODIUM CHLORIDE (COMMON SALT) 

Composition: NaCl 

Properties: Colorless crystals or white crystalline 
powder. Sp. gr. 2.16. M. P. 804°. B. P. 1490°. 

Uses: In some ammonium nitrate permissible explo- 
sives, added for the purpose of reducing brisance and 
heat of explosion in quantities of 8-27 per cent depend- 
ing on the percentage of ammonium nitrate in the 
mixture. In chlorate explosives, P 11 . 
See Abbcite, Wetter-Astralit. 

SODIUM HYPOSULFITE 

See Sodium Thiosulfate. 

SODIUM NITRATE (CHILE SALTPETER) 

Composition: NaNO s 

Properties: Colorless crystals, white granules or pow- 
der. Sp. gr. 2.26. M. P. 308°. Decomposes at about 
380°. Deliquescent in moist air. 

Uses: As component of powders. 
See Black Powder (With Sodium Nitrate), Blasting 
Powder B, Pellet Powder. 

As component of permissible explosives and pyrotech- 
nic devices. Used also in ammonia dynamites (See). 

SODIUM PERMANGANATE 

Composition: NaMn0 4 . 3H 2 

Properties: Purple or reddish-black crystals or pow- 
der. Oxidizing agent. 

Uses: In gas masks for removing oxidizable poison 

gases. 

See Soda Lime. 



138 SODIUM PEROXIDE 



SODIUM PEROXIDE (SODIUM DIOXIDE) (SODIUM 
SUPEROXIDE) 

Composition: Na 2 2 

Properties: Yellowish-white granular powder. Sp. gr. 
2.8. Decomposes on heating, soluble in water with de- 
composition. Attracts moisture from the air. Reacts 
readily with combustible materials with evolution of 
heat. The reaction may result m ignition or explosion. 

Uses: In pyrotechnics. 

See Thermite. 

As component of incendiary mixtures. 22 

SODIUM SULFrTE 

Composition: Na^SOs 

Properties: White powder. Sp. gr. 2.63. M. P. 150°. 
Soluble in water. 

Uses: For field neutralization of Chlorpicrin. 
See Chlorpicrin. 

SODIUM THIOSULF ATE (SODIUM HYPOSULFITE) ("HYPO") 

Composition: Na 2 S 2 03 . 5HaO 

Properties: Colorless crystals. Sp. gr. 1.73. Melts 
between 32° and 48°. Loses its water of crystalliza- 
tion at 100° and decomposes at 220°. Solnble in water. 

Uses: Pads dipped into a solution of "hypo," washing 
soda, and glycerine were used in World War I as a 
protection against chlorine gas. 

SOFT PARAFFIN 

See Mineral Jelly. 

SOLID OIL 

Chemical Warfare symbol: SO 

Composition: Mixture of liquid paraffin hydrocarhons 
(fuel oil) with some colloidal substances. 



STANNIC CHLORIDE 139 



Properties: A email percentage of the oil has a rela- 
tively low fire point and burns readily. The heat gen- 
erated melts and ignites the bulk of the product which 
has a moderately high fire point. 

Uses: As incendiary agent in drop bombs and artillery 
shells. Also suitable in other incendiary devices, such 
as Livens projector drums and trench-mortar bombs. 

"SOUP" 

Safe-blowers' term for Nitroglycerine (See). 

SPORTING POWDERS 

Composition: Similar to that of double-base powders; 
contain nitroglycerine and/or nitrates in combination 
with the nitrocellulose base. 

Properties: More readily ignitible and having a higher 
rate of burning than straight nitrocellulose powder. 

Uses: In sporting ammunition. 

SPRENGEL EXPLOSIVES 

Composition: Mixtures of nitrobenzene and red fum- 
ing nitric acid; for example, in proportion 28:72. 

Properties: Powerful and cheap explosives, but on ac- 
count of practical disadvantages, their use was dis- 
continued. 

Uses: The components had to he mixed in glass con- 
tainers shortly before the explosive was required for 
use. 

SPRENGMUNITION-02 

German military term for Trinitrotoluene (See). 

STANNIC CHLORIDE 

See Tin Tetrachloride. 



140 STANNIC OXIDE 



STANNIC OXIDE 

See Tin Dioxide. 

STARCH NITRATE 

Chemical name for what is commonly called Nitro- 
starch (See). 

STERNITE 

See Phenyldichlorarsine. 

STERNUTATORS (SNEEZE GASES) u 

Harassing agents causing coughing, sneezing, nausea, 
and temporary physical disability. 
See Diphenylchlorarsine, Diphenylaminearsine Chlo- 
ride, Diphenylcyanoarsine. 

STRAIGHT DYNAMITE 

Composition: Contains 15-60 per cent nitroglycerine, 
absorbed in wood meal or other absorbent materials. 
It is the standard dynamite in comparison with which 
all other dynamites are rated for strength on a weight 
for weight basis. 

Properties: More sensitive than other types of dyna- 
mite, and the sensitiveness increases with the strength. 
Extremely fast and shattering in action. Most water- 
resistant of any of the dynamites. 

Uses: A most efficient explosive for submarine blast- 
ing, ditch blasting by propagation, scrapping boilers, 
ships, etc., where quickness is the essential quality. As 
primer for gelatines in deep-well blasting. Being re- 
placed in large measure by the cheaper ammonia dyna- 
mites. 
See Dynamite, Nitroglycerine. 



STRONTIUM PEROXIDE 141 

STRONTIUM DIOXIDE 

See Strontium Peroxide. 

STRONTIUM NITRATE 

Composition: Sr(N0 3 ) 2 

Properties: White granules or powder. Sp. gr. 2.98. 
M. P. 570°. Releases oxygen when heated with com- 
bustible materials and imparts a red color to the flame. 
Gives a brilliant, almost white light in mixture with 
the proper amount of barium nitrate and oxidizable 
materials, P 3 . 

Uses: For tracer powder and red-colored flares. In 
combination with barium nitrate it is used in aviation 
for signaling and for illuminating landing fields and 
military objectives. In marine signals, matches, and 
railroad flares. 

STRONTIUM OXALATE 

Composition: SrC 2 4 . H 2 

Properties: White crystalline powder. Decomposes on 
heating. Burns with red light. 

Grade A: 99 per cent through 140 U. S. standard sieve. 
Grade B : 99 per cent through 66-mesh sieve. 

Uses: In pyrotechnic compositions, such as colored 

stars. 

STRONTIUM PEROXIDE (STRONTIUM DIOXIDE) 

Composition: St0 2 

Properties: Grayish-white powder. Commercial prod- 
uct contains about 85 per cent Sr0 2 , equivalent to 
11,5 per cent available oxygen. Decomposes on heat- 
ing and gradually on exposure to air. 

Uses: As component of tracer powder and other pyro- 
technics. 



143 SULFUR 

SULFUR (BRIMSTONE) 

Symbol: S 

Properties: Yellow powder. Sp. gr. 2.05. M. P. about 
120°. Ignites at about 250°. B. P. 444.6°. Ignites 
readily and therefore facilitates ignition of black pow- 
der and other ignitible mixtures. Sulfur decreases the 
temperature of detonation of TNB, TNT, and picric 
acid; to a lesser degree sulfur lowers the temperature 
of detonation of Tetryl and Pentrite. Sulfur raises the 
temperature of detonation of Hexogen and increases 
the sensitivity of Tetryl to shock (maximum at 10 per 
cent sulfur). 3 

Uses: Component of black powder. In aluminum and 
magnesium flares. In torches for black smoke in com- 
bination with potassium nitrate and rosin or pitch. In 
many other pyrotechnical devices. Grade A sulfur is 
intended for use in the manufacture of black powder. 
Grade B sulfur is intended for use in the manufacture 
of pyrotechnic compositions. Grade C sulfur is in- 
tended for use as an ingredient of priming composi- 
tions. Sulfur is also used as an ingredient of some 
dynamite. It is used, too, as an accelerant in ignition 
compositions for blasting-caps, P 36 . 
See Ammonia Dynamite. 

SULFUR DIOXIDE 

Composition: SO2 

Properties: Colorless, noninflammable gas, of suffocate 
ing odor. Vapor density 2.3. M. P. -76.1°. B. P. 
-10°. 

Uses: As fumigant. 

SULFUR TRIOXIDE 

Composition: SO» 



SYM-TR1NITROBENZENE 1 43 

Properties: Colorless prisms. Sp. gr. 1.92, M. P. 16.8°. 
B. P. 46°. It fumes on contact with the air and throws 
off white clouds composed of minute droplets of sul- 
furic acid. Soluble in concentrated sulfuric and in 
chlorsulfonic acid. 

Uses: As smoke-producing material. 

See Chlorsulfonic Acid-Sulfur Trioxide Solution. 

SULFUR TRIOXIDE-CHLORSULFONIC ACID 

See Chlorsulfonic Acid-Sulfur Trioxide Solution. 

SUPER EXCELUTE 

An English Permissible Explosive. 

Composition: 

PEB CENT 

Nitroglycerine .... 8.5-10.5 

Ammonium nitrate . . 62.0-65.0 

Common salt .... 18.5-20.5 

Wood meal, dried at 100° 4.5- 6.5 

Magnesium carbonate . 0.0- 1.5 

Moisture 0.0- 2.0 

Properties and Uses: See Permissible Explosives* 

SUPERPALITE 

See Diphosgene. 

SURPALITE 

French name for Diphosgene (See). 

SYM-TRIMETHYLENE TRINITRAMINE 
See Trimethylene Trinitramine. 

SYM-TRINITROBENZENE 
See Trinitrobenzene. 



144 $yM-TRINITROPHENOL 

SYM-TRINITROPHENOL 

See Trinitrophenol. 

SYM-TRINITROTOLUENE 

Chemical name for TNT. 
See Trinitrotoluene. 

SYSTEMIC POISONS 

Chemical agents which affect the heart action and 
nerve reflexes or interfere with the assimilation of oxy- 
gen by the body. 

See Hydrocyanic Acid, Cyanogen Bromide, Cyanogen 
Chloride. 

TEAR GAS 

Common name for Lacrimators (See). 

TETRACENE (TETRAZ1NE) 

Composition: Guanylnitrosaminoguanyltetrazene. 
NH NH 

C— N=N— NH^NH— C 

NH— NH— NO NH 2 

Properties: Yellow, fluffy solid. Explodes at about 160° 
and gives large volume of flame. 35 

Uses: In priming compositions. In explosives for det- 
onating rivets, in combination with lead azide, for the 
purpose of reducing the flash point of the latter, 

TETRALITE 

See Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine. 



TETRANITRODIGLyCERINE 145 

TETRANITROANILINE 

Symbol: TNA 

Composition: C 6 H(NH) 2 (N0 2 ) 4 

NH, 

OjN/NNOa 

Jno 2 

Properties: Brownish crystals. Melts with decomposi- 
tion at 210° and deflagrates at about 226°. Powerful 
and sensitive high explosive, similar to Tetryl. Det- 
onation rate (d = 1.6) 7500 m/sec. On long storage 
stability not very satisfactory, particularly in presence 
of moisture, which tends to promote hydrolysis." 

Uses: As booster for H. E. shells. In primer and det- 
onating compositions. 

TETRANITROCELLULOSE 

Composition: Ci 2 H 16 O a (NOs)4 
Based on cellulose unit Ci£H 20 Oi 

Properties: 11.11 per cent nitrogen. 

Uses: See Collodion Cotton. 
See Oktonitrocellulose. 

TETRANITRODIGLyCERINE 

Composition: C 3 H 6 (ON0 2 ) aOCsH^ONC^ 
CHz CH 2 

CHONO. CHONO2 



CH. 



; ON0 2 CH 2 ON0 2 



Properties: Thick oil. Behaves like nitroglycerine but 
is somewhat less sensitive. 

Uses: As component of Low- Freezing Dynamites (See). 



146 TETBANITFOMETHANE 

TETRANfTROMETHANE 
Composition: C(N02),t 

N0 2 

<m— C— N0 3 

N0 2 

Properties: Colorless liquid. B. P. 126°. Has large 
excess of oxygen. Gives very powerful explosives when 
mixed with some other nitro high explosives which are 
deficient in oxygen. 4 ' 19 

Uses: In detonating compositions. In blasting explo- 
sives, P 3E . 

TETRANITROMETHyLANILINE 

Composition: C 6 H(NHCH s ){N0 2 ) 4 

NHCH 3 

Osn/Nno* 
\JnOz 

NO, 

Not used in the explosive industry. 

Tetryl is sometimes wrongly designated as tetTanitro- 

methylaniline. 

See Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine. 

TETRANFTRONAPHTHALENE 

Composition: A mixture of several isomeric tetranitro- 
naphthalenes. 

Properties: Satisfactory high explosive for hursting 
charges, abont as powerful as TNT and less sensitive 
to impact, but higher in cost. M. P. about 220°. 

Uses: Could be considered as a reserve explosive. 



THERMIT 147 



TETRANITROPENTAERyTHRITOL 

See Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate. 

TETRYL 

Common name for Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine 

(See). 

Standard booster explosive. 



TH 



Chemical Warfare symbol for Thermit (See), when 
used in non-magnesium containers. 



THERMIT 

Chemical Warfare symbol: TH 

Composition: An intimate mixture of finely divided 
aluminum powder and iron oxide (Fe^Os) or magnetic 
iron oxide (Fe 3 4 ). 

Properties: When reaction is initiated by strong heat, 
it proceeds throughout the mixture with great evolu- 
tion of heat and the formation of a white-bot mass of 
molten iron and slag. The initiating heat is produced 
by firing a charge of aluminum powder and sodium 
peroxide or barium peroxide by means of a fuse, P 3 . 
Binders may be used to prevent the components of the 
Thermit from segregating. When sulfur is used, the 
resulting Thermit is called Daisite. 

Uses: Alone as incendiary agent or as primary ignit- 
ing incendiary for secondary incendiary material such 
as heavy hydrocarbons, or for igniting the casing of 
incendiary bombs made of a magnesium alloy. 
See Magnesium, Solid 00, Crude Oil. 



148 TIN 

TIN 

Symbol: Sn 

Properties: Lustrous metal. Sp. gr. 7.31. M. P. 231.9°. 
B. P. 1450-1600°. Easily powdered. 

Uses: Powdered tin is used for reducing flash of smoke- 
less powder. 

TIN DIOXIDE (STANNIC OXIDE) (FLOWERS OF TIN) 

Composition: SnOa 

Properties: White or slightly gray powder, amorphous 
or crystalline. Sp. gr. 6.8. M. P. 1127° for the amor- 
phous. The crystalline product is infusible. 

Uses: For reducing flash of smokeless powder. 

TIN TETRACHLORIDE (STANNIC CHLORIDE) 

British: KJ 
French: Opacite 

Composition: SnCl4 

Properties: Colorless fuming liquid. Sp. gr. 2.23. 
M. P. - 33°. B. P. 114°. Decomposed by hot water. 
With steam it forms a dispersion of stannic hydroxide 
and hydrogen chloride. 

Uses: Was used as smoke agent in French shells in 
mixture with phosgene and chlorpicrin. 

TITANIUM TETRACHLORIDE 

Chemical Warfare symbol: FM 
German: F-Stoff 

Composition: TiCl4 

Properties: Colorless liquid. Sp. gr. 1.76 at 0°. Solidi- 
fies — 30°. B. P. 136.4°. Absorbs moisture and evolves 
dense fumes consisting of a dispersion of titanic acid 
hydrate and hydrogen chloride. 



TRICHLOROMETHVL CHLOROFORMATE 149 

Uses: For producing smoke; the latter can be made 
more dense by combination with ammonia vapors. 
Employed in airplane exhaust smoke, in explosive type 
of munitions, or by spraying. 

TNA 

Symbol for Tetranitroaniline (See). 

TNB 

Symbol for Trinitrobenzene (See). 

TNT 

Symbol for Trinitrotoluene (See). 

TNX 

Symbol for Trinitroxylene (See). 

TOLrTE 

French name for Trinitrotoluene (See). 

TONITE 

Composition: A blasting explosive containing dinitro- 
benzene, guncotton, and barium nitrate in the propor- 
tion of 13:19:68. 

"TORPEDO EXPLOSIVE NO. 1" 

Commercial term for Blasting Gelatine (See). 

TRIACETIN 

Commercial name for Glyceryl Triacetate (See). 

TRICHLOROMETHYL CHLOROFORMATE 
Chemical name for Diphosgene (See).. 



1 50 TRICHLORONITROMETHANE 

TRICHLORONITROMETHANE 

Chemical name for Chlorpicrin (See). 

TRICHLORTRlVINyLARSINE 
See Vinylchlorarsine. 

TRIDITE 

Composition: Mixture consisting of 80 per cent trini- 
trophenol and 20 per cent dinitrophenol. 

Properties: Addition of dinitrophenol lowers the melt- 
ing point of the trinitrophenol (picric acid). The mix- 
ture can be cast, and the charge is free from exudation. 
Detonation rate about 6300 m/sec. 

Uses: For bursting charges. 
See Trinitrophenol. 

TRILITE 

Commercial name for Trinitrotoluene (See). 

TRIMETHyLENE TRINITRAMINE (CYCLONITE) (CYCLO- 
TRIMETHyLENETRINITRAMINE) (HEXOGEN) 
Composition: (CH 2 ) 3 N 3 (NOi)j 

NO a 

N 

CHi CHj 

NO— N N— NO, 



V 



Properties: White crystals. M. P. 202". One of the 
most powerful modern high explosives. Detonation 
rate (d = 1.60) 8400 m/sec. Has greater brisance than 
TNT. 

Uses: In mixture with TNT (70 per cent) as bursting 
charge for aerial bombs, sea mines, torpedoes in World 



TWN1TROANISOLE 151 



War II. 18 Disadvantage for more general application 
is that it requires 10 pounds of nitric acid for 1 pound 
of cyclonite. Like Tetryl, it can be used as a booster, 
being easily initiated by mercury fulminate. 

TR1MONITE 

Composition: A mixture consisting of 90 per cent trini- 
trophenol (picric acid) and 10 per cent mononitro- 
naphthalene. 

Properties: Addition of nitronaphthalene lowers the 
melting point of the picric acid and makes it safer for 
loading into shells by casting. The mixture becomes 
fluid at about 100°. Like picric acid, it forms sensitive 
compounds with some metals (zinc, lead). 

Uses: Specified as a substitute or reserve explosive for 
bursting charges. 
See Trinitrophenol. 

TRINITROANILINE (PICRAMIDE) (PICRAMITE) 

Composition: C 6 H 2 NH 2 (N0 2 ) 3 

NH 2 

O a Nr / \N0 2 

NO, 

Properties: Orange-red crystals. M. P. 186-188°. 
Fairly powerful explosive. 

Uses: Of no particular interest as an explosive. 

TRINITROANISOLE (METHYL PICRATE) (TRINITROPHENYL 
METHYL ETHER) 

Composition: C s H 2 OCH s (N0 2 ) 3 

OCH 3 

OsNr^lNO* 




152 TRINITROBENZENE 



Properties: Yellow crystals. M. P. 67-68°. Other 
properties similar to those of picric acid. It has the 
advantage that it does not attack metals provided it 
is protected from moisture. The lower melting point 
gives a further advantage in shell-loading. 

Uses: As booster charge. During World War I the 
Germans used a mixture of trinitroanisole and hexani- 
trodiphenyl sulfide in bombs. 

TRINITROBENZENE (TNB) (SYM-TRINITROBENZENE) 

Symbol: TNB 
Composition: C a H 3 (N0 2 )3 

N0 2 

Properties: Yellow crystals. Sp. gr. 1.69 at 20°. 
M. P. 121.2°. More powerful and having higher hri- 
sance than TNT, but producing smaller shell frag- 
ments. Less sensitive to impact and more toxic than 
TNT. Rate of detonation (d = 1.66) 7350 m/sec., 
compared with 7140 m/aec. for TNT (d = 1.60) when 
tested under similar conditions. 

Uses: Not used in explosives on account of difficulties 
encountered in its large-scale production (low yield). 

TRINITROBENZOL 

See Trinitrohenzene. 

TRINITROCELLULOSE 

Composition: CaH 7 02(N0 3 )3 

Highest degree of nitration based on cellulose unit of 

C 6 H io0 6 . 

Properties: 14.14 per cent nitrogen. So far has not 
heen produced in stable form. The highest grade of 



TR1NITROPHENETOLE 153 

guncotton contains about 13.5-13.7 per cent nitrogen. 
See Hexanitrocellulose, Dodekanitrocellulose, Gun- 
cotton, Nitrocellulose. 

TRINITROCRESOL (CRESYLITE) (TRINITRO-m-CRESOL) 
Composition: C 6 HCH 3 (OH)(N02) 8 CH 3 

CH S 

N0 3 

Properties: Yellow needles. M. P. 109°. Weaker than 
TNT and picric acid. 

Uses: Was used as bursting charge in various com- 
binations with other high explosives. 
See MDPC. 

The ammonium salt was used in Austria for shells of 
large caliber. 
See Ecrasite. 

TRINITRO-m-XYLENE 
See Trinitroxylene. 

TRIN1TROPHENETOLE (ETHYL PICRATE) (TRINrTROPHENYL 
ETHYL ETHER) 

Composition: CeHaOCaHsfNO^a 

OC 2 H 6 

OsN/NNOs 

N0 2 

Properties: Yellow crystals. M. P. 78°. Other proper- 
ties and uses comparable with those of Trinilroaiiisolo 

(See). 



154 TRINITROPHENOL 



TRINITROPHENOL (PICRIC ACID) (SyM-TRINITROPHENOL) 
British: Lyddite 
French : Melinite 
Japanese: Shimose 
ItaKan: Pertite 

Composition: C 6 H 2 OH(N0 2 ) B 

OH 

O^n/NnO., 




Properties: Pale-yellow crystals. Sp. gr. 1.76. M. P. 
122-123°. Explodes above 300°. The fusion tempera- 
ture is too high for safe casting; therefore other nitro 
explosives are added to reduce the melting point. 
When used alone, it is press-loaded. Detonation rate 
(d = 1.53) 7000 m/sec. Corrosive to metals, forming 
metal picrates which are very sensitive and danger- 
ous; therefore the cavity of the shell must be lined by 
tinning or with a varnish or synthetic resin surface. 

Uses: Was one of the most important shell-fillers dur- 
ing World War I. Used alone or in mixture with other 
nitro compounds such as dinitrophenol and nitro- 
naphthalene. 

See Tridite, Trimonite, MPDC. 

For loading of high-explosive shells, it has been largely 
replaced by TNT. However, picric acid and its com- 
positions can still he considered a reserve explosive for 
this purpose. As component of priming compositions. 
Picric acid is manufactured in large quantities for the 
production of armor-piercing explosives. 
See Ammonium Picrate. 

TRINITROPHENyL ETHVL ETHER 

See Trinitrophenetole. 



TRINlTPOPHENyLNITRAMINE-ETHyL NITRATE 155 

TRINITROPHENYL METHYL ETHER 
See Trinitroanisole. 

TRINITROPHENYLMETHyLNlTRAMINE (TETRYL) (TETRA- 
LITE) (PYRONITE) 

Composition: C fl H 2 {N0 2 ) 3 (NCH 3 N0 2 ) 
OiN— N— CH, 

Sometimes erroneously called methyltetranitroaniline 
or tetranitromethyl aniline. 

Properties: Yellow crystals or granules. M. P. 129- 
130°. 24.4 per cent nitrogen. Rate of detonation 
(d = 1.7) 7200-7300 m/sec. Rather sensitive to im- 
pact. Stable, but more sensitive to shock and friction 
than TNT. Loaded by pressing. Can be compressed 
into pellets for use as booster explosive. Toxic. 42 

Uses: In reinforced detonators. Standard booster 
explosive for high-explosive shells. It is the base for 
the service Tetryl caps which are necessary for positive 
detonation of TNT. A mixture of fulminate of mer- 
cury and potassium chlorate is included in the cap to 
insure detonation of Tetryl. 
See Boosters. 

TRINITROPHENYLNITRAMINE-ETHyL NITRATE (PENTRYL) 

Composition: CJ* a (NOj) 8 N(NO,)(CHi).NO, 
2 N^ XHXr^ONOa 




NO, 



156 TRINITROTOLUENE 



Properties: Yellowish, nearly white crystals. M. P. 
128°. Explodes when heated to 235°. Sp. gr. 1.82. 
Soluble in nitroglycerine. Sensitivity to impact simi- 
lar to, and sensitivity to friction somewhat greater 
than, that of Telryl; hut the shattering power is much 
greater for the PentryL The disruptive power of Pen- 
tryl as measured in the small Trauzl block is 30 per 
cent greater than that of TNT, 15 per cent greater 
than that of Tetryl, and 27 per cent greater than that 
of picric acid. 5 Rate of detonation (d = 0.8) 5000 
m/sec. 

Uses: Similar to Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (See). 
Particularly effective as a base charge in compound 
detonators. 

TRINITROTOLUENE (TRILITE) (TRITOL) (TRITON) (ALPHA- 
TRINITROTOLUENE) (SYM-TRINITROTOLUENE) (1,2,4,6- 
TRINrTROTOLUENE) 

Symbol: TNT 

British: Trotyl 

French: Tolite 

German: Sprengmunition-02 

Composition: C 6 H 2 (CH 3 )(N0 2 )j 

CH 3 




Properties: Yellow crystals. Sp. gr. 1.654. M. P. 80.8°. 

U. S. Army grade 1, setting point 80.2°. 
U. S. Army grade 2, setting point 76.0°. 

Explodes at 240-280°. In small quantities it hums 
without danger of detonation. In large quantities, the 
heat generated by burning will raise the temperature 



TRINITROXYLENE 157 



to the detonating point. The rate of detonation in- 
creases with the density. It is 6700 m/sec at d = 1.6. 
TNT is toxic and on prolonged exposure may cause 
serious injury when absorbed through the skin or by 
inhalation of the dust or vapor. 

It forms unstable and dangerous compounds in pres- 
ence of alkalies. TNT is comparatively insensitive to 
shock. In crystalline form it can readily be detonated 
with mercury fulminate; in compressed form it re- 
quires a powerful detonator. When it is used in cast 
form, it is necessary to interpose a booster, noncom- 
pressed TNT or Tetryl being suitable for this purpose. 
Compressed granular Tetryl is generally used in com- 
bination with bursting charges. 

Uses: It is the standard high explosive as bursting 
charge for bombs and shells (except armor-piercing) 
and is used alone or in mixture with ammonium nitrate 
(See Amatol). TNT has replaced guncotton and picric 
acid in submarine mines and torpedo warheads. It is 
a quick-acting explosive and is suitable for all kinds of 
blasting and demolition work. It is also used in tbe 
manufacture of detonating fuse (cordeau), reinforced 
detonators, and in some grades of dynamite and safety 
explosives. As component of smokeless powder, 

piS, 21 

See High Explosives, Boosters, Ammonite. 

TRINITROXYLENE (TRINfTRO-m-XYLENE) " 
Symbol: TNX 

Composition: C«H(CH»)j(NQi)i 

CH 3 

2 Nf 




.NO, 



158 TRITOL 

Properties: Yellow crystals. M. P. 182°. Not very 
powerful when used alone. Addition of TNT, picric 
acid, or other nitro high explosives serves the purpose 
of lowering the melting point as well as that of rein- 
forcement. Mixtures of TNX and ammonium nitrate 
can be loaded by compression. 

Uses: In detonating compositions and in mixture with 
other high explosives as bursting charge. Alone or in 
mixture with other trinitroxylenes in commercial 
dynamites. Can be considered as a reserve explosive. 
Was produced hi this country towards the end of 
World War I and was to be used as a partial substitute 
for TNT by casting a mixture of TNX suspended in 
molten TNT. 

TRITOL (TRITON) 

Commercial name for Trinitrotoluene (See). 

TROJAN COAL POWDER 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by Trojan Powder Co., Allentown, Pa. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

TROJAN EXPLOSIVE 



Composition: 






PER CENT 


Nitrostarch 


. 23 -27 


Ammonium nitrate . 


. 31 - 35 


Sodium nitrate . 


. 36 - 40 


Charcoal .... 


1.5 - 2.5 


Diphenylamine . . 


0.5 - 1.5 


Heavy hydrocarbons 


0.5 - 1.5 



Properties: Grayish-black color. Consistency of brown 
sugar, due to small amount of mineral oil. Less sensi- 
tive than nitrostarch. 



VESICANTS 139 



Uses: Was used in World War I as bursting charge for 

hand grenades, rifle grenades, and trench-mortar 

shells. 

See Nitrostarch. 

TROTYL 

British name for Trinitrotoluene (See). 

UROTROPINE 

See Hexamethylene Tetracaine, Phenate Hexamine. 

U. S. NU-GEL 

A brand of gelatinons permissible explosives manu- 
factured by United States Powder Co., Terre Haute, 
Ind. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

U. S., U. S. SPECIAL 

Brands of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by United States Powder Co., Terre Hante, 
Ind. 
See Permissible Explosives, 

VASELINE 

Trade mark for a brand of Mineral Jelly (See). 

VESICANTS (FLESH-INJURANTS) (BLISTER-PRODUCERS) 

Chemical agents which are readily absorbed, followed 
by inflammation, burns, and the destrnction of tissue. 
See Vinylchlorarsine, Dichlorethyl Sulfide, Ethyldi- 
chlorarsine. 



160 VINCENNITE 

VINCENNITE 

Composition: 

PER CENT 

Hydrogen cyanide 50 

Arsenic Lrichloride .... 30 

Tin tetrachloride 15 

Chloroform 5 

Uses: Used by French in World War I in chemical 

shells. Difficult to obtain toxic concentrations, on 

account of the extreme volatility of the hydrocyanic 

acid. 

See Hydrocyanic Acid. 

VITRITE 

French name for Cyanogen Chloride (See). 

VOMITING GAS 
See Chlorpicrin. 

WAR GASES 

See Lacrimators, Lung Irritants, Systemic Poisons, 
Vesicants. 

WASHING SODA (SAL SODA) 

Composition: Na 2 CO a . 10H 2 O 

Properties: Colorless crystals. Effloresces on exposure 
to air. 

Uses: In gas-protection pads. 
See Sodium Thiosulfate. 

WATER-GAS TAR 

Properties: Viscid, dark-brown liquid. Sp. gr. 1.0- 
1.15. 

Uses: For compositions used in flame projectors. 



WP 161 

WESCO COAL POWDER 

A brand of nongelatinous permissible explosives manu- 
factured by West Coast Powder Co., Everett, Wash. 
See Permissible Explosives. 

WETTER- ASTRALIT 

A German Permissible Explosive. 
Composition: 

PER CENT 

Gelatinized nitroglycerine . . 12.0 

Ammonium nitrate .... 57.0 

Wood meal 2.0 

Coal powder 2.0 

Common salt 27.0 

WHITE PHOSPHORUS 

See Phosphorus (White). 

WOOD CHARCOAL 

See Charcoal. 

WOOD MEAL (WOOD FLOUR) 

A fine powder, made from sawdust or wood waste, 
which absorbs liquids readily. 

Uses: As absorbent for nitroglycerine in dynamites 
and permissible explosives. 

WOOD PULP 

White fibrous material used as absorbent for nitro- 
glycerine in the manufacture of dynamite. 



WP 



Chemical Warfare symbol for White Phosphorus. 
See Phosphorus White. 



162 YELLOW CROSS 



YELLOW CROSS 

German name for Ethyldichlorarsine (See). 

ypERfTE 

French name for Dichlorethyl Sulfide (See). 

ZINC DUST 

Symbol: Zn 

Properties: Bluish-white powder. Sp. gr. 7.14 at 20°. 
M. P. 419.4°. B. P. 907°. 

Uses: To produce a dense white or gray smoke by 
burning it in combination with hexachlorethane. For 
a grayer smoke, naphthalene or anthracene ia added 
to the mixture. 
See HC Mixture. 

ZIRCONIUM 

Symbol: Zr 

Properties: Hard, lustrous, grayish, crystalline scales. 
Sp. gr. 6.5. M. P. about 1800°. 

Uses: In finely divided form as oxygen-acceptor in 
priming mixtures, P 30 . In fuze heads in combination 
with lead styphnate, P S1 . 



Bibliography 

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163 



164 BIBLIOGRAPHy 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1« 



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166 BIBLIOGRAPHY 



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BIBLIOGRAPHy 167 



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Patents 

1. Olsen, Fredrich, et al. (to Western Cartridge Co.) : Manufac- 

ture of Smokeless Powder. U. S. 2,027,114. Jan. 7, 
1936. 

2. Schladt, Geo. J.: Pyrotechnic Composition. U. S. 2,149,314. 

Mar. 7, 1937. 

3. Pritham, Charles H.: Pyrotechnic Composition for Tracer 

Ammunition. U. S. 2,123,201. July 12, 1938. 

4. Seavey, Frederick R. (to Western Cartridge Co.) : Stratified 

Explosive Primer Charges. U. S. 2,068,516. Jan. 19, 1937. 

5. Craven, Thomas A.: Incendiary Projectiles. Brit. 453,795. 

Sept. 18, 1936. 

6. Hutchinson, John F. (to Remington Arms Co.): Lubricant 

for Ammunition. U. S. 2,244,705. June 10, 1941. 

7. Dynamit-Aktiengesellschaft vorm. Alfred Nobel & Co.: 

Explosives for Detonating Rivets. Brit. 528,299. Oct. 25, 
1940. 

8. von Herz, Edm., et al. (to Dynamit-Aktiengesellsehaft vorm. 

Alfred Nobel & Co.): Explosives for Explosion Rivets. 
Ger. 702,269. Jan. 9, 1941. 

9. Dynamit-Aktiengesellschaft vorm. Alfred Nobel & Co.: Ex- 

plosive for Detonating Rivets. Brit. 532,317. Jan. 22, 
1941. 

10. von Herz, Edm., et al. (to E. 1. du Pont de Nemours & Co.) : 

Explosive Charges for Detonating Rivets. U. S. 2,261,195. 
Nov. 4, 1941. 

11. Hallet, Charles S.: Chlorate Explosive. U. S. 2,263,406. 

Nov. 18, 1941. 

12. Olsen, Fredrich, et al. (to Western Cartridge Co.) : Smokeless 

Powder. U. S. 2,213,255. Sept. 3, 1940. 

13. Crater, Willard de C. (to Hercules Powder Co.) : Blasting Cap. 

U. S. 2,214,721. Sept. 10, 1940. 

14. Williams, Vernon H. and Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd.: 

Blasting Explosives. Brit. 524,162. July 31, 1940. 

169 



170 PATENTS 

15. Crater, Willard de C. (to Hercules Powder Co.): Guanidine 

Nitxate Blasting Explosive. U. S. 2,142,386. Jan. 3, 1939. 

16. Spurlin, Harold M., and Pfeifer, Gustave H. (to HerculeB 

Powder Co.): Deterrent Coating for Smokeless Powder. 
U. S. 2,187,866. Jan. 23, 1940. 

17. Marsh, Henry M. (to Hercules Powder Co.) : Rust Inhibiting 

Propellent Explosive. U. S. 2,131,061. Sept. 27, 1938. 

18. Lindaley, Milton F., Jr. (to E. I. du Pont de Nemours and 

Co.): Small Grain Double Base Powders. U. S. 2,247,392. 
July 1, 1941. 

19. Western Cartridge Co.: Surface Treating Agents for Smoke- 

less Powder. Brit. 494,277. Oct. 24, 1938. 

20. Goodyear, Ellsworth S. (to Hercules Powder Co.): Propel- 

lent Powder. U. S. 2,228,309. Jan. 14, 1941. 

21. Hale, George C, and Cameron, Donald R.: Propellent Nitro- 

cellulose Explosive. U. S. 2,026,531. Jan. 7, 1936. 

22. Johnson, Norman G., and Lewis, Harold A. (to E. I. du Pont 

de Nemours and Co.) : Pulverulent Dynamite. U. S. 
2,033,196. March 10, 1935. 

23. Wahl, Milton H. (to E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co.): 

Granular Detonating Explosive. U. S. 2,171,379. Aug. 29, 
1940. 

24. Williams, Vernon H. (to Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd.): 

Low Density Blasting Explosive. U. S. 2,235,060. Mar. 18, 
1941. 

25. Kirst, William E., and Woodbury, ClhTord A. (to E. I. du 

Pont de Nemours and Co.) : Ammonium Nitrate Blasting 
Explosive. U. S. 2,069,612. Feb. 2, 1937. 

26. Aaron, John H., and Mclntyre, James T. (to E. I. du Pont 

de Nemours and Co.) : Cellular Smokeless Powder. U. S. 
2,230,100. Jan. 28, 1941. 

27. Olsen, Fredrich (to Western Cartridge Co.) : Propellent Ex- 

plosive Powders. U. S. 2,028,990. Jan. 28, 1938. 

28. Payn, Russel C, and White, Albert G. (Canadian Industries 

Ltd.) : Cooling Sheath for Blasting Explosives. Can. 362,- 
019. Nov. 24, 1936. 

29. Owens, Robert D. I. (to Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd.) : 

Coating Sheath for Blasting Explosion Cartridges. U. S. 
2,250,935. July 9, 1941. 



PATENTS 171 

30. Jacobs, George H. (to Peters Cartridge Co.): Priming Mix- 

tures for Ammunition. U. S. 2,027,325. Jan. 14, 1936. 

31. Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd.: Detonators. French 

796,833. Apr. 16, 1936. 

32. Lawrence, Robert W. (to Hercules Powder Co.): Electric 

Blasting Cap. Can. 398,139. July 22, 1941. 

33. Taylor, James, and Williams, Vernon H. (to Imperial Chem- 

ical Industries, Ltd.) : Granular Detonating Blasting Ex- 
plosives. U. S. 2,218,563. Oct. 22, 1940. 

34. Kirst, William E., and Marshall, John (to the Canadian 

Industries, Ltd.) ; Low Density Dynamite. Can. 339,433. 
Feb. 20, 1934. 

35. Wyler, Joseph A. (to Trojan Powder Co.) : Blasting Explosive. 

U. S. 1,985,968. Jan. 1, 1935. 

36. Lewis, Harold A. (to E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co.): 

Ignition Composition for Blasting Caps. U. S. 1,964,825. 

37. Crater, Willard de C. (to Hercules Powder Co.) : Nitro Inosi- 

tol. U. S. 1,850,225. Mar. 22, 1932. 

38. Crater, Willard de C. (to Hercules Powder Co.): Inulin 

Nitrate. U. S. 1,922,123. Aug. 15, 1933. 

39. Burgschmiet, G.: Plastic Explosive. Can. 265,694. Nov. 9, 

1926. 

40. Swint, W. R.: Low Velocity and Low Density Ammonium 

Nitrate Blasting Explosive. Can. 276,079. Dec. 6, 1927. 

41. Kula, W.:Penthrite Explosive. Brit. 543,209. Feb. 13, 1942. 

42. Brown, K. R.; Nitroguanidine-Perchlorate Explosives. U. S. 

1,546,367. July 21, 1925. 

43. Naoum, Phokion (to E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co.) : 

Calcium Nitrate Shattering Explosives. U. S. 1,865,382. 
June 28, 1932.