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DIFFICULTIES IN THE DETECTION OF CRIME                                    5

the heads of Chamars before it can be taken to the sadr station for autopsy;
for, in most districts the Civil Surgeon is the only officer authorized to hold
medico-legal post-mortem examinations. As a precaution against decomposi-
tion, the police in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh were instructed to
protect the body either by wood charcoal and ferrous sulphate (kasis),
phenyle and mustard oil or carbolic dust, but this process does not, in any
way, retard putrefaction. On the contrary, it helps to disfigure the external
wounds so much that in some cases it may be difficult to differentiate their
varieties. Hence on my representation to the Inspect or-General of Civil
Hospitals, U.P., these instructions have been cancelled, and the police are
now required to forward the body in a shell in the state in which it was found.

A medical officer must never hesitate to hold a post-mortem examination
of a body on the ground of advanced decomposition, although it is, at times,
very trying and disgusting to do so. It is very essential to make as thorough
an examination as practicable in order to find some clue to the cause and
manner of death, especially in a case where there is suspicion of foul play.

On account of districts being spread over a large area, it is impossible
to avoid such difficulties. Hence it appears to be desirable for members of
the Provincial Subordinate Medical Service in charge of branch dispensaries
to be authorized to hold post-mortem examinations, and I do not see any
reason why these officers should be debarred from holding autopsies, seeing
that they have to go through a four years' course in a recognized medical
school and have to pass three stiff examinations before they are qualified to
practise in medicine and surgery.2

(7) To fabricate a false charge against an enemy it is usual for one party
to kill a relation, probably a child or old person^ and then to accuse the
opposite party of murder. Even on the occurrence of a natural death in the
family the relatives make a false report to implicate their enemies, and
attribute the death to some previous quarrel or fight that had taken place
between the two parties. Sometimes, someone disappears from the scene
and after a time a decomposed body found lying on the outskirts of a village
or dug up from a grave is claimed as the body of the absconding person,
"and a false charge of murder is laid at the door of an unwary enemy who,
though innocent, not infrequently makes a confession of guilt, possibly to
avoid police torture, or when for other reasons, he finds it difficult to escape
the net of conspiracy spread around him.

Illustrative Cases.—1. In the District of Hardoi, a lad, named Chitowri, was missing.
About a dozen persons claiming to be eye-witnesses swore before the police that they
had seen the boy being strangled by his brother-in-law and other accomplices and
thrown into a river. The principal complainant, Ramlal, Chitowri's brother, fainted at the
police station while he was describing his brother's alleged murder. The police searched
the river and instituted a murder case, and the Magistrate issued warrants for the arrest of
the accused. The bottom was knocked out of the case, however, on the accidental dis-
covery by the police of the " dead " lad very much alive in a friend's house, several miles
from the village. Hamlal and others were prosecuted for making false complaints to
mislead the police.-—Times of ludio, July 15, 1937.

2. A priest suddenly disappeared from his village, and police inquiries led to the
arrest of two men, one of whom was the priest's nephew and the other a teacher in the
village school. They were charged with murder in the Court of the Dewan of Dharam-
jaigarh State in Bilaspur District, Central Provinces. The police produced charred bones,
believed to be those of the missing priest, who, they alleged, had been taken to the
jungle and murdered by the accused with an axe. Prosecution witnesses were called to
support the police story and the accused were committed to the Sessions. While they
were awaiting judgment, however, the missing priest wrote to the Dewan informing
him that he was returning from a pilgrimage he had undertaken. Subsequently £he
priest himself appeared before the Court, and the accused were acquitted. The police

2. This class of medical men will cease to exist after a few years, as almost all
medical schools are being raised to the status of medical colleges, where medical educa-
tion is imparted upto the degree standard.