g MEDICAL JTJRISPRUDENCE Court in the North-West Frontier Province. These courts may try any offence and pass any sentence authorized by law. But since the advent of independence on the 15th August 1947, British India has been divided into two separate sovereign states of Indian Dominion and Pakistan, and a High Court has been established in each of the provinces of these States, where there was none. The High Court of Allahabad and the Chief Court of Lucknow of the United Provinces have been amalgamated into the combined High Court located in Allahabad, but a judicial bench has been holding its separate sittings in Lucknow. In these courts cases are tried before a Judge and a common jury of nine persons. A common jury is composed of persons whose names appear in lie general list of those liable to serve as jurors. Medical men are as a rule, exempted from serving on a jury (vide Appendix III, Cr. P.C., section 320). A special jury is composed of persons taken from a special list of jurors prescribed by the High Court. A special jury is empannelled in trials pertaining to offences punishable with death in any other cases directed by a Judge of the High Court. The verdict of the jury is to be delivered through their foreman to be chosen by the jurors themselves, in the first instance. The unanimous verdict of the jury is to prevail in the High Court, but if the jury are not unanimous and the Judge disagrees with the verdict of the majority, he may discharge the jury and order a new trial. The accused person has the right to challenge the jurors individually as they are called. The Courts of Session are invested with jurisdiction over all kinds of offences. But they can only try cases which have been committed to them by a Magistrate. They may pass any sentence authorized by law, but a sentence of death passed by a Court of Session must be confirmed by the High Court before it can be carried out. An Assistant Sessions Judge may pass any sentence authorized by law, except a sentence of death or of trans- portation or imprisonment for a term exceeding seven years, The trials before these courts are ordinarily conducted by the presiding Judge with the assistance of three or four assessors, but the Local Government may, with the previous sanction of the Governor-General-in-Council, by order in the Official Gazette, direct the trial of all offences or of any particular class of offences before any Court of Session in any district to be by jury (vide Appendix III, Cr. Proc. Code, sec. 269). In trials by jury before the Court of Session the jury shall be composed of not less than five or more than nine men. In cases where an accused person is charged with an offence that is punishable with death, the number of the jury shall, as far as possible, be at the full strength and in no case less than seven. The Sessions Judge is not bound to accept the opinion of the assessors. If he happens to differ from their opinion, he can pass a sentence without referring the fact to the High Court to which he is subordinate, but if he disagrees with the verdict of the jury, whether it be in favour of the prisoner or against him, he can only submit the record to the High Court which may, on submission being made, pass any order which it deems proper to pass. The racial discrimination prescribed for the procedure at the trial of a European or an Indian British subject in the Code of Criminal Procedure by Act XII of 1923 is abolished by the Criminal Law (Removal of Racial Discri- minations) Act, 1949. The sentences authorized by law areó (i) death, (ii) transportation, fiii) imprisonment (including solitary confinement), (iv) fine, and (v) whipping.