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1.   RACE

The question of the determination of race or community arises in the
identification of unknown or unclaimed dead bodies found in railway car-
riages, or lying in streets, roads, and fields in the vicinity of villages, or
recovered from wells, tanks, canals and rivers. This question also arises in
seaport towns, where there is always a conglomeration of races and

The two important communities of Hindus and Mahomedans in India
can be recognized by noting the following chief points ; —

Hindu Males.

Mahomedan Males.

1.   Not circumcised.

2.   Sacred thread worn over left shoulder
in high castes, dwija or twice-born.

3.   Necklace of wooden beads   (Tulsi or
Eudraksh) round the neck.

4 Marks on the forehead painted red,
yellow (safrron coloured) or white
(sandal wood), indicating different

religious sects.


5.   Tuft of hair usually grown longer on    i
middle   of  back   of  head  below  the

6.   Angar&kha,   or   Mirzai   when    worn,
leaves an opening, about 5" or 6" X
1",   along   the   rigfyt   side   of   chest
showing a brown sun-burnt mark, as
nothing  else  is  worn  next  to   skin,

•especially among villagers.

7.   Bar lobules usually pierced,

8.   Palms   and  fingers  not  stained   with

1.    Circumcised.

N.B,—Jews are also circumcised.

2.   No such sacred thread.

3.   No such necklace.

4.   No such marks; but callosities on the
centre of forehead, patella, tuberosity
of left tibia and tip of left lateral (ex-
ternal)    malleolus   owing   to   special
attitudes adopted during prayers.

5.   No   such   tuft   of  hair.    Head   clean
shaved, especially among BoJiras.

N.B.—I saw a Mahomedan male having a
tuft of hair on his head. On inquiry
he said that he kept it in imitation
of his Hindu friends living near his
house in his village (vide Fig. 1).

6.   Similar sun-burnt mark on left side
of   chest   on   account   of   the   Anga-

«    rakha or Mirzai opening on that side.

7.   Ear   lobules   not   pierced,   but   left
lobule may be pierced in a few cases.

8.   Palm  of  left  hand   and tip   of  little
I  ^ finger sometimes stained with henna.

Hindu Females.

Mahomedan Females.

1.   Tattoo-marks   between   eyebrows,
below crease of elbow, on dorsum of
hand, and on chest, especially among
low castes.

2.   Nose-ring aperture in left nostril; in
a few eases in septum as welL

3.   A few openings along helix ior ear-

4.   Vermilion painted in hair parting on
bead and red mark on centre of fore-
head in women having husbands alive.

5.   Iron-wristlet  worn  on  left  wrist  in
Bengal and ivory  churis in Bombay
and several glass bangles in UP.

HJS.—These  are   only  worn  by  women
whose husbands are alive.

6.   Head shaved among high class (Brah-
min) widows,

7.   Toes wide apart as usually no shoes
are worn, but silver ornaments called
Bichhawas  are   carried on  the   toes,
especially among village women.

8.   Trousers not worn except by Punjabi

1.   No tatrtoo-marks except among prose-
lytized women.

2.   Hose-ring aperture in septum only.

3.   Several openings along helix for ear-

4.   No such paint.

5.   No iron wristlet or chuns worn but
very few glass bangles.

6.   No shaving of head.

7.   Shoe marks probably with

8.   Trousers worn.