CLOTHES AND ORNAIMEXTS 57 13. CLOTHES AND ORNAMENTS These do not form any essential piece of evidence in the identification of a living person as the individual can change them at will, but they are very valuable in establishing the identification of a dead body. It is, therefore, necessary to preserve them along with any articles, such as a watch, visiting card, diary* etc. found on a dead body or lying in its vicinity for the purpose of future identification. The clothes should be examined carefully for the presence of the name of the owner or tailor or the mark of a dhobi (washer- man) on any of them. In the Kakori conspiracy case one of the accused was identified by means of a bed-sheet found in Jiis possession, as it had the marks of the dhobi employed in a hotel in Lucknow where he was alleged to have stayed for some time. The clothes should also be examined for the presence of cuts or rents or for the presence of blood, seminal or other stains. If dust of organic or mineral matter is found clinging to the clothes or in the pockets, it should be collected and submitted to microscopic examination, as it might give some indication of the business of the person. 14. SPEECH AND VOICE There are certain peculiarities of speech, e.g. stammering, stuttering, lisping, and nasal twang. These peculiarities become more evident when an individual is talking excitedly, ss in a quarrel. Speech is also affected in nervous diseases, such as general paralysis of the insane and disseminated sclerosis. Defective speech depending on some organic defect of the mouth, such as cleft-palate, may be cured by a surgical plastic operation, while functional stammering can be cured without any operation. To recognize a person from his voice is an everyday occurrence, though it is too risky to be relied upon in criminal cases. In the case of King- Emperor v. Bhaktu 6T it was held that the identification of the accused in a pitch dark night by the modulation of his voice could not be relied upon for his conviction. It is possible for a person to alter his voice at will. The best example of this is the ventriloquist. The absence of the teeth, the use of false teeth, and the presence of diphtheria may alter the voice. With the progress of science it may be presumed that the registering of the voice by a gramophone disc will be used in the near future for the purpose of identification in court. Sayad Kasim Razvi, who was accused of murder and tried by the Special Tribunal at Secunderabad, requested the presiding judge for facilities of a gramophone to play a record, which he was expecting from Pakistan, as defence evidence. The accused stated that he would make two witnesses to listen to the record before putting them in the wit- ness box. The judge agreed to provide all facilities, provided the record reached him in time.08 15. GAIT An individual can be recognized even from a distance by watching his gait, but such evidence is far from conclusive, inasmuch as the gait may be altered by an accident or disease, especially of a nervous nature, such as locomotor ataxy, hemiplegia, spastic paraplegia, etc. In civil suits the medi- cal man may sometimes be requested to express his opinion if a particular individual is really lame or malingering, if he has filed a suit against his employer for the recovery of damages for an accident caused to him during his legitimate work. 67. Lahore High Court; 29 Crim. Law Jour., January 1928, p. 759 ,* Rangoon High Court; 39 CHm. Law Jour., January 1938, p. 34. 68. Times of India, June 20, 19503 p. 3.