62 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE 8. The natural orifices, viz. nose, mouth, ears, anus, urethra and vagina, should be examined for the presence of injuries, foreign bodies or discharges, such as blood, pus, etc. The mouth and nostrils should be particularly examined for the presence of froth, and the position of the tongue should be noted in connection with the front teeth. 9. The hands should be examined for any article, such as hair, frag- k ments of clothing or a weapon grasped by them or the presence of mud or blood on them or under the nails. 10. The direction of blood smears and the signs of spouting of blood should be noted, if any. 11. The situation of post-mortem staining, if present, should be noted. 12. After washing the body a careful search for the presence of injuries or marks of violence should be made all over the body from head to foot, on the front as well as on the back. In the case of a female body the hair of the head should be removed to examine the scalp. If any injuries are found on the body, they should be photographed or marked carefully on sketches, before they are described in detail in the post-mortem report. Such a pro- cedure is very helpful in enabling the Magistrate and counsel of both sides to understand the exact nature, extent and situation of the injuries on the body. Bruises and abrasions, if any, should be described as regards their length, breadth and their exact position. Bruises should be incised to find out if they were inflicted before or after death and to differentiate them from suggilation. Wounds, if present, should be described as regards their nature, size, direction and position. The conditions of their edges should also be men- tioned. The exact size ought to be noted with a measuring tape and some fixed bony points should be taken to describe their exact position. The means by which they were inflicted should also be noted. Deep or penetrating wounds should not be investigated by means of a probe, until the body is opened. In the case of gunshot wounds the course and direction of the bullet should be ascertained by dissection rather than by the use of a probe, and the injured nerves and blood-vessels, if any are found, should be noted. If there is only one opening, a search should be made for the bullet, which must be preserved. It should be remembered that a bullet takes a very tortuous and erratic course in its passage through the body. A note should also be made, if the skin in the vicinity of the wound is blackened and if the hair is scorched. Ligature marks or finger marks, if present on the neck, should be noted. In the case of burns, their position, extent and degree should be men- tioned, as also the manner of their causation as to whether they were caused by fire, scalding fluids, corrosives or explosives. 13. All the bones should be carefully examined for the presence of fractures and the joints for dislocations. If any fracture is present, the soft parts overlying the fractured piece should be dissected and examined for laceration or ecchymosis. Lastly, all the external injuries should be compared with those noted in the descriptive roll supplied by the police and any discrepancy should be mentioned in the report.