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62                                                 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE

8.   The natural orifices, viz. nose, mouth, ears, anus, urethra and vagina,
should be examined for the presence of injuries, foreign bodies or discharges,
such as  blood,  pus,  etc.   The mouth and nostrils should be particularly
examined for the presence of froth, and the position of the tongue should be
noted in connection with the front teeth.

9.    The hands should be examined for any article, such as hair, frag-
k ments of clothing or a weapon grasped by them or the presence of mud or

blood on them or under the nails.

10.    The direction of blood smears and the signs of spouting of blood
should be noted, if any.

11.    The situation of post-mortem staining, if present, should be noted.

12.    After washing the body a careful search for the presence of injuries
or marks of violence should be made all over the body from head to foot,
on the front as well as on the back.    In the case of a female body the hair of
the head should be removed to examine the scalp.   If any injuries are found
on the body, they should be photographed or marked carefully on sketches,
before they are described in detail in the post-mortem report.   Such a pro-
cedure is very helpful in enabling the Magistrate and counsel of both sides
to understand the exact nature,  extent  and  situation  of the injuries  on
the body.

Bruises and abrasions, if any, should be described as regards their
length, breadth and their exact position. Bruises should be incised to find
out if they were inflicted before or after death and to differentiate them from

Wounds, if present, should be described as regards their nature, size,
direction and position. The conditions of their edges should also be men-
tioned. The exact size ought to be noted with a measuring tape and some
fixed bony points should be taken to describe their exact position. The
means by which they were inflicted should also be noted.

Deep or penetrating wounds should not be investigated by means of a
probe, until the body is opened.

In the case of gunshot wounds the course and direction of the bullet
should be ascertained by dissection rather than by the use of a probe, and
the injured nerves and blood-vessels, if any are found, should be noted. If
there is only one opening, a search should be made for the bullet, which must
be preserved. It should be remembered that a bullet takes a very tortuous
and erratic course in its passage through the body. A note should also be
made, if the skin in the vicinity of the wound is blackened and if the hair
is scorched.

Ligature marks or finger marks, if present on the neck, should be noted.

In the case of burns, their position, extent and degree should be men-
tioned, as also the manner of their causation as to whether they were caused
by fire, scalding fluids, corrosives or explosives.

13. All the bones should be carefully examined for the presence of
fractures and the joints for dislocations. If any fracture is present, the soft
parts overlying the fractured piece should be dissected and examined for
laceration or ecchymosis.

Lastly, all the external injuries should be compared with those noted in
the descriptive roll supplied by the police and any discrepancy should be
mentioned in the report.