CArSE OF DEATH 69 Table I showing the weights of the chief organs removed from the fresh bodies of healthy Indians of the Uttar Pradesh, varying from 10 to 70 years of age, who died from violence Males Females Organs Weight in ounces Weight in ounces Min. | Max. ! Average ' Mm. Max. : Average Brain 35 57 47.34 30 48 38.29 Right Lung i 7 ; so 18.15 I 6 20 13.5 Left Lung 5 ! 30 16 5S 5 1 18 11.75 Heart 3.5 13 10 4 8 6.5 Stomach. 3 ; 9 5.6 3.5 8 5.75 Liver 26 ! 64 43.78 30 i 50 38.25 Spleen i 2.5 ! 11 6.03 2 9.5 5.14 Bight Kidney 2.5 6 3.64 2 4 3.08 Left Kidney 1.5 6 3.63 2 1 4 2.95 Table II showing the weights of the organs removed from the bodies of adult-males kept in a cool room of the mortuary of the Grant Medical College, Bombay 10 Organs 5 Average weight in grammes Organs Average weight in grammes j Brain Right Lung Left Lung Heart Liver Spleen 1218.72 317.73 297.92 243.68 1122.96 144.76 Kidneys Pancreas Pituitary Suprarenals Thyroid j 199.45 95.85 ' 0.40 10.36 1 10.25 i i i possible, but concise and clear ; it should be forwarded to the Superintendent of Police as soon as possible, but not later than two days. Post-mortem reports drawn up by Civil Assistant Surgeons (members of the Provincial Medical Service in charge of dispensaries) have to be countersigned by Civil Surgeons, but this appears to be unnecessary and meaningless, as responsi- bility still rests with Civil Assistant Surgeons. Some medical officers labour under a mistaken belief that they should never be definite in their opinion as to the actual cause of death, and should, therefore, qualify their opinion by using the word, " probably ", in their post-mortem report. This dictum is sometimes carried so far that instead of helping the Judge to come to a definite conclusion their opinion unneces- sarily creates a bad impression on his mind. For instance, a Civil Surgeon mentioned in a case where a man was murdered by the discharge of a gun in the abdomen that in his opinion death was probably due to shock and internal haemorrhage resulting probably from theTwouhd in the abdomen which was probably caused by the discharge of a fire-arm. In cross-exami- nation he had to admit that there was no possibility of any other cause of death in the case, and he used the word, " probably ", so often in his report, as it was customary to do so among medical officers. In connection with 10. P. V. Gharpure and H. I. Jhala, Ind. Med. Gaz., Dec. 1949, t>. 541; Ind. Med* Gaz., Aug. 1950, p. 342 and Ind. Med. Gaz., Nov. 1952, p. 487.