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72                                                 MEDICAL  JURISPRUDENCE

and attacked by birds of prey, dogs and other animals. If the village chauki-
dar happens to find such a mutilated body, he hurriedly runs to the police
station to make a report about this wonderful discovery, and the remnants
of the body are forwarded to the Civil Surgeon for post-mortem examination.
In such cases the medical examiner should first ascertain if the parts
sent are human or not. This is only difficult when a piece of muscle without
the skin or a viscus is sent. In such a case a definite opinion can be given by
resorting to the precipitin test which is equally applicable to blood as well
as muscle or any other soft tissue. Having determined that they are human
he should try to elucidate the following points : 

1.    All separate parts should be fitted together, and it should be deter-
mined whether they belonged to one and the same body.

2.    The nature and character of the parts should be described, as also
the colour of the skin, if any.

3.    The manner of separation as to whether they had been hacked, sawn
through, cut cleanly, lacerated, or gnawed through by animals.

4.    The sx can be determined, if the head or trunk is available, from
the presence or absence of hair and general conformation.    It may also be
determined from the recognition of prostatic,  ovarian or mammary tissue
under a microscope, if available, and unrecognizable with a naked eye.

5.    The probable age may be ascertained from the skull, teeth, colour
of the hair, trunk, size"and degree of development of fragments and ossifica-
tion of the bones.

6.    IdeTitifecation can be determined from tattoo-marks, scars, colour of
hair, deformities, recent and old fractures, or from the discovery of certain
articles of clothing known to have belonging to a missing person in association
with the mutilated bodies or fragments of a skeleton.

7.    The probable time since death may be ascertained from the condition
of the parts.

8.    The cause of death can be ascertained, if there is evidence of a fatal
injury to someTtarge blood vessel or some vital organ.    For instance, a pene-
trating wound on the left side of the chest cutting the left ventricle of the
heart was noticed on the mutilated body of the Hindu male packed in a
steel trunk and found lying in a first class compartment of No. 6 down train
of E.M. Railway at Agra Fort Station on the 7th August 1909.   The head,
upper half of the lip, penis and extremities had been severed from the trunk.

In September 1922, a body found in a well in a very advanced state of decomposi-
tion was sent for examination from Police Station Hasanganj, Lucknow. All the internal
organs had disappeared except a small portion of the small intestine and the uterus.
The lower jaw and the hands were missing. The skull was denuded free of soft tissues,
but had a depressed, fissured fracture at the junction of the parietal bones with the
frontal. There was a necklace of glass beads round the neck, the soft parts of which
were destroyed in front by maggots, which were crawling all over the body. The body
appeared to be that of a Hindu female who had been killed by fracturing the skull
bone with a blunt weapon and then thrown into a well.

The Ruxton Case.On the 29th September 1935, several mutilated and dismembered
human remains, consisting chiefly of two heads, thorax, pelvis, segments of the upper
and lower limbs, three breasts, portions of female external genitals, and the uterus and
its appendages, were found lying in the bed of Gardenholme Linn, below the bridge
on the Mofrat-Edinburgh road. With a view to effacing all evidence of sex and identity
the ears, eyes, nose and lips had been removed from both the heads. The skin of the
faces had also been removed and the teeth had been extracted. The terminal -joints
of the fingers had been removed from the hands, so that no identification could be
possible from finger prints or some peculiarity of the nails or finger-tips. All the
remains were assembled ^and found to represent two female bodies, apparently well
developed and well nourished. From investigations carried out by several specialists
it was proved beyond doubt that these bodies were those of Mrs. Isabella Ruxton, the wife
of Dr. Kuxton, aged about 35 years, and Miss Mary Rogerson, the nurse-maid of
Dr. Ruxton, aged about 20 years, who had both disappeared from the house of Dr. Ruxton