BLOOD STAINS 87 great care should "be taken that the articles of clothing are not scorched. Unless the clothing is dried thoroughly, putrefaction is likely to set in and render recognition of the origin of stains either difficult or impossible.3 JDhe— investigating officers are also required to forward the entire garment or weapon to the Chemical Examiner along with a history giving all relevant information about the medico-legal aspects of the case and the section of the Indian Penal Code under which the case has been registered. If the stains are .on large and heavy articles, such as doors, cart-yokes, furniture, etc., or on walls, floors and other places which cannot be sent entire, the stained portions should be cut out or sawn out as far as possible and sent to the Chemical Examiner. The magistrate conducting the inquiry in a criminal case is authorized to make a reference to the Chemical Examiner for chemico-legal problems involved in the case, and the medical officer is required to prepare and despatch to the Chemical Examiner the articles having suspected blood stains which require chemico-legal investigations.4 ^When such articles are brought by the police, it is the first duty of the medical officer to see that the articles tally with the description supplied by the police. If the description is^not given, he should, before transmitting them to the Chemical Examiner, describe very minutely all the features of the articles, e.g. the size, colour and consist- ence of the clothing, as well as the number, situation and pattern of the stains present. After completing the examination, he should label each article separately, and pack them in a sealed packet to be forwarded for chemical analysis on receiving intimation from the trying magistrate. This precaution is necessary to enable him to identify them subsequently in court that those were the articles which he was asked to forward to the Chemical Examiner. On receiving the parcel, the Chemical Examiner should note and record the nature of the packing and compare the seal impressions affixed to the parcel with the fascimile impressed on the forwarding letter. He should also obtain a certificate from the magistrate permitting him to cut out portions of the stains or to destroy the articles, if necessary, for purposes of exami- nation. Without such a certificate, any examination by the Chemical Examiner is an irregular procedure involving probably legal complications. After the examination is over, the articles should be packed carefully and sealed in the presence of a gazetted officer and kept in the strong room until they are required for production during the trial of the case.5 If not required by the court, they are destroyed usually after six months. The points that are usually required to be determined regarding stains on an article sent for examination in cases of alleged wounds, rape and un- natural offences are— 1. If the stains are due to blood or any other substance. 2. If they are due to human blood. Examination of Blood Stains.—The examination of blood stains may be earrieoTbut by five methods—Physical, Chemical, Microscopical, Spectroscopi- cal and Biological. Physical Examination.—lUJs-^said that the physical examination is con- ducted with a view to detern^imgjlie^agfi^of the stain and with a view to ascertaining whether the stafii is of arterial or venous blood or of blood of 3. The U.P. Medical Manual, 1934, para 797, p. 225. 4. In Bihar, Orissa, Assam and Bengal the police forward the articles direct to the Chemical Examiner either through the Superintendent of Police or the Subdivisional Magistrate. 5. In the United and Central Provinces the Chemical Examiner is required to return clothes and other articles in blood stain cases to the District Magistrate after their examination is over (vide para 800, The U.P. Medical Manual, 1934, p. 226).