CHAPTER VH ^DEATHS FROM ASPHYXIA Violent deaths resulting chiefly from asphyxia are: Hanging, Strangu- lation^ Suffocation and Drowning. ' HANGING Definition.—Hanging is a form of death producecf by suspending the body with a ligature round the neck, the constricting force being the weight of the body. The term, " partial hanging ", is used for those cases in which the bodies are partially sus- pended or for those in which the bodies are in a sitting, kneeling, reclining, prone, or any other posture. In all such cases <Jej|th is inevitable if there is enough force upon the ligature to constrict the neck. Nature of the Ligature used.—Any .sub- stance that is available at the time of the impulse has been used by suicides as a: ligature for hanging, e.g. a cotton, hemp or mocmj rope of any thickness, newar, dhoti,, saree, turban (sofa), bed-sheet,, .sacred-thread, neckerchief, neck cloth (du~ patta), etc. 3Hien a material with which an individual is alleged to have been hang- ed is sent for medical examination the me- dical jurist should see if the mark on the neck corresponds with its thickness, and if it is strong enough to bear the weight of the body or the sudden strain. He should also note its texture and length, and after labelling it with some distinc- tive mark for future identification should return it in a sealed packet to the police constable who brought it. £~3l& first symptoms are the • loss of power 'and subjective sensations, such as flashes of light and ringing and his- sing noises in the ears. 5|pse are followed "by loss of consciousnessTwEich is so very rapid that hanging is regarded as a painless form of death. Owing to this rapid uncon- sciousness, an effort at saving oneself is not possible in accidental or suicidal hanging. In the case of judicial hanging convulsive movements of the limbs may be seen. Res- piration stops,before the heart which "may continue to |>eaffor about ten minutes. Causes of Death.-—J. A^fe^yjg>--j^irm!osii cases this is the true cause of deat!T~T||^ situated alwe the thyroid cartilage, and the effect of ^pressing ffie *ie|k in that sittialifti is to force up the epiglottis and the root of the tongue against the wall of the pharynx. Hence the^floor of the mouth is jammed roof, and occludes the air passages! SI^Si^i Fig. 41.—Stiicidal Hanging.