154 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE on the ground ; a bamboo stick was placed across his neck and Mahangade and Bhilare stood on either end of the stick till the man was strangled to death. The body was then taken to another village where it was weighted with stones and thrown into a disused well.5 Symptoms.—Jtf the windpipe is compressed so suddenly as to occlude the passage of air altogether, the individual is rendered powerless to call for assistance, becomes insensible and dies instantly. JKjiie windpipe is not completely closed, the face becomes cyanosed, bleeding occurs from the mouth, nostrils and ears, the hands are clenched and convulsions precede death. As in hanging, insensibility is very rapid, and death is quite pain- less. Causes of Death.—Death is usually due to asphyxia, but it may be due to other causes as in hanging, viz. cerebral congestion or apoplexy, asphyxia and apoplexy combined, or shock. Very rarely, the cervical vertebrae may be fractured. TreatmentyrJTJ^is is hardly necessary, as most cases are homicidal, but in a case of necessity t^jgpnstriction of the neck should be removed, and artificial respiration should be started at once. This may be assisted by the application of ammonia to the nostrils, and galvanism or inhalation of oxy- gen. Venesection should also be resorted to, if necessary. Hot bottles may be applied to the body, if it is cold. If no serious injury has occurred to the neck, the prognosis is favourable provided the treatment is adopted within five minutes.^J^fter recovery the patient may die from any of the secondary complications, such as convulsions, paralysis, lesions of the larynx „ and lungs, or from abscesses. *~ ~ Post-mortem Appearances.—These are external and internal. External Appearances.—The external appearances are those due to the constricting force applied to tlie neck, and those due to asphyxia. Appearances on the Necfc^Xhese vary according to the means used. 1. Ligature-Mark.—JJy&,is a well-defined and slightly depressed mark correspoiiffiif^Toughly to^ the breadth of the ligature, usually situated low down in the neck below the thyroid cartilage, and encircling the neck hori- zontally and completely. The marks are multiple if the ligature is twisted several times round the necTsT The mark may be oblique as in hanging, if the victim has been dragged by a cord after he has been strangled in a recumbent posture, or if the victim was sitting and the assailant applied a ligature on the neck while standing behind him, thus using the force backward and upward. The base of the mark, which is known as a groove or furrow, is usually pale'wrFh reddish and ecchymosed margins. Itbecomes dry, hard and parchment-like several hours after death, if thelsfeln has been excori- ated. Very .often there are abrasions and ecchymoses in the skin adjacent to the mark. In some cases the mark in the neck may not be present at all, or may be very slight, if the ligature used is soft and yielding, and if it is removed soon after death. A Mahomedan boy, aged 15 or 16 years, was strangled to death by means of a loin cloth (dhoti) tied round the neck on the 19th December 1925. At the post-mortem examination held on the next day at 12 noon I found no ligature mark round the neck, but found effusion of blood in the soft tissues along the front of the trachea, the mucmis membrane of which was congested and covered with froth. ^^ft^fingers are used (throttling) marks of pressure by the thumb and fingersT^ usually found on either side of the windpipe. The thumk mark is ordinarily higher and wider on one side of the front of the neck, and the finger marks are situated on its other side obliquely downwards and outwards, and one below the other, but are sometimes found clustered to-, 5. Times of India, March 6, 193S.