156 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE the other to the back, bruises and abrasions may be found on the front of the neck, as well as on its back. Fig. 48.— Strangulation : Ligature marks on the neck. these marks, there may be abrasions and bruises on the mouth, nose, cheeks, forehead, lower jaw or any other part of the body, if there has been a struggle. Similarly, fractures of the ribs and injuries to the thoracic and abdominal organs may be present, if the assailant kneels on. the chest or abdomen of his victim while pressing his throat. In the case of throttling of one Hindu, Din Dayal, aged about 40, of Police Station Mohanlalganj, on or about die 18th day of December 1926, I found at the autopsy blood issuing from the mouth and nostrils, eight bruises and abrasions on both the sides of the thyroid cartilage, and two contused wounds, three lacerated wounds and thirty bruises on various parts of the body, especially the face, head and chest. The second and third ribs on the left side, the second to the tenth ribs on the right side, and the sternum were fractured. The third phalanx of the left middle finger was also fractured. There were three lacerations across the front of the left lung below its apex, and four contusions at the root of the right lung. There was a- contusion of the right auricle in front, and a contusion of the right ventricle in the middle on its front. There was a laceration of the aorta at its commencement from the heart. There were five lacerations on the right lobe of the liver, which was otherwise normal. 3. If a stick or a foot is used, there is a bruise in the centre of the front of the neck, generally across the windpipe, corresponding in width to the substance used. There will be a similar mark on the nape of the neck, if two sticks are used. In^jsiich a case severe local injury will be evident. -to Asphyxia.— ^e^lace is swollen and cyanosed, and marked with petechise. Itejgyes are prominent and open. In some cases they may be closed. The conjunctivas are congested, and the pupils are dilated. JJieJips are blue. Bloody foam escapes from the mouth and nos- trils, a&d sometimes pure bloo8T$Łues from the mouth, nose and ears, espen cially if great violence has been used. The tongue is often swollen, pro- truding and dark in colour, and occasionally bitten by the teeth. The Kancls are usually clenched. The genital organs may be congested and " be discharges of urine, "BS& and seminal fluid.