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STRANGULATION                                                     163

2.   A woman in Madras nearly succeeded in strangling herself by means of her long
hair.—Chevers, Med. Juris., Ed. HI, p. 589.

Homicide.—I quote the following cases from nay note-book:—

1.   On October 14, 1912, a Hindu boy, aged 13 years, resident of Agra, was murdered
for the sake of his gold ear-rings and a dhoti was tied round his neck.   Autopsy revealed
finger marks on both sides of the windpipe with ecchymosis of blood in the soft tissues
and signs of asphyxia.   In this case the Sub-Inspector of Police propounded a very queer
theory that the image of the murderer would have been impressed on the lenses, and
he requested that the eyeballs should be preserved.   I need not say that he never came
to trace the culprit by examining the eyes even though they had been preserved for six

2.   In December 1917, Mt. Munia, aged 60 years, was said "to have been dead of
compression of the throat with pincers ".    On examination two bruises were seen on the
front of the neck with extravasation of blood underneath in the soft tissues, viz. one,
1" X i", across the right side of the neck 2" to the right of the middle line, and the other,
i" X ¥r> across the left side of the neck 2" below the angle of the left lower jaw.

3.   On November 17, 1918, the body of a Hindu male, 30 years old, was found tied
up in a steel box lying near the Iron Bridge in Lucknow.   At the post-mortem examina-
tion the face was found flushed, the eyes were closed and congested, and the lips were
blue.    A transverse, brownish, hard and parchment-like ligature mark, \ff broad, was
found encircling the neck and passing over the windpipe.   There were abrasions about
the margins of the mark.   A similar mark, 5" X i" was detected across the left side of
the neck above, the first mark and a third mark, 2" X i"j was seen V below the second
mark.   The larynx and trachea were congested.   The lungs were congested and exuded
dark, fluid blood on section.    The left-chamber of the heart was empty and the right
was fill] of dark fluid blood.   The body was identified to be that of a Brahmin of Hardoi.
by the head that had been preserved and four persons were prosecuted for having killed
him by strangulation.

4.    On the llth December 1918, the body of Sarju, 50 years old, was forwarded to
the King George's Medical College Mortuary with a report from the Station Officer of
Police-Station   Goshainganj,  that  he  was murdered  by  dacoits.    At  the   post-mortem
examination I found bruises on both, sides of the windpipe and fractures of the rings of
the trachea in its upper part. There was extravasation of blood in the muscles of the neck
in front.   Blood was also found issuing from the mouth and nostrils.

5.   A Hindu widow, 70 years old, was seen sitting at her door between 8 a,m. and
9 a.m. on July 25, 1921.   At noon she was found dead in her house with a twisted moowj
cord, 82 inches long, tied round the neck.   At the autopsy no cord mark was seen on the
neck, but two finger marks, each \ff x ¥f, were found on each side of the windpipe with
extravasation of blood in the underlying tissues.   The lining membrane of the windpipe
was congested with haemorrhagic points and was covered with frothy mucus.    The left
second and third ribs were fractured,    I gave the opinion that the deceased  died of
asphyxia due to throttling, and the cord was tied round the neck probably to simulate

6.   On the 7th September 1921, the body of a Hindu girl, aged 13 years, was found
covered with mud and a dhoti tied round the neck.   Post-mortem examination revealed
a fracture of the right parietal and temporal bones and a soft depressed ligature mark,
\ff broad, encircling the neck in its middle with extravasated blood in the underlying
soft tissues, especially the front of the windpipe, which was found congested.    There
were also small bruises, about the angles of the mouth.

7.   On the 19th December 1924, the body of Mt Kailasha, 50 years old, of Police
Station Goshainganj, was found strangled with a dhoti (loin cloth) round the neck.    On.
examination two incised wounds were found on the face.   There were several bruises
on both sides of the throat with extravasation of blood in the soft tissues.   It appeared
that she was struck with a sharp cutting weapon, and thrown down.    She was then
throttled, and the cloth was tied round the neck afterwards.

8.   On the night of the 19th March 1926, Swami Kundana Nand Rishi, about 40
• years old, was found murdered by compression of the throat by means of a" heavy iron

belcha, 25" long and 3" to 4" in diameter. At the autopsy an incised wound, 1J" X J'%
was found obliquely across the inferior jaw below the chiri and exposing the "bone.
There were three bruises, varying from 3" to 4" by J" to !£"", across the upper part
of the middle of the neck in front. There were some bruises on the face. The thyroid
cartilage and the upper two rings of the trachea were fractured. There was also e&skm.
of clotted blood in tke muscles of both sides of the neck in front.

9.   At 11 ajn. on the 21st April 1926, I held a post-mortem, examination en the "body
of Mt. Maharania, aged 40 years, and resident of Police-Station Malihabad.   Blood
issuing from the mouth and nostrils.   There were small braises with crescentie

on both sides of the throat.   Three upper rings of the trachea were fractured.