162 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. On or about the 9th November 1926, Mt. Masuman reported to the Sub-Divisional Magistrate of Mohanlalgan], District Lucknow, that her husband had attempted to murder her by strangulation. On examination I found bruise-like marks on both sides of the front of the neck. The skin round about these marks was inflamed and covered with, tiny blisters. She had similar marks on the palms and tips of the fingers. On further examination these were found to have been caused by the application of the juice of a marking nut (see Fig. 54). Accidental strangulation is rare, but it may occur when an article of clothing, a neck band or a cord is tightly drawn round the neck all of a sudden. This may occur in an epileptic or an intoxicated person who may be helpless in extricating himself from such tight encirclement of the neck. It may also occur when a string used in suspending a weight on the back should slip from across the forehead and compress the neck. This is easy to conjecture, if the body has not been disturbed after death. Children may also be accidentally strangled by a window blind cord or string encir- cling the neck too tightly during play. Differences between Hanging and Strangulation.—The differences be- tween hanging and strangulation are given below in a tabulated form: — Hanging Strangulation 1. Mostly suicidal. 2. Ligature mark, oblique, non-conti- nuous, placed high up in the neck between the chin and the larynx, the base of the groove or furrow being hard, yellow and parchment-like. 3. Abrasions and ecchymoses round about the edges of the ligature mark, rare. 4. Subcutaneous tissues under the markj white, hard, and glistening. 5. Injury to the muscles of the neck, rare. 6. Carotid arteries, internal coats rup- tured in violent cases of a long drop. 7. Fracture of the larynx and trachea, very rare and that too in judicial hanging. 8. Fracture-dislocation of the cervical vertebras, common in judicial hang- ing. 9. Scratches, abrasions and bruises on "the face, neck and other parts of the body, usually not present. 10. Face, usually pale and no petechise. 11. Neck, stretched and elongated in fresh bodies. 12. External signs of asphyxia, usually not well marked. 13. Bleeding from the nose, mouth and ears, very rare. 14. Saliva, running out of the mouth down on the chin and chest. ,15. Emphysematous patches on the sur- face of the lungs, not present. 1. Mostly homicidal. 2. Ligature mark, horizontal or trans- verse, continuous, low down in the neck below the thyroid, the base of the groove or furrow being soft and reddish. 3. Abrasions and ecchymoses round about the edges of the ligature mark, common. 4. Subcutaneous tissues under the mark, ecchymosed. 5. Injury to the muscles of the neck, common. 6. Carotid arteries, internal coats ordi- narily ruptured. 7. Fracture of the larynx and trachea, often found. 8. Fracture-dislocation of the cervical vertebrse, rare. 9. Scratches, abrasions and bruises on the face, neck and other parts of the body, usually present. 10. Face, congested, livid and marked with petechiae. 11. Neck, not so. 12. External signs of asphyxia, very well marked. 13. Bleeding from the nose, mouth and ears, may be found. 14. Saliva, no such riinning. 15. Emphysematous patches on the sur- face of the lungs, may be present. ILLUSTRATIVE CASES Suicide.—1., A Hindu lunatic in a jail strangled himself by passing two or three coils of stout thread around his neck, attaching the ends securely to his wrists and then extending his arms to the utmost limit. This occurred during ten minutes when his attendant was absent.—Surgeon-General Francis, Med, Times and Gaz., Dec. 2, 1876, p, 634.