STRANGULATION 163 2. A woman in Madras nearly succeeded in strangling herself by means of her long hair.—Chevers, Med. Juris., Ed. Ill, p. 589. Homicide.—I quote the following cases from my note-book :— 1. On October 14, 1912, a Hindu boy, aged 13 years, resident of Agra, was murdered for the sake of his gold ear-rings and a dhoti was tied round his neck. Autopsy revealed finger marks on both sides of the windpipe with ecchymosis of blood in the soft tissues and signs of asphyxia. In this case the Sub-Inspector of Police propounded a very queer theory that the image of the murderer would have been impressed on the lenses, and he requested that the eyeballs should be preserved. I need not say that he never came to trace the culprit by examining the eyes even though they had been preserved for six months. 2. In December 1917, Mt. Munia, aged 60 years, was said '*to have been dead of compression of the throat with pincers". On examination two bruises were seen on the front of the neck with extravasation of blood underneath in the soft tissues, viz. one, V X l"> across the right side of the neck 2" to the right of the middle line, and the other, i" X ¥', across the left side of the neck 2" below the angle of the left lower jaw. 3. On November 17, 1918, the body of a Hindu male, 30 years old, was found tied up in a steel box lying near the Iron Bridge in Lucknow. At the post-mortem examina- tion the face was found flushed, the eyes were closed and congested, and the lips were blue. A transverse, brownish, hard and parchment-like ligature mark, £" broad, was found encircling the neck and passing over the windpipe. There were abrasions about the margins of the mark. A similar mark, 5" X \n was detected across the left side of the neck above, the first mark and a third mark, 2" X \fry was seen 1" below the second mark. The larynx and trachea were congested. The lungs were congested and exuded dark, fluid blood on section. The left-chamber of the heart was empty and the right was full of dark fluid blood. The body was identified to be that of a Brahmin of Hardol by the head that had been preserved and four persons were prosecuted for having killed him by strangulation. 4. On the llth December 1918, the body of Sarju, 50 years old, was forwarded to the King George's Medical College Mortuary with a report from the Station Officer of Police-Station Goshainganj, that he was murdered by dacoits. At the post-mortem examination I found bruises on both sides of the windpipe and fractures of the rings of the trachea in its upper part. There was extravasation of blood in the muscles of the neck in front. Blood was also found issuing from the mouth and nostrils. 5. A Hindu widow, 70 years old, was seen sitting at her door between 8 aon. and 9 a.m. on July 25, 1921. At noon she was found dead in her house with a twisted moonj cord, 82 inches long, tied round the neck. At the autopsy no cord mark was seen on the neck, but two finger marks, each £" x i"» were found on each side of the windpipe with extravasation of blood in the underlying tissues. The lining membrane of the windpipe was congested with haemorrhagic points and was covered with frothy mucus. The left second and third ribs were fractured. I gave the opinion that the deceased died of asphyxia due to throttling, and the cord was tied round the neck probably to simulate suicide. 6. On the 7th September 1921, the body of a Hindu girl, aged 13 years, was found covered with mud and a dhoti tied round the neck. Post-mortem examination revealed a fracture of the right parietal and temporal bones and a soft depressed ligature mark, ¥' broad, encircling the neck in its middle with extravasated blood in the underlying soft tissues, especially the front of the windpipe, which was found congested. There were also small bruises, about the angles of the mouth. 7. On the 19th December 1924, the body of Mt. Kailasha, 50 years old, of Police Station Goshainganj, was found strangled with a dhoti (loin cloth) round the neck. On examination two incised wounds were found on the face. There were several bruises on both sides of the throat with extravasation of blood in the soft tissues. It appeared that she was struck with a sharp cutting weapon, and thrown down. She was then throttled, and the cloth was tied round the neck afterwards. 8. On the night of the 19th March 1926, Swami Kundana Nand Rishi, about 40 years old, was found murdered by compression of the throat by means of a heavy iron belcha, 25" long and 3" to 4" in diameter. At the autopsy an incised wound, 1|" x i'% was found obliquely across the inferior jaw below the chin and exposing the bone. There were three bruises, varying from 3" to 4" by \n to I}", across the upper part of the middle of the neck in front. There were some bruises on the face. The thyroid cartilage and the upper two rings of the trachea were fractured. There was also efrusion of clotted blood in the muscles of both sides of the neck in front. 9. At 11 a.m. on the 21st April 1926, I held a post-mortem examination on the body of Mt. Maharania, aged 40 years, and resident of Police-Station Malihabad. Blood was issuing from the mouth and nostrils. There were small bruises with crescentic scratches on both sides of the throat. Three upper rings of the trachea were fractured.