DROWNING 169 The inside of the mouth and the lips were livid and congested. The lungs were congested, and exuded dark frothy blood. There were patches of sub-pleura! ecchy- mosis on the pericardium and lungs. Death occurred from suffocation by closure of the mouth and nostrils. Accident.—1. The body of a Hindu male, 30 years old, was brought to the Agra Medical School Mortuary on the 21st September 1910 with a police report that it was not known whether, the deceased died from snake bite or had committed suicide. At the post-mortem examination it was found that the man died of asphyxia by suffocation due to food accidentally getting in the larynx and trachea. 2. A Mahomedan male, aged 35, was found dead in a street of Agra on the 23rd October 1918. Upon examination no external mark of injury was found on the body. The larynx and trachea were injected and particles of a whitish substance were found adherent to the mucous membrane. The lungs were engorged with dark blood and the finer divisions of the bronchi contained a whitish substance (not muco-pus) similar to that found in the trachea. The stomach contained 14 ounces of whitish material similar to that found in the trachea and lungs. Death was due to suffocation brought about by particles of food accidentally getting aspirated into the trachea and bronchioles. The viscera were preserved but no poison was detected on analysis. There was a history of intoxication.—Agra Med.-Leg. Post-moriem Rep. No. 53. 3. On or about 8th April 1940, a Hindu female prisoner, 25 years old, who was pregnant, got an attack of convulsion and died all of a sudden, while she was cutting jokes with her fellow prisoners. At the post-mortem examination, the larynx and trachea were congested and their lumen was blocked by round worms. The lungs were con- gested. The pharynx was clogged by round worms and the stomach was full of un- digested rice and contained four round worms. The uterus contained a four months1 foetus.—Case of Dr. G. B. Sahay, Police Surgeon, Patna. DROWNING Definition.—Drowning is a form of death in which the atmospheric air is prevented from entering the lungs by submersion of the body in water or other fluid medium. It is not necessary that there should be complete submersion. Death is sure to occur, even if the face alone is submerged so that air is prevented from entering the respiratory orifices. Stages of Drowning.—When an individual in perfect possession of his senses falls into water, he sinks to a depth proportional to the momentum obtained during the fall, but immediately rises to the surface owing to the struggling movements of his limbs, though the specific gravity of the body is slightly higher than that of water. IfJhe is not a swimmer, he cries and shouts for help, when, his mouth being at the level of the water surface, he draws water into the stomach and lungs. Ttue water in the lungs excites coughing and during violent expiratory efforts due to cough, a certain amount of air is expelled from the lungs, and its place is taken up by water which is drawn into the lungs. Tbja weight of the body increases and he sinks, finises again to the surface by the involuntary movements of his limbs, and draws more water into the lungs in an effort to keep above water, and consequently goes to the bottom. This alternate rising and sinking goes on longer than the proverbial three times, until all the air has been expelled from the lungs and its place has been taken up by water. JHe then becomes insensible and sinks to the bottom to die. Sometimes convul- sions precede death, ^5£ti£B^an individual is rendered unconscious by shock or syncope at the time of immersion, he goes to the bottom, and may rise once to a certain height but usually sinks without a struggle. In such a case little water enters the respiratory tract. Symptom&r^^e^^ubjective symptoms felt by a drowning person are auditory and* visual hallucinations, and return to memory of past events, which had already been forgotten. In some cases there is mental coofczstad^ M0de of Death—AsiSa^dsL^^his is a common cause in the majority of cases, as water getting into the lungs gets churned up with air and and produces a fine froth which blocks the air vesicles.