172 MEDICAL JDBISPRUBENCE External Appearances.—The clothes on the body are wet, unless examined a long time after removal from water. The face is pale, the eyes are half open or closed, the conjunctive are congested, and the pupils are dilated. Ihe tongue is swollen and sometimes protruded. Fig. 57.—Drowning: Froth at the nostrils. "^ A fee, white, lathery froth or foam, rarely tinged with blood, is seen at the mouth and nostrils. If not visible, it may appear on compression of the chest. This_is, regarded as a diagnostic sign of drowning. Froth of almost a similar nature is seen in cases of opium poisoning^'^aiiiEi^in deaths occurring from slow asphyxia. It also appears after putrefaction has set in. But the froth in all these cases is not of such a lasting nature and of such a large quantity as in drowning, and the bubbles are also much larger. and puckered appearance of the skin, known as cutis or goose-flesh, is found on the anterior surface of the body, particularly the extremities especially during winter when water is cold. It is caused by the contraction of the muscle fibres, termed arrect&re§ pilorum, connected with the hair follicles, and is considered as an important sign showing that drowning had occurred during life, but it may occur on submersion of the body in cold water immediately after death, while the muscles were still warm and irritable. It is not confined to drowning alone as, "being the result of nervous shock, it^lGTliound in other violent accidental deaths. It may also develop after death as a result of rigor mortis of the muscle fibres of the arrectores piZorura, especially during winter. More- over, cutis anserina is rarely seen in India as water, being usually warm, does not produce the contraction of the muscle fibres of the arrectores jn^yrum. Of 110 cases of drowning examined by me during a period extend- ing over eight years I found marked cutis anserina only in 4 cases. ^ 33l§~ P^nis and scrotum are found retracted and contracted, especially >during winter, when water is cold. Casper14 lays great stress on this point as a sign suggestive of death from drowning, but the penis may sometimes 14 Forensic Medteme* Ikig. 'EransL* VoL II, p. 23S.