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the finger nails have been pressed with violence into the skin.   In such cases
there will be ecchymosis in the underlying tissues.

Abrasions caused
by a teeth-bite are
eJiptica! or circular
in torm? and are re-
presented by two or
tour separate marks
caused by the upper
front teeth on one
side and the same
or less number of
marks by the lower
front teeth on the
opposite side. The
intervening space
between the marks
is often "bruised.
Sometimes the
marks coalesce to-
gether, and form a
single mass of abra-

Difference be-
tween Ante~m0rtem
and Post-mortem
Abrasions. — Ajarar
sions caused during
life appear as bleed-
ing surfaces or,
scratches, and are
soon covered with
reddish - brown
crustsor^gcabs ow-
ifeg^rocbagulation of

Fig. 79.—Abrasions on arm cajised by teeth-bite.

the blood. They generally heal in about ten to fourteen days without leaving
permanent scar's, but in cases where abrasions involve the whole thickness
of the skin and destroy the epithelial cells capable of forming a new skin,
they take a longer time to heal, and leave obvious scars, unless the surgeon
has performed an operation of grafting.

Fig. 8CL—Marks slmtilatmg abrasions caused by ant-bites