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surrounding the wound is blackened, scorched and tattooed, with uncon-
sumed grains of powder. On the other hand, at a distance of six feet the
central aperture is surrounded by separate
openings in an area of about two inches in
diameter made by a few pellets of the shot
which spread out before reaching the mark.
The skin surrounding the aperture is not
blackened or scorched, but is tattooed to
some extent. At a distance of twelve feet
the charge of shot spreads widely and
enters the body as individual pellets pro-
ducing separate openings in an area of five
to eight inches in diameter, *but without
causing blackening, scorching or tattooing
of the surrounding skin. This scattering of
shot depends upon the size of the gun, the
charge of the powder and the distance of
the gun from the body.

Fig. 94,—Wound  of the scalp

caused by the bullet of a rifle

from a long distance.

Fig. 95.— Wounds of the fingers and perforations of Kurta  (shirt)  produced
by pellets from a shot-gun.

In conclusion it must be noted that itis not easy to give a definite
opinion about the distance from which a firearm was discharged. Accord-
ing to Taylor * no general rule can be laid down. Experiments must be
done with fee weapon and cartridges (or loading) similar to those which
are alleged to have been used.

9.   Prmc, tmd Prod eŁ Med. J^fe, Ed. X, VoL I, p. 441,