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Skull.—Fractures of the skull are sometimes caused without any contu-
sion or wound on the scalp, though there may be extravasation of blood on
its undersurface.

During free lathi fights the skull is sometimes smashed into several pieces, as if it
was a coconut shell. Thus, in a case where a man, 35 years old, was struck with lathi
blows, there was a comminuted fracture of the frontal, left parietal and temporal bones
and of the occipital bone The base of the skull was fractured in the left anterior,
middle and posterior fossse. In another case where a woman, 40 years old, was murdered
with lathi blows, there were comminuted fractures of the left temporal, parietal and
frontal bones, and a simple fracture of the right temporal bone. There was also sepa-
ration of the right parietal and temporal sutures, with comminuted fractures of the
middle and posterior fossae of the base of the skull.

Fig. 114.—Fissured fracture.   This skull bone was removed with
other bones from a blind well.

The varieties of the fractures of the skull that are usually met with are
fissured, partial- (outer or inner table, though the inner table is more com-
monly fractured), stellate or radiating, depressed, elevated, punctured and
comminuted. These varieties are combined in many cases. Sometimes the
sutures are separated with or without fracture. The temporal bone and the
orbital plate of the frontal bone are easily fractured. In old age the bones
become thin, brittle, and are more fragile.

Vault—Fracture of the vault occurs at the place of contact by direct

violence or at its opposite side by
contre-coup (counter side), when
the head is not supported. An
extensive fracture running parallel
to the two points of contact (burst-
ing fracture) will occur, if mecha-
nical force is applied on one side
of the head, when it is pressed on
the other side against a hard
substance, such as a wall, while the
individual is standing, or against
the hard ground or floor when he
is in a lying posture. In such.c
the fracture may extend 1
versely even to the "base

Fig. 115.—Localized  depressed  fracture
of skull bone caused by a mallet.