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thrusting a sharp pointed instrument up the nostril may result in death by
injuring the brain through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone, though
no sign of any external injury is visible.

Fig. 123.—Nose cut off with a

razor.   Revenge taken for


Fig. 122.—Nose bitten off with teeth.

The left nostril or the septum of a female is liable to be injured by
pulling out the nose ring worn by her.

Ears.—A blow over the ear may produce rupture of the tympanum
leading to temporary or permanent deafness. A police constable com-
plained that he was slapped" over his left ear by a station master on May 9,
1933. On examination of his ear on the next day the tympanic membrane
was found ruptured and the surrounding surface was congested. If a blow
over the external ear is very severe, it may also injure the labyrinth.
During a quarrel the ears may be bitten off or cut off, and their lobes may
be torn by pulling out the earrings either with the intention of causing hurt
or committing theft. The injuries are grievous, if they produce permanent

Lips.—Injuries to the lips are caused by a blow with a fist, a shoe, or a
blunt weapon, or by teeth bite. Sometimes, a half of the upper lip along
with a portion of the moustache is cut off, the motive being sexual jealousy.
Such injuries are grievous, if they cause permanent disfigurement.

Teeth.—The teeth are dislocated or fractured either by a fall or by a
blow with a blunt weapon, such as a fist, a shoe, the butt end of a lathi, etc.
When their dislocation or fracture is caused by mechanical violence, con-;
tusions or lacerations are, in all probability, found on the lips or on 1lje
gums or sockets. In India, false reports about the loss of a tooth are offea
made with a view to charging the accused with an offence of grievous .
especially when an assaulted person happens to be old, and has
some teeth or has got some shaky teeth. It is, therefore, necessary