262 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE found. There was no external injury, nor was there any disease of the vertebrse. A similar case occurred in August 1912, where a Mahomedan male, 20 years old, died from fracture-dislocation of the third, cervical vertebra caused by a sudden powerful muscular contraction of the neck during wrestling. These fractures are generally associated with dislocations except in injuries of a minor degree, such as fractures of the spinous processes, laminae, etc. Owing to the displacement of the parts they cause com- pression, laceration or crushing of the cord, which produces paralysis of the body below the seat of injury. In such cases haemorrhage occurs in the substance of the cord, or around it, between or outside its membranes. These cases are very rare. In the Agra District during twelve years, out of about one thousand medico - legal autopsies death was found to be due to the fracture of the spine in only five cases. Spinal injuries are, as a rule, immediately fatal, owing to implication of the phrenic nerves, if fracture occurs above the fourth cervical vertebra, though death may be de- layed a few hours even after fracture of the odon- toid process of the axis with forward displace- ment of the atlas. Death usually occurs within twenty-four hours, if the three lower cervical ver- tebrse are injured. In rare cases death may not occur for some months, but the trunk and the limbs will be paralysed, if the spinal cord is com- pressed by displacement of the fractured portions. A boy, 10 years old, regularly attended school, and took part hi games for five weeks dislocating his neck. He merely complained of stiff neck and it was only when he made a sudden movement with his neck that the cervical cord became compressed, and he died immediately.—W. G, A. Robertson, Practitioner, Aug. 1923, p. 121. A Mahomedan male, aged 60 years, who was knocked down by a motor car on September 17, 1932, sustained a dislocation of the third cervical vertebra from the fourth cervical vertebra with a transverse fracture of the body of the latter, suffered from loss of sensation and paralysis of all the limbs, and died on November 20, 1932. When the dorsal vertebrse are injured, the patient becomes bed-ridden on account of paralysis of the lower limbs. He also suffers from paralysis of the bladder and rectum, and is always in danger of getting bed-sores and septic infection of the bladder and kidneys, which generally hasten death. Thus, death may occur after two or three weeks, if the upper dorsal vertebrse have been injured; while life may be prolonged for years with partial paralysis of the limbs, if the lower dorsal or the lumbar vertebrae itave been fractured. Fig. 126.—Cervical vertebrse showing a cut by a gandasa (chopper).