ABDOMEN 281 may produce a fatal shock. The squeezing of a testicle is a common practice of assault in India, and sometimes the squeezing is so very forcible that the testicle is protruded out of the scrotum. It may also be accidentally protruded through a lacerated wound of the scrotum caused in jumping over a barbed wire. In his annual report for the year 1941, the Chemical Analyser, Bombay, reports a case in which a man was murdered by avulsion of the left testicle caused by a lacerated wound on the side of the scrotum exposing the spermatic cord. Vulva.—Injuries to the vulva may be caused homicidally by a blow or kick in front, or from behind when a female is bending forward. They may also be caused accidentally when a female forcibly sits on a broken chamber pot while urinating or falls on a projecting sharp substance. Owing to the underlying pubic bone wounds of the vulva caused by a blunt weapon may look like incised wounds, but minute and careful exami- nation of the wounds will reveal the difference. These wounds may prove fatal from excessive haemorrhage. Vagina.—The vagina may be lacerated by the introduction of an abortion stick for procuring criminal abortion or by the forcible thrusting of a foreign body, such as a blunt weapon, as a form of torture or punishment. Lacerations caused by thrusting a foreign body into the vagina are some- times multiple involving the pelvic organs and cause death. The following two cases are illustrative : — 1. A dhak stick had been forcibly thrust by Saktu, accused, through the vagina of a girl, 14 years old, so that its upper part had been bored over for four inches. The stick had perforated the vagina, torn the bladder and displaced the uterus which was almost lying loose. It had passed into abdominal cavity as far as the stomach. The abdominal portion of the stick was fifteen inches long. The peritoneal cavity contained about two ounces of clotted blood, and the omentum was torn and congested. The upper part of the rectum was perforated and the uterine ligaments were torn.5*4 2. A woman was killed by a lathi being thrust into her vagina, which, lacerating the orifice and tearing the posterior fornix: entered the peritoneum making an opening, 2" x 2". The surrounding structures were blue and congested.59 The vaginal walls may be lacerated during parturition, and the lacera- tion may extend into the bladder or rectum. The vagina may be injured by violent sexual intercourse especially by a strong healthy adult with a small girl or even with a grown-up female, whether single or married, and fatal results may follow from profuse haemorrhage or from pelvic cellulitis, I saw a case in Agra, where a girl of thirteen years died from septic cellulitis caused by a lacerated wound in the posterior wall of the vagina, the result of sexual intercourse by her husband, who was a strong young man. J. Alfred Gaynor60 records the case of a married woman, 28 years old, who immediately after the first attempt at coitus had a severe vaginal haemorrhage losing about three pints. On examination a dense central adhesion was found between the anterior and posterior vaginal walls leaving two small lateral apertures. This was situated about midway between- the hymen and the vault of the vagina. A deep tear in the vaginal wall about 1J inches long extended from the lateral aperture on the right side towards the hymen. Lask61 also reports an interesting case in which a woman, aged 57 years, sustained a perforation of the posterior fornix and pouch of Douglas during sexual intercourse with a man, 30 years old. The usual practice of punishment for adultery in India is to brand the vulva with a heated solid substance or to intrcKluce powdered chillies, a bruised marking nut (Bhilawa), or a rag soaked in Madar juice into the vaginal cavity. 58. K. E. v. Saktu, Oudh Jud. Com. Court Crimin. Appeal Reg. 138 of 1922. , ,/ 59. K. E. v. Patey Singh and Sw*uv Singh, Allah. High Court Crimin. Appeal NctVJ§T of 1931. 60. Brit. Med. Jour., Dec. 10, 1927, p. 1,080. 61. Brit. Med, Jour., April 24, 1948, p. 786; see also Diddle, Western Jour, of $wrgery, Obstetrics and Gynoscology, July 1948.