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EXAMINATION OF THE VICTIM:                                         313

An attempt at undressing the woman should never be made, but she
shoulcl be requested to undress herself. The exact time of the examination,
and the date and month of the year should be mentioned, and then the
examination proper should be commenced in the following order : —

1.    Clothes.— IjLthe clothes are the same as those worn at the time of the
occurrence of rape, they should be carefully examined for the presence of
blood or seminal stains, and whether these are on the front or on the back
of the garments.   Usually seminal stains are on the front of the clothes and
those of the blood are on the back, but no arbitrary rule can be laid down,
It should also be noted, if the clothes have been torn or soiled with mud. J[f
tEere are any marks of suspicious stains, the clothes should be preserved^
with a view to forwarding them to the Chemical Examiner.

2.    Marks of Violence on the Body. — The body, especially the face, chest,
lower part of abdomen, limbs and back, should be examined for marks of
violence, such as scratches and bruises, as a result of struggle.   If present,
they  should be carefully  described  as regards  their  appearance,   extent,
situation and probable duration.   Such marks are more likely to be found
on the bodies of grown-up women who are able to resist than on the bodies
of children who are incapable of offering any resistance.   To substantiate
false charges, marks of violence are sometimes self-inflicted. "TTsaw a young
woman of twenty years alleged to have been raped by a man.

several marks simulating scratches made with a kankar on the fore
the chest, which could be wiped off by rubbing them with a piecef

to these marks; the female may experience difficfpfy in
walking and pain, in micturition or defsecation,

3. The Genitals.— ^Dx examine the genitals for the evidence of rape the
female should be kept in the lithotomy or knee-chest position in good light
and the thighs should be well separated. In^children the separation of the
thighs is very painful, and it may, therefore, be necessary to apply cocaine
solution to the parts, or to administer an anaesthetic.

During the examination the following points may be noted : —

1^ In grown-up females, if the pubic hairs are found matted due to the
presence of semen, they should be cut-off with a pair of scissors and
examined for the presence of spermatozoa, if possible, or they should be
preserved to be forwarded to the Chemical Examiner,

Juried seminal stains found on the external genitals and thighs should be
carefully scraped by means of a dean, blunt knife, and preserved for subse-
quent examination.

2.  jRecenily effiised  or dried blood may be 'found upon the genital
organs or in the neighbourhood, and in recent cases there may be bleeding
from the vagina, which is tisually veary slight, unless there is some injury
to the vagina^ itself,   It^sfaouH not !>e forgotten that the bleeding may be
due to menstruation, which Is possible to be induced by sexual intercourse.

3.   .Bruising and laceration of the external genitals may be present with
redness, swelling and inflammation.

4.   In nubile virgins the hymen, as a result of complete sexual inter-
course, fe""ust.iaHy lacerated, having one or more radiate tears, the edges of
which are red, swollen and painful, and "bleed on touching, if exg$i """ "
within a day or tvm after fee deed   Tbgse tears heal within five or six \
aud after ejght to '^ea days Tbeepii^ sfirimkeii and look like s$m"

tags  of  tissue.   Fr^pient sep^f* intercourse  £nd   parteitite.^        ,    ^,,
iA:^S^resented t>y several small
jj^iatenealis o^iiiyrtiformes.