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314                                             MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE

In cases where the hymen is intact and not lacerated, it is necessary to
note the distensibility of the vaginal orifice. The possibility of sexual
intercourse having taken place without rupturing the" hymen may be
inferred, if the vaginal orifice is big enough to admit easily the passage of
two fingers. Ii^jdrgins under fourteen years of age the vaginal orifice is
so small that it will hardly allow the passage of the little finger through the

The fourchette and posterior commissure are not usually injured in
cases of rape, but they may be torn, if the violence used is very great indeed.
The amount of injury to the hymen and genital canal depends upon the
degree of disproportion between the genital organs of both parties and the
violence used on the female.

Jn_sjnall children the hymen, being situated high up in the canal, is not
usually ruptured, but may become red and congested along with the inflam-
mation and bruising of the labia, or, if considerable violence is used, there
is often laceration of the fourchette and perinaeum.

In grown-up married women accustomed to sexual intercourse, marks
of vfolihce, such as bruises, scratches, etc., may be found on the external
genital^ perinaeum, abdomen, chest, back, limbs, neck and face.

5. 23ae mucous secretion of the vagina should be obtained by intro-
4iiciBg a glass rod or pipette ; an ink pipette used for filling a stylographic
jpen will do very well ^he^secretion should then be examined for the
presence of spermatozoa, wEch is a positive sign of rape in the case of
children and grown-up virgins. In grown-up married women it does not
necessarily indicate rape, but it proves the occurrence of a previous sexual

6. Signs of Infection ol Gonorrhoea or Syphilis. — A_ muco-purulent
or purulent discharge of a greenish-yellow colour from the vagina and
Boiling the linen may be due to gonorrhoea! infection or may arise from local
fariiative causes, such as uncleanliness, masturbation, threadworms, leucor-
Aoea or protozoa! infection, such as TVichomonas vaginalis, and from
diseases which enfeeble the general state of health. It^Js, therefore, very
essenlialthat a thin film from the discharge sljoiald 3>e_pit on two or tlfree
gSs® slfe, staineeT by tlranTs nShod and examined under Jhe high poi^er
df ~ a mkroseope for the presence of gonococea (causative agents of
gotKnrh?cea) which are kidney- or beaa-shaped, inteeellular, Gram-negative
«i^lo€aeci before a definite opinion is grvm, |pjflbe ease of a negative result
a ^eosiTO opujkm must not be given t^ifess fee fifas SOTCI ^a, discharge
are CTaiBTCted o& at least three successive occasions witib. ra|eK^ls pi one
•week, for in &e later stages of the disease fee gMMXjpe^ipw''^ fopad only
frith great difficulty or may not be found ai alL JB the case of adult females
especia% from subaetite and cfaroaic gonorrhoea it is advisable to
Hie <iisdha3fge from the cervical canal,, as large varieties of mierp-
aifaer {fan gimococd are generally found in the vaginal canal,
me apt Is eooftise an inexperienced medical practitioner, although

are uof mm^mlf^^^ similar to goaocoeci.   A.jion-pathogenic
tiTO   difte^wis   whkh   closely   resembles   tne   gonococcxis   is   also
fwmA in tte graitals of female adults.    It should, however, be
that ttese iBfcuo-arganisms are geoerally ateent in tfce

to its pe«B^r,situatm md

canal in the            is          to be fefeted early ^wift

frf Use uinelii^t disAarge wil