EXAMINATION OF THE VICTIM 315 t- In a purulent discharge from the malejirethra the presence of kidney- or bean-shaped intracellular, Gram-negative diplococci in pairs with their concave borders facing one another is ordinarily taken as sufficient for the purpose of practical diagnosis. The Micrococcus catarrhalis which closely resembles the Gonococciis in morphology and staining reactions may occur in the urethra and cause confusion in the diagnosis. Hence, in a doubtful case it is necessary to resort to cultures on suitable media. The Micrococcus catarrhalis grows readily on ordinary media, where it forms large, white, dry colonies with irregular edges and elevated centres. Whereas the Gonococcus does not grow on ordinary media but grows readily on chocolate Hood agar, where it forms minute, grayish and translucent colonies. The meningococcus (Micrococcus meningitidis intracellularis) is also a Gram-negative diplococcus and morphologically resembles the Gonococcus, but it is usually present in the cerebro-spinal fluid and in the nasal discharge but is not found ordinarily in the urethral discharge or in the urine. It grows on Loffer's blood serum, where it forms colonies which are round, colourless or hazy, flat, shining and viscid looking. The_existence of a venereal disease in the female is not positive evidence of sexual connection. Gonorrhoeal infection of the genital tract particularly in young girls and infants may be conveyed through infected hands or other articles. Outbreaks of gonorrhoea in children in schools, boarding houses or hospitals have often been traced to the common use of the infected sponges, towels, bath tubs, etc. Syphilis may also be transmitted by means other than sexual intercourse, e.g. kissing. Jtn^all such cases it is absolutely necessary to examine the accused for the presence of either of these diseases, for the finding of gonorrhoea or syphilis in both parties is strong corrobora- tive evidence of sexual intercourse. The period of incubation of gonorrhoea varies usually from two to eight daysT although it may be as short as twenty-four hours and as long as two weeks. I have seen a few cases in which gonorrhoea appeared within twenty-four hours after the infection. 1£he_period of incubation of syphilis varies from two to eight weeks after inoculation, the average period being twenty-five days. Ifjhe accused is suffering from a venereal disease, and if the story of rape is true, the accuser (victim) is likely to suffer from the same disease within its period of incubation. But it must be borne in mind that the infection is not always communicated by sexual intercourse with one suffering from a venereal disease. In cases of rape on children and virgins, however, there is a greater probability of inoculation, as the delicate mucous membrane of their genitals is very susceptible to infections, and the hymen and other parts are usually abraded or lacerated. False Charges.—JT^lse charges of rape are not uncommon in India. Occasionally parents may introduce chillies into the vagina of their female cTnld to cause irritation and inflammation or may injure her genitals for the purpose of substantiating a false charge of rape brought against an indivi- dual with a view to taking revenge or extorting money from him, and may tutor their child to tell a circumstantial story of a rape. I saw a case in which the father thrust his thumb forcibly into the vagina of his daughter, 6 years old, in order to bring a false charge of rape against his neighbour who was Ms enemy, and lacerated the posterior part of the hymen, * " posterior part of the vagina and the posterior commissure. At times pa#e inflict injuries on tbe private parts of their female child, and then kill j by strangulation or suffbea&o$* |pt order to bring a false accusation of i and murder/ SjJBforgt Sq^g^,;*'• - " It sometimes" top|^^lio^'a'young girl has given consent to;,; sexual m4erco^^/l>ai>p^ does not scruple to accuse her ! in order to sav^i'J&^r He^epufaEHooEi9 when she is discovered!