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336                                                  MEDICAL JXJBJSPRtTDEaSTCE

3.    Those acting reflexly through the Gastro-intestinal Canal— These
ate emetics ^nd^m&atjyjes given in large doses.   The emetic that is chiefly
used is tartar emetic, and the purgatives that are commonly used for this
purpose are croton oil, gamboge, colocynth, elaterium and aloes.   The last
drug acts also directly on the uterine muscle fibres, and produces powerful

4.   Those having poisonous effects on the System generally. — These are
animal, vegetable and metallic irritant poisons.   Among the metallic poisons,
lead is the only drug which requires special mention.   It is used in the form
of pills made from diachylon paste consisting of lead oxide and olive oil
In England5 these pills are largely used by women, especially of the working
class, to procure abortion.   In an outlying part of Nottingham they were
sold as Mrs. Seagrave's pills, which, on analysis, were found to consist of
50 to 70 per cent of diachylon and aloes with an outer coating of boric acid.
Mrs. Seagrave alias Wardle was arrested for selling " noxious things " with
intent to procure abortion and sentenced to eighteen months' hard labour.5

Diachylon acts successfully in producing abortion, but at the same time
produces the symptoms of chronic lead poisoning. If abortion does not
occur from the use of these pills, and if pregnancy is carried to full term, it
often happens that the child dies shortly after birth.

The drugs that are chiefly used in India for the purpose of procuring
criminal miscarriage are the seeds and the unripe fruit of Carica papaya
(Papita or Papayya), the unripe fruit of pine apple, the seeds of Daucus
carota (Gajar ka bij) , the milky juice of Calotropis gigantea (Madar, Ak) ,
the bark of Plumbago rosea (Lai Chitra) , Randia dumentorum (Main phal) ,
Cuscuta reflexa (Ghagar bel) , Celastrus paniculata (Malkangani) , Anethum
ggveolens (Sowa) , Cucumis trigonus (Kant) , Momordica charantia
, Moringa pterygosperma (Sliajna, Saragwa), Caryophyllus aroma-
avang), Myristica fragrans (Jayphal), Crocus sativus (Zafran,

tr) j Trigonella f cenum-grsecum   (Metfii) ,   Cantharides,   sal  ammoniac,

copper, arsenic and mercury salts.6

B.   Mechanical Violence. — This may be general or local.

General. — General violence acts directly on the uterus or indirectly by
pi^omoting congestiorirot the pelvic organs or haemorrhage between the uterus
and the membranes. The following methods are usually employed : —

1.   Severe pressure on the abdomen "by kneading, blows,

and                        '^

2.   Yiokait exercise, such as riding on horseback, cycling, jumping from
a heighi, JoUng caused in driving on rough roads, long walks, running up
downstairs and carrying or lifting heavy weights.

Cupping, usually by placing a lighted wick on the hypogastric region
tening a brass mug (lota) mouth downwards over it.   Traction is then
the mug, while it is firmly adherent, and probably a partial
of the plaee&ta, or possibly very severe injury to the uterine

is  the  result.   This  te^te  of  procuring  abortion   is   generally
at advasBeed toms

4   A&liyi^V;^                                     perinseum and the inner

'       '

wall is Bkely to result in
severe they may be, cb