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changes in the kidneys and bladder.
6.   The change in the middle ear (Wredin's test).

t^JThe Shape of the Chest—JQse chest is flat before respiration is estab-
lisKed, but it expands and becomes arched or rounded after full respiration.
2.The Position of the Diaphragm.—The abdomen should be opened
before the thorax, and the position of the diaphragm should be noted by
passing a finger up into its concave arch, the^ highest point of which is found
at the level of the fourth or fifth rib, if respiration has not taken pkce; but
. the arch becomes flattened and depressed, descends to the level of the sixth
or seventh rib after respiration has
been   completely   established.   The
position   of   the   diaphragm   may,
however, be affected by pressure of
the   gases  of  decomposition   deve-
loped     within     the     thorax     or
abdominal cavity.

S-^JTJjfc Changes in the Lungs,—
These are considered with refer-
ence to their (a) volume, (b)
consistence, (c) colour, and (d)

(&JL-- Volume.—Before respira-
tion has taken place, the lungs are
small with sharp margins, lie in the
back part of the chest on either side
of the vertebral column and are
hardly seen on opening the chest,
as the cavity is filled up by the
heart and thymus. After complete
respiration the lungs increase
enormously in volume, have
rounded margins and occupy the
cavity covering more or less the

and heart.                                  F^ ^.—Uurespired lungs of a stffl-

Consistehce.—Before     res-                  bom, full-term infant,

•file lungs are dense, firm,

t and liver-like.   After respiration, they are spongy, elastic and
iarepitant.                                       ~~"~*~~

fe)i Cotour.—Before respiration, the colour of the lungs is uniformly
rfeddisfeSSm like that of the liver, but may become bright red at the
margins from greater translucency owing to the thin, walls. The surface of
1fae lobules is aaaarked with .shallow furrows, but not with a mottled
appeatsaee. On section, little frothless blood exudes on pressing ifoe cut
stirfaees. After respiration, the collapsed air-cells first become distended
feiffa air, ^usually on the edges and concave surface of the tipper lobe of the
light king, and then on the remaining portions of the lungs. These air-cells
are polygonal or angular in outline, arranged more often symmetrically in
grm^s of four or five, though occasionally scattered irregularly, and are
raised above ifae surface. They ate more or fa^s jaottled or marbled
in ^ppeatwiee wttfe circumscribed Foee-coloured patches. Tip? ^ottfed
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