350 MEDICAIi JTJRISFROTEDTCE
(4) The marbled or mottled appearance of the lungs.
(5) Bloody froth exuding from the cut surface of the lungs on slight
(6) The lungs responding to the hydrostatic test.
When is the Hydrostatic Test not necessary ?—The medical officer need
not perform the hydrostatic test, if he finds that—
(1) The foetus is born at less than 180 days of intra-uterine life,
when it cannot be viable.
(2) The fcetus is a monster, which, owing to congenital malformations,
is incapable of living a separate existence.
(3) The foetus shows signs of intra-uterine maceration.
(4) The umbilical cord has separated and the umbilicus has cicatrized.
(5) The stomach, on dissection, contains coagulated or half-coagulated
milk as a result of the active digestive function.
4. Changes in the Stomach and Intestines.—During the process of
respiration air is first swallowed in the stomach, and then gradually extends
down the intestines owing to peristaltic movements. Hence, whff£uthe
stomach and intestines are removed from the body after tying double liga-
tures at each end of the stomach, at the end of the duodenum and also at
some lower parts of the intestines, they will float when placed in water.
They are then separated and tested separately for floating capacity. If
respiration has not taken place, the stomach and intestines, being airless,
will sink in water. This is known as Breslau^s second life test. It is a
corroborative test rather than a conclusive one. The practicability of this
test is useful especially when air has been prevented from entering the lungs
by foreign bodies or by occlusion of the bronchi. When breathing is
impeded or imperfect, air enters and fills the stomach and intestines with a
larger quantity than when breathing has completely and speedily taken
place. XSjgJ^st ^ "useless when the body has undergone decomposition, or
when there has been an attempt at artificial inflation of the lungs.
On careful dissection tinder water so as not to allow its contents to
escape, the stomach shows the presence of mucus with air bubbles and saliva,
if respiration has been established; whereas it will show the presence of
only a glairy mucus, if respiration has not taken place. The presence of
blood, meeonium and liquor amnii in the stomach indicates that the child
was alive at or shortly "before its birth and had swallowed these during the
act of respiration. Hie presence of milk or farinaceous food in the stomach
is very strong evidence that the child was not only born alive, but had lived
for some time after birth. Any substance found in the stomach should be
identified by microscopic examination. The absence of meeonium from the
bowels is not absolute proof of live-birth, as it may be voided in breech
presentation even if the child is still-born. Under ordinary circumstances
meeonium is passed immediately, or within twenty-four hours, after birth.
It may be necessary to recognize the stains of meeonium on the clothing
are brownish-green and stiffen the fabric but do not penetrate deeply
into its texture. When dissolved in water raeconium forms a green solution
•^Aich is acid in reaction, and is not affected by boiling.
5. Oiaiigses in fee Kidneys and Bladder*—He deposit of uric-acid m
tfase 1mm, ©f bi^wnisii-yeHow crystalline streaks found in the pelves of tte;
k;«faey$ has been regarded by some authorities as positive proof of live-
inith, but this sign is not reliable as the crystals have been found even m