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fourth, fifth and sixth ribs fractured and in another case the left third,
fourth and fifth ribs and the right third, fourth, fifth and sixth ribs were

2. Strangulation.—Tbi& is also a common form of child murder. During
the^acF^oF^trangulation far greater violence is used than necessary, and
severe marks of abrasions and contusions with extravasation of blood in the
soft tissues are usually found on the neck. In one case a thick rope was
used to strangle a child, and an izarband (a tape of pyjama) was used as a
ligature round the neck in another case. This child with the izarband
twisted round its neck and wrapped in a pyjama was found in the lavatory
of a third class compartment of a railway train at the Agra Fort Station. A
newly-born child is sometimes murdered by passing the umbilical cord as"lT
ligature round the neck. In such a case the plea put up by the defence is
that the child was strangled accidentally by the cord coiling round the neck
during delivery. In an accidental case of this nature there is most probably
a broad continuous groove, livid or red in colour, without any excoriation,
and the death being due to the stoppage of circulation, the lungs are
generally found in a fcetal condition.

Fig. 150.—Infanticide : Strangulation.   Note ligature mark on neck.
(From a photograph lent kindly by Dr. H. 5. Mehta.)

Fig. 152.—Strangulation, of a new-born child.
(From & j3&0€o^rop& lent kindly by Dr. H. S. Mehta.)