ACTS OF COMMISSION 357 In October 1921, the body of a newly-born infant was found lying in the grass farm at Naka Hindola. The umbilical cord was twisted round the neck, and the knot was tightened by fixing a piece of madar root in its loop and across the windpipe. The cord was twenty-five inches long with one end attached to the navel and the other end cut with a knife or a pair of scissors. On removing the cord, a soft depressed mark, one inch bv a quarter of an inch, was found encircling the neck over the windpipe. There was extravasation of blood in the subcutaneous tissues under the ligature mark. The wind- pipe was congested. The lungs responded to the hydrostatic test and were congested. Rarely, the natural folds of the skin in the neck of a fat child may resemble the cord marks caused by strangulation, but in that case no marks of abrasions or any extravasation of blood will be visible on the neck. In cases of throttling, in addition to the bruises from the pressure of the fingers and thumb and scratches from the finger-nails found on the neck rupture of the muscles and fracture of the laryngeal or trachea! cartilages may be detected, as -undue violence is used in throttling infants. 3. Drowning."Hug^is- a rare form of child murder. As recorded by Chevefs^^submersion of the child's face into a cauldron of warm milk (Dudh pita karna) used to be a common method of infanticide in Benares and other neighbouring places. Nowadays the usual custom is first to kill an infant by suffocation, strangulation, etc., and then to throw the body into a cesspool, well, tank or river with a view to concealing the crime. The post-mortem appear- ances would be similar to those found in adults, if the child was drowned after respiration had been estab- lished. No signs would be evident, if a woman was delivered in a bath and the child was drowned before "respiration had taken place. 4. Fragtpre of the Crsk nhmi.-^JiaefciH'e of the era-- nial bones results from a- blow on the head with ^ blunt weapon or from th# head being dashed against a wall or a hard ground or being pressed forcibly under a leg of a bedstead (ckar- poy). Excessive violence being used in such cases, depressed or comminuted and extensive fractures of the skull bones with cere- bral haemorrhage and con- tusion or laceration of the brain and contusions lacerated wounds of scalp are usually Fig. 152.Infanticide: Throttling. Note abrasions on neck and face. (From a photograph lent kindly by Dr. H. S. Mehta.) > A newly-born child which was found lying dead on a railway line m Station showed, on post-mortem examination, fracture of the occipital fooaae, IS. Med. Juris., Ed. HI, p. 753.