CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY 399 that the case did not fall within section 84 of the Indian Penal Code because the mental faculties of Matin distinguishing right from wrong from a moral point of view were absolutely clear. The applicant fully believed that taking life of another was not only illegal but immoral. The appellant divided himself into two parts, viz. Matin AH and Rumi Safa (free lance). According to him. there resided in his physical body both good and evil spirits and in spite of his control the evil spirit forced him to kill useless persons like himself to make the world better. Matin did not commit suicide as the world would have taken him as a coward. The present crimes were committed in a fit of impulsive insanity without any motive or premeditation, nevertheless they did come under pur- view of section 302, I.P.C., but necessitated indulgent consideration. Having regard to the fact that the appellant belonged to a respectable family and had received higher education, the Judicial Commissioner directed that the case be laid before the local Government for such indulgent consideration as they may be pleased to show to the appellant under section 401 of the Criminal Procedure Code. In the case of Rex v. Ronald True, who was tried at the Central Criminal Court of London on a charge of murdering a prostitute by strangulation after spending the night at her flat on March 6, 1922, Mr. Justice McCardie, in his charge to the jury said, " even if the prisoner knew the physical nature and that it was morally wrong and punishable by law, yet was by mental disease deprived of the power to control his actions, then the verdict should be guilty but insane ". His Lordship definitely conceded the doctrine of criminal irresponsibility on the ground of impairment of the power of self-control, but pointed out that this exemption should be applied with great care. The jury found the accused guilty of " wilful murder ", and he was sentenced to death. The sentence was subsequently upheld' by the Court of Criminal Appeal. Shortly afterwards a representation was made to the Home Secretary that True was insane, whereupon he appointed a committee of three mental specialists to examine True and to certify if he was sane or insane. On their having certified that he was insane the Home Secretary ordered True to be removed to a criminal asylum,. In July 1922, the Lord Chancellor appointed a Comm^feee consisting of the well-known lawyers under the chairmanship of Lord Justice Atkin to consider and report upon what changes, if any, were desirable in the existing law, practice and procedure relating to criminal trials in which the plea of insanity is raised as a defence. The committee recommended that the rules formulated in the McNaughten case be" maintained, and further recom- mended an additional rule that it should be recognized that a person charged criminally with an offence is irresponsible for his act when the act is committed under an impulse which the prisoner was, by mental disease, in substance deprived of any power to resist. These recommendations were incorporated in a bill, called the Criminal Responsibility (Trials) Bill, which was moved in the House of Lords in 1924, but was negatived. Somnambulism.—This is an abnormal mental condition, and means walking during sleep. In this condition the mental faculties are partially active and are so concentrated on one particular train of ideas that a som- nambulist is capable of performing most remarkable and incredible pieces of work, which would have baffled his intelligence during his waking hours. A somnambulist may thus solve a very difficult problem or may commit theft or murder. A person who is the victim of a somnambulistic habit has generally no recollection of the events occurring during the fit after he awakes. In some cases he remembers the events of one fit in subsequent fits and follows them with exact precision, though he forgets them in the normal state. * Somnambulism forms a very good plea of defence for exemption from criminal liability, if it can be proved that the accused committed the offence during the fit. In a case where Maggie Alexander47 was charged wj$h having murdered her child with a razor the jury returned a verdict ,<*£' 47. Lcmcet, Dec. 14, 1929, p. 1265.