DUTIES OF A PHYSICIAN 411 if he finds that a particular engine driver is colour blind and that he does not wish to change his employment although he is persuaded to do so. In such cases the communication, if made bom fide and without malice, will "be deemed to be privileged by the occasion. A privileged communication is, therefore, defined as a statement made by^a person who has an interest to protect, or a legal, social ^"or moral duty to perform to another having a conditions, amount to defamation or si lander. A case 9 occurred at a Turkish "bath at Debretzine where a venereal diseases specialist recognized in a young man who was about to enter the water one of his own patients who had consulted him two weeks ago for a syphilitic sore on the penis. He went up to the young man, and whispered to him not to enter the bath on account of his chancre, but the young man persisted in entering the bath; hence the specialist sent for the manager and explained the matter to him. The latter asked the man to leave at once. He left the bath, and sued the specialist for trespassing the medical secrecy laws, but lost his case, the court decreeing that the specialist only carried out his professional duty, and acted in the interests of the community. 7. To advice consultation with another medical practitioner, preferably a specialist or a medical practitioner of a high professional standing in the following circumstances : — (a) When his case is obscure and difficult or has taken a serious turn; (b) When an operation or special treatment involving danger to life is to be undertaken; (c) When an operation affecting vitally the intellectual or generative functions is to be performed on a patient; (d) When an operation is to be performed on a patient who has received serious injuries in a criminal assault; (e) When an operation of a mutilating or destructive nature is to be performed on an unborn child; (f) When a therapeutic abortion is to be procured to save a pregnant woman from death or permanent ill-health; (g) When a woman on whom an illegal operation for procuring abortion has already been performed has sought his advice for treatment; (Ii) When it is suspected that his patient is suffering from symptoms of poisoning, especially criminal. It is also necessary that an attending physician should not avoid or refuse consultation, when his patient or his relatives and friends desire it. Refusal for such a consultation may lead the patient or his relatives and friends to conclude that the doctor is afraid of criticism of his diagnosis or treatment. In regard to the choice of a consultant it is generally expedient to follow the wish of his patient or his relatives and friends, although the attending physician is justified in giving his opinion that the suggested consultant is not the proper person for the particular case if he sincerely believes so. The consultant should never treat the attending physician as his inferior, for all qualified medical practitioners are considered equal in consultation. The consultant should also exercise the utmost care to avoid disturbing the con- fidence of the patient in the attending practitioner, and should not try to supersede the practitioner through whom he has received an introduction to the patient. It is wrong and illegal for a medical practitioner to accept a commission for the introduction of a patient to a consultant. Such a practice is known 9. Lancet, April 16, 1921, p. 822.