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432                                               MEDICAL JUKISPRUDENCE

Tbe Pharmacy Act received the assent of the Governor-Qeneral on the
4th March 1948, and came into force at once, but the constitution, and
composition of State Councils and registration of pharmacists and certain
miscellaneous sections shall take effect in a particular State from such date
not later than three years from the commencement of this Act, as the State
Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint in this

Poisoning in India. — Human poisoning, as well as cattle poisoning, are
both prevalent in India.

Human Poisoning.— Both suicidal and homicidal cases of poisoning are
much more common in India than in England owing to the facility with
which poisons can be had in any bazaar. Accidental cases of poisoning are
not unfrequently met with on account of the carelessness with which the
earthen pots containing innocuous and poisonous) roots and drugs are indis-
criminately mixed up in a so-called grocer's shop. Accidental poisoning
may also occur from the injudicious use of love-philters and quack remedies
which sometimes contain poisonous drugs. Accidental cases of bites by
venomous snakes frequently occur in India.

The poisons that are chiefly used for suicidal purposes are opium and
arsenic. Sometimes, potassium cyanide, hydrocyanic acid, oxalic acid,
carbolic acid;**t>ne of the mineral corrosive acids, aspirin, barbitone or any
other hypnotic, chloral hydrate, rat paste or coal gas is used. Occasionally
a rare poispn, such as phosphoric acid is used. Two or more poisons may
be taken at a time by a determined suicide.

The poisons that are usually selected for the purposes of homicide are
arsenic, pounded glass, mercury, copper, antimony, aconite, oleander, mix
vomica, strychnine, and madar. Opium is sometimes used to kill children
or intoxicated persons. In some cases a mixture of two or three poisons,'
such as aconite and arsenic, dhatura and copper sulphate, and arsenic, mer-
cury and hydrocyanic acid, is administered.

Rarely, cultures of disease germs are injected into the body with a view
to causing the death of the victim. In the Pakur murder case which
occurred in 1933 cultures of plague germs were introduced by means of a
hypodermic syringe into the skin of the arm of Amarendra who died of
plague m about nine days.

Dhatura is used, not as a rule, with homicidal intent, but for the purpose
of stupefying persons to facilitate theft or robbery. »• In rare Cctses, -cannabis
indica and chloral hydrate are also used for the same purpose.

Cattle Poisoning. — This is resorted to by Chamars who, deal in hides.
The poisons employed to destroy cattle are often arsfenic, abrus precatorius,
yellow oleander and sometimes aconite. A common mod©' in wfecli aa^^pic
is administered to an animal is to make a small quantity pj? iv5$it6 arsSiiic
into a paste with some flour dough, and then to wra&.'iSt tip iii soB$e fresh
grass or steins of the grain plant Sometimes, a b^f^mi is aikied
arsenic pasted and thrtist into the tongue of an s^^^^pm^Sfy in
Punjab. Other poisons that are also used, tbtmgfe rarely, are meo
chloride, copper sulphate, lead oxide, croton, BUX: yomica^ moqE&r Jui©e anc!
snake venom.                                                    ,                       *

Accidental poisoning occua^, when cattle happen to eat young sfjai
especially of linseed and juar kadvi, containing &' ey^ogenefte,
which, under certain circumstances, breaks up and meM^ fee
acid.   In his annual report for^the year 1952t the\


Bengal, reports ^ accidental pe&oning followed by Ifej^fe &£' «p|^ cows
dairy £afm7 which werk gpaang ewer fields near/ a
animals suffered from acute lead poisoning, metaffie