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CLASSIFICATION OF POISONS                                          433

found in the ^stomach of a cow on whose body a post-mortem, examination
was held were found to be small bits of lead shots.


Poisons are classified according to the chief symptoms which they pro-
duce on the body, as follows : —

I.   Corrosives. — Strong acids and alkalies.
II.   Irritants. — A.   Inorganic. —

Non-metallic.— Phosphorus, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine.
Metallic. — Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury, Copper, Lead,
Zinc, Silver, etc.

B.    Organic. —

Vegetable. — Castor-oil    seeds,    Croton    oil,    Madar,

Aloes, etc.
Animal. — Cantharides, Snake and insect bites, etc.

C.    Mechanical. — Diamond   dust,   Powdered   glass,   Hair,

III.   Neurotics.                                                    ,    *

1.    Affecting the brain (Cerebral) . —

(a)   Somniferous. — Opium and its alkaloids.

(b)   Inebriant. — Alcohol, Ether, Chloroform.-

(c)  Deliriant— Dhatura, ' Belladonna,    Hyoscyamus,    Cannabis

2.    Affecting' the spinal cord (Spinal) . — Nux vomica, Gelsemium.

3.    Affecting   the   heart    (Cardiac). — Aconite,   Digitalis,   Oleander,
Tobacco, 'Hydrocyanic Acid. J

- 4.   Affecting    the    lungs   '(Asphyxiants). — Poisonous,    irrespirable

gases, e.g. Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Coal gas, etc.
5.   Affecting the peripheral nerves   (Peripheral). — Conium, Curara,
etc.               .

The following alternative classification of poisons is offered here as
.representing the current trend of thought.

Poisons are classified according to the lesions they produce. These
lesions give rise to functional disturbances which the patient presents as
symptoms or signs". Our understanding of the tpxic lesions: advances and
our way of looking at poisons is likewise modified.

• - I. TOPICAL CYTOTOXICS : Non-specific poisons affecting cells at or near
the site of their application. The site would -also determine the nature of
lesions produced. On skin there may be redness and burning or blisters an4
pustules or frank iilceration ; in the gastro-intestinal tract vomiting, gastritis,
purging, colic, or severe enteritis may follow; on 'inhalation inflammation of
respiratory passages nlay occur. -

A.   Physical:   Affecting '' cells dtie  to their physical properties,  e.g.

Glass or Diamond dust, Radiations from Radioactive elements, etc,

*                                                , !,*" &

B.    Chemical :                                      ..,,,,

1.   Irritants:   -Causing ^ local hypersemia and discomfort like
, ing or pain, etc., e.g. ©opper, iron, lead, mercury,
lium or z|n0 salts ; antiinony, arsenic, barium,    ~

phosphorus;   abrin, ,
ipecac,   ricin ;
gfe, kerosene oil, eta