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CLASSIFICATION OF POISONS                                          435

(b)  Euphorics :    Promoting a positive sense of well-
being,  e.g.   codeine,  morphine  and  derivatives,
opium, pethedine, etc.

(c)  Narcotics :    Promoting deep sleep and coma, e.g.
barbiturates, bromethal, chloral hydrate, paralde-
hyde, sulphonals, etc.

(ii) Medullary :

Chiefly involving respiratory centre, e.g. codeine,
morphine, their derivatives, opium, ether and most
other general anaesthetics. Terminal stages of
cerebral depressants also.

(iii)  Ganglionic, e.g. gelsimium, lobelia, nicotine, etc-

2.   Myotropic Poisons:    Substances affecting jnuscle cells, directly
or indirectly.


of Cardiac muscles, e.g. adrenaline, digitalis, strophan-
thus, etc.

of Smooth muscles, e.g. barium salts, calabar beans,,
ergot (uterus), physostigmine, prostigmine, etc.


of Cardiac muscles,   e.g.  aconite,   emetine,  quinine,
veratrum alkalids, etc.

of Smooth muscles, e.g. nitrites, papavarine.
of Voluntary muscles, e.g. curare.

3.   Hepatotropic Poisons, e.g. halogen derivatives like carbon tetra-
chloride,   chloroform,  etc.   Metals  and  metalloids  like  anti-
monials, arsenicals, thallium salts, etc.   Other  (reticulo-endo-
thelial poisons) like cincophen, guanidines, etc.

4.    NepTirotropic Poisons:    Metallic irritants,  e.g.  mercury and
thallium salts, etc.

5.    Blood Poisons:

Marrow poisons, e.g. antimonials, amidopyrine, arsenicals,
hydantoin derivatives, nitrogen mustard, para-amino-
benzoic acid, sulphonamides, thiouracils, urethane, etc.

Haemolysants, e.g. saponins, viper venoms, etc.

Other (Reticulo^endothelial poisons), e.g. diamino-
diphenyl-sulphone, nitrobenzenes, phenylene diamines.


A.    Snake Poisoning.

B.    Scorpion Poisoning.

C.    Food Poisoning.

The Methods of Administering Pofeoras.—-The following are the methods
by which poisons may be administered into the system: —
1*   By the mouth.

2.   By inhalation, througt* the air-passages.

3.   By afesc^f^<^x ^^migjt tii© sim amd serous
By by&td&gl&'"1^^

ms& t^          & ^©-Itet4: fess than that

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