CHEMICAL ANALYSIS 443 complained of are referable to the same poison. The medical practitioner should also preserve for chemical analysis only the portions of the vomit, urine and faeces ejected in his presence. When poison has been detected in the stomach contents, the defence pleader may argue that it may have been introduced after death, or the contents may have been preserved in an unclean vessel. But these argu- ments are quite futile and worthless, if the poison has also been detected in one or more of the solid viscera, such as the liver, spleen, kidneys, etc., and if clean china plates and glass bottles, free from contamination, have been used for examining and preserving the stomach and other viscera. It is not necessary to lay any stress on the amount of poison actually recovered except in those cases where it is alleged that the poison may have been administered as a medicine, that it may have been present owing to the deceased being habituated to its use, that it may have been a natural constituent of the body or a normal constituent of some article of food, or that it may have been produced in the body during the process of decom- position, e.g. leueomaines and ptomaines. It is quite possible that a person may die from the effects of a poison, and yet none may be found in the body after death, if the whole of the poison has disappeared from the lungs by evaporation, or has been removed from the stomach and intestines by vomiting and purging, and after absorp- tion has been eliminated from the system by the kidneys and other channels. Certain vegetable poisons may not "be detected in the viscera, as they have no reliable tests, while some organic poisons, especially the alkaloids and glucosides, may, by oxidation during life or by putrefaction after death, be spilt up into other substances which have no characteristic reactions suffi- cient for their identification. I have seen cases in which there were definite signs of death from poisoning although the Chemical Examiner failed to detect the poison in the viscera preserved for chemical analysis. In his annual report for the year 1939, the Chemical Analyser of Bombay also mentions that of the cases in which medical officers gave definite opinions that death was due to poisoning, poison was detected in 84.6 per cent cases, while in his annual report for the same year, the Chemical Examiner of the United Provinces states that he could detect poison in 80.6 per cent cases. It has, therefore, been wisely held by Christison that, in cases where a poison has not been detected on chemical analysis, the judge, in deciding a charge of poisoning, should weigh in evidence the symptoms, post-mortem appearances and moral evidence/" Examination of the Viscera and their Contents. — A medical officer who has no experience of chemical analysis should never undertake the analysis, nor should he ever make any guess from the nature of the stomach contents, etc. ; but after obtaining necessary orders from the District Magistrate he should forward the viscera to the Chemical Examiner for analysis. The Magistrate conducting the proceedings should furnish the Chemical Exa- miner with a copy of the medical .officer's post-mortem report and with every fact and detail either from, deponents or from the police investigation, which may indicate the direction in whick analytical inquiry may yield a positive result.9 The Chemical Examiner has got the most responsible work^ as iybs findings are final, because he is not, as a rule, liable to (vide Sec. 510, Or. P.C., Appendix El). 9. G.O. No. 3072/VX-I09& da*ed 2Stk July 1917 ; I&CJELTJJE>.V 6th August HIT ; U Jf». Ked. Manual, 1934, P- 220.