" These drugs are mixed together, and. the mixture is administered in the
doses of a tea-spoonful stirred up in a tumblerful of water, to be repeated
frequently. Charcoal has the property of absorbing alkaloids, one gram will
absorb over 500 mg. of strychnine. Tgnnjlc_^cjd^ precipitates alkaloids,
glucosides and many of the metals. Magqesia neutralizes acids, and is used
as an antidote to arsenic, if hydrated ferric oxide is not at hand.
Physiological antidotes or antagonists are those which act on the tissues
of the body and produce symptoms exactly opposite to those caused by the
poison acting on the same tissues. Thus, a perfect physiological antidote is
one which exactly counteracts each evil effect produced by the poison but
most of the known antidotes are only partial in their action, and when
pushed to their physiological action are liable to prove dangerous to life.
Atropine is an example which, though it is regarded and used as a physio-
logical antidote of morphine, is liable to cause death by paralysing the motor
and sensory nerves just like morphine. Hence caution must be observed
while using it. Atropine and physostigmine are two real physiological
antagonists, as both of them affect nerve-endings and produce opposite
effects. Atropine paralyses the vagus nerve-endings, accelerating the heart's
action, while physostigmine stimulates these nerve-endings, producing slow-
ing of the heart. Atropine dilates the pupil by paralysing the ihpbrd
nerve-endings, while physostigmine contracts the pupil by directly stimulat-
ing the terminals of the third nerve. Atropine diminishes glandular
secretion by paralysing the secretory nerve-endings in the body, wMle
physostigmine increases glandular secretion by stimulating the secretory
nerve terminals. Atropine stimulates the central nervous system, whfle
physostigmine depresses it.
Atropine and pilocarpine, strychnine and bromides with chloral
digitalis and aconite, and chloroform and amyl nitrite are the other
of physiological antidotes.
A chemical compound, known as B.A.L. (British Anti-Lewisite
dimercaptopropanol) is used as a physiological antidote in pois<
arsenic. It acts on the tissue cells of the body, and dislodges, fee
from its combination with the sulphhydryl radicles in the
and carries it to the tissue fluids, particularly the plasma, and
„ urine. Excretion of arsenic in the urine is greatly
administration of B. AL. A dose of 2 ml. of a solution containing 3$ pen ^jk
B.A.L. and 20 per cent benzyl benzoate in arachis oil i$ infected^
cularly into the thigh or gluteal region at four-hourly
two days, and then twice a day for ten days or till reeovefy*
^ficial in poisoning by mercury, gold and other heavy Defeats,
must be started as early as possible, if it is to be effective,
used in cases where the liver is damaged.
3. MmiBatMMi *>f Absorbed Poison.—-The poison
absorbed into the system should be eliminated by the
channels by giyipg ipt baths, warm packs, di»etics aaad
4, Treatment ef General Symptoms.—Paiii in rn
, of the gast^e mucous membraae^ 4^>*ild fa'ffij$&ve&i t^ $N^!
tcation of am&feBes and demidcents. If it is TOC^'',^
of morpMipe, isteiiri be admmiiil3?&d iftarodeaemiositaA f > X,u