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*    ,.,              «                                                  491

People  exposed to the vapours of chlorine  surfer from its  chro^

become anaemic, suffer from dyspeptic complaints and acidity, and lose fta\e^ects. Thev
soon become carious. Lung troubles then set in resulting in chroiuc sŁ- Their teeth
emphysema.                                                                                              br°nchitis and

Compounds of Chlorine.—The compounds of chlorine, such as bleacj^
chlorinata), Dakin's solution (liquor soda* chlorinatse chirurgicalis) and O» Powder (calx
infecting  fluid   (liquor sodae  chlorinatae),  act  as  irritant  poisons,   an^    arraque's dis-
gastritis and suffocative bronchitis.                                                            f^oduee  acute

Fatal Dose.—Uncertain.   Air containing about 1 part of chlorine i^ -,
fatal immediately by causing acute oedema of the lungs.   Three to fo^' °° *nay prove
bleaching fluid consisting of a solution of potassium or sodium hypoc}^ .^acorns of a
death of an infant.   Recovery has, however, followed a dose of twenty ri*e caused the

Fatal Period.—Death may occur in forty-eight hours after inhaling ^OUnces.

Treatment.—Removal of the patient to fresh air, and steam or oxyg^ . Cnlorine.
severe cases of chlorine poisoning it is very necessary to get rid of the "^^ation In
lecting in the air tube which is asphyxiating the patient. This can be 3 exildatiou "col-
ing the thorax, inverting the posture and resorting to artificial respiratiOhOlle by sqtieez-
mouth to mouth method. It is suggested that atropine should be adrn-' *esPecially the
dermically, as it lessens secretion of fluid and dilates the bronchioles, -^^stered hypo-
in severe cases. Physiological salt solution with ten per cent dextrose ^J^ is of no use
tered intravenously. Venesection may be tried and camphor and coran-^^ ^e adminis-
hypodermically. As a prophylaxis against the gas the soldiers in flie j? ^ay "be given
were provided with respirators (masks) soaked in a solution of sodium. -L^8^ Great War
hyposulphite of soda, also known as thiosulphate of soda, and goggle^lcarbonate and
When the bleaching powder has been swallowed, evacuate the stomach ^°r the eyes
treat the symptoms by giving demulcent drinks and hypodermic injecti^C Coiitents, and
to relieve pain.                                                       ^                                ^ of morphine

Post-mortem Appearances.—Intense inflammation  of the  air-pass^g
and osdema of the lungs, which, on section, exude tenacious, frothy ar^   ?'. einpHysema
stained secretion.   The same kind secretion fills the trachea and broncrii s^Shtly bic^cl-.
rhal condition of the stomach and duodenum.   Congestion of the abdomij/, Acute catar-
odour of chlorine in the ventricles of the brain.   The heart is enlarge^ ^ °rgans.   The

Tests.—The gas can be recognized by its odour and its bleaching

litmus paper. Chlorine water dissolves gold-foil. Chlorine water (or g c*iou on moist
mixture of potassium iodide and starch paste turns it blue, which J^v added to a
heating.                      ^                  ^                                                            ciiscliarged on

Medico-Legal Points.—Poisoning by chlorine is very rare  except

chemical laboratories and factories where chlorine and its compounds, es^^cUntaUy ^
ing power (calcium hyochlorite), are used or manufactured. * CWorxjTec^Uy "bleach-
used as a lethal gas by the Germans during the First Great War, and it Oae 'Was largely
casualties among the allied forces.                                                           4llsed mrm«Jt«ie


Bromine is a dark reddish-brown liquid, volatilising at the        _^

in red and intensely irritating fumes of an unpleasant odour.   In the**             —*--*en,tu.<?

found only in laboratories and chemical works.                                               ee  state it is

Symptoms.—When taken internally in a liquid form, bromine acts

poison and causes intense burning pain in the mouth, throat, sterna^ ^ a corrosive
dysphagia, vomiting and eructations of a peculiar offensive vapour. The i^11^ abdomen,
50 rapid and powerful that unconsciousness and collapse soon superve^ O3cic action is
producing the initial symptoms of thirst, vomiting, purging, etc. It j>tod "without even
wound if it drops on the hand or any other part of the body.                ^^ces a severe

The fumes of bromine, when inhaled, cause symptoms of violent, ^.^

mation  of  the   air-passages,   producing   cough,   constriction  of  the   ch^T^^ital inilam-
oadema of the glottis and larynx and death from suffocation.   (Edema of       *~
sometimes occur.

Compounds of Bromine.—Bromides of ammonium, sodium and ^
sedatives to the nervous system when taken in medicinal doses (5 to pfl8*11**! act as
produce poisonous symptoms, known as "bromism", when administered ^ Srairis); but
or when continued for too long a period. The .symptoms are skin e*ruptioJ:x ^rge doses,
of red papules and pustules on the face and back, indigestion with loss o^ *** the form
odour from the breath, muscular weakness, staggering gait, drowsiness, te^^ ^^P^tite, foul
diminution of cutaneous sensibility, conjunctivitis, increase of nasal and w6**^ *<* sleep,
tions, loss of sexual power and general depression. In some cases stupor ^^cfaial secre-
set in. In severe cases mental confusion, delirium, dementia or melandxo,^1^ <sorna may

Fatal Dose and Fatal Period—Uncertain. One ounce of undiluted "           *~

death in seven hours and a half.   About 2 grains df free feromine