492 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE a girl, aged ten years, in 12 hours. A dose of one hundred grammes of sodium bromide caused death in. six days from a bilateral pneumonia of the inferior lobe,14 but about thirty grammes of sodium or potassium bromide may produce alarming symptoms. Treatment.—Adrninister apomorphine hypodermically or other emetics, and give starch or albumen. Give ammonia vapour and steam for inhalation when bromine fumes are inhaled. Adrninister by the mouth 15 grains of sodium chloride thrice a day or physiological saline solution intravenously once a day to hasten the elimination of bromides from the system. Inject hypodermically caffeine, sodium benzoate and strychnine to combat respiratory failure. Post-mortem Appearances.—When liquid bromine is administered, there is inflam- mation of the cesophagus and stomach with dark brown stains on the mucous membrane, which presents a leathery, parchment-like appearance. Occasionally there is perfora- tion of the stomach, or the stomach wall is destroyed altogether. When bromine fumes are inhaled, there is inflammation of the respiratory tract. Chemical Analysis.—Free bromine may be separated from organic mixtures by distillation. If combined, the mixture should be saturated with potassium bichromate and acidulated with sulphuric acid, before it is distilled. Tests.—Bromine can be recognized by its colour and odour, as well as by its colouring starch paper yellow. It forms an orange or yellow coloured solution in chloro- form or carbon bisulphide, and with phenol forms a white, crystalline precipitate due to the formation of tribromophenol, insoluble in water. A filter paper impregnated with a dilute solution of fluorescein and moistened with 35 per cent acetic acid, when exposed to the vapours of bromine, will become pink. Compounds of bromine give a whitish- yellow precipitate with silver nitrate, which is not readily soluble in ammonium hydrate, but soluble in potassium cyanide. Medico-Legal Points.—Poisoning by bromine, though rare, has occurred when it was swallowed in the liquid form or when its fumes were inhaled. A case 15 is recorded where a saturated solution of potassium bromide was administered by a man to his wife with intention to cause harm. During the First Great War, the Germans used certain organic compounds of bro- mine in asphyxiating and lachrymating shells. The vapours of these substances in concentration as little as one part in several millions of air are said to cause watering of the eyes and inability to open them, so specifically irritating are they to the conjunctivas. In greater concentrations they are said to cause irritation of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. Bromine and bromides are eliminated in the urine, saliva, sweat and milk. An infant, six months old, got a painful pustular eruption due to bromine excreted in the milk of the mother, who had been addicted to the use of a proprietary remedy, " Miles restorative nervine", a solution of bromides in syrup.16 An infant 10 days after its birth got cutaneous eruptions due to bromide derived from the mother's milk.17 IODINE This is a solid, having bluish-black, soft and scaly crystals with a metallic lustre and an unpleasant taste. At all temperatures iodine gives off a violet coloured vapour, possessing a characteristic odour. It is only slightly soluble in water, but is freely soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, glycerin, carbon bisulphide or aqueous solutions of iodides. The following are the pharmacopoeia! preparations of iodine : — 1. Liquor Iodi Aquosus (Aqueous solution of iodine).—It is also known as Lugol's solution or liquor iodi cornpositus, and contains 5 per cent of iodine with 10 per cent, of potassium iodide in water. Dose, 5 to 15 minims. 2. Liquor Iodi Fortis (Tinctura Iodi Fortis or Liniment Iodine).—It contains 10 per cent of iodine by weight and 6 per cent of potassium iodide by weight. 3. Liquor lodi Mitis (Tinctura Iodi Mitis or Tincture of Iodine) .—It contains 2.5 per cent of iodine and 2.5 per cent of potassium iodide. Dose, 5 to 30 minims. Iodine, when swallowed in the solid form, acts as a corrosive poison, while its, vapours are strongly irritant to the respiratory passages. Symptoms.—Acute Poisoning,—Soon after swallowing a large dose of iodine, there is a burning pain in the mouth, oesophagus and stomach, followed by intense thirst, 14. VHen, Quoted by Erich Leschke in his Clinical Toxicology, Eng. Transl. by Stewart and Dorrer, 1934, pp. 95? 96. 15. Beng. Chem. Examiner's Annual Report, 1934, p. 13. 16. Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., April 9, 1921, p. 1012; Amer. Jour. Z>is. Child.. 1921, Vol. 21, p. 167. 17. Geo. T. C. Young, Brit. Med. Jour^ April 1, 1950, p. 769.